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Basic Electronic Course

Index
I- Introduction to Electricity
II- Ohms Law
III- Testing equipment / Devices
IV- Electronics Component Passive elements
V- Electronics Component Semiconductors
VI- Power Electronics

I- Introduction to Electricity

Every thing is made of Atoms


There are many elements, an atom is a single part of an elements
Atom consists of electrons, protons and neutrons
Electrons (- charge )are attracted to protons (+ charge ), this holds the atoms together
Some materials have strong attraction and refuse to loss electrons , these are called
Insulators.
Some materials have weak attraction and allow electrons to be lost, these are called
Conductors.
Electrons can be made to move from one atom to another, this is called a current of
electricity (I)
Current is measured by units called Ampere (A)

I- Introduction to Electricity
The work done per unit charge to move the charge between two points is called
Voltage (V), also called electromotive force.
Voltage is measured by using unit called Volts (V)
For better understanding, let us use water analogy
The Ability to oppose the electrical current is called Resistance (R)
Resistance is measured using unit called Ohm ()

I- Introduction to Electricity
Types of current
Direct Current (DC) : Is the unidirectional flow of electric charge . Direct current is
produced by sources such as batteries, DC power supplies
Link
Alternative current (AC): the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction

Comparison

I- Introduction to Electricity
Types of current
Ground is used as a reference points
This point is used when measuring voltage across the circuit

II- Ohms Law


Ohms law states the relationship between voltage (V), current (I), and resistance
(R). The equation is simplified as V = I x R.
This law explains the how the most important concepts of electricity relate to each
other
The amount of current in a circuit is dependent on its resistance and the applied
voltage. Specifically I = V/R
Power, measured in watt (w) can be calculated as P=VI

II- Ohms Law


Connecting group of resistors in series: voltage is devided, current will not change
Connecting group of resistors in parallel: current is devided, voltage will not change

II- Ohms Law

Equivalent Resistance calculation


Parallel: 1/Rt= 1/R1+1/R2++ 1/Rn
Series: Rt= R1+R2+.+Rn
Where n is the number of resistors

III- Testing Equipment / Devices


Main measuring equipment
AVO meter (ampere / Voltage / Ohm ): It is the most common and important device you
will when dealing with electronic circuits
Digital multi meter: in addition to the above units, it can measure Capacity and inductivity
Oscilloscope : used to show signals, useful in troubleshooting and experiments
Frequency counter: used mostly in experiments

III- Testing Equipment / Devices


Measuring Voltage, Current and Resistance
Measuring Voltage: meter is connected parallel and adjusted to measure voltage
(Voltmeter)
Measuring Current: meter is connected in series and adjusted to measure current
(Ammeter)
Measuring resistance: testing component, meter to be connected parallel and adjusted
to measure resistance (Ohmmeter), note to test the component out from circuit
Voltmeter: has a very high resistance, almost infinity
Ammeter: has a very low resistance, almost zero

III- Testing Equipment / Devices


Measuring Voltage, Current and Resistance
Never connect an Ammeter in Parallel, you will get a short circuit
Never connect a voltmeter in series, you will get an open circuit
Be sure to adjust the meter on the correct unit as well as correct
range

Exercise : Which circuit diagram below correctly shows the connection of ammeter A
and voltmeter V to measure the current through and potential difference across
resistor R?

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Resistors
There are many different types of resistors used in electronics, Each type is made from
different materials.
Resistors value are measured in Ohm , R Is calculated as follow
Resistors are classified based on
- Materials used
- Function
Resistors

Material
used

Carbon

Metal

Metal
glassed

Function

Others

Variable

Fixed

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Resistors Fixed Value

Carbon composition Resistor

Carbon Film Resistor

Metal film resistor

Wire wound Resistor

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Resistors Color Code

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Resistors
Color Bands examples

o
o
-

Non- Colored Resistors


Letters coding
2R7J 2.7 ,
J:5% tolerance
3K3K 3.3 K,
K: 10% Tolerance
4M7M 4.7 M,
M 20% tolerance
3 digits coding
472 4700

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Variable Resistors: Potentiometers

Variable resistors usually have three pins. Two ends with the resistor in between and one
wiper. The wiper can take a resistor value between zero and the maximum according to
the position.

Variable resistors values can be identified directly or based on 3 digits coding

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Variable resistors, other types

NTC: Negative temperature coefficient, used in Surge current limiting in power supplies
PTC: Positive Temperature coefficient, used in motor starting circuit, delay, protection
LDR: Light dependent resistor, any circuit depends on light
VDR: Voltage dependent resistor, used as protection

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Capacitors

Capacitors are passive electrical components used to store energy in an electrical field
Capacitors contain at least two electrical conductors (plates) separated by a dielectric
Each Capacitor has capacity (C ), measured in Farad [F]
Capacity defined as the ratio of charge Q on each conductor to the voltage V between
them
, Farad is huge value, so most of capacitors found in values , n, and p farad
See the charging / discharging behavior of the capacitor, bith depend on
Capacity
Resistance in the circuit
Time constant =RC

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Types of Capacitors

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


How to read capacitor information
0.047

0.047F

10p

10pF

330n

330nF

47F

47F

33

33pF

10

10pF

471

470pF

If the Value less than one fraction value in F


If these symbols / letters found, then no change on value

In case of two digits number value in pF


In case of 3 digits number

Rating voltage of the capacitor should be considered also, when replacing a capacitor, the
rating voltage should be equal or greater than the voltage of the defective one

Polarity of capacitor can be identified from


- Length of the legs, positive is longer
- Minus (-) sign

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Capacitors applications
Coupling in amplifiers circuits

Filtering in DC power circuits

Motors Starting circuits

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Inductors
Inductors are passive electrical component used to store energy in magnetic field
An inductor resists changes in electric current passing through
An inductor which also called coil or reactor, has an inductance (L) measured in henries
[H]
Inductors have values that typically range from 1 H (106H) to 1 H

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Inductors
Current growing phase, as an inductor resists changes in electric current passing through
Inductor resist the current growing

Current decaying phase , inductor resist the current decaying and acting as voltage
source

IV- Electronics components Passive elements


Inductors applications
Filtering

Resonance circuits

IV- Electronics components


Inductors applications - Relays
Controlling high current loads through small current via relays

Normally
open
contacts

Normally
closed
contacts

Relay operation
Relay
coil

Common

IV- Electronics components


Transformers

One of the major applications of the inductors


Consists of two wounds, primary and secondary
In a transformer, P1=P2 V1I1=V2I2,
V1/N1=V2/N2, where:
V1, V2 are the voltage of primary and secondary
coils
- N1, N2 are the number of wounds of the primary
and secondary coils

Common types of transformers


Step down transformers
Step up transformer
Coupling transformers

V- Semiconductors
Introduction
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value between a conductor and
an insulator
The most commonly used semiconductor are silicon & Germanium
Each silicon atom has an outer shell with four valence electrons and four vacancies (It is
a tetravalent element)
In intrinsic (pure) silicon, atoms join together by forming covalent bonds
Each atom shares its valence electrons with each of four adjacent neighbours
effectively filling its outer shell
Group III
+3

Group IV

Group V

+4

+5

Boron (B)

Carbon (C)

Nitrogen (N)

Aluminium (Al)

Silicon (Si)

Phosphorus (P)

Gallium (Ga)

Germanium (Ge)

Arsenic (As)

V- Semiconductors
Introduction
By adding impurities to the intrinsic semiconductor we can change the conductivity of the
material this is called doping
N-type doping
P-type doping
N-type: pentavalent (atom with 5 valence electrons) impurity atoms are added
[Sb(Antimony) + Si]
Negative charges (electrons) are generated
N-type has lots of free electrons
P-type: trivalent (atom with 3 valence electrons) impurity atoms are added
[B(Boron) + Si]
Positive charges (holes) are generated
P-type has lots of holes

P-type

N-type

V- Semiconductors
P-N Junction (Diode)

N region has lots of free electrons, while P region has lots of holes
In order to move electrons through the electric field (generate current) we need some
force (voltage)
This potential difference is called barrier voltage
When enough voltage is applied, electrons are moved then we are biasing the diode
Two layers of positive and negative charges for depletion region the region near the
pn-junction is depleted of charge carriers)
There are two types of biasing, Forward and reveres

Forward
biasing

Reversed
biasing

V- Semiconductors Diodes
P-N Junction (Diode)

Forward and revers biased


equivalent circuits

V- Semiconductors Type of Diodes


Power Diodes : Used in power supplies, and high power circuits, rating power
500~1000 volt, 1.5~5 A

Zener Diode : Used in as Voltage regulator, keep the voltage fixed on load, very
common in power supply and regulators circuits

Variacp Diode : Used as capacitor, its capacity change when the revers biasing voltage
is changed on its terminals, very common in receivers and tuning circuts

V- Semiconductors Diodes
Light Emitting Diodes (LED):

Diode Testing

V- Semiconductors Diodes
Diodes Applications : Rectifiers in Power supplies

o
o
o

Basic components
Transformer (not shown)
Rectifier
Filter

Half vs Full wave rectifiers

Half Wave rectifier

Or

Full Wave rectifier

V- Semiconductors Transistor
Introduction

A transistor is a 3 terminal electronic device made of semiconductor material.


Transistors have many uses, including amplification, switching, voltage
regulation, and the modulation of signals
The word transistor is a combination of the terms transconductance and
variable resistor
Today an advanced microprocessor can have as many millions of transistors

V- Semiconductors Transistor
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

A BJT is simply a two PN junctions


connected oppositely P-N-N-P
NPN, PNP are the type of BJT

Transistor share
feature with

Output current can toggle between large and s

mall (Switching Digital logic; create 0s and 1s)


Small change in valve (3rd terminal) creates

Large change in output between 1st and 2nd


terminal

V- Semiconductors Transistor
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

Collector doping is usually less than Base


doping
Emitter doping is much higher than both
Collector and Base
= Common-emitter current gain = IC/IB
= Common-base current gain = IC/IE

IE = IB + IC
VCE = -VBC + VBE

V- Semiconductors Transistor
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

Cut-off Region: VBE < VFB, IB=0,


Transistor acts like an off switch
Active Linear Region: VBE=VFB, IB0,
IC=IB. Transistor acts like a current
amplifier
Saturation Region: VBE=VFB, IB>IC,
max/ , In this mode the transistor
acts like an on switch

Basic circuit

Saturation

Cutoff

V- Semiconductors Transistor
BJT Applications

Electrical Switch
Transistor is working either in Saturation or cut off region

Amplifier
Common emitter circuit is the
most common transistor used

V- Semiconductors Transistor
BJT Applications

Power regulator circuits

Regulation loop
Vout VBQ2 IBQ2 ICQ2 IBQ1VBQ1 ICQ1IEQ1Vout
Z-diode keep increase the reference voltage

V- Semiconductors Transistor
Field Effect Transistor

Voltage controlled device


Current carries is one type either electrons or Holes, not same as BJT
Instead of C,B,E, the terminals are D (drain), G (Gate), S(Source)

V- Semiconductors Transistor
Field Effect Transistor

V- Semiconductors Transistor
BJT VS FET

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Field Effect Transistor (FET)


Low voltage gain
High current gain
Very high input impedance
High output impedance
Low noise generation
Fast switching time
Easily damaged by static
Some require an input to turn it OFF
Voltage controlled device
Exhibits the properties of a Resistor
More expensive than bipolar
Difficult to bias
D, G, S are the terminals

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)


High voltage gain
Low current gain
Low input impedance
Low output impedance
Medium noise generation
Medium switching time
Robust
Requires zero input to turn it OFF
Current controlled device

Cheap
Easy to bias
C, B, E are the terminals

V- Semiconductors Transistor
BJT , FET testing

BJT testing

FET testing

VI- Power electronics


SCR

A Silicon Controlled Rectifier (or Semiconductor Controlled Rectifier) is a four


layer solid state device that controls current
The name silicon controlled rectifier is a trade name for the type of thyristor
commercialized at General Electric in 1957
An SCR can be seen as a conventional rectifier controlled by a gate signal
It is a 4-layered 3-terminal device
When the gate to cathode voltage exceeds a certain threshold, the device turns
'on' and conducts current
IA
IG2 > IG1 IG1 > IG0 I = 0
G0

I H0
I H1
VR

I H2
0
IR

VF

VBR(F 2) VBR(F1) VBR(F0)

VI- Power electronics


SCR Application
High current circuit switch

Motor Speed Control

Protection circuit
I

SW

Fuse

R1

DC
power supply

R2
R3
B

VOUT

D1

R4
D2

R1
VTRIG
R2

R3

"Crowbar circuit"

VI- Power electronics


Triac
The Triac is essentially a bidirectional SCR but the anodes are not
interchangeable. Triggering is done by applying a current pulse to the
gate; break over triggering is not normally used

When the voltage on the A1 terminal is positive with respect to


A2, a gate current pulse will cause the left SCR to conduct. When
the anode voltages are reversed, the gate current pulse will cause
I
the right SCR to conduct.

A1

G
A2

Triac is used for control of ac in applications like electric


range heating controls, light dimmers, and small motors.
IG2

IH0

Triac on
RL
A1
Vin

G
VG

A2

IL
Delay
angle
Conduction
angle

VA

VBR(R0) VBR(R1) VBR(R2)

IG1

IG0

IH1
IH2
IH2
IH1

IG0

IG1

IG2

IH0

I A

VBR(F2) VBR(F1) VBR(F0)

VA