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Islamic Online University

Hadeeth 101
Course Notes Module
1Lectures by Sh. Shafiq Flynn

Notes Prepared By
Sisters Bibi Omeemun Hakh and Thasneem

Edited by

Course notes were originally prepared by sisters Bibi Omeemun & Thaseem.
However, there were few typo and grammatical errors which I tried to correct.

Hadeeth 101
Module 1 Hadeeth Methodology
Al-Usool () : plural of Al-Assal ( )foundation upon which something is
Hadith (): Linguistically word hadith as a noun mean news, conversation, tale,
story, or report.
As an adjective it mean new
Usool ul Hadith () : study of science of hadith foundation. It includes:

The text ( )and

The chain of narrators ()
Matters related to both of the above.

Isnad ()
- Chain of narrators by which a text of hadith is reached
- Each person represents a link in the chain of narrators
- Like we climb up the Ladder of narrators to reach the actual text
- Introductory info to be aware of terminology and its usage
- General knowledge of the many different components within the hadith. For

What the components are?

How to identify these components?
What are the principles upon which these components rest?
What is the mechanism by which these components are approached
How these components connects and relates to each other

Purpose is not to dwell too deeply into the issues but rather to take the general
foundation and principles to proceed and understand and appreciate the science of

Usage of Hadith:
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Hadeeth 101
A. Literal meaning ( ) - Literally word hadith means to speak or to talk. In
its literal usage, the term hadith is used in three categories:
1. To Mean Quran itself:


Leave me alone and who rejects this communication/hadith - (surah AlQalam)

Verily the best of Hadith is the book of Allah.

2. To mean a historical story


Has the story of Moses reached you? SoorahTaahaa, (20):9

3. To mean a general conversation


When the Prophet confided in one of his wives Soorah at-Tahreem, (66):3.
All the above usages agrees with the linguistic meaning of hadith: i.e., speech,
story, message
B. Technical or Legal meaning ( - )
spoken words, actions, decisions, and characteristics (appearance) What has been attributed to the Prophet Muhammad ( ) from his
sayings ( ), doings (), decisions (), his attributes ()
- Incorporates all of his speech and physical actions and all of his moral and physical
characteristics and attributes and all of his decisions he made whether he
approved of something or disapproved of something

Video B
Sunnah synonym of Hadith is Sunnah. Literal meaning is path or direction.
Sunnah way used in the Quran:
1. Surah Al-Kahf v. 55 for established practices (punishment of those who disobeyor those who rebel Allahs message)Page # 2

Hadeeth 101

And nothing has prevented the people from believing when guidance came to them and
from asking forgiveness of their Lord except that there [must] befall them the
[accustomed] precedent of the former peoples or that the punishment should come
[directly] before them. (Al-Khaf 18:55)

2. Surah Al-Fath vs 23 for the established roles any change the way Allah has
decree things

[This is] the established way of Allah which has occurred before. And never will
you find in the way of Allah any change.
3. Surah Fatir 43 cannot be able to modify or free from the sunnah of Allah



[Due to] arrogance in the land and plotting of evil; but the evil plot does not
encompass except its own people. Then do they await except the way of the former
peoples? But you will never find in the way of Allah any change, and you will never
find in the way of Allah any alteration (Fatir 35:43)

Sunnah way used in Hadith

Whosoever performs a good practice in Islam he receives his reward and the
reward of all those who perform it after it. Similarly, whoever performs a sin he
received the sin for that act and the sin of all those who practice it after him.
Sunnah Saying, actions, and attributes, everything Prophet Muhammad (
) did practices of Prophet throughout his life
in this way Sunnah and Hadith are synonymous the both present his life
action, saying, attributes Hadith
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Hadeeth 101

Upon you are my Sunnah (practices) and the practices of the Righteous Caliphs
from after me.
This includes people other than the Prophet in the term Sunnah
The Prophet decree to Muslims to emulate his practices and the practices of the
rightly guided Caliphs. How does this mean that Sunnah and hadith are
- Sunnah physical application and implementation of the Shariah (derived from
the prophet and sahabah and the rightly guided caliph includes the practices of
Prophet as well as of his companions and senior Tabioon.
In this course hadith and Sunnah are used synonymously

How Hadith / Sunnah present an authority outside of the Quran?

Quran obligation for us to follow prophet

- Suran Nisa vs 65

Verily, by Lord you do not believe until he judges between the two of
you in your disputes and they do not find in themselves any difficulty
in accepting and submitting to your decision (decision of Prophet ) that
decides between disputes of the Sahaba.
Ibn Kathir wrote in his Tafseer:
- Submission both internal and external submission. Indicated a
physical submission in terms of a will to submit (not only because he is
a prophet and leader but because they recognized that he is the
prophet and Allah sent him to them and in charge with duty in
explaining the Quran to them)

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Hadeeth 101
And he does not speak of his own persuasion but rather he speaks of
divine authority revealed (Surah Najm v 3,4)
this indicates that the saying and actions are a form of revelation
something inspired by Allah
this reason the prophet is infallible with respect to the religion ().

The believers are only those who believe in Allah and His Messenger and, when they are
[meeting] with him for a matter of common interest, do not depart until they have
asked his permission. Indeed, those who ask your permission, [O Muhammad] - those
are the ones who believe in Allah and His Messenger. So when they ask your permission
for something of their affairs, then give permission to whom you will among them and
ask forgiveness for them of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. ( Surah Nur v

belief is not complete unless one belief in both Allah and His messenger

The mission of the Prophet is comprehensive guide to the

explanation of the Quran the physical enactment of the teachings of
the Quran example of the prophet.
He does not speak of his own will and desire but from inspiration
this allows human being to emulate and imitate the prophet.
He is the Prophet of Allah the authority of the hadith is an
authority that extends from the Quran itself Surah Nisa vs 59


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Hadeeth 101
O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority
among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if
you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.

the Quran and Sunnah both are sources to judge between disputes
Surah Al Imran v 51 - Obedience of Prophet is indeed love of
Allah it is out of this love that someone obeys Allah.

Say, [O Muhammad], "If you should love Allah, then follow me, [so] Allah will love you
and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful."

Ijma of Scholars: No evidence in Muslim history indicating that the

hadith has been ever been a controversial source of authority in Islam
on the contrary it has been an established fact and deeply ingrained
practiced from the time of the sahaba, who follow the example of the
prophet - how to be a Muslim by following the Examples of the Prophet
his Sunnah are not from his own mechanism but forms of revelation
or inspiration (he does not speak of his own will - Surah Najm)

What is the relationship of the Sunnah to the Quran: Sunnah of

Prophet complements the Quran in every way Explanation and
teaching of Quran found in the Sunnah does not contradict nor oppose
the teachings of Quran. These are from one and the same source
forms of revelation from the One Allah

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Hadeeth 101
Functions of Hadith/ Importance of Hadeeth
1. Confirms some of the Quranic references .

Islam is built on 5 pillars Testify that Allah is One and that
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, perform obligatory prayer,
pay zakaat, perform hajj and fast in the month of Ramadan this
hadith confirms many verses in the Quran surah Baqara 184
2. Explains general teaching of the Quran (Tafseer) - Salaah Ch 2 vs 83 Allah ordered us to perform the Salaah and Zakaat
but there is nowhere in the Quran of HOW to perform the salaah
given in the hadith Pray as you see me pray. Hajj how to
perform it the hadith tells us how the prophet shows us how
3. Specialization of a general law or exception

Allah instructs you concerning your children: for the male, what is equal to the

share of two females. But if there are [only] daughters, two or more, for them is
two thirds of one's estate. And if there is only one, for her is half. And for one's
parents, to each one of them is a sixth of his estate if he left children. But if he
had no children and the parents [alone] inherit from him, then for his mother is
one third. And if he had brothers [or sisters], for his mother is a sixth, after any
bequest he [may have] made or debt. Your parents or your children - you know
not which of them are nearest to you in benefit. [These shares are] an obligation
[imposed] by Allah. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise. ( Surah

Nisa v 11)

Waseeya includes all men (which includes Prophets as well).

However, there is a Hadith we do not inherit what we have left
as sadaqa this form of inheritance does not apply to the

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Hadeeth 101
the quran included all men but the hadith specialized the
application of law with regards to exception for prophets and
4. Give direction to an absolute address in the Quran a
verse which address something in an absolute way the hadith
defines what is meant - Surah Nisa vs 11 Inheritance after the
waseeya (will) or death what is not identified is the portion
which is given in the will or which is an inheritance later
explained in Hadith - The fraction which is taken from the
deceased is one third for waseeya
5. Explain ambiguous terms in the Quran:

They who believe and do not mix their belief with injustice - those will have
security, and they are [rightly] guided. (Al-Anaam 82)

When the sahaba heard this verse were perplexed there are
many forms of oppression they were afraid that they do zulm
(oppression). The prophet responded to them it is not as you
think, have you not heard the verse in Surah Luqmaan vs 13
verily shirk is a great form of oppression so what is intented
here by the word zulm is to perform shirk to associates partners
with Allah.
6. It abrogates some of the earlier injunctions of the Quran Intoxication is forbidden in Islam Quran abrogate by other
Quranic verses (stages in which intoxication made haram)
- Surah Bakarah vs 180 Abrogated by the hadith
- Quran - Waseeya - a will is defined involving the inheritors
- Hadith there is no form of will for those categories of inheritors
within who qualifies to receive some of the position of the
deceased relative
Functions of Hadith collectively agree in a complimentary nature
to all of the Quran.
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Hadeeth 101
Impossible that Hadith can contradict the Quran
Hadith support the Quran
Hadith represents authority we must obey stems from Allah
through the Quran which sanctions the hadith.
Quran sanctions the obedience of the prophet
Serves to identify the purity of the reports (hadith)
Quran Mutawwatir in its meaning and wording


communication. Hadith Strong, weak, fabricated since they

represent a divine source of authority there has to be a
mechanism to weed out the strong from the weak so we do not
doubt the authority how it was related that is why this science is

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Hadeeth 101

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