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Se aa wa TTL) DL Lae ae ke TaD es Us ‘ Dem LOPE a a iE APT AU a ¢ eee sy ea Ee, So ee ee Pe css Un a aa E DL Eee ii Chords & Scales for Guitar hy Blake Neely and Jeff Schroed! yA HAL*LEONARD® N ral Coprigh ScurAlights Peceved No pat fis pubcation may shout prior writen permission ofthe Pulner INTRODUCTION Why you bought this book... Hello again. We eay “again” because we're assuming that you've already been through FastTrack Guitar 1 and 2. (At the very least, Book 1.) If so—terrificl You've decided to keep learning your instrument and you're ready for this supplemental book. This book provides five important things: \ A Basic guitar chord theory \ F( Easy-find index of over 1,400 different guitar chords and voicings 2 Basic scale and mode theory UA ( Patterns for 8 scales and 7 modes 22 Special “Jam Session” using the chords and scales introduced IMPORTANT: This book is a reference book (much like a dictionary) and should not take the place of a guitar instruction book. That belng eaid, please go through FaetTrack Gultar 1 and 2 (or at least act like it, 20 we'll stop nagging). Remember, if your fingers hurt, take a break. Some of these chords and scales required some serious stretching. With practice and patience, you can learn them all (and avoid cramping). So, when you're ready, tune up, crack your knuckles, and let’s learn some chords and scales. ABOUT THE CD Glad you noticed the added bonus—a CDI Each of the tracks in the special “Jam Session” is included on the CD, 60 you can hear how it sounds and play along. Take a listen whenever you see this symbol: > PRIMER WHERE TO FIND THINGS What's a chord? Table of chord suffixes Building chorde Table of intervals Everything's relative Building to scale Choosing the best voicing Fingerboard diagrams CHORDS no suffix m, min, — +, aug, (#5) eus4, ous (add9) m(add2) 5, (no3) 6 m6, -6 e/g mo/o 7, dom7 °7, dim7, dim Tous4, 7ous maj7. M7 m7, min, -7 m(maj7) maj7(b5) m7¢5) +7, 7085) 705) 79) 7(¢9) +769) 9 maj2, M9 m9, mind "1 mitt, mintt 13 major minor augmented suspended fourth added ninth minor added ninth fifth sixth minor sixth sixth, added ninth minor sixth, added ninth seventh diminished seventh seventh, suspended fourth major seventh minor seventh minor, major seventh major seventh, flat fifth minor seventh, flat fifth augmented seventh seventh, flat fifth seventh, flat ninth seventh, sharp ninth augmented seventh, flat ninth ninth major ninth minor ninth eleventh minor eleventh thirteenth O©PNTHMHARR B® SaaS 17 18 19 20 ai 22 2B 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 at SCALES. Explanation of patterns Caged system Three-Notes-Fer-String system Horizontal system Moveable Patterns Guitar Fretboard Chart Major scale Minor scale Harmonic minor scale Melodic minor scale Minor pentatonic scale Major pentatonic scale Blues scale Diminished scale MODES JAM SESSION Heavenly Ballad Medium Rock Wall of Fame Wild and Crazy Full Deck Shuffie Generic Pop Funky Feeling Don't Stop Smooth Jazz Overtime Nashville Dreamin’ Heavy Rook Alley Cat Fusion South of the Border Scare Us Swing It! Metal Mix Rock 'n’ Roll Outta Here 56,57 59 60 60 60 60 6 6 6 a 6 6 62 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 LET’S DIVE RIGHT IN What's a chord? A chord is defined as three or more notes played at the same time. Chords provide the harmony that supports the melody of a song. Sometimes chords are indicated by chord symbols, written (usually) above the musical staff. A chord symbol is simply an abbreviation for the name of that chord. For example, the symbol for an F-sharp minor seven chord would be FAm7. Get organized... A chord eymbol tells us two things about the chord—root and type: 1. The root gives the chord ite name. For example, the root of a C chord is the note C. (Simple Simon!) Unlike trees, however, the root note is not always at the bottom of the chord. Notice the difference in these two types of C chords: epi $84 C major with C on bottom C minor with G on bottom 2. The chord’s type Is Indicated by a euffix (m, 7, sue, maj9). There are lots of chord types and suffixes, but there's no need to panic—with a little practice, they're easy to recognize. This book groups all the chords by their type, 60 keep this list handy: Suffix Chord Type Suffix Chord Type no suffix major 7, min7, -7 minor seventh m, min, = minor | ma(maj7), m+7) minor, major seventh +, aug, (#5) augmented maj7(b5), maj7(-5) major seventh, flat fifth sus4, sus suspended fourth m7(5), m7(-5) minor seventh, flat fifth (add) added einth +7, 7(48) seventh, sharp fifth m(add2) minor added ninth 765), 1-5) seventh, flat fifth 5, (noB) ‘fifth (ak.a. “power chord”) | 7(69), 7(-9) seventh, flat ninth 6 sixth 789), 49 seventh, sharp ninth m6, 6 minor sixth | +709) seventh, sharp fifth, Rat nach org sixth, added ninth 9 ninth mo/o minor sixth, added ninth | maj, M9 major ninth 7,dom? seventh | 9, ming rinor ninth *7, dim7, dim diminished seventh 1 eleventh Tous4, Tous seventh, suspended fourth | mil, minit maj7,M7 major seveetth 13 thirteenth Of course, you may run across other types of chords from time to time, but the ones listed above are the most common. BUILDING CHORDS (...and you don’t need a hammer!) Chords are built from simple “building blocks” called intervals. An interval is the distance between any two notes. Here's a look at the basic intervals, using C as a root: Perfect: [ealeetteD) PB (octave) Pit Major: M2 MS M6 M7 Mo Mi Notice that these intervals are divided into two groups—major (M) and perfect (P) EASY TO REMEMBER: 4ths, Sths, octaves and tthe are perfect; all other intervals are major Everything's relative... Intervals come in many shapes and sizes, but in only five categories: major, minor, perfect, augmented and diminished. Here's how the categories are related ‘A major interval lowered ‘one half step equals a minor interval, “3 tg. = ‘A major or perfect interval raised one half step equals an augmented interval A perfect interval lowered one haif etep equals a diminished interval. An intervals type is determined by the number of steps between the two notes. pe HELPFUL REMINDER: On your guitar (or anyone else's), from one fret to the next ‘equals one half step; two frete apart equale one whole step. Review the following chart and get to know all of the interval types... Interval Abbreviation Steps Pitches Interval ‘Abbreviation Steps Pitches unison unis none major sixth Me ae | minor second m2 halt {| augmentedsich aug 5 SS major second m2 whole minor severtth” m7 5 a augmented second” aug? 102 $= | major seventh M7 2 == minorthird” m1 ES} | perectoctme PEE major third Ma 2 &, = | minor ninth mo eve é perfect fourth P4 202 $a | major ninth Mo 7 & augmented fourth" aug 3 BS | augmented ninth — augd 2 = diminished fifth" dim 3 SI | pertect eleventh ptt on =] perfect fifth P5 312 $=] | augmented eleventh augit 9 eS) augmented Htcnt™ aug 4 EBSA | minor thirteenth — mid 4 minor eicth* me 4 $=] | major thirteenth — MIB = * NOTE: As with sharps and flate, some intervals may sound the same but be written two ways (for example, aug4 and dim5). Notes or intervals that sound the same but are written differently are called enharmonic equivalente. One etep further Building chords is easy—simply add intervals to the root. The type of intervals used determines the resulting chord type. Let's start by learning some basic three-note chords built: on a C root: Major chords contain a —— M3 and a P5 on the root. =| Bos m3 and a P5 on the root. P6683 o Once you're familiar with basic chord types, tons of other chords can be built simply by adding, subtracting, augmenting, or diminishing intervals. BUILDING TO SCALE The notes of a chord can also be determined by assigning a numeric formula, indicating the ‘tones used from the major scale. For example, based on the C major scale, 1-3-5 would mean play the root (C), a flatted third (Eb), and the fifth (G)—a C minor chordl The chart below is a construction summary of the chord types in thie book (based on the key of C only): C MAJOR SCALE = C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C (12345671) Chord type Formula Chord names major 13-5 c minor 143-5 cm augmented 1345 ce suspended fourth 14-5 Cous4 added ninth 13-5-9 Caddo minor added ninth 143-5-9 Cm(addg) ‘fifth 15 o sixth 13-5-6 ce minor sixth 43-5-6 como sixth, added ninth 13-5-6-9 cero minor sixth, added ninth 143-5-6-9 cmela seventh 15-547 7 diminished seventh 1453-45-07 C-Eb-Gh-Bbb o7 seventh, suspended fourth 14-547 F-G-Bb CTous4 major seventh 13-57 CECB Cmaj7 minor seventh 143-547 C-Eb-G-Bb m7 minor, major seventh Eb-G-B Cm(maj7) major seventh, flat fifth CECB Cmaj7(o5) minor seventh, flat fifth 143-4547 C-Eb-Gb-Bb cm7(5) augmented seventh BAST C47 seventh, flat fifth 134547 C75) seventh, flat ninth 13-54749 C-E-G-Bb-Db c7b9) seventh, sharp ninth 1-3-54749 c7d9) augmented seventh, fat ninth —1-3-#5-47-49 +769) ninth 15-547-9 fo) major ninth 13-5-7-9 CE-G-B-D majo minor ninth 143-547-9 C-Eb-G-Bb-D cma eleventh 13-547-9-41 C-E-G-B-D-F cn minor eleventh 143-547-9-1 C-Eb-G-B-D-F cmt thirteenth 13-57-9413 C-E-G-Bb-D-F-A as NOTE: Since the guitar hae only eix strings, certain notes must sometimes be left out, And Ug sometimes certain other notes are “doubled” (played twice). In general, the fifth and root are the first two pitches omitted when necessary. CHOOSING THE BEST VOICING Each chord can have several different voicings. A voicing is the came chord but with a rearrangement of the notes (which means you'll also have to rearrange your hand and finger position). For each individual c this book gives you four voicings to choose from...you're welcome! Decisions, decisions... Although (in theory) you may use any of the four voicings in any situation, each group does suggest a specialized function. A chora’s location, difficulty, size, and Intended musical style all contribute to this determination. Here's how each of the four voicings were chosen and how they should be used: The top diagram is the most common upper position voicing. It’s also the most appropriate for strumming purposes. Voicing #2 This diagram always gives you a convenient “all-purpose” voicing, usable in most any musical setting. nee Here you'll find another good “all-purpose” voicing. However, this voicing is often a broken set form, which means that the chord contains a lower bass note and two or three notes on higher strings with at least one “interior” string omitted. It works best in jazz or blues styles as a nice comping (another word for “accompanying”) chord. NOTE: Not all of the third voicings are shown as broken chords. For those that are, though, pluck them with your fingers (rather than the pick) and simulate a plano-type sound. Be sure to “mute” the omitted strings. Orns Closed voicings (or adjacent set chords) are used for the fourth group. These often appear “up the neck” and work great for jazz, blues and rock styles. Due to the lack of a lower bass note, these voicings produce a thinner, less-full sound, But this isn’t (necessarily) bad, especially when playing with another guitarist or as a complement to the bass player. Alright already! Don't get too bogged down with all this “theory” stuff. Just look up the chords you need and learn to play them. Heck, make up your own chords—if it sounds good, play itl If you come across a chord type not listed in this book (and you will eventually), either bulld the chord with the intervals named in the suffix, or reduce it to a more common seventh or ninth chord. Just in case... Here’s a reminder of how to read the new markings on the fingerboard diagrams in this book: Think of your left-hand fingers as being numbered | through 4 Xe above the grid tell you to avoid strumming that string. 06 indicate an open string A barre (pronounced like “bar”) is shown when a finger holds down two or more strings at the same time. Dots are the left-hand - fingerings. Numbers below the strings tell you which finger to use on that string. NOTE: Fret numbers (“Sfr") may appear to the right of the firet fret on some chord diagrams. This tells you to slide your hand up to the appropriate fret, position your fingere and strum away. If no fret number is shown (or you see a thick top line on the diagram), your hand should be around fret: 1, near the nut. ee ae - eiifete = Sp fetew aft : | ol D ree naan va38 ¥ co. tt + ete reer Tees Tee3 va43 sem aan rose Baer wore cere) 124d T3983 ra49 Bm Chm/Dbm Dm saat r3e2y AB ate STG er SET ¢ + . t T an roan reer oF rae ran ream rary on oC 0 tee aaa re coma) mt Dém/Ebm Em Fm Fim/Ghm Gm Gkm/Abm ra42 ve4et arnt raae arn fiw ve Sa Toee tof reeat vreet va4e rae 13 y At+/Bb+ B+ c CH+/Db+ D+ At Teer I + $ GH+IAb+ Gt For oat FHH/Gb+ +a Fe oret E+ aert Di+/Eb+ [ee] 4% 7% +ea4 wren 4 EME ccna laa) Asus4 Atsus4/Bbsus4 — Baus4 Ceus4 —Cheus4/Dhsus4 — Dsus4 xo o x x * * Lo xe 7H : | oF oe Tee * cx} re i pee ries rane a4 +s4 STs etode« sod HT Pr roase erm ew Fe eben Tre + x) t U | raed ara reer x Heys Harpe fea iy q te +% Lise : Dicus4/Ebous4 — Esus4 Ah eee Tats 24 [aT Te Tec ¢ $ ¢ ¢ + 4 COOL i I re taa4 rea Tar raed rae reese Tres Taa4 Aladd9) —A¥(add9)/B(add9) —_ B(add9) Cladd9) —CH(add9)/DX(add9) (add) + 5 re ver Di(add9\/EM(add9) — E(add9) F(add9) —Filadd9)/G(add9) Gadd) GH(add9)/A*(add9) — 900 Wo Pr pan 1 am t om fret * . Tre co ty rr ra vets rrr om + eas Tote Tats reer Tee 16 Dm(add9) Cm(add9) Bm(add9) Alm(add9)/B>m(add9) Wire eM anee) Am(add9) (Ctm(addg)/Dem(add) - “ACH: ae 2 “SEEER” EERE = 3 g o \* . g suaggy & EEE. g : gaa: fees: Fl eto: sco: Te : See: fips: 9 REE ya fa oe 3) ood comers | xo = atta Fm(adda) Dim(addo\/Ehm(add®) Em(add9) 7 cram tras Tres v4 rea Tree rea DI5/EDS ES FS FI5/G5 GS GHBIAYS. vr3s AG AtG/Bb6 BG cé cteihe Dé Hea 6 GE HH Wn rire trot toa} =o 4 a t tooo aft t rH Ht 4 eee J { tH [see Ee rest rosea T3333 tf pera] tip. bon DIG/ELS E6 cot I T vats pers & fr Ary fr rrr) Sete reese rasa cq» janes + FH tH a] se o te aate Atm6/Bhmé Bm6é Cmé Chm6/D>m6 Dmé Am6é petty . yeeres fet aret Q as £ . 2 7 os = 9 fo : 7 7 2 Ug = 4 oO i ~ g ag = ARE rit" Hage | § : Het re - = ets co t © 1 4: © : nee s ] : ce f " ae Fee © 8 7 otto E ls > BH: OE 2 EY _ - 9 so «COE . - fH § ; + : S Ee fe é| Sixth, Added Ninth 4@ Aelia A#/9/B>%/a oe + HI eee ee coo ooo xx phe I +. i Li or pore rae J I yo 6 Fa 1 ates q eels Hit I Cot ct con 4 aie ata es tits Pas a Am®/o Abm®/9/B>m%o Bmeo Cme/o — C#mS/a/DbmS/o. 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Trt $e + H too varey a3 wat wer mr Minor, Major Seventh Am(maj7) — Afm(maj7)/Bbm(maj7) — Bm(maj7) Cm(maj7) Ctm(maj7)/Dbm(maj7) — Dm(maj7) 7 of Dtmn(maj7)/Ebn(maj7) Em(maj7) Fr(maj7) — Fim(maj7)/Ghm(maj7) — Gm(maj7) Gtm(maj7)/Abm(maj7) ao xo ~ ‘ ° ee pie Ceo i i TT peer ot th Be - ie da a Amaj7(>5) — Atmaj7(+5)/Bbmaj765)— Bmaj7(b5) Cmaj7(+5) — Clmaj7(>5)/Dbmaj7>5)— Dmaj7(>5) Dimaj7(5)/Ebmaj705) Emaj7(b5) Fmaj7(>5) — Fimaj7(>5)/Gbmaj75)— Gmaj7(b5) Gtmaj7(b5)/Abmaj7b5) Am7(b5) — Abm7(b5)/B>m7(b5) ~— Bm7(b5) Cm7P5) —_ Chm7(b5)/D>m7b5) ——_— Dm7(°5) i fal = asf 1 t te SE | oes 4 1 HH Dim765)/Ebm765) Fm7(b5) — Flm75)/Ghm705) — Gm7(b5)__ Gtm7(b5)/Abm705) Th any 1338 aan sew xs xx xx epeet ¢ | com les . roan era ue Pow HRA A + $1 34 1393 T3498 333 338 —Ts88 CH+7/D>+7 D+7 cet ay =e 4" Ht To TUOE ree TT#] oF io tH w= cH oh DE+7/Eb+7 F+7 te ioe We \" eee 4 Ht +t ett + Fe Ge AE i Teo» & TESTO o« 4 ue ©. m3 pote pore era tars 3 A7(5) At7(65)/B>7(5) B7(b5) c7b5) ct7b5)/0>7(65) D7(b5) DE7(b5)/Eb7(b5) E765) F765) F#7(65)/Gb7(b5) G7(b5) GAT5)/AD705) 32 rae io a tt b79) GETb9)/Ar7¢9) aes g - : — a s oat (Ts H- H: It.) eo S| Aegte: To, A gt 2 a3 JCP a: 3 s + a e See cee e 8 Bo eeces ee jE: El Ge Se ifs es pe = ee i ge eeeee Ce t ,CPooo ECO), SCE = é 5 oe : a = a [ ~» Goeth: sg E > : 2) tHe i 5 Hs fe g : s 3 e Ty Ls 3| Feo E (agoooy = (Gece: 3\ fF isle a 12 EF a 5 ect 2 TRS ff ee A7(9) At7($9)/67(49) B7(t9) c7(t9) ct7(#9)/0>7(49) p7(¢9) essa ae coor) 1 ares zea ayes brea e408 ayes Di7(tay/eb7(¢9) E749) F7(49) Gt7¢9)/AP7089) #t 1 xo = aR, Hf my ty J To { ne8 vera rises rises Brera cm Bis raa8s a ry 4 Pr - 4 Che + ina . st T COores Trea Trea prea ayes A+7b9) —_At+7(b9)/8b+7(b9) B+7b9) ce 19) C#+7(b9)/Db+7(b9) _D+7(b9) erat Bare ete e1aTp « ee $e$ oOo * Teele rama ara rea ree ats Dt+7(b9)/Eb+769) E+7(b9) F+7(b9) —_FEF7(b9)/Gh+7(9)_—_ G+7(09)_GE#7(b9)/Ab+7(69) x 200 es go l° i chess errr Ho Ee A Tt o% rhe rlslsisig) oH edi ripe Oot rare 35 AQ A#Q/B>9 Bo chasDb9 be 36 AmajQ Abmaj9/Bbmaj9 Bmaj9 Cmaj2 Chmaja/Dbmaj9 Dmaj9 37 Bmo Ctm9/D>m9 [eee] ve ester ow terre errs erty} i torr Tet Tes« RH TetT eee + i Ae t rae. rae. mae a] ve Te] ow Gee o ° coppers coh I } Dimg/Ebma ? $ f t + air 1 i - Th t + OF ote fetes H f t r Tr H zraaa areas Perry z1e88 zia83 21338 Tp pter FLT gon oH 38 Att ANB Bit cn cbt Dit ry TT ¥ on + Tet] ose ey 8 ch Tn oe pare a cx tt HELH aa 1188 ret rave 128 ra rave en Fit FHI/GH on GAD (GE ES Se eS fe ee : 2 Ee BE ES RE BB : fi Se BE Se | ee Ge Ee cS ih Ee Gar i a ASR fee CST 1 1238 DHZIEMS soo Te SCALES Scale (from L. scala, ladder): A progression of notes in a specific order. Scales are very important to know, especially when it comes to playing a solo. This section io an easy reference for constructing, locating and playing all the essential ocales on your guitar. By the end of this section, you'll be using scales to improvise over the “Jam Session” on the CD. Essential ingredients... We've given you three ways to build (or “spell”) each ocale: So. wwe) This pattern tells you how many steps to move from one scale tone to the next, using abbreviations for whole step (W), half step (H) and 1/2 steps (WH). Simply start on any note and move up accordingly. Here's an example starting on the root note C: step pattern wy H-W-W-W-H A-B-C-D-E-FI-GH-A, (ex. 1243-45 46-47-8) Take the number result, in the formula (which correspond to a particular major scale tone) and alter them as Indicated by the flats and/or sharps. Try this one... A-B-CHD-1 GtA 1-2-b3-4-5-b647-8 A major scale rma result . IMPORTANT: These formulas are always based on the major scale (including any sharps or Gg flate) not just the letter names of the notes. That is, 3 for the key of E major is actually G# (not G). So, if the formula calls for b3, play G (one half-step lower than Gt) not Gb. EME coer Although we don’t have room to show all the scales on all twelve root notes (actually seventeen if you count the enharmonicsl), the note names shown are relative to the root note used. Of course, a scale built on a different root note will have a different list of note names. iw Let's get organized... Several fretboard locations are given for each scale in this book. Use the one that feels the most comfortable for you. (Or, heck, memorize all of them!) The fingerings in thie system generally apply the one-finger-per-fret rule, staying within a specific four-fret position. in some cases, you may have to reach out of position one fret above or below this basic position. (Try not to hurt yourselfl) Two moveable patterns are given for each scale—one with its root on the sixth string, the other with its root on the fifth string, (For more on moveable patterns, flip to page 46.) cae NC These require a bit more of a stretch but generally span a full 2 /2 octaves. Two moveable fingerings are given for each scale. Again, one with a sixth string root and one with a fifth string root, Depending on the scale, these are found as either sliding scales, or four-notes-per-tring patterns. The fingerings in this system spread up to 16 frets (Ouchl), but they're handy in ‘trying to connect distant areas of the fretboard or to smoothly transfer from one position to ariother. Like the caged and three-notes-per-string systems, two moveable patterns also accompany each scale in the horizontal system Get in syne! Practicing scales requires both hands to work together in perfect synchronization. Strike each note clearly and precisely, making sure you pick and finger the note at exactly the same time. Remember to always use alternate picking (successive downstroke and upstroke attacks) to avoid excessive hand strain. PRACTICE TIP: Make sure you play each scale forward and then backward. And, as always, start out slow and gradually bulld up speed as you bulld up confidence. MOVEABLE PATTERNS All of the scale patterns given in this book are moveable—that is, they can be easily ehifted up or down the fingerboard to accomodate any key or root note. To do this, take note of the darkened root notes: © = root note of scale ~O- e 6 poy ot o m>ooom ris You can use any of these root notes as a point of reference for moving patterns. However, ‘the roots located on the fifth and sixth strings are usually the easiest places to start. E EPO 07 07-04 e 8 © 6 6 oe ° of-o+—}o+o — a a O | 7 7 ieee Tot on sixth string root on fifth string To play the scale pattern in any particular key, match one of the root notes to its respective note on the fingerboard, (For example, the key of C has a root note of C.) The rest of the pattern follows accordingly—it’s as simple as shifting the shape. Check out the example below: Moveable Major Scale Pattern ee ge Reeulting Scale rev F major scale € fret 3 G major scale 5 i. | fret 6 Bb major scale t fret 12 | E major scale | | fret 10 D major scale | Picture this. Use the Guitar Fingerboard Chart below to help you quickly locate all the notes within the first twelve frets. As de- scribed on the previous page, this chart will be especially useful as you begin using the moveable scale patterns in ‘the pages ahead. Ma A 8 T 6 T | ag | os See 08s | aeeetods = a hae ani a = ooo a | le BO ON sch tet ep —— A a te eile = | | 5 e | a . Fgh 8 Ae GEE SCL inter 3 jae . 7 [+ |= |ow) ie |e | on © oa | BOP ERB went tin 5S | Cr = eo AON senth fret —— = || ve : ose ae EA 0 GB Eb i ee r | = me | ° FHP EL tentane — r That's about all...good tuck! MAJOR The most common scale used in music is the major scale, so learn it well! t consists of eight: consecutive notes ascending or descending, Step pattern: W-W-H-W-W-W-H. C major scale Formula: 1+2-3-4~5-6-7-1 — Notes: C-D-E: GaABC oe © IMPORTANT: Scale patterns played on the guitar cover all of the notes within a certain 1 fretboard area. In other words, the notes in the scale are repeated in different octaves for a more complete and practical fingering, Caged System 4 meooam meooam 48 This scale is used in nearly all styles of Western music. It’s sometimes referred to as the “pure minor,” “relative minor” or “Aeolian mode.” Step pattern: W-H-W-W-H-W-W Formula: 1-243-456-4741 4 C natural minor scale OU SE oO OG bo Notes: F-G-Ab—Bb-C 9 rr . & . B a GS fa D a A : e 50 HARMONIC MINOR This scale provides another alternative minor scale type and is very common in classical music. Step pattern: W-H-W-W-H-Ws+H-H CC harmonic minor scale coo &® F @ pm ota Formula: 1-2-43-4-5-46-7-8 & Notes: C-D-Eb—-F-G~Ab-B-C eImeno m>ooom m>ooam -——Lo-} O- € 8 a fy a a m>ooem m>ooam MELODIC MINOR This scale can also be used over minor chords and is commonly referred to as the “jazz minor” scale. Step pattern: W-H-W-W-W-W-H C melodic minor scale D ® F G A B C Formula: 1-2->3-4-5-G-7-8 € Notes: C-D-Eb-F-G-A-B-C 4 e € = : 5 sPotot—fo4 | 8 ef —}otet? ° spot—t$ oF a a - : ele o ° meooam Horizontal System m>ooam 5 52 MINOR PENTATONIC This is undeniably the most prevalent scale used by rock and blues players. As its name suggests (“penta” means five), this scale contains only five different tones. Step pattern: eee ae a Formula: 1-3-4547 Notes: CH Wes HW-W-Ws+ HW C minor pentatonic scale recy e e 8 8 s 6 D D A A e e Three-Notes-Per-String System E 1 oF ° O- 8 O- o> 6 : O- o D - es a o-+ ely ° T=lo e 1 al O- 8 f ° ote 4 6 e © oF / ° © o4—t > I - 1 a oi > i+ | 4 rer 1s ese a i MAJOR PENTATONIC This is another 5-tone (“pentatonic”) scale common in many styles of music. It has a “bright” sound that especially lends itself well to county music. Step pattern: W-W-WsH-W-WsH C major pentatonic scale Formula: 1-2-3-5-6-1 Notes: C-D-E-G-A-C Creo” meooam e 8 6 D ® € ° | fo- Pe Ei =a eS m>coam 53 BLUES The blues scale is common in jazz, rock, and (you guessed it!) blues music. It contains an added blues note (b5) from the minor pentatonic scale but has only six tones. Step pattern: W+H-W-H-H-W+H-W Formula: 1+3-445-5-7-1 Notes: C-Eb-F-Gh-Gerc + > a | m>ooem e0¢ 9 oe GEREN” O- oO meooam fof Yo} This scale is popular in jazz and heavy metal music (turn it upl). NOTE: It’s not a typo, there really are eight different tones in thie scale. Step pattern: W-H-W-H-W-H-W-H Cannan Formula: 1-2->3-4-45-46-6-7-8 Doe F @ # A BC Notes: C-D-EhF-GhAb-A-B-C o be (EVEN Eco e e o : A alae i 8 a 7 t 6 aaah _ - 5 ab—tot 2 e o-Lot CG EEC” m>ooam e ¢ oc 55 MODES Modes are like scales—each uses a specific pattern of whole steps and half steps. The difference is that a mode is not related to the key of its root note, That is, a Dorian mode built on C is not in the key of C. The seven modes in common practice today are derived from the seven notes of the major scale: wow Hh WwW 4H AOA LALA AN AA C lonian = C DEF GABC (came a6 C major) w A DDorian = = D Howow wo Hw ow AA AA AA, EPhygian - E F G A BC DE www how wo# KA ALA AAA Fiydian = F GA BOC DE F GMixolydian = G A BC DE F G woe WoW H wow ALA NALA A Adelian = A BC DEF GA (eame a6 A natural minor) HWW HOW Ww ow ET Blocrian = BC DEF GAB ‘As you can see, each mode is actually a variation of the major scale. They differ only in the arrangement of the Intervals. The next page gives you two usable patterns for each of the seven modes. 56 lonian upoo RZ suggested scalee: F major, F major pentatonic Faiz Bbmaj7 Gm7 times Fmajz7 AAA 717742 | > a suggested scales: C blues, C minor pentatonic F c poyovmes C krzrzee\rerr\ sr \ 474774 | 8 | Don't stop there! Turn the page a Rea suggested scales: C major pentatonic, C major F c |i r7e47 4477 \4rrr7 |r | G G pay 4times C c [AACN Ae | || ¢ ay suggested ecales: E Dorian, £ minor penatonic Em D A play 8 TISL4\SS4ST euggested scales: (firet three measures): A minor, A minor pentatonic suggested scales: (fourth measure): A harmonic minor Am G F E ply Be Yrs SILI \SSSS\SSASS Am te suggested scales: C Phrygian, C minor pentatonic om7 Dbmajz cm7 a ee | is South of the Border suggested scales: G blues, G minor, G minor pentatonic, G harmonic minor Gm7 Am7>5 079 Gm7 |i zr77\r77774 04 62 +E sugges Bomaj75. Am Gm Am Bhmaj7bs play 8 times 6: Bb Lydian, A minor pentatonic k~77eleree\r477\ 47774 | +E suggested scales: C lonian, C major Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 kere r\| e440 \|s¢ 404 \ tts suggested scales: F# Aeolian, F# minor pentatonic Fim D ¢ RE y suggested scales: D major, D major pentatonic D Bm Em A yorimes D reer e444 \ 40087 rrrr{e>| oy suggested scales: E Mixolydian, E major pentatonic Bravol You're ready for the big leagues... 6