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AYAME PRODUCTIONS

BUILDING A BETTER VOCABULARY


Strategies to Build a Better Vocabulary
1. Read journals, newspapers, and books that challenge you in terms of vocabulary. Pursue
words actively and become alert to words that you simply overlooked in the past.
2. Play dictionary games or any other vocabulary enhancing games like Texttwists, scrabble, and
crossword puzzles.
3. Learn to make use of a thesaurus.
4. Ask other people.
5. Make use of CONTEXTUAL CLUES.
Types of Contextual Clues

TYPE
nition

MEANING
Outright statement of the meaning of a word.

onym

A word having the same or nearly the same meaning


as another word in the text.
A figure of speech in which essentially two unlike
things are compared using like and as.
One that represents the group or whole to illustrate
the meaning of a word.
A renaming or construction in which a noun or a
noun phrase is placed with another as an
explanation.
A word meaning the opposite of another word.

le

mple

ositive

onym

ctural Analysis

Word parts that give direct clues to meaning. These


are roots, prefixes, suffixes, compounds that are
broken down into parts and analyzed.

Why Learn Prefixes?


Prefixes add meaning to thousands of words. Learn a few prefixes, and you open up the
meaning of thousands of words.
Most Common Prefixes

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
EXAMPLE
7.
Law is the set of rules that we have established
8.
to make it easier for us to live with one another.
9.
Euthanasia or mercy killing is a debatable issue.
10.

Anti = against : anti-war


De = opposite : destroy
Dis* = not, opposite of : disagree
En(m) = cause to : encode, embrace
Fore = before : forecast
In(m) = in : intake, implant
Inter = between : interact
Mid = Middle : Midway
Mis = Wrongly : Mistake
Non = Not : Nonsense

11. Over = Over : Overlook


12. Pre = Before : Preview
13. Re* = Again : Return
14. Semi = Half : Semicircle
15. Sub = Under : Submarine
16. Super = Above: Superstar
17. Trans = Across : Transport
18. Un* = Not : Unfriendly
19. Under = Under : Undersea
20. In, Im, Il, Ir * = Not : Injustice,
Impossible, Illiterate, Irreligious.

Her eyes are like bright stars that glistened in the


sky.
What Are Suffixes?
A crime or offense such as rape, forgery,
Suffixes are last syllables like ed and ly that have their own meaning. Suffixes combine
kidnapping, and treason is punishable by law.
with words to create new meanings.
Arson, a malicious burning of another persons
1. Turn + ed = Turned (in the past)
property, is widely recognized as a serious crime.
2. Quick + ly = Quickly (how it turned)

When there is a problem, her father is silent,Why


but Learn Suffixes?
her mother is also garrulous that the whole
Suffixes add meaning to thousands of words. Learn a few Suffixes, and you open up the
meaning of thousands of words.
neighborhood knows about it.
The manager did not get the money in the
Most Common Suffixes
envelope which proves that he is incorruptible.

FORTY MOST FREQUENT PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES


What Are Prefixes?
Prefixes are first syllables like non- and re- that have their own meaning. Prefixes combine
with words to create new meanings.
1. Pre + View = Preview (first look)
2. Super + Star = Superstar (top player)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

-able, ible = can be done : doable


-al, ial = has property of : personal
-ed* = past verb : turned
-en = made of : golden
-er = comparative : higher
-er = one who : doer, actor
-est = superlative : best, biggest
ful = full of : careful, joyful
. ic = having property of : linguistic
ing* = present participle : running

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

(t)ion = act, process : action


(i)ty = state of : infinity, sanity
(t)ive = adjective : motive, votive
less = without : fearless, careless
ly* = having : quickly, quietly
ment = action, process : enjoymen
ness = state of : kindness
ous = having : joyous, religious
s* = more than one : books
y = having : happy, windy

AYAME PRODUCTIONS

Knowing the Roots


At least half of the words in the English language are derived from Greek and Latin roots.
Knowing these roost helps us to:
1. Grasp the meaning of words before we look them up in the dictionary; and
2. See how words are often arranged in families with similar characteristics.
Some Common Greek and Latin Roots
Root
Aster, astr (G)
Audi (L)
Bene (L)
Bio (G)
Dic, dict (L)
Fer (L)
Fix (L)
Geo (G)
Graph (G)
Jur, just (L)
Log, logue (G)

Meaning
star
To hear
Good, well
life
To speak
To carry
To fasten
Earth
To write
Law
Word, thought, speech

Luc (L)
Manu (L)
Meter, metr (G)
Op, oper (L)
Path (G)
Ped (G)
Phil (G)
Phys (G)
Scrib, script (L)
Tele (G)
Ter, terr (L)
Vac (L)
Verb (L)
Vid, vis (L)

light
hand
measure
work
feeling
child
love
Body, nature
To write
Far off
earth
empty
word
To see

English Words
Astronomy, astrology
Audible, auditorium
Benefit, benevolent
Biology, autobiography
Dictionary, dictator
Transfer, referral
Fix, suffix, affix
Geography, geology
Graphic. photography
Jury, justice
Monolog(ue), astrology,
biology, neologism
Lucid, translucent
Manual, manuscript
Metric, thermometer
Operation, operator
Pathetic, sympathy, empathy
Pediatrics, pedophile
Philosophy, Anglophile
Physical, physics
Scribble, manuscript
Telephone, television
Territory, extraterrestrial
Vacant, vacuum, evacuate
Verbal, verbose
Video, vision, television

Words are not limited to one single meaning. Most words have multiple meanings, which are
categorized as either denotative or connotative. The denotation of a word is its explicit definition as
listed in a dictionary. Lets use the word home as an example. The denotative or literal meaning of
home is a place where one lives; a residence.
The expressiveness of language, however, comes from the other type of word meaning
connotation, or the association or set of associations that a word usually brings to mind. The
connotative meaning of home is a place of security, comfort, and family.
Connotation Determines Use
The connotative and denotative meanings of words are both correct, but a words connotation
determines when it is used. By definition, synonyms have the same denotation or literal meaning, but
almost always have different connotations, or shades of meaning. For example, the synonyms of boat
include ship, yacht, dinghy, and ferry. All these words refer to the same thing, but each elicits a
different association in the readers mind.
Positive: Sally was an enthusiastic member her sorority.
Neutral: Sally was an active member of her sorority.
Negative: Sally was a fanatical member of her sorority.

Connotative vs. Denotative Vocabulary

AYAME PRODUCTIONS

Firework
By Katy Perry
Do you ever feel like a plastic bag
Drifting through the wind, wanting to start again?
Do you ever feel, feel so paper thin
Like a house of cards, one blow from caving in?
Do you ever feel already buried deep six feet under?
Screams but no one seems to hear a thing
Do you know that there's still a chance for you
'Cause there's a spark in you?

You just gotta ignite the light and let it shine


Just own the night like the 4th of July
'Cause, baby, you're a firework
Come on, show 'em what you're worth
Make 'em go, "Aah, aah, aah"
As you shoot across the sky-y-y

You just gotta ignite the light and let it shine


Just own the night like the 4th of July

Baby, you're a firework


Come on, let your colors burst
Make 'em go, "Aah, aah, aah"
You're gonna leave 'em all in awe, awe, awe

'Cause, baby, you're a firework


Come on, show 'em what you're worth
Make 'em go, "Aah, aah, aah"
As you shoot across the sky-y-y

Boom, boom, boom


Even brighter than the moon, moon, moon
It's always been inside of you, you, you
And now it's time to let it through-ough-ough

Baby, you're a firework


Come on, let your colors burst
Make 'em go, "Aah, aah, aah"
You're gonna leave 'em all in awe, awe, awe

'Cause, baby, you're a firework


Come on, show 'em what you're worth
Make 'em go, "Aah, aah, aah"
As you shoot across the sky-y-y

You don't have to feel like a wasted space


You're original, cannot be replaced
If you only knew what the future holds
After a hurricane comes a rainbow

Baby, you're a firework


Come on, let your colours burst
Make 'em go, "Aah, aah, aah"
You're gonna leave 'em all in awe, awe, awe

Maybe a reason why all the doors are closed


So you could open one that leads you to the perfect road
Like a lightning bolt, your heart will glow
And when it's time you'll know

Boom, boom, boom


Even brighter than the moon, moon, moon
Boom, boom, boom
Even brighter than the moon, moon, moon

Shades of Meaning
Some words, although they seem to mean nearly the same thing, actually mean separate,
distinct things. The small differences between the meanings of words help you recognize different
types of similar things quickly and clearly.