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Universitts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt

Digitale Bibliothek des Sondersammelgebietes Vorderer Orient

The Arabic theory of prosification and versification


Sanni, Amidu
Stuttgart, 1998

urn:nbn:de:gbv:3:5-90402

THE ARABIC THEORY OF


PROSMCATION AND VERSIFICATION
ON HALL AND NAZM IN
ARABIC THEORETICAL DISCOURSE

AMIDUSANNI

BEIRUT 1998
IN KOMMISSION BEI FRANZ STEINER VERLAG STUTTGART

Umschlaggestaltung : Wolf- Dieter Lemke


Lektorat und Druckbetreuung : Hanne Schnig

Die Deutsche Bibliothek -

CIP - Einheitsaufnahme

Sanni , Amidu :
The Arabic theory of prosification and versification : on hall and nazm in Arabic theoretical
discourse / Amidu Sanni . - Stuttgart : Steiner , 1998
( Beiruter Texte und Studien ; Bd . 70 )
ISBN 3 - 515 - 07170 - 9

Jede Verwertung des Werkes auerhalb des Urheberrechtsgesetzes ist unzulssig und
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vergleichbare Verfahren sowie fr die Speicherung in Datenverarbeitungsanlagen .
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der Deutschen Morgenlndischen Gesellschaft , Beirut ( Libanon ) , aus Mitteln des Bundes
ministeriums fr Bildung , Wissenschaft , Forschung und Technologie .
1998 by Orient - Institut
Gedruckt auf alterungsbestndigem Papier .
Druck : Hassib Dergham & Sons
Printed in Lebanon

To

Apeke

and

our

children

CONTENTS

Preface

ix

Foreword

xi

Exordium

Chapter

One
the

Chapter

: Quranic

hall
Two

an
I

and

Poetic

" prosification
: Ibn

Analytical
Fi

Idioms

al - Athlr

' s al - Washy

al - shi

al - marqum

:
25

cr

26

Section

1 : hall

al - shi .cr bi - lafzXhl

Section

2 : hall

al - shi

3 : hall

al - shfr

Section
hall

ayat

III

FI

hall

al - akhbar

al - Nabawiyya

: Al - Nayramanl

' s Manthur

an

Study

hall

Fi

Three

Prose

II

Chapter

in

" Theory

Analytical

al - Qur

cr bi - ba cd

26
lafiihl

bi - ghayr

38

lafiihl

47

^ an

55
73
al - manzum

Study

91

Bab

al - Hamasa

II

Bab

al - Nasib

103

III

Bab

al - c Itab

107

IV

Bab

al - Hija

Bab

al - Adab

116

VI

Bab

al - Awsaf

119

VII

Bab

al - Ta c azI

124

VIII

Bab

al - Mulah

127

Chapter

Four
the

nazm

: Qur

99

' anic

" versification

112

and

Prose

Conceits

" Theory

in

Poetry

:
135

Peroration

155

Appendix

163

Abbreviations

169

Works

170

Consulted

VIII

Index
Summary

CONTENTS

of

Names

&

Terms

177
183
185

PREFACE

That
in

this
an

study

is

adventure

was

that

during

384

/ 994

at

of

al - naim

's

which

the

an

to
1991

, I

the

Iraqi

Mr

of

. Abd

403

/ 1012

By

possibly

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only

realized

that

analysis

of

I have

me

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to

the

sonal

debts

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my

Hartmann

welfare

grateful

. I

Gelder

, Rijks

the

the

from

efforts
to

of
,

al - Nayramani

's

(d .

) , the

earliest

poetic

is

still

summer

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this

Storm

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coming

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stereotypes

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, I

help

theory
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hosted
disposal

adequate
Universiteit

me
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literature
attempted

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interest
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in

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cheerfully

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Humboldt

undertake

financially

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practice

acknowledge
von

to

facilitated

Angelika

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will

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al - marqiim

Poetry

materials
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Nigeria

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work

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contribution

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classic

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plagiarism

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had

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future
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Gulf

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, all

on

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c alibI

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article

age

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might

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diwan

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purpose

Library

upon

Poetry

. I was

obtained

unfortunately

do

its

a coincidence

poetical

National

of

is

different

the

I stumbled

with

who

to

for

monumental

reckon

a book

entirely

investigation

1944

as

an

Egyptian
that

, inspite

have

had

search

1988

of

baum

out

( Prosification

subject

of

my

autumn

coming

granting

supporting

Prof

. Ewald

offered
was
put
my

all

. Heinrichs

the

- Netherlands

, for

every
.

Prof

and
whom
and

reading

necessary

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me

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towards

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its

per
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feel

Dr . Van
most

of

preface

my
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draft

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for

their

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the

during
in

and

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Prof

. Owen

present

the
East

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this

study

effort
my

of

this

Conrad

of

work

Institut
October

this

, I should

the

fur

in
Neuwirth

publication

Orientalistik

17 , 1995

seminar

, for

more

. If

than

had

to

endure

to

name

a list

Dialogus

that

, and
and

series

GieBen

long

rival

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of

Near

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employers
away

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12 th century

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of

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absence

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my
to

of

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the

to

and

others

at

opportunity

me

a sense

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of

former

the

grateful

support

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that

me

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my

in

Staff

my

with
the

I were

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gave

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Nigeria
is

residence

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members

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me

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lasted

Hirsau

a
in

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that

children

. Angelika
in

in

. Abu

granting

months

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SOAS

suggestions

, for

agreeable
study

Prof

study

nature

study

ways

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this

and

stimulating

London

at

concluded

and

this

various

Prof

of

University

was

wife

while

three

Department

State

of

the

and

, SOAS

course

Wright

part

the

remarks

, Director

School

Kingdom

useful

. I thank
include

DMG

Amidu

this
.

Sanni

FOREWORD

The

poet

and

monograph
is

the

. The

times

from

to

new

the

set

Caliphate

states

and

strong

rally

based
can

"

orator

on

in

the

two

he
. But

court

and

poem

prevalent

. Some
now

and

prose

people
would

, though

felt
often

capable
leave

of

as

anti

and

the

producer

exist

in

became

( he

of

Islamic
the

main

the

admonitions
not

he

the

in

their

writing
diwans

was

idea

both
for

writing

of

an

modes

both
few

the

. Since
,

such

equivalency

form

posterity

combine

topics

outward
in

of

only
to

same

, the

, al -

thinking

that
gifted

time

address

Humanities

is

and

sufficiently
at

of

Arab

talents

to

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the

- writing

were

even
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and

epistle

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far

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poet

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natu

, as

: the

who

of

enumerate

scribes

scribe

living
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quite

literature

continued
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was

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philologists

poems

orators
was

particular

side

. This

art

pro

various

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literary

literary

" inventor

require

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statecraft

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later

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prose

poetry
)

and

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in

through

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of

of
: the

scribe

epistles

of

. Although

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ornate

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Sasanian

is

. Ancient

9 th century

to

there

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context

translations

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practitioners

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main

guise

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speeches

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tradition

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way

place

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chanceries

by

; the
. Poets

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empire

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antecedents

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venerable

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antecedents

from
two

representative

Jahiz

the

Arabic

it

prose

culture

Persian

East

composition

producer

rhetorical

on

in

present

, although

poet

administrative

and

age

literature

Islamic

only

the

, Arabic

tribal

the

a long

our

language

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new

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literature

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, knew
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gauge

quarians

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practitioners

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of
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protagonists

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millennium

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necessitated

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and

languages

largely

implicit

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attested

people

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metamorphoses

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urban
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time
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around

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heartlands

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became
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as

FOREWORD

XII

of

poems

and

between

scribes

began
be

one

to

and

describe

used

to

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not

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were

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part
fi

of

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hall

Prose

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entire

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Washy

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enriching

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But

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poetry

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of

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also

versa

time

),

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some

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interesting
discusses

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for

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( Journal

vice

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them

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analyzed

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importance

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passages

duly

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article

materials

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,

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was

considered

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view

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vantage

' s attention

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was

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) . Almost

ilk , where
out

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poetic

reader

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point

title

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context

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) . The

present

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including

aphoristic
is

epistolary
is

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attract

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to

in

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squarely

al - Athir

- 253

his

Grunebaum

Plagiarism

processes

by

Sarmi

topic

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viewed

Amidu

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first

G . E . von

3 , 234

epistle

ramifications

fact

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Concept

, the

of

scribes

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scholarship

Mehren

Verse

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literature

epis

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the

and

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/ 1239

of

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for

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, d . 637

stylists

of

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normally

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defined

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dresses
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handbooks

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Eastern

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attention

mentioned

1944

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procedure

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usually

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for

Embroidery

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poetic
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ibn

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phenomenon

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inspiration

turn
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to

prose

poetry

FOREWORD

In

general

researchers
is

, Dr . Sanni
in

a courageous

invaluable

the

analysis
first

, especially

nomena

of

mannerism

We

all

be

will

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drawn

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intertextuality
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texts

largely

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up

XIII

and

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authors

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classical

assist

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terrain
study

will

the

future

contribution

and

will

prove

interrelated
Arabic

phe
literature

WOLFHART HEINRICHS
Harvard

University

EXORDIUM

The

practice

and

vice

of
versa

Evidence

the

is

some

Roman

of

rhetoricians
borrowing
Vergil

on

which

of

Menander

quoted

. 3 Statius

( c . 40 - 96

difficult

poets

a step

mar

as

" the

science

can

be

taken

as

The

justification

grammar
prose

to

orations
of

See , for

example

Alston

Hurd

an

, Shaw

Chase

rhetorical

exercise

, Dictionary

& Henry

Phillips

in
figures

poetry
about

in
the

into
the

of Literary

Graeco

B .C . ) ,

. The

works

works

to

materials
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not
not

only
with

of

gram
poets

"

compositions
of

the
could

was

introduced

first

century

of

the

Terms

, s .v . " plagiarism

to Greek

.5

classical

students

Jr , A New Introduction

rarely

prose

the

syllabus

prose

admirer

father
into

poetical

and

(d . 8

favourite

his

orators

interpreting

that

.1

poetry

. 2 The

, whom

of

interest

poetry

into

C . E . ) definition

and

of
of

, turning

as

. etc . , 1961

study

illustrate

rhetoric

correctly

evidence

the

. Moreover

Mass

strong
for

was

schools

speaking

have

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Horace

that

imprisonment

' s poetry

' s ( d . 95

to

oral

about

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poet

Homer

undoubt

poetry

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claims

turned

B . C . ) is

his

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Western

discourse

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in

accounts

St . Paul

" . 4 Quintilian

of

in

itself

is reported

, during

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compositions
practice

alive

speeches

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even

also

found

B . C . ) and

C . E . ) proudly

but

behind

their

Greek

be

a prose

( d . 43

; and

literary

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name

of

author

B . C . ) who

into

, to

B .C . ) , a

the

B . C . ) fables

, Cicero

poetic

( c . 7 th century
, and

replete

poetry

( d . 89

" falling

are

drew

to

ballads

( d . 399

, Pindar

is

at turning

' s ( fl . 570

rhetoricians

explained

the

into

history

' s Iliad

attempt

ancient

, Tyrtaeus

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work

from

example

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of

. Homer

traditions

, for

as

poetical

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discourse

observation

Socrates

rhetorical

old

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poetry

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prose

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, deliberate
that

rendered

out

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earliest

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be

tradition

oldest

borrowed

to

support

literary

edly

from

seems

in

classical

But

borrowing

use

in
into

Christian

".
( Cambridge

) , 153 .

Preminger

, Classical

Curtius

Murphy , " Rhetoric


10 / 352 .

, European

and Medieval
Literature
- Western

Literary

Criticism

, 292 - 93 .

, 147 - 48 .
European

" , in Strayer

, ed . , Dictionary

of Middle

Ages ,

THE

era

, and

was

from

scriptural

ment

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in

his

OF PROSIFICATION

fact

recommended

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in

artistic

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tradition

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Spaniard

antiquity

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orator
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theory

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.
or

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prospective

only

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poet

were

poetry

first

emerge

modes

forms

this
later

period

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technical
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of

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,

being
charac

borrowing

from

, 10 .

Middle

, see

came

Ages

of Authorship

' s oration

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of

Preminger

in the

Theory

to

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aspects

iqtibas

, Rhetoric

, Medieval
text

as

development

compositions

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of

influence

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from

instructions

recommending

, loc . cit . See

Murphy

Minnis

emerge

literary

existence

, the

from

not

Roman

principal

' an , already

borrowing
of

. However
into

specifically

to

no

afforded

Qur

inspired

regard

was
in

colorization

only
did

the

there

attributed

facilities

of

memoranda

already

discourse

. In

, the

started

styles

eloquence

them

versa

century

and

the

; and

in

towards

poetry

the

scriptural
these

derived

or

, as

that

where

verse

two

period

rather

into

irresistible

sources

or

compo

the

historical

one

Scriptures
,

afresh

their

ora

their

is
, the

reflected
the

pagan

the

prose

cast

and

have

on

Gospels
into

into

turned

classical

tendency

prose

drawing

, motifs

in

the

example

could
of

before

other

environments

a marked

author

expressions

, show

they

accessible

, for

which

Islamic

the

in

in

demonstrate

the

Scriptures

prose

that

of

which

foregoing

and

employ
( d . 430

preachers

the

the

experiences

and

expressions

Augustine

be

lived

compositions

Quss

The

the

available

each

practice

on

who

were

from

to

found

turned

extent

of

literary

for
be

borrowing

, its

intended

were

with

poetry

the

contents

freely

. Poets

ideas

materials

, to

Arabic

drew

C . E . ) did

deduced

is

the

books

between

and

the

Biblical

to

St . Augustine

Christian

from

versified
be

by

to

that

regard

performances

which

equally

( c . 330

can

speech

colores

borrow

, the

symbiotic
literary

are

, should

Juvencus
of

. 6 In

expressed

rhetorical

recommended

. 7 Furthermore

shortage

the

known

he

first

, a work
the

AND VERSIFICATION

Quintilian
or

was

, that

' s spokesmen

sitions

literary

Christiana

things

Consequently

into

technique

Doctrina

other

tory

THEORY

sources

an

among

ARABIC

, Chapter

, 35ff

al - I sbahani

II , 43ff

. See

.
, al - Zahra

, 2 / 504 .

also

Curtius

, 40 ;

EXORDIUM

the

Qur

' an

nazjn

and

al - hall

to

The

problem

renderings

for

give

the

not

theoretical
establish

" derobing
a

and

felicitous

of

who

is

structing

"

or

"

applied
the

tiazm

not

as

to

two

/ caqd

as

of

equally

demonstrable

But

Da

ably

' l - qawl

employ

to

the

context

as

an

equivalent

hall

nazm

, to

dispraise

10

See

Grunebaum

Makdisi

11

Compare

12

The

, The

the

"

be
and

the

that

case

equivalent
this

hall

seems

and

. But
to

, " versification

" is

term

akhbar
, to

render

fact

that

the

of

hall

are

opposite

analysis

for

his

validity

complementary

" , sometimes

be

, " recon
, the

. Also

the

or

into

Prophetic

the

far

a katib

rather

, for
in

. 12 For

that

akhbar

form

above

carries

questionable

prose

or

anyway

. Moreover
of

reasons
is

, but

forms

of

. 11

convenience
interchange

I have
more

not

failed

appropriate

generally

employed

.
connoisseurs

phenomenon
that

Rise

is

materials

, its

where

token

case

inadequate

al - kahf

content

from

same

Prophetic

" prosification
an

native

, " The

the

in

napn

thought

of ,

paraphrasing

quotations

the

any

in

ranged
verged

on

from

Arabic

literary

toleration

that

disapproval

Concept

of Plagiarism

of Humanism

, 362 - 64 .

. However

in Arabic

Poetry

practice
bordered
, the

view

to
on
that

" , 234 - 53 .

ibid . , 135 .

allusion

dwellers

same
nazm

of

and

ahl

used

for

QuPan

cited

" too

the

of

will

equally

to

" , as

for

response

approval

. By

is

ciddat

, I have

" decomposition

The

already

regard

" recomposition

to

the

can

however
with

the

are

to

" , which

new

hall

sublevels

in

is

as

. 9 The
intends

" decomposition

and

into

from

"

and

fact

for

materials

instances

c dha

purposes

equivalent

" versification

variety

. It

hall

study

refer

; of
of

term

" such
them

borrowings

source

as

significa

term

this

the

prose

should

accurate

to

" deconstruction

" deconstructing

an

, as

used

well

materials

"

hall

in

as

. 10 The

such

than

borrowing

, the

as

QuPanic

, and

English

the

less

was

judgement
term

" recomposing

" prosification
when

from

of

; of

. Besides

the

prose

terms

that

is

same
;

equivalent

, rendering

term

rhyme

unsatisfactory

borrows

compositions

the

negative
of

into

satisfactory

important

concept

the

materials

, is

the

and

that

more

expressions

' s rendering

poet

metre

and

Grunebaum

expressing

poetry

adequate

example

by

that

of

value

far

to

turning

important

. For

relating

then

to

it is

done

scriptural

inherent

for

was

to , such

Makdisi
less

distorted

as

demonstrates

and

allusions
an

be

" a poem

verse

poetical

, as

, and

discourse

to
.

in regard

terms

"

al - nazm

procedure

arises

significations

should

of

; hall

opposite

these

" decomposition

to

hadith

then

precise

tions

the

here

mentioned

is

to

the

controversy

in Qui ' an

18 :22 .

over

the

number

of

the

mysterious

cave

THE

ARABIC

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

AND

VERSIFICATION

finally emerged as the standard not only recommended both procedures


as necessary tools for anyone contemplating on serious compositions , it
also provided broad guidelines as to how they could be cultivated for
optimium aesthetic effect . By the close of the 7 th / 13 th century , the debate
over the subject had been furnished with an enduring logical framework
both in theory and in practice , to the extent that later contributors could
do no more than fine tuning . It must be stated , however , that it was the
hall phenomenon that provoked the most extensive and sustained discus
sion . The reason for this is to be sought in the tradition that accorded the
pride of place to the katib , both in terms of training and social status . It
should therefore not be surprising that the subtleties and varieties of hall
as part of the essential instruments of the writing profession took a greater
portion of the theoretical discourse over the subject of intertextual bor
rowing , as will be evident from the following .

CHAPTER

Quranic

Al - Jahiz
lar

orator

( d . 53 / 673
denied
in

as

the

speech

speech

that

he

and

al - Hamid
have

of

an

, the

almost

could

be

found

even

when

usage

. 3 But

used

the

fully

or

sense

Qur

3an

the

in

his

than

the

use
early

of

3anic

al - J ahiz

al - Q alqashand

al - Q ad I , " The

the

works

, al - Bayan

a number

wording
style

wa

I , Subh
Impact

;
or

of
. One

' l - tabyln

rephrasing

or

by

idioms

katib

, 2 / 7 . See

of the

3an
his

recognized

's

or

normal

study

of

the

of

cAbd

on

the

subject

will

the

author

went

some

roots

or

adaptation

into

the

cAbd

; by

to

specific
became

routine
al - Hamid

quoting

3an

W ahb

( p . 197 ) .

Qur 3an " , 285 - 313 .

Qur

that

, by

whose

also , I bn

al - a csha , 10 / 195 - 233

thus

that

Qur

cAbd

embellish

formal

constituting

in

by

the

which

them

, almost

ma

( d . 91 / 710
read

absorbed

the

Quranic

borrowing

alluding
of

stylists
early

is

ways

such
as

written

of

analysis

of

or

of

was

for
of

's

, and

epistolography

expression

fully

idioms

al - Qadi

have

been

3anic

and

investigation

al - Qadi

Qur

to

3an

the

instances

have

in

generation

their

as

idioms

characterized

quality

might

every

letters

Qur

in

any

paraphrasing

their
of

the

one

from

meaning

. Wadad

which

clear

its

artistic

' anic

Marwan

advised

Ziyad

Qur

a letter

was

of

Islam

use

caliph

) , a popu

court

of

the

in

usages

problem

may

quite

of
the

of

were

to

of

acknowledged
Qur

them

over

value

Scripture

; by

rather

among

ponder

with

idioms
is

partially

. The

may

enhancing

only

in

it

reports

latter

characterizing

such

character

of

effort

reckon

far

. The

was

forms

is

to

Allah

aesthetic

a means

performance

patterns

behalf

use

inception

probably

) on

the

no

. The
the

reference
is

/ 750

at

contained

with

phenomenon

( d . 84 / 703

speech

from

earliest

cAbd

b . Hittan

assessment

decorated

( d . 132

order

as

Ibrahim

a tradition

" . 1 The

it . 2 The

use

speech

the

that

not

Prince

with
its

impressive

were

Crown
in

an

a favourable

al - Katib

regularly

delivered

became

a stylistic

al - Hamid

how

fact

3 " deformed

terials

) related

the

author

that

shawha

too

, once

speech

speeches

and

/ 868

) , but

the

public

to

and Poetic Idioms in Prose : the hall


" prosification " Theory

( d . 255

poet

ONE

the

verses

adopting

their

motifs
a standard
the

writings

, al - Burhan

distinctive

the

tendency

, 95 .

or

THE

is

said

to

whose

have

his

fession

are

, Ibrahim

basic

remarks

and

only

min

' an

QuPanic

the
.

this

into
tool

(j

of

al - Tha
,

( i . e . QuPanic

or

to

As

far

classical
make
seems

as

to

ultimate

be

objective
strive

quote

it

borrowing
is

of

I know

subject

some
the

his

, poetry
of

issue

al - Iqtibas

borrowing

respect

of

independent

) in

for

) expressions
to

in

will

from

and

oratory

which

to
matter

concentrated

give
of

such
an

those

and

meanings

their

various

then

c alibI

of
efficiency

confer

immeasurable

, al - Tha

scholarship
it the

. , prose
in

in

an

of

borrow

, although

that

part

he

says

:6

'

's

on

its

, should

be

into

their

on

their

beauty

."

work

remains

independent

are
to

analysis
employment

various

the

effort

only
to

. Although
poetic

the

from
topics

and
an

in

with

borrow

speeches

attention

y *

endowed

introductions

a remarkable

more

who

who

it ; or

that

, viz

to

encountered

/ 1037

in
and

as

references

of

use

earliest

, those

outlook

types

for

, the

. Such

device

argues

its

sions

the

of

( d . 429

pro
that

' an

probably

worthy

performance

writing

Qur

the

.4

the

the

connoisseurs

author

discourse

excellent

cite

is

Kubar

recommends

of

are

c alibi

the

/ 817

in

. 5 Occasional

later

202

b . Abl

. . . AjIp

eloquence

this

phenomenon

" . . . certainly

verses

recognition

by

literary

and

) specifically

compositions

work

all

for

, and

Bishr

required

the

early

made
a

Yemeni

/ 772

/ 910

profession

hands

In

idioms

the

the
154

writings
the

AND VERSIFICATION

eloquence

lifting

literary

into

'an

a requisite

in

comments

at

al - Qur

of

( d . 298

prose

into

was

between

tools

support
of

fully

inquiry

is

in
to

Qur

developed

date

efficient

instruments

from

the

the

be

evidence

ings

to

of

places

clearest
the

said

reflected

al - Shaybanl

should

appropriate

OF PROSIFICATION

amply

analysis

katib

THEORY

been

letters
In

the

ARABIC

conclu
attractive

issue
his

practice

in

the
as

to

interest
than

4 Ibid. . , 285 , where she refers to the study of his style in her ( not seen ) Bishr Ibn Abl
Kubar al - Balawi : namudhaj min al - nathr al -fanni al - mubakkir ft ' l - Yaman ( Beirut ,
1985 ) , 99 - 148 .
5 See below , fn . 17 . A very recent study on the writing profession in Arabic tradition
is Adrian Gully , " Epistles for Grammarians : illustration from the insha ' literature " ,
British Journal of Middle East Studies 23 n 2 ( 1996 ) , 147 - 66 . Yet another study
is Muhammad Khayr Shaykh Musa , " Harakat al - ta ' llf fi ' 1- kitab wa ' 1- kuttab . . . " ,
MMLAD 72 n 3 ( 1997 ) , 481 - 526 .
6

al - Tha calibT , al - Iqtibas

, 23 - 24 .

QUR ' ANIC

in

prose

that

as

will

borrowing

thetic

quality

him

. But

Qur

' anic

be

shown

from

Qur

of

for

to

the

' anic

cAlI

ideas

so

b . Khalaf

as

far

the

AS^ >tlU

I
^

dJj

<^ > zj

in

th c . ) who

JJL

4^ _>Jjij

says

d) l

^ J

4-i

Jj

Ml

3 ^ UJ

Sjl ^xjl

4J2J

w -s> cj

L j >- y

(1) 1jill

4j

Jl > J

*-/ <1) 1

A^ j \^ a oUsiwJij

. l ^->3 <1) 11

s-\s>- U

(<\jp3

Vj

apL J>J1J

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(1) ^y & \

the

verses

cerning
it

for

the

much

of

to

the

observe
from

be

for

inducement

in

verbose

expressions

he

borrows

anything

I bn K

halaf

, to
of
he

al

such

himself

is

I^XA ^

it

) as

divine
or

for

, because

from

atib , Mawadd

it , he

for

should

al - bayan

in
Word

for

the
cite

88 - 89

it

his
of

it

, using
authority
in

the

occurs

too
. He

Almighty
it ) should

, not
of

con

speech

( from

short
as

as

indulge

adornment

one

from

relevant

not

borrowing

and

aid

the

letters

, and

dominant

a protection

an

and

should

becomes

blessings
as

3an ) into

appropriate

) . He

(J 5^

borrowing

, adornment

expressing
that

Qur

C flj *> - \J

^ UJl >

, while

( i . e . the
that

hackneyed
of

-K

is

( rule

becoming

limit

embellishment

extent

this

Allah

should
Revelation

matters

( that

it

he

Noble

purposes

ideas

should

the

serious

only

for

of

that

(_djl

^v-LvsJ

LS^
) is

5.LUJI

4l ^ l> c* (jjpO

JaiL

( rule

are

" Another

how

:7

aj

4^ V? I^ S JJP

JaiL

jy >^

works

by

<Ll > Jl

4_&>d ^ *o

4PL >J >JI

, we

C 4X>*lJ

^ Jaxll
Uj

prose

used

ILvJO 4JU jL *X*xl

oJibJI

>- 1^ 1
U

on

4jj ] l> c.aj

aes

proposition

0jSsJ

liJJwllj

the

detailed

Ol

I^ IT

is

shape

be

C<uL >cJ <0


(j jJsL -*o

promotes

. 4^3 ^ JUJ " <Uil

jl > - (jls

that

significant

technical

( fl . 5 th / ll

urj

is

definitive

Obi

4l !L &

, what

device

most

OlJlSCjl

L (jJjj

4lij

actually

al - Katib

study

its

IN PROSE

this

given

should

<0ll

idioms

and

or

IDIOMS

in

was

earliest

SiiUI

elsewhere

compositions

formulae

beholden

AND POETIC

words
; not

as

fillers
. When
chang

THE

ing

its

form

, so

the

peculiar

against
as

too

ARABIC

much

devoid

of

for

abtar
affairs

He

should

Qur

' an

of

the

for
Dan

dressed
be

By

Ibn

writings

the

made

may

not

their

use

should

stylistics

doubt

with

the

Ibn

reality

of

wordings

of

Knowledge

instruments

This
cazz

9 Ibn

their
of

to

Qur

Ibn

the

Qur

eloquence
al - Athlr

to the

usages

in

Dan
and
required

( d . 637

following

and

at

be

hadlth

wa -jall fa - huwa
abtar . See Ibn Hanbal
al - AthI r , al - Mathal al - sa ' ir , 1/ 44 .

the

two
poet

: Kull

ad

was
therefore

, as
of

the

the

is , however

amr

, Musnad

dhl

bal

prose
;
for

purposes

made

use

of

, and

there

is

and

indeed

epistolary

a sort

and

in

for

, the

retained

akhbar

) . 9 He

is

and

them

case

into

constitute

/ 1239

than

generally

Prophetic

the

an

motivation

with

any

developed

by

for
that

borrowing

above

by

. In
must

ideas

com

the

used

al - Hamld

odds

was

fact

be

overriding

evidenced
Khalaf

compositions
was

formulae

is a reference

as

cream

because

quotational

cAbd

is

Ibn

' anic

prose
and

of
of

technique
before

into

discussions

ployment

cording

the

tradition

may
of

highlighted

' s stipulation

Holy

the

should

rather

which

."

form

were

the

meant

is

; epistles

to . The

in

versa

the

Bedouins

benediction

writings

of

is

of

commit

vice

expression
This

materials

the

alluded

ways

his

them

' anic
in

divine

Khalaf

the

borrowed

sequent

elicit

in

that

in

or

) pattern

, Qur

various

materials

little

to

amongst

bereft

for

that

the

be

and

idioms

cases
of

( peculiar

only

rephrased
be

language

speeches

addressing

the

is

to

usages

with

QuPan

not

last

expression

peculiar

ones
its

the

its

letters

as

should

sublime

be

from

important

come

in

not

of

they

he

it . Just

' an ) ; because

well

peculiar

individual

the

speeches

. The

' anic

in

' s standards

be

of

similar

follow

public

they

and

that

idioms

with
an

to
as

not

common

group

eloquent
to

Khalaf

or

) is

to

bereft

should

such

employment

revealed

to

not

being

the

detracts

state

should

epistles

of

addressing

group

was

use

the

; or

meant

original

and

; addressing

individual

provided

; the

( rule

in

materials

defective

first

employ

ellipsis

society

moners

Qur

not

the

going

speech

Qur

speech

or

regard

his

applies

and

. Another

in

it

it ( i . e . the

any

' . 8 This

occur

altering

should

' anic

considered

should

too

; hence

religion

be

materials

also
as

appeal

of
Allah

it from

' defective

equally

: what

, so

Qur

VERSIFICATION

guilty

Almighty

adorn
in

of

AND

be

allowed
be

its

as

' anic

the

lacking

the

Qur

not

be

not

of

will

concerning

inversion

is

designated

any

Qur

it

reduces

would

would

choice

to

and

OF PROSIFICATION

he

which

speech

which

of

that

of

that

beauties

THEORY

that

the

when

they

are

espoused

in

sub

of
well

formal
as

eight
prose
, of

la yuftah

, 2 / 359 .

works

view

rule
the

em

necessary
writer
the

, ac

opinion

bi - dhikr

Allah

qur

that

the

utilisation

plished

with

designate
of

of

as

one

. 10 But

tion

him

discourse
time

or

any

artistic

of

the

hall

Prophetic

tradition

( complete

tadmin

contained

in

, which

found

texts

proposition
say

theory

to

Khalaf

use

, and

emerged
to

of

Quranic
his

the

standard

the

use

of

reference

al - Hamid

11

Ibid . , 2 / 200 - 5 . For

the

and

in Arabic
discussion

the

poetical
as

an

124 - 25 ; idem , al -Jami


some

detailed

on

" partial

that

in

c al - kabir

discussion

Discourse
prosification

of

prose

form

of
of

suffice

it

discussed
hall

discourse
or

and
allusion

him
and

from

dynamic

prose

secretaries

partial

of

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progressive

of

when

- formalized

discourse

instrument
the

end

distinguishes

this

scholarly

,
of

paraphrase

essays

materials

to

Theoretical

of

in

credit
in

' s memorandum

Ibid . , 1/ 71

tadmin

eternal

it

model

endorsement

materials

to

his

him

, but

theorists
a well

a number

application

place

of

in

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, however

form

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J . 11

Quranic

to

as

in

early

context

shortcomings
. His

the

at

appropriate
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practice

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among

are

, presumably

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in

used

idea

than
to

to

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borrowed

within

it is to
as

regard

See

al - Athir

or

10

12

Ibn

materials

the

documentary
cAbd

illustrated

are

the

tadmin

regard

. 12 According

the
or

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of

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theory

notwithstanding

regard

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being

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deficiencies

illustrations

In

only

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of

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imprecision

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traditions

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of

tadmin

of

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utilization

as

forte

al - tadmin

aesthetic

hall

. Instances

at

or

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the

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QuPanic

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of

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them

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a

greater

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be

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into

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3 an

phenomenon

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Prophetic

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it is

of

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demonstration

to

. To

him

composition
is

Qur

rules

decided

explain

akhbar

choice

must

into
. The

his

samples

, they

essays

Ibn

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of

to

considers
to

materials

tarsf

in

he

the

accom

led

prose

. The

eloquent

be

this

subject

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al - Athir

is characterized

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from
, an

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partial

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of

characterize

full

Prophetic
in

and

tadmin

the

in

them

and

be

QuPanic

to

to

difficult

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materials

of

is

pillars

al - Qufan

Ibn

sources

poetry

discussion

/ istfara

i cjaz
or

) , and

The

latter

of

. Why

in

analytical

iqtibds

instead

type

two

borrowing

duplication

, choosing

than

in prose

those

essential
's

and

as

device

approved

to

five

concept

of

former

the

al - Athir

poetry

idioms

prose

characterized

hallowed

terms

in

deviation

before

poetic

from

ease
of

Ibn

terminological

and

materials

greater

it

value

' anic

writings
style

is

, the
to

, namely

be

earliest
found

, his

Risala

article

, " Again

in
ild

, 19 .

on

tadmin

" , BSOAS

, LXI

" in the

next

, see
Pt

my

1 ( 1998 ) , 1 - 19 .

chapter

on

10

THE

' l - kuttdb

. The

remains

of

plar

ARABIC

of

importance

the

the

Schonig

THEORY

author

adab

and

materials

in

this

epistle

, at

the

same

is

the

writings

e"

as

has

aspect

that

AND

the

time

literature

, it

prose

IjljjlJ

*
i

of

al - katib

. 13 However

OF PROSIFICATION

most

, the

been

I would

relate

L^-oU>j

L^ j

.
hard

start
of

and
by

writing

and

he

the

statement

should

make

<

the

secret

is

of

ideas

not

just

evidenced
his

father

statements

of

ancients

, and

was

thus

cited

as

ance

of

cAbd

al - Ham

ary

and

observed

works

the

of

the

!d

as

value

well

help

some

instruction

and

expressions

testimony

of

, the

to
speeches

of

convention

for

his

materials
of

of

strong
in

linguistic

the

c il who

. But
of

the

attributed
together

the

poetry

of

poetical

materials

efficient

perform

this

device

conviction

in

epistolography
purity

that

poetry

, the
of

."

katib

putting

use

Arabs

exponent

propagandists

. Evidence

vividly

Isma

and

the

aims

from

at

responsible

of

prospective

son

. 15 The

secretary

poetic

his

hand

poetry

your

a serious

adeptness

preachers

reasons

was

of )

good

history

achieve

of

knowledge

; study

the

the

types

sciences

obtainable

, he

the

. Cultivate

as

to

all

sciences

( linguistic

works

you

a preceptor

very
of

the

, as

of

4JIS
Ij

religious

; then

straight

meanings

' s eloquence

illustrates

Cachia

, then

tongues

your

, the

^ Sw5f"

, in

in

Almighty

of

sermons

one

the

will

secretaries

versed

adornment

the

theologians

stylistic
by

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of
well

Allah

these

contains

the

surviving

. Be

duties

the

, for

use

of

>

c La

your

and

- Arabs

was

, as

^
c

community

of

set

usages

al - Hamld

practice

Book

will

this

non

the

religious

rare

This

cAbd

the

these

, for
its

I)
I

\j5>J -\ j

learning

obligatory
, for

you

secular

studying

the

Arabic

know

, O

poetic

: 14

strive

by

of

jij

religious

here

(.

" And

utilization

.
(. 4-u j *.JI

oI

exem

established

the
to

surviving

surviving

adequately

like

important

earliest

concerning

^2s>z} \
\j

VERSIFICATION

in
the

. As
and

verbal

his
liter

rightly
dex

13 Schonig , Das Sendschreiben , 116 - 17 . Further evidence in support is that it formed


part of the materials learned by heart by later katibs . See Gibb , " The Social Signifi
cance " , 105 - 6 .
w al - Jahshiyari , al - Wuzara 73 - 79 ( p . 75 ) . Part of the text is also quoted in al - TIbI ,
Jami c mahasin kitabat al - kuttab , 79 - 80 .
15 al - BaghdadI , Kitab al - kuttab , 149 . For similar testimonies , see Ibn cAbd RabbihI ,
al - cIqd , 4 / 165 ; al - QalqashandI , Subh al - a csha , 1/ 282 ; Muhammad Kurd cAlI ,
Rastfil al - bulagha \ 35 ; al - JahshiyarI , al - Wuzara 1', 28 .

qur ' anic and poetic idioms in prose

terity

already

among

established

the

court

surprising

that

ommended

to

edge

of

secretaries
the

interpreted

in

essays

such

any

Contributors

to
the

enlightening

cAbd

was

of

sort
in

an

and

artistic

a *

*0

OIJkJl

2J

the

~.
C4P ^>UI

and

through

and

16
17

of
you

require

ja

the

predecessors

See

Cachia

al - ShaybanI
Allah
his

for

, " Andalusi

al - kuttab

l ^ 5 " Ui

offer
in

the

prose

/ 893

) . If

training
of

of

conscious
into

of

an

a katib

prose

' s work

: 17

c . .
oli

instruments
such

to

Lettres

as

j ^

L^ j

^
>rJi

JJJJ

learning

scholars
enter

and

into

eloquence
you

< 1c ^ S'

with

of

models

al - cadhrd

! ( d . after

is through

intend

iJIIS "

jl

proficiency

you

OUULJi

cl) U I ^yp Jj * jl AXj


\ ^
?
ISXa j \ 4jl Ss>-

(1)

contacts

, 132 .

to
used

favour

prose

equally

expressions

t
<jls

< JlSsil

of

Belles

, al - Risala

al - Baghdad
Kitab

the

of

quality

CjjLAJI

jk J i} I

. So , if

in
.

( d . 279

part

d JIJ

prolonged
sages

first
be

.
jl > *J lj ^ >J > -

. 4ZJ> ljj

works

use

be

4j

\jc >- \j

acquisition

knowl

al - Hamid
the

in

poetical

enhances

the

poetry

actually

as

not
rec

cannot

the

al - Mudabbir

jxJL JJ

that

. But

explicitly

<b

U (.iJjolxS "
y
S
.
'
aL >JIj
-biUx ] l v rS "

" Know

cAbd

poetry

argue
from

that

a ] ^ As ^ajlj

of
from

of

therefore

poetry

obtainable

Ibn

canon

curriculum
on

endorsement

it should

study
to

of

after

to

the

' s emphasis

secretaries

how

borrowing

technique

jx ^sS 1

are

letter

further

(Jjiajj

(jg \

on

the

.[
c
flj I O ijjil

an

as

to

his

of

contents

as

accepted

, it is

part

al - Hamid

discourse

poetry

some

goes

of ,

as

scholarly

an

background
be

thought
than

recommends

incorporation
essays

the

of

, al - Shaybani

this

expressions

al - Shaybanl

al - Hamid

a katib

other

became

would

. cAbd

and

study

view

writings

katib

way
and

equally

poetry

usages

ideas

recommended

of

aspirant

rare

poets

. 16 Against

study

the

the

by

11

the
, look

can

rely

and

practice

the

study

oceans

of

into

on , and

the

of

the

balagha

epistles

in the

of

writings

" , 308 .

\ 7 - 8 . Knowledge

256 / 869 ) as part

of poetry
of the

is also

requirements

by

cAbd

of a katib

listed

. See

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION

12

of

the

( older

help

you

that

which

and

evening

sion

, make

the

achieve

the

your

proverbial

, for

poetry

or

and

an

prestige

All

legislators

katib

compositions

is

be

of

of
/ 859

( d . 231

his

poetry

) , and

of

into
by

a " prose

al - cAttabI

his

competence

in

/ 835

prose

letters

, in

which

the
on

) , who

was

verse

in

an

prose
artistic
may

to

a pas

al - Suli

by

Abu
/ 823

how

(d .

Tammam
) , 20 and

prose

' s poetry

generally

not

) sought

Ibrahim

into

for
prose

into

which

) related

making

case

turning

poems
/ 885

need

it

as

from

( d . 208

Tammam

and

of

. " 18

poem

Abu

of
to

value

consciously

( d . 272
" of

220

own

line

caliphs

emerging

b . al - Walid

of

to

poetry

katib

coining

letters

( fl . 2 nd / 8 th century
by

the

addressed

draw

citing

a certain

al - Katib

( d . circa

fast

of

; in

stressed
to

into

exchanges

ancient

poetry

from

prominent
prose

solution

the

and

king

Muslim

the

knowledge

not
in

thenceforth

c tazili

, rendered

b . Wahb

declared

equal

. 19 The

regularly

. 21 Sulayman
was

prose

an

is

expres

verses

the

established

was

certain

turning
another

not

of

anecdotes

al - Mu

from

into

, if

b . cAmr
man

favours

of

borrowing

and
of

. Qulayb

abuse

poetry

of

a number

poetry

author

art

it

of

efficiency

in

popular

here

an

the

his

practice

by

) confirmed
/ 845

also

secretarial

becoming

place

frequently
versa

the

use

and

knowledgeable

confirmed

some

is
and

the

the

witty

in

and
as

men

. Look

places

; and

long

of

the

proverb

it , as

defect

katib

on

was

device

243

the

the

borrowing

poetry

by

productive
of

and

, biographies
power

appropriate

popular

, because

enhanced

. That

writings

sage

that

be

is

their

good

adorns

king

leaders

is

to

making

writing

eminent

it be

his

at

pen
; and

in

speeches

your

your

sermons

intellect

, anecdotes

broaden

efficient

citations
; in

your

notable

unless

be

your

curious

poetry

, and

, of

to

incorporating

into

caliph

procure

learn

expressions

prosody

attractive

nourish

the

from
would

speeches

and

sublime

out

public

could

from

; and

which

speech

.. .

QuPan

you

that

Arabs

what

. Take

assist

stories

of

for

eloquence

could

books

of

the

) contemporaries

AND VERSIFICATION

and

he
vice

a work

of

. 22 Kulthum

acclaimed
, attributed

his

as

elo

18 The view that royal correspondences should contain no borrowed poetical illustrations
was widely accepted among later law givers , for instance , Ibn Wahb al - Katib ( d .
circa 340 / 952 ) . See his al - Burhan , 95 - 96 , and Ibn Khalaf , Mawadd , 87 - 88 .
al - cAskarI
20

Muhammad

Kurd

al - cAskarI
Wahb

, Sina catayn

21

Ibn

22

al - SulI

cAbbad

cAlI ,

, Sinacatayn

, al - Burhan

Umara

Abl

251 ; Ibn

, 204 - 5 . See

, 128 ; Ibn

, al - Kashf

, Akhbar

, 216 .

, 250

AbI

' l - Isba

fn . 2 .

Tammam

also

, 104 .

Khallikan

al - SulI
c, Tahrlr

, Akhbar
, 439 .

, Wafayat
Abl

al - a cyan ,

Tammam

1 / 44 ;

, 102 - 3 ; Ibn

qur

quence

to

Jurjanl

on

Ibn
is

not

that

the

into

to

if it is turned

produce

identify

intellectual
, the

were

within

the

being

Risdla

is
fi

continued
that

prose

many

of

al - kalam
in

the

which
Ibn

of

up

till

or

prose

these

same

al - cAskari

of

24

al - J urjani

25

For

, Tabaqat

example

183 - 84 ;

, see

it

is

in

Abu

illustrious

. 29 But

the

Hilal
and

a testimony

al - Abbar

' il al - i cjaz , 362 ; S hihab

, Ftab

period

, as

of

each

probably

no

his

al - DI n , Tiraz

),

topic

poets

in

mcin

?, um
them

, and

( d . 396
most
of

shfr

/ 1005

,
) . 28

fanatical

the

tendency

versatility

, see

Ibn

, 92 .

al - majalis

al - cAskarI
, Sinacatayn
, 211 - 16 ; al - HatimI
al - Wuzara 3, 201 .

al - JahshiyarI ,

/ 942

the

and

, khutab

literary

al - kuttdb

of

) arranged

exponent

at

group

forms

the

coincidence

poetry
speech

the

earliest

in

al - cAskarI

to

found

cir . 21 Interest

probably

greatest

in

( d . 331

, risdla

class

art . The

( fl . 4 th / 10 th century
, namely

required

b . Qurra

of

character

the

its

before

division

precedence

, 222 . For

' l - sha

Badl

device

merits
of

mentioned

Farighun

, 262 ; Ibn

of

b . Thabit

his

is found
most

sequence

, Dala

In

relative

seances

, it is possible

hall

secretarial

the

, devel

and

poetical

the

.24

that

popular

reports
the

effects

Sinan

often
.

, Ibn

, Sina catayn

al - Mu ctazz

the
and

audience

its

exertions

establish

is

lose

put
of

challenges

his

other

to

writings

courts
the

Al -

poetry

suggest

onwards
and

, and

order

this

poets

) used

prose

to

promoted

7 th / 13 th century

example

of

not

scholarly

by

his

of

. 23

the

very

to

and

wa

writer

the

the

in

various

threw

al - mutarassil

discussions

was

that

demands

bayn

arrangement

Khalaf

these

that

the

following

would

to

the

probably

' l -farq

, for

supporter

23

made

context

efforts

that

the

in

later

, one

/ 970

studied

tend

4 th / 10 th century

response

tempts

his

the

use

at

. 26 From

between

( d . 360

, became

/ 1008

factors

expressions

he

. 25 Moreover

poetry

prose

of

rivalry

corresponding

such

versification
entertainment

important

cosmos

First

al - cAmid

of

of

into

prose

anecdotes

( d . 398

a line

three

many

onwards

into

for

13

in prose

whenever

, like

al - Hamadhanl

even

Ibn

admired

as

item

3 rd / 9 th century

them

idioms

poetry

how
he

an

poetic

) , presumably

prosification

al - Zaman

to

/ 896

unlikely

indeed

from

) related

( d . 283

of

oping

turning

verses

even

practice

of

/ 1078

such

al - Ruml

and

practice

( d . 471

marks

It

his

' Anic

, 213 .

, al - Risala

al - miidiha

26 See al - Hamadhani , Maqamat , 224 .


27

GAS , 2 / 105 .

28

Ibn

FarIghun

, Jawami

c al - culum

56 ;

al ~cAskarI

, Sina catayn

161 .

But

Ibn

Farighun ' s inversion of this order in his discussion about poetry illustrates the
inconsistency that is not rarely demonstrated by some of the early Arabic theorists .
Ibid . , 134 .
29

See

his

Mawadd

al - bayan

, 3 Iff . See

also

al - Kala

cI , Ilikam

, 36 - 39 : "faslft

'l - tarjih

bayn al - manzum wa ' l- manthiir " , in which he spoke highly of prose at the expense
of poetry .

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION AND VERSIFICATION

14

was

Ibn

wa

' l - sha

view
is

al - Athlr

, as

cir . To

of

Ibn

most

expression

it

prose

Second
exhibited
level

of

the

efficiency

cAbbad

/ 995

holla

' l - shi

in

cially

with
of

may

be

of

, and

this

is

the

al - katib

may

cite

treated

quality
one

in

the
prose

whenever

of

4 th / 10 th century
device

his

an

reasons

of

most

court

hall

and

touchstone

. The

following

line

important

poetry

is

for

secretaries

promoted

it

to

by

which

to

test

of

poetry

by

Ibn

secretaries

of

the

time

of

the

who

also

, that

it was

West

the

abundantly

; but

/ 965

Ishaq

secretaries

) the

katib

the

verbal

legerde
Ahmad

( d . 384

device

practice

the

, espe

- v izier

al - Sabl

a familiar

of

demonstrated

the

cultivated

also

merit

among

two

Abu

of

/ 994

b .
) were

extensively
among

. It

the

prose

. 33

use

of

. Construing

intertextual

standards

background

found

of

versify

( d . 354

from

katibs

character

is

" .

' s proof

out

al - Mutanabbi

) and

was

a katib

stand

/ 1008

this

fa - ya cqidu

practice

Apart

but

( d . 398

period

41 - 42

yahullu

cAbbad

elaborate

, whether

kdtibin

man

the

Islamic

, the

30 Mawadd ,

the

in

prose

scholarly

in

sources
writings

to
or

discourse

among

any
in

the

literary

striking
poetry

the

men

, 1/ 127 , in the

latter

criti
expres

, became
of

learning

31

al - T ha calib

I , Nathr

32

A l - T ha calib

I illustrates

unattributed .

al - napn

, 4 ; idem , Yatlma

several

instances

in which

al - Mutanabbl

reference

' s poetry

was

it is

turned

into prose by both . A section in his discussion about the poet is headed with the
rubric : Qifa min hall al - Sahib wa - ghayrihi napn al - Mutanabbi wa 'stfanatihim
bi - alfaiihi
Subh

33

the

Ibn

. 32

, too

the

distinctive

katib

to ) prosify

poems
period

remarked

the

its

adab

, we

motif

of

acceptable

( try

writings

notable

of

Third
cism

and

the
the

the

factor

sublime

most

the

rutbatu

of

them

al - Dabbi

writers

sion

of

whose

main

among

cri

minhum

al - cAmId

Ibrahim

of

, prosification
some

period

the

) , one

wa - lakinna

Ibn

of

, an

of

this

fi

. 30

with

techne

al - saHr

: 31

inna

Surely

attempted

poetry

status

any
or

group

artistic
and

this

" Ala

than

of

that

whole
is

Al - Mathal

relevance

fascination

( d . 385

confirms

the

generation

an

his

effect

poetry

higher

special

the

the

lose

in

, the

the

to

to

of

in

illustrate

Khalaf

likely

ranking

reflected

wa - ma ' anihi

al - munabbF

al - T ahanaw

, 270ff

I , Kashshaf

ft

'l - tarassul

. See

Yatlma

, 1/ 122 . Compare

,
istilahat

al -funun

, 2 / 102 .

al - B ad I cI , al -

qur

One

significant

prosification

to

Nathr

al - manium

the

c alibi

regard
his

Sihr

by

other

and
and

the

phrases

author

to

of

the

lists

some

drew

. 36 Nevertheless
can

surprising

that
topic

the
in

4 th / 10 th century
Perhaps
was
In

cultivation
and

the

Song

dictandi
Latin
earlier

Victor

al - QiftI
Kashf

, Inbah

35

GAS , 2 / 83 .

36

al - Tha

37

For

calibI

instance

following
la
38

See

the

the

of

introduction

c alibI

subject

, are

, the
fact

the

Sihr

all

this

versification
epistolography

of

author

al - balagha
to

and

said

poems
, the

relate

and

is

expres

essays

. In

they

this

Quranic
, it

is

not

became

from

the

the

art

Western
of

classical

letter

occurs
Cassino
completed

al - HamawI

in

, ars

the

4 th century

' s ( d . 1105
around

, Mu cjam

Ars

the

al - udaba

,
/ ars

culture

in
art

the
is

of

rhetorica

) Dictaminum
1087

Psalters

dictaminis

about

C .E . ,

a thorough

the

Medieval

discussion

tradition

on

included

of

that

4 th century

and

- writing

training

. Although

literary
the

poetry
which

of

development

of

radii

, was

the

earliest

\ 3 / 58 ; HajjI

KhalIfa

or

al - balagha

: Kitabun
this

of

the

was

, 3- 7 .

, ibid . , 52 , in the

, and

Ahmad

concatenated

sources

preachers

Scriptures

Monte

, 1/ 288 ; Yaqut

, Sihr

as

al -

in

. These

a parallel

in

rhetorical

it

which

, 2 / 1928

occurs

'ntatharat

the

example

al - ^ unun

study

10 th century

, Alberic

rhetoricii

the

of

the

by

al - Tha

the

of

. 37 Given

highlight

Christian

. 38 But

part

, for

the

of

Songs

from

history

Flores

34

of

on

to

motivation
of

styles

, became
West

Julius

the

amiss

similar

placed

of

, rhetoric

by

to

al - dahr

prosification

criticism

be

training

was

other

book

earliest

not
a

the

) , the

b .

motifs

as

the

al - caqd

one

passed

iqtibas

dedi

contribution

compositions
of

/ 980

- hall

the

and

Yatimat

from
of

on

mentioned

passages

be

whose

wholly

be

related

of

, among
his

cases

subject

by

rhetorical

emphasis

on

illustrated

works

may

provoked
the

poets

onwards
it

in

works

oldest

themes

that

provoked

Muhammad

somewhat

of

from

wa

, only
the

generously

derived

be

three

is

argument
and

( d . 370

by

consists

may

of

al - na ^ m

today

a number

, several

also

the

the

may

al - Amidl

that

discussed
- two

emergence
connection

till

book

on

authors
twenty

materials

The

have

all

him

, which

some

familiar

expressions

of
importance

al - mangum

up

by

support

Nathr

hall

) . 35 Of

work

the
this

; 34 the

remains

al - balagha

phrases
sions

it

in

b . Bishr

ila

/ 1051

and

. One

subject

al - Irshad

( d . 443

survived

is

it . In

15

in prose

a considerable

al - Hasan

the

; and

al - cAmidi
has

of

idioms

evidence

interest

by

to

poetic

acquired

discussion

contribution
Tha

poetry

of

scholarly

cated

and

piece

of

a remarkable

5Anic

law

derives
to this

essay

entitled

qurv 'a cala


from

study

Fi wasf
'l - hijara

Qur ' an 82 :2 - 3 .

al - kutub
la

'nfajarat

al - baligha
, aw

cala

, where

the

' l - kawakib

THE

16

treatise

on

materials

the
in

, to

ancient

tions

of

" good
by

author

in

evolution
The

two

matter

and

viarum

de
on

kitaba
other

in

39

in

, that
of

the

, and
comparative

The

text

the

the

writer

them

the

first

ornate

Western
the

by

's

use

other

promises

to

be

is contained

in Miller

of

saf

is

the

letters

subject

his

Bre

prescrip
parallels
the

with
need

Arabic
balanced

be

added

in

the

Arabic

art

one

of

many

at
line

with

, the

is

experiences
a fruitful

art

salutations

and

It

the

refer

style

dictaminis

cultural

cultiva
of

stylistic

. 40

, the

the

work

West

the

dictator

recipient

. The

Latin

of

were

from

theoretical

Kraemer

the
ars

two

of

the

epistolary

noted

the

patterns

contents

history
the

as

briefly

articulated

of

his

must

feature

may

to

well

be

of

which

towards

structural

cultural

of

as

common

. Alberici

between
the

between

of Alberici

the

been

in

studies

on

dictatores

similarities

examining

the

to

majority

letters

to

we

regu

illustra

' s composition

a means

appropriateness

use

have

cursus

convergences

to

Western
the

as
other

which

regard

of

of

sources

poets

legislate

medieval

works

other

not

his
models

the

model

poetical

, if

provide
that

than

of

draws

recommends

to

their

to

a writer

. 39 One

, provided

phrases

and

by

style

intention

especially

however

time

in

from

he

that

specifically

in

and

was

rather

argues

works

rules

dictamine

assonantal

he

traditions

the

the

poetry

traditions

begins

this

between

coincidence

use

frequently

works

is

no

the

refers

whose
aim

. He

good

formal

rhetorical

, Alberici

drawn

of

and

a letter

kuttab

study

formalize

ultimate

from

, but

AND VERSIFICATION

to

, from

him

Western

of

which

tion

are

thought

and

work

examples

, the

- writing

. It

to

efficiency

Arabic

this

" . His

known

- writer
of

letter

- writers

with

OF PROSIFICATION

authors

style

' s own

tion

. In

examples

brilliant

letter

of

pagan

undoubtedly
be

art

letter

illustrative

THEORY

theory

the

larly

imitated

ARABIC

of

the

that

point

,
of

in

investigation

. 41

' s epistle

et al . , eds . , Readings

in Medieval

Rhetoric , " Flowers of Rhetoric " , 131 - 61 . See also Minnis , Medieval Theory of
Authorship , 62 . For more on ars dictaminis , see " Dictamen " , in Strayer , ed . ,
Dictionary of the Middle Ages , 4 / 173 - 77 and the sources quoted there ; Louis John
Paetow

, The Art

Course

at Medieval

and Rhetoric , Univ . of Pennsylvania


Curtius
40

Kraemer

, European
, Humanism

Literature

Universities

Ph . D .

with

Special

Reference

to Grammar
3 , 67 - 91

Thesis ( Illinois , 1910 ) , Chapter

, 75 - 76 , 148 - 54 .

, 209 . Makdisi

also

examines

the relationship

between

the Amali

literature in Arabic and the ars dictaminis . In my view , both have little in common
in terms of subject matter , although they are similar in terms of procedure of delivery .
See Makdisi , The Rise of Humanism , 318 - 31 .
41 On the historical development of cursus , see " Cursus " , " Rhetoric " , in Strayer , ed . ,
Dictionary of the Middle Ages ; Charles Sears Baldwin , Medieval Rhetoric and
Poetic to 1400 ( Gloucester , Massachussets , 1959 ) , Chapter VIII , 206 - 27 .

QUR 3ANIC

Coming
with

back

now

a theoretical

building

on

bution

and

According
hand

him

of

through

which

a ) By

the

of

its

b ) By

one

insertion

of

metrical

changing

the

slightly

lity

of

the

one

treatment
is

the

by

goes

poetry
just
just

not

indicate

hall

, it

wording
verse

lend

evident

, or

cation

and
equally
to

too

him

rule

however

is

impressive

quite

to

the

an

assessment

42

A l - cA skar

I , Sinafatayn

43

Sincfatayn

, 138 - 39 .

greatest

, he

original

Leder

pieces

the

the

as

and

Kilpatrick

, al - Hayawan

. 43 It

to

original

found
,

original

concepts

two

does

proverbial

their

the

or
do

he

of

accomplished
in

order

phrases
of

subjected

with

retain

view

verses

be

subjecting

word

not

qua

prose

his

.42 Although

perfection

, 216 - 19 . Cf . al - J ahiz

the

expression

; many

, in

; some

may

. Proficiency

, as

of

is

piece
the

of

additional

obvious

poetic

temptation

it

the

in

content

of

the

competence

should

together

proofs

in

argues

that

enhance

. This

poetic

thought

without

a way

poetry

lines

bring

versifiers

of

in

motifs

the

in

altogether

with

it

expressions

inversion

that

up

ways

, often

would

the

poetry

, the

propped

decided

roots

mere

specific

, obscure

versification

generous

illustrations

be

al - cAskari

, one

his

. For

stripping

statement

treated

artistic

of

an

versification

, thus

verse

and

exercise

type

case
may

, as

the

expressing

either

. Why

were

be

those

. In

not

ment

ing

from

treatment

should

to

one
on

, four

verse

the

wording

which

of

the

effort

illustrations

that

against

original

of

exemplar

been

their

caution

the

themselves
explicitly

is

had

through

with

degrees

of

of

prosification

dispensing

not

imports

to

to

draw

poetic

words

have

on

not

a prose

idioms

demonstration
further

the

which

that

versa

concepts

general

predecessors

does

phrases

peculiar

motifs

highest

Al - cAskarI
every

of

own

his

vice

the

thereby

new

by

was

contri

of

and

in

phraseology

such

body

that

two

words

of

he

his

additional

idea

's

two

order

the

original

using

or

with

with

given

, with

out

, becoming

altering

complemented

d ) By

carried

word
it

identifies

one

form

complementing
c ) By

be

the

. That
of

on

different

collapses

and

could

order

prose

encounter

uniqueness

been

, require

earliest

al - cAskari

the

composition

, he

hall

had
into

, our

Hilal

, but

that

other

classification

Abu

hall

some

poetry

the

into

in
doubt

17

IN PROSE

on

imposing

original

on

prosification

is

in

remarks

an

prototype

purposes

at

, turning

making

it

not

success

casuistic

to
and

existing

and

its

is

IDIOMS

discussion

of

tradition

in

statements

our

analysis

the

lies

to

AND POETIC

in
but

the
this

treat
prosifi

secretaries
arts

is , accord

would
seem

, 1/ 75 .

however
to

propose

18

THE

that

ARABIC

combination

writers

cal

between

themselves

tivity

did

not

, view

in

kuttab
and

this

word

sional

of

was

that

It

must

be

in

poetry

individual

Al - Tha
is

it

among

is

tab

but

ignored

' l - nathr

ila

ideas

commonplace
tions

sumed
this

in

without

employed

Leder

45

al - Jahiz

to

later

or

, al - Bayan

. For

, 1/ 243 ; Ibn
bayna

the

hall

form
now

at

Prose

al - Mu ctazz

the

hands

simply

Literature

, Tabaqat

' l - mutarassil

of

device
,

of
be

Ibn

noted

" , JAL

transfer
was

illustra
could

be

however

al - Athir
that

23

wa

versa

some

phenomenon
the

, it may

Arabic

how

artistic

' l - nathr

vice

give

's
with

and

practice

to

the

Khalaf

ila

and

on
to

Ibn

dealing

' l - nazm
the

also
com

Nusayb

borrowings

prose

by

but

chapter

prose

favourable

. 48

goes
as

into

his

al - nathr

standards

the

that
into

guidelines

about

, " Classical

, " Risala
fi ' I- farq
al - Hamasa , 1/ 16 .

argues

. He

turned

al - Jurjani

mcfani

treat

Nazm

by

of

profes

contributors

poem

. In

naql

poetry

authoritative

show

fi

tradition

discussion
and

certain

from

the

later
his

for

forms

simply

from

literary

& Kilpatrick

al - SabI

he

indication

The

final

I intend

44

the

any
. 49

its

, where

by

al - Qahir

various

for

for

. 47

analytical

superficial

qawl

expressions

towards

' s methodical

as

" field

borrow

mine

the

group

expressions

. Except

cAbd

the

poetry

, that

scholarly

to

dedicates

in

of

by

entitled

' l - nazm
and

of

lacking

somewhat
" , and

a section

verses

only

however

al - cAskari

he

hardly

tendency

developed

which

prosification

it is also

ingenium

is

or

categorization

's

c , " literary

ring

explicit

of

imitation

not

and

canoni

into

crea

not

became

scholars
evolve

their

prose

other

poetry

, that

it , to

any

of

, prose

and

growing

up

of

is

al - Jahiz
all

examination

of

that

than

images

taken

illustration

any

about

subject

not

' s discussion

admitted

fact

, albeit
poetry

ever

it

sublime

grain

dominant

. 46 So , if

disappointing

was

an

did

. 44 In

the

good

philological
too

for

subject

of

ment

, so

the

the

writings

the

, if not

a manner

innocent

confirm

their

searching

c alibi

in

to

into

expression

essentially

him

. 45
interest

further

"

the

that

, and

It is intriguing
ment

commonplace

acknowledged

literary

greater

katib

was

poetry

from

's

arts

coterie

one

- hunters

two

the

goes

Krenkow

the

AND VERSIFICATION

accommodate

exhibited

borrowing

OF PROSIFICATION

sometimes

among

combined

THEORY

as

, and

from

the

( 1992 ) , 8 - 9 .

al - shu cara \ 262 - 63 . See

also

wa

' l - sha cir " , 498 ; al - MarzuqI


, Shark
given by Ibn al - Muqaffa c ( d . 142 / 758

Dlwan
Compare the reason
)
as to why he did not attempt too much of poetry , in al - Jahiz , al - Hayawan , 3 / 132 .
46 For example , see the statement of al - Jahiz in Ibn cAbbad , al - Kashf , 243 - 44 ; al HusaynI

, Nadrat

al - ighrid

MMLAD 12 ( 1932 ) ,
47

See

Krenkow

, " The

48 See Dala ' il al - icjaz ,


49 Mawadd , 315 - 18 .

90

Use

, 233 - 34 . See

of Writing

331 - 32

also , ShafIq

" , 261 .

JabrI

, " Madhhab

al - Jahiz

",

QUR ' ANIC

5 th / 11 th century
works

on

dhikr

kitaba

alat

Ibn

hudhdhaq

, of

turning

prose

can

hardly

cases
which

into

poetry

, they

the

the

poetic

the

tantly

, the

the

sions
and

katib

katib

verse

model
in

conversations

cross

probably
in

the

practice

in

general

became

an

established

An
right
403

important
is

sense

one

al - HumaydI

, to

confirm
at

deserves

Muhammad

some

Ibn

expressions
in

Ibn

of

prose

and

images

b -'jj

Munqidh

C4.Jp

, al - Badf

4j

device

practice
in

. 52

its

own

hall

, or

taken

(d .

either

in

the

step

in
sense

the
of

further

by

jl ji5 " lj

4,4Ul

, , .

JUP

L -fraJt >

dJL -Jl

, 296 - 98 :
<. oyj

ij \

ajj

&La <1~>yj

CAiLfl] ^y >

tali

. j ^ ZJ *)}j

oIJISCJJ

is confirmed
wU^ >Jl

by the following

statement

of Ibn

~LP CJ_^3 4Jaj^ -Xo jijm * ^J \

<1)1

See

literary

hall

al - Nayramanl
of

{J *

.
This

for

, the

I*

IjJb - l U

<iUllj

52

interactive

epistolary

.
Ibn

a work

, Tas 'hll , 15 :

v JI jA

51

of

Khalaf

was

writings
in

attention

concept

expres
in

canons

the

the

essays

use

large

special

cAli

understanding

and
in

expressed

is found

when

. By

recognized

that

them

a stage

impor

. Striking

existence

, the

different

idea

for

rhyme

. More

words

the

formalized

poetical

talmih

of

preserved

/ 1188

the

are

the

it

most

. Besides

, that

proposition

cosmos

being

familiar

borrowing
,

to

technique

by

) . The

of

allusion

50

the

/ 1012

be

that

materials

than

of

,
by

. In

( d . 584

prototype

use

, must

masters

original

prose

treatment

enlightening

scholarly

effort

poetic

the

the

",

adeptness

other
into

Bab

manner

the

, fawasil

economical

further

were

endings
turning

the

upon

this

goes

Munqidh

periods

with

argues

that

mind

. 50

is

entitled

a skilful

of

in

illustration

discerning

quality

word
he
or

an

, he

. 51 That

currents

use

caesuras

through

poetry

chapter

their

such

Ibn

both

discourse

) argues

acutely
the

that

improve

of

in

an

upon

identified

prominently

, in

/ 1095

versa

by

should

is

example

compositions

use

figured

demonstrate

vice

exemplars

should

found

poetics

and

19

IN PROSE

instruments

epistolography

own

that

hall

( d . 488

improve

should

metre

. For
the

, except

their

writer

from

of

detected

that
of

prose

on

art

argues

suggests

poetics

IDIOMS

of

al - Humaydi

the

inspired

words

on

issue

, " Listing

Futuh

be

, he

the

and

al - imtithal

Muhammad

in

onwards

AND POETIC

Vj

4P ^>LJl

U>L ~S""j

(y 4jtiJJi

al - Zu cbi , ed . , " Risalat

cAbd , probably
4.LI1J L*j

; 4jl ^ Jl Jilill

5 th / 11 th century
^ k -j l$\J1 i Jl*j

Jj

djtj

4p Lo^ JI

iXiaJ 4l *>rj U
al - Tayyib

" , 72 .

THE

20

ARABIC

al - Nayramani
poetic

in

discourse

selections

his

of

prosody

its

be

possess

by

( d . 656

Sayfiyyat

any

first

evidence

is

object

) in

the

prove

al - Hamid

Sayf

al - Dawla

that

only
he

and
and

surviving

the

, which

called

poems

com

poems

came

, although

aware

of

the

effort

, otherwise

prose

exception

was

Arabic

subject

scholars

only

of

legendary
of

of

's

proud

the

model

, the

poetical

and

later

into

the

the

canonization

turning

of

Arabic

al - Nayramanl

with

's

cAbd

in
of

among

possibly

al - Dln
) , at

entire

conscious

a parallel

/ 786

probably

to

the

draws

the

treated

quite

imitation

respect

, is

themes

was

, and

c Izz

/ 1258

in

the

of

al - Nayramanl
no

the

VERSIFICATION

we

do

al - Nayramanl

's

. 55
As

be

indicated

of

the

author

' s own
of

the

, and

and
poetry
example

was
,
that

is

compositions
subject

is

of

the
hall

widely

in

to

. 5* The

skill

al - Mathal

of

al - sa

may

and
is

Ibn
by

al - Athlr
his

critics

exponent
have

been

written

hall
as

an

),

' l - tariq
and

illustrations

ft

and

extensive

hall

al - manzum

in

to

the

. Ibn
of

the
as

is
the

treat

the

prosification
Abi

ila

this
from

dedicated

" the

stand

/ z
art

is

accom

intellectual

entitled

significant

wholly

of

was

secretarial

al - marqilm

outstanding
' ir

, he

copious

work

, even
an

in

a more

al - Washy
surviving

him

training

. 57 But

subject
described

influence

with

only

the

deservedly

al - sa ^ir

treated

his

to

" . 56 Besides

al - Mathal

recognized

considers

been

political

his
way

hall

has

legislators

of

of

contribution

who

enormous

( The

possibly

practice

al - Athlr

section

issue

ultimate

literary

al - kitaba

where

ment

Ibn

with

tenth

ta callum

, the

classical

secretary

. The

argues

to

the

plished

first

above

attributed

seal

ing

that

today

attempt

as

he

( d . 170

noted

al - Mutanabbl

known

model

to

. The

of

which

AND

rendition

Tammam

provoked
till

prose

^i . 53 He

Ahmad
be

' 1- Hadid
by

not

to

up

kind
Abi

posed
to

is

remains

Ibn

Ibn

Abu

' l - Bahd

, for

arrangement

work
of

of
li

effort

. 54 It

material

at

equivalent

al - Hamasa

al - Khalil

OF PROSIFICATION

attempt

al - manzum

pioneering

role

his

. A prose

of

Manthur

THEORY

' 1- Hadid
technique

, the
theory
of
, for
and

a demonstration

53 See reference to it in Sharh Diwan al - Hamasa , editor ' s introduction , 4 ; HajjI


KhalIfa , Kashf al - iunun , 2 / 1859 ; GAL , SII / 910 ; cUmar Rida Kahhala , Mu cjam
al - mw'allifln ( Damascus , 1959 ) , 7 / 195 . Notices of the author are to be found in
al - Tha calibI , Yatima , 3 / 409 - 10 ; al - ZiriklI , al -A clam , 5 / 145 .
54 al - Nayramani , Manthur al - mangum , 10 .
55 Ibn AbI ' l - Hadid , al - Falak al - dcfir , 97 . The prose version of Sayfiyyat , which was
intended to be an independent book , was probably not completed .
56 See cAbd al - Karim al - Ashtar , " Akhir al - nuqqad al - cArab al - qudama " , 525 - 36 .
57 Ibn al - Athir , al - Mathal al - scfir , 1/ 125 - 209 .
58 Edited by Jamil

Sa cId ( Baghdad

, 1989 ) .

QUR ' ANIC

of

it . 59 Although

an

inaccurate

which

his

to

Nathr

prepare

the

dishes

al - Washy

The

out

QuPan

Prophetic

, the

aspirant

the

must

4
c

of

epistolography

I olj
. c

by

trying

.}

(1) 1 4jLJ & j

lastly

hands

at

Jb

i Vj
o *^

in

oJJ 'S - jl
c

59

wishes

should

start

should

not

I bn

be

OljLJI

to

jl

be

a katib

with

prose

go

this

, al - Falak
4

j \

just

, part

about

or

61

al - Mathal
1325

, the

prose

: 61

(1) 1

jl

yt ^S.JI

4 4> - j - lJI 0*AjS


0

possesses

^ A)jl
>-

4 liili

of
is

by

a few

of
of

those

poems

taking

46
{J -

. He
that

talent
( of

jl

he

had

for

poetry

should

a particular

it

) , and

then

start

memorized

poem

and

turning

al - da ' ir , 96 - 97 :

A>-jj

iys - y >

IjJ

(jl

. <U

jl

diwans

them

JZ*.I

a favourable

number

_jl

C^

.
al - Washy

rule

the

4 LA

a large

content

A b I ' l - H adid

60

of

cec

jUiJJ

memorizing

into

way

ojjzj

study
as

fclT

01

to

by

turning

the

make

" Whoever

The

which

to

into

4jj ~> " ^

by

in

lg.T>' Q

^> -J

bring

al - Mathal

thesis

poetry

oASL

shall

wL> *Ls

^y

how

C 'y
. flXp

*^ 0

"

. 60 But

turning

pro
texts

contemplating

, poetry

in

main

, consists

CAjlisJi

and

found

reflected

anyone

argues

I?
.

l)I

his

by
, he

traditions

start

the

the

aspirant

, we

as

to

important

recomposed

purposes

is

an

the

not

extent

served

teach

subject

remains

required

into

of

to

analysis

discussion

, if
the

c alibi

" dishes

the

still

the

exaggeration
reveals

device

further

of

latter
to

an

al - Tha

call

. For

analysis

instruments

a profession

. If

goes

himself

and

as

the

could

al - Athlr

contribution

primary

one

by

, although

historical

taken

developing

21

IN PROSE

, it nonetheless

profession

what

discussion

be

work
in

al - na ^ m , Ibn

his

the

writing

with

such

together
and

in

IDIOMS

may

of

succeeded

secretary

in

his

al - Athlr

employed

spective

testimony

assessment

Ibn

tool

this

AND POETIC

l^JJ

jAj
^,gl? .lj
cjLa

I -ol

i>LJ1 IJUli j !

|
L

da '. i , pj

plj
j

N ' LSI IAA ^y


i

, 49 .
al - sa ' ir , 1/ 136 - 37 . Compare

) , in his

Husn

al - tawassul

al - Washy

, 325 - 29 .

, 46f . See

also

al - H alab

I ( d . 725 /

22

it

into

THE

ARABIC

prose

verse

by

could

turn

ning

that

most

of

( at

he
the

this

, he

and

clothe

stage

to

forms
be

other

inform

you

the

according

to

hieratic

Qur

and

been
hadlth
any

with

better

they

occur

is

then

then

that

would
is

the

same

or

to

do

aptitude
treat

is

an

idea

transcend

idea

this

with

his

be

. . . this

only

the

that

it is

the

various

mind

able

to

would
produce

something

experienced

who

of

classical

poetry

depository

of

documentary

secret

the

are

from

poetry

. Insofar

zenith

of

katib

of

his

of

, and

poetry

or

unrestricted

the

to

or

he

have
can

.62 But
use

he

too
of

Book

the

Holy
idioms

that
success

should
into
his
in

respect

, like

can

al - cAskarI

the

the
Holy
that

and

the

hardly

be

therefore

greatest
the

ideas

a way

prose

of

is ,

being

to

as

and

in

its

regard

borrowed

and

, device

to

" in

images

confirmed

sublime

" recomposed

, their

are

efficiency
hall

addition
. In

be

eloquence

they
,

in

discourse

, these

study

Bedouin

expressions

as

ingenuous

fact

whenever

employment

reports

ideas

it

with

by

akhbar

the

the

the

the

their

experience

presumably

start

to

different

as

; and

to

begin

able

his

stage

an

and

the
be

and

clothe

only

conceits

( familiar

expressed
of

is

it

the

."

, due

Prophetic

substituted

his

those

should

represent

retained

of

; it

using

would

to

at

would

that

. He
able

he
to

beyond

be

by

what
used

expression

dejected

only

is

gets

go

would

treatment

katib

somewhat

he

adequately

him

to

own

experience

source

' an

Prophet

In

the

idioms

principal

able

feel

prose

this

he

) expressions

than

through

as

his

own

for

learnt

as

where

not

into
, for

soon

AND VERSIFICATION

should

a poetry

be

with

( his

fertile

Why

is

it

. He

wording

would

another

of

ideas

and

) . But

OF PROSIFICATION

verse

original

stage

developed

THEORY

aid

profession
Qur

be

writings

' anic

, cautions

and
, had

verses

against

it . 63

C Jj

ASCLJI
I^ Ip
^

frLwJjl

AJ

<1) 1 C -Ojl

loJlj

CASvLJI

4J
, i_ od

al - Mathal

63

al - Washy

al - sa ' ir , 1/ 126 - 27 .
, 53 .

1' hS "

U ^ Ji

62

'

OJL^J
!

l $ il => J

b \ jJ >

23

qur ' anic and poetic idioms in prose

" But
Qur

do

Dan ,

saying

nothing

this

, it

would

take

is

that

strive
mind

by

well

striving

The
using

the

hooks

the

Qur

after

them
offered

lies

in

or

the

discernible

in

about

later

analytical

it . 64 In
the

other

final

tradition

of
words

and

this

64

of
in

See al - Falak

his

an

new
lore

will

Ibn

that

the

. What

I
,

would

be

assisted

and

has

without

after
they

to

his
him

him

Ibn
be

, turned
emerged

of

from

our

best

the

fine

what

is

could

say

- timing

his
and

, mu carada

a reinforcement
can

of

model

' s discussion

competition
as

golden

his

one

either

out

rightly

hall

analysis
and

is

phenomenon

' l - Hadld

discussion

manifestations

al - da ' ir , 96 - 172 .

Abl

levels

' s contribution

hall

the
in

poetry

straining

adopted

the

, and

a form

. This

images

of

avoid

al - Athir

subject
on

should

study

must

Ibn

succeeded

' s thesis

evident

the

katib
and

extensive

fashion

of

al - Athlr

various

al - Washy

him

do

abundance

will

to

, and

of

analytical

be

he

it ,
to

, thus

expressions

his

obtrusive

it . Even

, and

the

of

development

that

al - Athir

, with

the

, utilize
a result

intended

Ibn

, authoritative

categorization
illustrated

were

in

competence

is

uniqueness

repeating

, which

which

he

text

ideas

tie

from

it . Were

subtleties

occurring

analyses

is

or

a rebuttal

in

theoretical

expose

illustrations
not

the

of

anecdotes

. The

contributions

, have

the

should
only

on

and

of

katib

a single

' s proposition

historical

, no

based

complete

ideas

as

subsequent

. Moreover

a
derives

achieves

memory

mind

author

that

to

meanings

."

them

our

fact

discourse

, and

employing
by

have

of

his

that

is

generation

al - Athir

eyes
to

3an , hadith

rule

Ibn

and
come

which

. Whoever

the

speech

intricacies

the

will

of

poetry

competence

strenuously

synthesis

naturally

in

of

his

time

their

instruments

them

that

achieve

ideas

and
that

a long

should

- disposed

for

that

except

understand

three

it , such

him

produce

these

mind

he
to

recomposition

reports
to

he

and

the

Prophetic

and

his

by

exclusively

mean

if

mean

the

himself

of

not

in
of

the
his

of

the

,
for

be

called

scholarly
systematic
device

as

CHAPTER

Ibn

The

work

one

, which

tions
the

is

made

al - shfr

which

only

lafeihi

.2 The

of

'an . 4 The

final

phetic

anecdotes

, hall

classification

the

that

various

types

the

are
trio

first

of

hall

, his

Abu

sublime
in

prose

I bn

Ibid . , 102 - 51 .

examples

are

Ibid . , 152 - 73 .

Ibid . , 174 - 95 .

Ibid . , 196 - 215 .

Ibid . , 56 :

jtAs t. Li>- Lo _}

of

his

motifs

other

; while

the

al - shfr

bi - ba cd

wordings

al - shi cr bi - ghayr
verses

, hall

recomposition

illustrations
. It

our

must

be

author

to

illustrations

exemplars

is

, and
, ancients
was

largely

al - Buhturi
and
an

. In

of
stated
illustrate
from
in

favour

his

view

moderns

unrivalled

, 57 - 101 . Henceforth

Ulj

ayat

of

alike
proband

.6

al - marqum

are

, hall

. Although

third

,
in

' anic

various

by

poets

composition
compositions

, hall

the

al - Athlr

, al - Mutanabbi
all

Qur

which

Pro

.5

the
Ibn

poetical

prose

prose

sec

in

whose

with

given

exclusively

over

al - A th I r , al - Washy

concerned

by

new

them
of

three

prosification

is utilized

inspired

. Chapter

into

compositions

examine

given

of

such

a poem

, fiisiil

subdivided

the

al - nabawiyya

shall

choice

phraseology

is

as

Tammam

excelled

of

artistry

of

used

two

terms

the

in

illustrates

that

chapters

type

recomposition

al - akhbdr
,

the

prose

poetry

about

Chapter

following

foregoing

the

is

, is

retained

of

discusses

of

two

is

three

poetry

with

two

wording

section

those

of

a poem

the

and

deals

. 1 Section

al - Qur

poets

section
of

third

outset

introduction

bi - lafzihi
a part

the

an

prosification
first

. 3 Chapter

In

of

wording

from

lafyihi

up

. The

original

different

Athlr ' s al - Washy al - marqum :


an Analytical Study

discusses

aqsam

hall

al

TWO

WM .

U-gJii

4-J2JI

the
from
the
other
of
, the
, in
of

26

THE

ARABIC

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

AND

VERSIFICATION

Fi hall

al - shi cr

( Prosification

Section

( Prosification
According

to

Ibn

expression

in

a prose

form

of

the

lowest

artistic

value

fication

is

like

able

to

master

it

and

that
it

poetical
,

only

in

tj

al - Mathal

I turned

him

path

An
prose

which
rendering

(_kv

1 / 283

57 - 58

mind

the

new

prose

not

give

an

example

that

we

find

away

from

I pressed

the
reads

view

it

me

hard

prosaist
of

our

of

an

crass

which

of

this

illustrated

the

is
type

of

al - Washy
following

me

is
author

his

:8

he

to

bereft

if

^
the

hatred

fire

on

gaze

reported
, is

, as
put

) till

over

jJIJ

pot
tact

case

inter

in
the

obvious

however

with

.
is

plagiarism

. In

. It

one
he

attitude

establish

essay

old
until

negative

familiar
, to

prosi

1-9

a metal
( with

him

the
as

in

word

LjlS '

resentful

boiling

realized
from

have
of

any

in

his
the

right

tops

."

turned

this

artistic

touch

into

. The

* <
j

1 Ibid . ,

exceedingly

OjS ' j

c IraqI

, in

is

is
some

for

katib

it is interpretable

and

opponent
was

anonymous

prose

, and

(3^

word

for

poetical

possessing

coming

reason

modification

rubbles

and

uncritical

aj \ j &

a deadly
bosom

an

does

his

that

archetype

poem

Jh I^ J !
" Many

fact

the

of
the

up

of
of

essays

practice

the

wording
form

such

from

for
. But

exact

of

house

well

for

author
in

the

even
the

our

is

very

the
easy

new

retained

slightest

, such

allowed

art
lies

between

esting

still

type
if

becomes

affinity

is

bi - lafzihi

the
the

view

wording

instances

his

cr

original

employ

; though

. 7 In

the

this

especially

hall

the
to

Poetry

al - shi

without

building

, it

towards

essay

abound

Nevertheless

Hall

with

al - Athir

of

' J *

. See also

C/ ^

al - Mathal al - sa ' ir

1 / 125

; al - Qalqashandi

, Subh al - a csha ,

al - Mathal

al -sa 'ir , 1/ 129 ; al - QalqashandI , Subh al -a csha , 1/ 285 . The poetical illus
tration is to be attributed to Rabi ca b . Maqrum al - Dabbi . See al - MarzuqI , Sharh Diwan
al - Hamasa 1/ 63 - 64 . Al - cAskarI gives a similar example of word for word prosification .
See Sina catayn , 216 .

27

IBN AL - ATHIR ' S AL - WASHYAL -MARQUM

" Many
as

a time

if

he

were

was

boiling

hard

over

the

dust

a deadly

watching
in

his

the

a metal
gaze

stars

pot

and

and

resentful

opponent

from

the

tops

then

he

( i . e . his

; but

humiliated

him

are

, however

, certain

categories

to

our

author

, should

be

of

ten

categories

according
are

Category

met

till

; the

his

, who

hatred

in

victim

mouth

behaved
his

) pressed
and

containing

Abu

kissed

of

retained

poetic

when

expressions
being

which

reused

in

prose

proverbial

Tammam

" The

citations

in

of

this

Al - Mutanabbi

Ibn

world

Yusuf

is

your

( critical

bodies

(Jjj

the

distressed

after

the

LJ jj

sick

as

following

his

enemies

honourable

, the

."

" Perchance

verse

has

often

J .U11

The

such

magnificence
lowly

may

by

Abu

< J \j *

) statement

get

healed

Tammam

may

through

is

yield

pleasant

infections

expressed

in

results

prose

as

follows

(_ jAJ

^ 2>Ji \ ijj

jj -5

Jr
" Outstanding
requittal
able

nobility
of

. Many
the

one

Al - Mutanabbi

an
hit

with
archer

by

the

' s verse

makes
evil

the
. Lowly

presumes
arrows

is

enemies
people

hitting
that

contained

malicious

he

the
shoots

in

the

are
target

and

ever

after

, though

^ 1 <y
encourages
the
in

honour
reality

he

."

following

For the illustrations from Abu Tammam and al - Mutanabbi , see in that
order , Dlwan Abl Tammam , 2 / 325 ; Dlwan Abi ' l - Tayyib al - Mutanabbi , 3 / 86 .
WM

good

."

Uj

him

hands

A 9

Lines

is

bosom

."

There

These

he

58 - 67 .

THE

28

lj & y

ARABIC

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

AND VERSIFICATION

\ycSfj

(j -4

^ \j

' ' ' L *JI


. j >L ^ - S / l

" Reproach
many

even

time

is

infections

Proverbial

are

routine

speech

exemplar

wording

of

such

a modification

with

the
An

is

citations
as

to

in

prose
the

Category

are

also

( same

are
may

wordings

should

to

effect

here

our

that

familiar

is

be
one

later

in

the
only

of

the

of

the

author

identified

.
is

that

although

containing

is

examined

them

sublimity

, Prophetic

. Digression
be

in

modification

same

also

prose

few

pair

, according

made

idioms

will

slight

in

very

should

examples

Quranic

retained

, the

already
be

so

sayings
retained
of

the

some

this

proverbial
, as
when
few

well
being

shortcom

detail

B 10

Verses
serves

as
Abu

illustrating
an

popular

example

Tammam

historical

events

, for

which

the

following

.
:

>_

Lss
t

< -S'

10

the

poetical

discussed

which

prosaist

permissible

people
that

whose

author

affection
the

usually

, otherwise

generate

illustrate

usages

of

hardly

with

, the

be

are

. Although
is

observation

meant

proverbial

ings

lost

which

, illustrations

used

be

can

important

through

should

, they

quality

citations

with

( mutual

healed

verses

verses

comparable
would

original

of

body

. Besides

such

proverbial

the

in

popular

of

poetical

of

diseases

it ) . "

utilizing

expressions

cures

expressed

often

. In

disease

caused

citations

they

category

painful

the

( that

because

with

if

WM , 67 - 68 . On

''

j W"

Lrtlp

olS '

the

rule

^>1 Li

that

proverbial

citations

must

not

be

altered

when

being

reused , see also Ibn Khalaf , Mawadd , 187 . The concluding verse in the poetical

exemplar contains reference to the story of delayed sunset at Joshua ' s request for
which see al - KisA ' l , Qisas al - anbiya \ 240 - 41 . For the poetical illustration , see Diwan
Abi Tammam , 2 / 319 - 20 ; al - QazwInI , Shuruh al - talkhis , 4 / 525 ; Mehren , Die Rhe torik , 141 , where it is given as an illustration of talmih . The concluding verse of the
poem is also cited by Ibn AbI ' l - Isba c as an example of al - ighrabfl ' l - badf , " unfamiliar
rhetorical usage " , see his Tahrir , 508 - 9 and Badf al - Qur 'an , 222 .

29

IBN AL -ATHlR ' S AL - WASHYAL -MARQVM

" We

overtook
hearts
to

So

hover

be

the

their

at

Her

falling
the

rays

wiped

away

away

hearts

us , though

a sun

the

not

us , or

) used

of

the

theirs

hue

of

rising

darkness

and

clothing

Jlai

whether

it

whether

piece

(Jjll

is

of

was

Joshua

utilized

^J

was

as

, due

the

sky

the

" Many

an

earthly

bashful
the

I ^
^

of

she
of

or

that

itself

gaze
was

the

them

heavenly

only
in

. It

sun

is

quality

of

imagine

has

:
the

that

aware
it

admiration

darkness

, people

girls

the
say

with

her

among

is

1
the

slave

people

up
at

like
her

and

levelled

eyes

whom

feet

with

night

has

Joshua

her

(_S

c
c^

) towards

name

at

j '

to

same

day

, when

( i . e . a damsel

out

the

wonder

Ji

the

comes

ol

LJ

brings

sharing

a dream

of

sun

and

brightness

' the

night

they

' .

are

in

."

C u

Lines

of

poetry

particular

illustrate

11

party

' - 1 oj ~*JJ

Perhaps

that

l ^J

with

her

' s illusions

>" c

Category

to

folded

among

follows

U j Jij

(1) 1

Small

was

from

a dreamer

that

night

."

poetical

feels

our

to

variegated

I knew

affected

^jiaj

made

travellers

. tUVl

( i . e . the
rest

restored

passion

, the

Allah

The

at

, through

tent

while

they

birds

was

brilliance

By

like

sunshine

beside

contingent

, although

ease

already

last

containing

disciplines

with

the

one

WM , 69 - 72 . For

the

2 / 170 - 71 ; Diwan
in which
first

the

hadith

same
see

his

was

. But

improved

when

, the

Of

samples

is expressed

Muslim
relates
some

the

complainant

, see

uttered

the

Diwan

similar
, see

disorder

came

terms

examples

he

back

statement

Abi

verses
I bn
Abi

to an incident

stomach

technical

associated

gives

we

may

, 1/ 382 ; Sunan

having

Prophet

many

, 2 / 749 . For

concept

hadith

the

or

al - Mutanabbi

poetical

Sahih

second

brother

.
from

al - Buhturi

7 / 400 . The

honey

scientific

Q utayba
Dawiid

in which
, for
and

. See

'l - Tayyib

by al - A csha

which
reported
Sahih

al - Mutanabbi
and

Abu

Nuwas

, al - Shi cr , 1 / 19 . For
, 4 / 3 ; Sahih
somebody
the
that

Prophet
the

al - Bukhari

the

al - Bukhari

complained

that

recommended
situation

had

not

, 7 / 397 - 98 , 413 .

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION

30

\jJJV
* f
!

" I met

\j

if

They

has
to
' , for

rendering

(J jp \ U J
wXe))

) all

the

brought

arranged
' equals

prose

((

him

Lord

were

ol

>

t JL ^ JI

meeting

the

came

The

UJV

C Jl

( by

as

Sj
C

AND VERSIFICATION

of

men

back

come
you

past
to

first

this

their

an

last

nobility

, and

souls

it

and

arithmetical

is

times

sum

, then

."

(jl

tC

- JI ^

4lilj

AJ ^ j
. .alJlpVl

" I saw

him

person

. Then

has

used

to

a line

- Ivilli

of
by

of
and

the

he

is

selective

to

life

this

of

turned

. I would
the

dead

. He

is

, for

only

nobles

then

the

one

put

that

. Such

which

he

*)lj

whose

the

time

used

into

]o

generosity

, there

against

prose

they

can

the

as

a cure

be

no

opposite

follows

jJL i

for

that

, whom
in

He

the

Allah
had

position

."

combines
a blend

between

is , according

provides

an

illustration

overcame

healing

the
until

the

."

:
6

" Conditions

in

eij ^ j

Lu

yj
.

are

like

all

( bodily

bodies

in

) ailments

regard

ol

* C
ccljlisAj

iJLi

is

say

him

- y

represented

numbers

statement
hall

been

iUj

with

of

had

arithmetical

category

^ s>- i

was

is

of

a Prophetic

^ sJu

world

equation

beauties

stinginess
opposite

is

back

al - Buhturl

JLvkSl

" A youth

the

fate

sequence

example

, one

This

bring

the

conceit

him

that

that

a mathematical

' in

Another

with

I knew

like

' equals

scientific
to

I discovered

him

arranged
of

and

is :

life

like

came

of

bJ

to
except

sickness
death

symptoms
and

old

; for
age

J - 5 - *ij

there

It

is

said

( the

opposites

, hence

generosity

of

with

his

gives

two

ma

( the

. Our

anyone

all

about

can

be

treated

is

the

master

complain

complainant

) honey

embedded
Allahu

has

not

death

in

da 3an

created

and

isqihi

casalan

" Give

him

your

conditions

generous

hadiths

is

the

ilia

prose

out

are

who

with

fulfils

uneasiness

drink

of

with

only

one

about
to

treatment

to

his

the
hope

him

, he

generosity

."

khalaqa

lahu

daw

without

creating

a * ilia

' l - scfm

wa

" Allah
except

of ) medicine

unhealthy

; should

khalaqa

' l - haram

science

the

gifts

him

The

old

a disease

age

has

to

lied

alongside

it its

cure

."

. . . sadaqa
honey

brother

Category

Allahu
drink

wa - kadhaba

. . . Allah

has

batnu

said

the

akhika
truth

but

the

belly

of

."

D 12

Lines
to

that

31

AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL - MARQUM

IBN

containing

al - Farazdaq

tribe

(1) 1.J d II
,_y *>^
" Had

What

is

by
of

used

(-3

would

, and

in

see

prose

as

jlj

" Transgression

by

them

. Many

whose

al - Madan
have
by

the

following

, attributed

leaders
a time

15 ^ 1

been

whom

are

being

; but
tried

here

I am

."

c
-il ^

is

not

is

uncles

insignificant
I am

f c' I

maternal

~~JI
^

follows

. jljpl

against

as

(j ^ -b

a Hashimite

cAbd

now

, come

lib
. (jlSC *Jl

, such

Ij ^ JiJli

tried

I suffer

This

names

children

now

clan

(j - oj

I been
the

or

tol

- t ^JI

j ^ ll OJAJ

d - jta

Ij -^Jj

ObLJI
. lg ^ >J5 *' ^ -lli
(_/

considered

a wrist

injured

as

oppression

by

by

the

, but

bracelet

souls
the

12 WM, 72 - 73 . The illustration is to be attributed to Di cbil not to al - Farazdaq . For the


illustration and its background , see Diwan Di cbil, 157 , with a slight variation in the
second line . See also al - M ubarrad , al - Kamil , ed . Muhammad ZakI A . Mubarak
( Cairo , 1927 ) , 2 / 799 , where it is also attributed to Di cbil . It is unattributed in
al - H amaw

I , Khizana

, 100 .

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION AND VERSIFICATION

32

pride
is

in

the

why

and

the

it

used

the

removes

children

parable

the

of

of

levels

cAbd

are

of

the

al - Madan

highness

: some

pain

in
[ like

is

position

] high

injury

. This

insignificant

. People

are

mountains

some

of
are

."

expressing
the

is

(JlI
as

The

hearts

when

ratban
they

retained

of

prose

I y >-

^
5Jl

their

nest

to
when

the

dry

" A grey

falcon
a

target

. It

oscillates

is
,

characters

it

name
as
by

from
( i . e . bird
. It

never

is , against

if

( by

virtue

its

) ' . It
misses

its

that

winds

high

**
(^ 2*-

it

can

said

the

nicknamed
any

prey

' the
it

of

sets

its

out

Ij

JJJ

01
5

pride

themselves

yet

, they

the
,

to

catch

its

eyes

. It

between

two

is :

is

of
to

for

remain

from

qualities

' , due

4jUj

a possessor

falcon

be

mote

of

far

to

: J

domesticity

shape

so

'

Uj

sky

removes
and

be
in

the

in
are

horses

in

wildness

, but
is

racing

fly
speed

of

least
the

which

. Birds

poem

with

. The

creature

, and

1) (JP 1

1Up

cl) LS^

the

they

<

sharing

were

in

al - balv

- 1J^ I ^jA

words

cJl

them

t.

similes

. ido -wo 4J

wUs^

of

lost

."

following

A^ j

j .JaJl

' l - hashaf

y j

llbj

specific

in

be

expression

specific

in

j \z>11

(_ .3
.

next

wa

would

date

as

which

prose

Qays

expressed

. ^ SUl

leaps

birds

al - cunnab

Cr 1

jJLSj

3 al

shriveled

into

in

expressing

similes

borrowed

. Lj

C ->J

the

and

and

special

l_ <?1 JjlJ

Imru

combinations

when

wings

of

fresh

wa - yabisan
are

value

UsLwjbj

the

rhetorical

the

altered

from

if

jujube

be

provided

> JIj

was

similes

combination

illustration

" It

specific

word

JUI

as

offers

E 13

should

are

and

] lowlands

Verses

An

by
as

status

Category

it

offence

is

different
[ like

adornment

its

. Hearts

' here
beak

and

enormous
of

birds

13 WM, 73 - 76 . For the poetical illustration , see Dlwan Imru } al - Qays , 145 ; Aghani ,
Dar al - kutub ed . , 3 / 142 , 196 ; al - HatimI , Hilya , 1/ 170 ; Ibn AbI cAwn , Kitab al - Tash bihat , 152 ; Ibn WakI c, al - Munsif 1/ 50 ; Ibn RashIq , Quradat al - dhahab , 24 - 25 . It
may be noted that the prose composition contains paraphrases of a few other lines
from the same poem containing the poetical illustration that is utilized .

IBN

converge
dry

by

ones

Category

are

every

likened

to

exhibiting

destroyed

if
. The

quality

of

occurs

, but

at

under

al - washyal

condition

jujube

so

and

33

- marqum

much

shriveled

that
date

the

fresh

most

the

any

of

reason
the

highest

the

for

this

line

is

such

point
is

which

substituted

substitution

of

example

eloquence
is

. Moreover

, the

. An

of

words

that

wording

it does

, a half

degree

component

original

when

" I fight

alone

not
of

mean

army
say

, a

verse
is

provided

when

can

eloquence

of

this

I am

line

our

of

Muslim

nature

cured
death

After

its

5jJ

The
which

our

of

its

reality

strength

in

religion

a wolf

rhetorical

author

has

tried

half

of

the

this

fi

I do

company

sublimity

. It
that

is

an

Jk

verse
prose

only

lgjlj

ailments

; a hero

he

a man

was

had
and

idiom
to

its

in

with

here

incorporate

great
like

is

the
in

the

could

.il

J *

the

extremely

following
be

. r*VjC

shape

of

provided

it
,
:

of

become
ibex

is
expression

example

; with

a lion

the

its

sheep

."

phrase

istadVabat
following

J1

"

shatuha

The attribution of the highest degree of eloquence to any given verse


is , to say the least , subjective , and remains at best a value judgement . For the poetical
illustrations , see in that order , Diwan Abi ' l- Tayyib al - Mutanabbi , 2 / 148 ; Muslim
WM

within

; but

11. 1T. .1l^a

in

sublime

I enjoy

corresponding

Palestine

like

first
a

al - Walid

, though

behaving

all

fate

the
rarely

contained

al - Mutanabbi

include

, after

the

its

Ibn

OjJI

provide

IgjLi
" He

lonely

author
to

evidence

from

horsemen

in

match

whose

be

used

hardly

often

from

would

."

inability
an

Jij
}

to

to

. His

probably

similar

an

perseverance

According
sublime

14

the

."

"

is

and

F 14

Lines

prose

it

AL - ATHlR ' S

76 - 79 .

b . al - WalId

, Shark

Dlwan

Sarf

al - ghawani

, 252 .

34

THE

U a!

entered

like

wolves

entering
was

a folly

one

away

into
,

idiom

good

at

Category

exception

be
the

author

prose

writer
this

the

it

only

instrument

of

behaving

and

its

realized

ibexes
that

would

would

no
not

errors

, some

this

turn

cupping
. Some

blood

is

difficult
match

achieved

mu

then

stick

type

to

be

cannot

others

by

the

."

most

is attempting
can

of

Ij

already

and

of

particular
the

. <U

) reproach

letting

instead

clemency

is

were

( any

shedding

, this

, hence

of

JJ

mountains
to . He

blood

through

our

used

used

wb V

sheep
like

severity

to
the

by

' akhat

the

an

most

sublime

accomplish

. This

established

is

excellence

adept

prosaist

, " parallelism

of

who

is

" .

G 15

Lines
lines

by

, and

using

to

its

lions

which

had

except

categories

the

an

the

a disease

to

ten

because
in

which

; and

According

while
appearing
as

AND VERSIFICATION

country

places

from

of

y *

lowlands

such

corrected

the

the

its

. So , sword

granting

OF PROSIFICATION

. L^ *J I

into

relieve

all

THEORY

" He

be

ARABIC

containing

from

Abu

tajnls

{paronomasia

Tammam

) , illustrated

with

the

following

J - . MI
" He

remained
from

With

a helper

the

every
leaving

The
lowing

white

sword
of

of
sample

the

tribe

traces

wording
prose

to

Ghawth

he

strikes

the

one

over

crying

reveals
on

rhetorical

in place

as

assistance
.

countenance
that

retained

C Ajjlij
. Asj \j2
^y > Js ^ J

WM , 79 - 81 . For

cheeks

usage

I
^

kulli

a bright

all

for

calamities

it

hits

."

is

given

in

the

fol

. 4-j L > tla ]

15

aloud

serious

the

poetical

of bi - kulli

illustration

IjLp

I>ji L^ ajISJ
JjxiS

Dlwan

Cf *

S"

Ml

see

(J ^

Abi

Tammam

ij >_

, 3 / 97 , with

min

AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL - MARQUM

IBN

" ( The

army

situations
was

meeting

cheek

Category

his

has

no

many

lock

with

an

of

meet

with

their

takes

awesome

he

fights

against

dust

. He

proceeds

endless

sword

who

life

strikes

span

; he

containing

, laughter

given

as

antithetical

terrifying

looks

as

them

until

if

the

bravely

values

he

into

no

smooth

."

/ cry
an

, for

combinations

which

illustration

the

" Until

the

and

robe

in

fell

the
.

smiled

and

She

up

in

the

beads

The

of

dark

of

which

) , which

a well

example

al - Ghazzi

are
in

in

; she

that

it

from

is
her

necklace

not

known
, or

. Were

would

have

of

well

the

[ set

picked

teeth

] the

of

the

( loose

following

'#c

- arranged

and

whether

Ji

the

gems
the

beads

[ set

of

set

get
of

teeth

81 - 83

al - Tibyan

muntazim

S-

O JZ j \ jls

of

glamour

attraction

to

and

her

the

whether

those

picked

a A > - C />l? ) i

necklace

the

of
of

loose
loose

teeth

in

her

. IaJ > cj

look

her

the
necklace

j - iJI
alike

necklace

teeth

Jjijdl
so
was

derived

intense

much
made

from

darkness
in

the

her
, she

brightness

] ."

. The illustration occurs in Ibn Khallikan , Wafayat ,


, 443 ; Ibn Isma cil , Jawhar al - kanz , 500 . I am grateful to
for drawing my attention to the sources mentioned here .
WM

her

teeth

/ 1130

the

thus

. ^ -IV-Jl
of

."

gems

white

broke

muntathir

JjifcJl

" The

( d . 524

bewilderment

bright

loose

retained

U >j > a

of

necklace

- arranged

been

here

are

out

the

became

had

4^1> - ^ \

her
of

night

words

by

for

Cr *

from
string

brightness

antithetical

- arranged

the

the

that

following

Ij

away

dark

embrace

/? ili

16

on

H 16

Verses

( well

hero

a time

hair

trace

to

. Many

someone

that

of

proceeds

friends

soak
like

up

often

his

encounters

is

made

; who

battles

black

is

35

; al - TIbI ,
. van Gelder

1/ 59
Dr

36

THE

Category

ARABIC

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

I 17

Lines
tration

expressing
is

specific

provided

with

concepts

the

or

following

Djj

- j

circumscribed

from

l $j I
Vj

iil jJ

" Woe

unto
[ the

( Had

star

stars

they
them

been

and

Should

truly

have

of

you

stayed

would

be

tuted

with

is the

conventional

words

its

al - a cla

retained

in

!ljl

stay

high

synonym

, as

^ 11

he

the

just
some
would

17

by

one

for

the

to

say

the
of

cJ
I

our

you

considers
, he

would
deed

kissing

the
, they
exhibited

arih , Risalat Ibn


first line only .

see

, you
high

would

above

author

, cannot

al - kawakib

being

phrase
as

be

substi

, for

the

former

. So

too

expressed

annaha

them

in

ta cqilu

the

are

; all

following

the

must

be

^ i

the

dust
would

have

al - Qarih q . v .

he

are

see Diwan

acquired

been

Abi

upon

there
sanctity

'l - Tayyib

uhammad K urd

cA l I ,

Jj

. iJIJXII

j >-

_ -Ul

serving

honour

in

nor

men

endowed

down
their

by

ancestral

bestowed

had
come

J \jj

an

for

in

C -JJJP

neither

stars

respect

honour

fortunes
. If

US '

. t.

require
; for

!il

(J I

(. ^

C -Jllj

WM , 83 - 84 . For the illustration


Q

with

Jl

servant

have

see

stays

concept

and

' Ujjl

virtuous

they

matter

belongs

cabid

J?

claim

that

dlwan

any

the

they

which

" If

is

, that

, argues

utilization

Jl

noble

Jii j
^

claims

rightly

that

for

( AJJ
l (

j -p

.
then

you

where

al - asfal

prose

dixi

1^ 3

al - nujum

phrase

any

who

illus

."

cabid

and

him
reason

) what

up , and

below

expression

unto

down

L >_a

jJ

Lo-SN-1 )*Xs

recognizing

' t come

. An

LgJL

with

sensible

of
don

each

, and

endowed

, inspite

them

The

worship

] are

ideas

al - Mutanabbi

of

AND VERSIFICATION

with

at

in

submission
servants

al - Mutanabbi

Rascfil

the

gates

reason

as

the

a glory

, as
and
do

for

, 3 / 73 ; I bn
\ 259 ,

al - bulagha

IBN AL - ATHlR ' S AL- WASHY AL - MARQVM

( their
in

) masters

the

sky

Category

would

where

lights

, from

have

said

emanate

: ' You
and

are

which

containing

they

phrase

phrases

occur

the

vided

such

original

with

the

" At

on

The

I set

words

context

in

where

following
( d . 405

at

by

entitled

clouds

are

to

be

formed

." '

is

dawn

. In

al - cAziz
also

unique

context

in

is

as

if

went

The

the

deep

while

birds

horse

that

any

addition

to

b . c Umar

are

. An

prose

essay

(JJL - j

vI

, and
use

of

the

in

C L^JLSJ
. ^

WM

bowels

the

this

verse

84 - 85 .

al - Isbahan

Yatlma ,

pro

verse

called

."

are

from

; it

use

of

the

in
Imru

unique

in

a prose

the

essay

3 al - Qays

Ibn

Nubata

. . / ? it

jt-laJ

retaliated

. .'. *3

two

lines

, the

al - Sa c di

J
-j

LoJlS-J

and

Jlj

J ^

For the illustration from Imru

Ibn

as

follows

L*JLL?J

' WrJ
e
^1

L5^

r -tj ^
AJ ^ ' i

J ^
c

3 al - Qays ,

I , al - Zahra , 2 / 812 . The one from


2 / 391 ; al - cAskari , Sina catayn , 252

runs

^ ^ l-? -o

'jj -5

^ U1 iji 4^ [p
C

nests

beasts

haykal

forehead

0O

CL

is

."

illustrating

ti .-v.

example

their

wild

otherwise

its

jwrj

I 4aIp 1

other

struck

Ob

.7- IwgJ

daybreak
its

any

still

outruns

, awabid

, hence

utilized

into

with

Jb
" It

the

substituted

destroyed

3 al - Qays

in

* j,

occur

words

) , is

are

are

meaning

, wukunat

they

cAbd

/ 1015

they

Imru

fast

munjarid

those

that

built

which

retain

or
by

out

a stoutly

words

when

image

times

or

that

following

18

more

J 18

Verses

must

. They

37

JJ

<ulp

see Diwan Imru

Nubata

occurs

l.A*i

3 al - Qays

in al - Tha

143

calibi

;
,

. The Acwaj family mentioned in the


prose refers to an ancient Bedouin family of reputable horse breeders . About this
and other notable horse breeds , see al - Ma carrI , Risalat al - Sahil wa 'l -shahij , ed .
cA 3isha cAbd al - Rahman ( Cairo , 1984 ) , 161 .

38

THE

" For
in

long
of

( i . e . the

wind

, it

but

it

sun

, as
in

colour

with

its

radiant

ing

its

still

in

it

to

ples

retained
not

in

prose

al - Athlr

limited
the

hall

two
-

the

the

the

considers
charm

it
of

selected

are

rendering
from

still

more

only
the

poetical

19

WM , 91 - 92 .

20

Ibid . , 102 .

is

its

back

the

. It

is

forehead

while

burst
birds

. Whenever

stoutly

to

ground

it , almost

are

I release

built

concluded

use

formal

of

the

of

them

's

horse

that

, hall

are

, these

delineated
the

words

the

of
be

and

exemplars

al - shi

cr

are

above

type

must

of
of

exam

exemplars

. However

exemplars
choice

further

poetical

with

uniqueness
, namely

by

categories

poetical

essayist

flexible

be

lower

more

the

associated

the

however

to

in

hall

verse
expression

in

rank

to

to

cultivate

if

such
exemplar

poetry
of

the

hall

in

retained

phrases
. In

bi - ba cd

is

respect

lafzihi

and

expressions
of

degree
type

than
words

similar

are

lafzihi

than

the

latter

. He

which

had

can
paired

be

that

been

carefully

. 20 Further

the

in
bit

author

argues

sustained

with

type

, our

of

quality

previous

. Nevertheless

the

motif
as

. 19

third

the

them

cr bi - ba cd

artistic

a splendid

are

to

prosification

a higher

of

regard

al - shi

of

difficult

a good
in

its
me

riding

made

inherent

types

rules

it is

on

( i .e .

ghayr lafzihi , there is always an ample room for manoeu

considered

although

me

ten

( Partial
is

dawn

into

horses

outrage

stamped

deep

face

. It
of

the

. It

( i . e . the

course

causes
on

overtaking

problem
of

Section

This

. It

shadow

wordings

that
the

the

that

of

al - shi cr bi

, as

the

of

on

argues

other

which

wording

because

at

its

) family

daylight

categories

models

original

out

on
it

its

be

lady

dust

from

penetrates

see

ten

any

further

blows

forth
its

to

- breasted

it . Whenever

the

never

will

the

all , in

under

the

I set

I came

."

of

the

Elaborating

Ibn

, you

beasts

in

classified

which

preys

and

, but

falcon

and

( lit . crooked

reflect

which

, thus

a full

dejected

A c waj

to

by

wind

back

her

times
; the

illustration

, nineteen

the

horse

overtake
back

nightfall

nests

wild

The

for
the

. At

catch

the

built

served

cannot

brightness

bowels

outruns

with

running

fast
like

their

wine

to

AND VERSIFICATION

a well

by

attributed

too

dark

of

it , it turns

while

is

back

wind

outrun

stable
it

the

) competes

) is

is

OF PROSIFICATION

intoxication

to

horse

on

( i . e . the

) tries

the

vre

no

horse

yet

THEORY

I rode

need

and

of

ARABIC

the

a prose

borrowed

explaining

on

IBN AL- ATHlR

' S AL - WASHYAL -MARQUM

39

this type of hall in al - Mathal , he says that it can be defined in the sense
of conscious matching of types , mushdbaha / mumathala , where any dis
parity in quality is interpretable as stringing of pearls and pebbles to
gether in a single chain . 21
In his treatment of this type of hall , the specific words borrowed from
the poetical exemplar are designated as al - alfai al - muntakhala , " the
sifted words " , while those that are added to them by the prose writer to
make a new composition are called al - alfa al - murtajala , " the improvised
words " . 22 In this section , forty - six prose passages that derive from partial
prosification of verses are provided . The passages are not classified as in
the previous section , but two of them are characterized as darb mill
al - kimiya, " a form of chemical process " , on the ground that they dem
onstrate a complete transformation of the motif expressed in the poetical
exemplars which inspired them . His definition of alchemy in relation to
the hall concept involves changing or transferring the sura , " form / struc
ture " , of a conceit into another , and this is likened to the chemical process
of transforming elements , for example , of stone into emerald , or brass
into copper or gold . 23 It may be noted in parentheses that Ibn al - Athir ' s
understanding of the term sura is not in the same sense as that of cAbd
al - Qahir al - Jurjani . In the latter , the concept of sura relates to sentence
structure as can be effected through the instrument of nazm / tartib , " ar
rangement " . Nevertheless , it may be assumed that Ibn al - Athir is extend
ing the sense of the word , since his use of the term mushdbaha /
mumathala , " imitation / copying " for this type of hall bears a strong af
finity with al - Jurjanl ' s concept of mu carada , " conscious competition " . 24
Further examination of this relationship will undoubtedly take us out of
the discussion here which is essentially the illustration of prose samples
that derive from partial utilization of poetical exemplars . A remarkable
change is however noticeable in the order of materials in this section . In
the previous section , the poetical prototypes are given first and are fol
lowed by the model prose passages that derived from them . It is the other
way round in this section ; and this is not without a purpose : the author
intends to demonstrate the extent to which his model compositions had
bettered the poetical antecedents which , but for the reality of chronology
21

al - Mathal

22

WM

124

al - sa ' ir , 1 / 130 - 31 .

23 Ibid . , 109 . See also al - Mathal al -sa ' ir , 1/ 161 . Heinrichs also refers to al - Jurjani ' s
use of the term " verbal alchemy " to characterize the blending between the real and
the imaginary in poetic expressions . See Heinrichs , " Isti 'arah and Badf " , 209 .
24 For example , see his Daltfil al - i cjaz , 199 - 200 .

40

THE

and

logic

ARABIC

, would

sample

essays

methodical

THEORY

have

been

. Insofar

as

arrangement

purposes

will

he

as

gives

be

OF PROSIFICATION

proffered
his

order

examples

. In

of

as

prose

however

in

having

samples
subtle

this

AND VERSIFICATION

, five

3 are

generated

betray

no

, selecting

regard

al - kimiya

been

evidence

only

a few

examples

illustrated

for

by

his

of

any

analysis

, including

the

two

J
i

( Description

- tJI

ajijjSi

J blia*J1

" He

competed

with

, so

that

much

asking

speed

)
for

is

provide

no

me

~uil

by

his

Person

*)!j

) 25

making

of
to

of

not

. This

is

imitation
a

face

gifts

precede

giving

lies

be
why

it

is

in

lines

of

poetry

utilized

. oc

" He

puts

me

to

generosity

Abu

Tammam

here

the

are

from

5^

race

drowned

: ' Little
of

had

with
unless

it

originality

generosity
already

can
been

re

by
my

al - Mutanabbi
0c

giving

while

quickness

I receive
at

taking

his

."

from

replacement
exhaust

'8

; but

tal

water

25

coming

noble

said

for

quickness

."

The

" The

its

garment

covering

asking

my

considered

' . The
whose

my

) rendered

generosity

will

hand

plenty
raiment

his
( at

virtue
hand

4JL .L>-J

' (J ""3

quickness

. The

lower

than

a Generous

j -iS"

upper

the

better

moved

tardy
the

supersedes

LLJ1

. s-1

them
( at

of

jl

your
for

this

WM , 108 - 9 . For

palm
the

lustre

when

it

gives

( lit . water

, cannot
) of

my

be
face

s-U

a
if

I had

to

."

the

illustrations

, see

Dlwan

Abi

' l - Tayyib

al - Mutanabbi

, 2 / 257 ;

Diwan Abi Tammam , 4 / 465 ; al - I sbahan I , al - Zahra , 2 / 615 ; S hihab al - DI n , Tiraz


al - majalis , 140 . The last two sources for the illustration from Abu Tammam only .

41

IBN AL -ATHlR ' S AL - WASHYAL -MARQUM

ffc
11

( About

" In

regard

good

to

nature

so - and

, were

every

person

Damn

him

of

want

( the

run

although

he

abundant

rains

it

might

has

ing

at

by

the

that

The

gate

heat

feeling

poetical

, could

uncomfortable

never

) ! he

his

base
some

one

will
and

realize

that

abandons

the

from

of

pure

which

the

above

his

after
for

his

in

remain

face

grilled

seeks

heart

derive

him

one

his

pasture

home

lie

getting

in

, though

him

fortunes

no

refugee

of

rainfall

reprimanded
his

which

water

any

search
for

return

without

shade
of

in

longs

, whose

accommodate
for

out

; he

lessons

him

in

goes

home

. Experience

freshness

exemplars

world

hand

protection

."

are

from

al - Mu

" The

world

cannot

spacious

as

visible

Muslim

JU
" There
from

26

the

a noble

be

make

, and

from

will

slave

no

away
the

him

will

which

intense

without

tanabbi

. It

run

) 26

by

at

his

Slave

possessed

- away

at

- away

has

meadows

taught

misadventure

be

and

are

have

- so , he

it to

(iW

a Run

in

contain
his

his
nature

army

; even

, his

soldiers

it

were

would

as
still

not

be

Ai

would
you

if

it . "

b . al - Walid

- jJI

good

return
-

my

me

to

experience

you

of

whenever
men

I journey

far

away

."

WM , 115 - 6 . For the illustrations


, see Diwan
Abi
'l - Tayyib
M uslim b . al - Wal I d , Shark Diwan Sarf al -gh.awa.ni , 336 .

al - Mutanabbi

, 2 / 120 ;

THE ARABIC

42

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

<J4 * 9J
iii

( Description

lils

jLj

xs "
4J

cju5

** iiljl

^ >1 \* \ / ?~ 0jJ > l ^j

Ulal

c c5 ^jj
C

^ -o r - L / 2J
5*
^

4j I

4Pjj

\jjbj

c _/
C

^J ^ ' J

- lS3I

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Cl^ jfip

Cf

J
. J - Sll

LJUsJj

oirj

t * ii *ji

Sfl

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Js >- \j

Uji ' ^c S' j

^ isd

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^ SsJI

. jtJcjl

f-

"
ji

\jjbj

-Alp

oy > -j

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^j > ^3 ^

2jj

ci y *> -

' J \jki

dJUUJI

Jpi

JjiSI

IJjfc

ji

j ^ J Nl

. Ij -^ : cJlij
LvJjJJ

jJp

'"' c

^iIa^JI

i^ JJi e ^

ul

li

US '

pen

whose

is

ribs

gems

are

spears

reed

strung

it

these

exhibits

Sometimes

it

from

like

first
the

of the two

jj oj

4 :

cA wn , Kitab

C-~

al - K hafaj

I , Sirr
Tammam

4 / 309 ; Diwan

Abi

j
the

second

, 157 , with
al - Mutanabbi

'l - Tayyib

al - Mutanabbi

breathed

, it

shows

. It

has

could

attributed

14

1 **2 9

are

only

honey

jJI

* 1? '. C

;Lty

Jb
p I? ij

, see

in place
respectively

of

with

skill

other

times

appears

to have

ojjU

^ jLj

C ~ 5- b

j la j

ibid . , 2 / 890 ; I bn

ti canin

one :

' is , 1/ 15 ; al - H atim

occur

, 3 / 34 .

demonstrate

to al - Buhturl

_J -i

: itabin

qualities

; at

into

in
how
how

other

them

collapsed

illustration

and
you

, it demonstrates

produces

that

has

demonstrates

, 227 ; I bn J inn I , al - Khasa

al -fasaha
and

others
it

which

, 2 / 812 . For

al - Tashblhat

from

Abu

al - Buhturl

lions

verses

speaks

among

illustrations

two

it

it strikes

. When

a bee

following

eloquence

when

affectation

3 _r

Dlwan

; and
courses

with

looks

heart
. When

marvelously
)

WM , 102 - 4 . The

See

whose

necklaces

SCil

ol

concealed

different

( qualities

originated

into
is

in

pursue

which

27

the
bravery

.^

e i^ cj \jki

. t jLJ ^ / L

" His

JIS
(

]J ^ 4J J ^ >*J

<WxL3 *yi

1-A-^

(jIj

4j OA

: Ijilsj

11 jI^ Jo ^ / I ^

4l > o

^ j \ > eJ ldl > e> ISI ^ >-

l^ >c^ o C - 4J

Jp

* illjl

I ^ PwLJ (_j >- 1 ^ j2jlva > - < 1J

(3LJI

^ laj >J ! IJjts

^ I)

(J -wJ ^ jiS

jj J

Jjyill

'

j "*-^

(Js ^ 6^

<U _lSj

^ Jp - J

j * 3 ijU -p

CJiJ

i ^>L-^ P

. U ^ is -a Ijlj * ^ ! (_ /
^

^ *yi

CIplwbl
(_

) 27

A^ U2jjJl

^ciLs

Wj

<uLjj

J?

a Pen

Oil

of

AND VERSIFICATION

I , Hilya

. The

in Diwan

A bI

, 1/ 425 ;

illustrations

Abi

Tammam

IBN

it looks

like

giving
At

a lip

lessons

another

perform
magical

and

stands

in

horse

against

war

supplies

which

ask

had

The

just

its

twin

former

pleasant
that

would

as

. The

one

following

are

the

given

not

realized

, ( the

musical

the

while

having

of

but
that
reed

the

other

been

in

horses

this

pen

is

) is the
as

state
? ' Well

. If
the

such
wind

wind

- pipe

the

latter

providing

partially

and

' .

barley

to

is that

value

just

plays

spits

paper

boast

spears

a high

saws
same

it

empires

against

such

not

, cAmmar

with

nothing

have

are

ears

as

of

does

it without

vehemently
be

that

) on

victory

of

; and

a time

away

pens

it

( i . e . ink

greatest

unfamiliar

. Both

to

of

brides

a viper

that

in

imam

steadfastness

. Many

does

savouring

sister

is

c Umar

' the

reed

foliage

controls

it

that

expresses

tunes
plays

with

protest

, they

fair

is

up

the

like

wine

an

making

seen

position

dynasty

a weak
for

is

like

the

surprising

strength

excused

it

, serves

effect

might

could

be

been

produces

essay

people

with

: he

, and

the

endowed

bowing

. 28 No

in
with

: ' How

ideas

songs

except

tact

dynasties

should

for

in

among

is

challenges

cAmr

some
and

what

the

it is seen

coring

time

perfume

different

established

livestock

pipe

in

; proclaiming

Perchance

people

except

other

is

ment

to

is

another

. But

times

43

a beautician

a dove
that

yet

, procures

, and

ing

at

. At
like

like

silence

words

guidance

for

in

kisses

a horse

, and

head

up

seen

like

wonders

out

out

it looks

it is

it looks

its

doles

; sometimes

a racing

bows

that

stretch

sometimes
of

AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL -MARQUM

pleasure
the

intellects

recomposed

,
."

in

the

.
Al - Buhturl

a
" ( It

is
that

a poem
it

is

4_jl

) in
of

unique

they

they

are

are

strikes

^ \1aj

a kind

of

eloquence

arrangement

I'Jil 1
" Strikes

Jb \j
with
with

of

the

no

one

doubts

."

ol *! *

rhyme

which

edges
edges

aJIS **
, ( penetrating
of

a broken

ob
deep
lance

) as

-ls

if

."

28 The references here are to cUmar b . al - Khattab , the second caliph in Islam ; cAmmar
b . Yasir , one of the early converts to Islam ; and cAmr b . al - cAs , the first governor
of Egypt in Islam .

44

THE

Abu

ARABIC

Tammam

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

AND

VERSIFICATION

e
t>Ij -i

" ( They

^I

are

c- 1

poems

reveal

(_ ^Xo

) with

which

appearances

Al - Mutanabbi

like

ears

those

are
of

ever

full

of

the

spears
kisses

empires

; spear

is

strikes

the
are

( Upbraiding

CjJc - Oj

4~s

" Whenever

from
to

his
would

him

the

from

the

love

with

them

an

of

ti

-J^S"

lib

Jjbj

sets

out

to

write

a sentence

impurity
. ' To

him
of

of

, for

men

on

the

is

( as

awful
to

not

do

misses
said

the

contempt

the

impurity

- expression
he

says

without

way

( in

) as

self

. Whatever
can

Jij

, it

being

inability

expression
he

paper
it

mouth
is

clarity

s-

without

from

Lill

part

joy

) 29

is

, and
( stolen

borrowed

)
ex

' At

times
thereof

write

in

strength

Ja .l>o

form

speeches

pressions

Glory

not

private
the

those

the

'

^ 1 i_r" ^ 'j ij

jJS'

pen

) : ' Many

others

, to

on

of

."

(_s^

founded

<

! IJa^-

one

a katib

llLiJ

i-fiijjl

he

damsels

."

iv

and

; they

i_S^

the

like

U1*P

greatest
of

infatuated

breasted

JlaJlS '
" The

be
, or

to

he

produces

, and
Allah

everyone

to
! Does
who

a mixture
the

; to

forerunners
everyone
mounts

him
the

who
the

pulpit

belong
gold

takes

the

copper

contained
hold

deliver

of

in
a pen

( good

it . '
actually

) sermons

29 WM, 106 - 7 . The line of poetry quoted in the text is from Ibn Ruml ' s satire against
al - Buhturi . See Dlwan Ibn al - Rumi, 412 . The line from al - Mutanabbl is in Diwan
Abi ' l- Tayyib al - Mutanabbi , 1/ 94 .

45

IBN AL - ATHIR ' S At - WASHYAL -MARQUM

False

claim

unlike

in

other

The

this

passage

on

position

among

is

enormous

the

following

among

the

reeds

( of

a spear

line

kings

is

of

like

from

al - Mutanabbl

of

u "*

a bamboo

lance

) 30

# c ^

I 4^ - J

jlsJlj

that

Books

dc .^ c>&- ^ ISlj

C% j \ I4J

C!>Lpj

4JL1p

VjoS - *0) 1 <U>j


C *

l ULsj ) A^ ^ S>
^U >

j * J2$ \J

. *>'JJJ

j ><
J) I

o^ SLio

.
" May

Allah

nobility
afar

grant

. May
by

the

fairness

the

of

in

He

The

of
for

of

^>LJL

^ - UjD

for

their

al - ghawani

Mutanabbl

He

bright

be

make

utilized

his

. May
sea

and

the

skulls

here

easy

are

to

the
make

the

clouds

to

his

of

the

from

are
make

spears

the
, 60

, 3 / 245 .

, when
[ their

the

midday

enemies

heat
' ] skulls

the

by

He
high

horses

enemies
for

the

his

armies

b . al - Walld

y^ -\
red
resting

his

generosity

, and

Muslim

turns

reflected

. May
his

him

preys

be

- rooted

citizenry

ennoble

gratitude

beasts

a deep

deed

He

and

4J ;j ~> J

him

protect

accurate

with

wild

and
He

valour
: the

for

(j *

WM , 148 - 49 . For
Sarf

his

to

, and

poetry

they
, they

by

establish

. May

clatter

. May

and

days

brothers

swords

spears

life

moon

character

him

war

the

twin

his

verses

his

army

its

his

" A people

30

and

make

praise

place

a long

make

the

for

May

He

, and

value

him

sun

substitute

) is

."

*U*^ C i

- JI

lance

( Prayers

Oj

the

bJLil

other

. But

."

draws

yLu
" Your

regard

reeds

from

lil

a
make
office

neigh
resting
."

^ js

the

places

."

poetical
and

illustrations

al - I sbahani

see
, al - Zahra

Muslim

b . al - WalId

, 2 / 603 ; Diwan

Abl

, Sharh

Diwan

' l - Tayyib

al -

46

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION AND VERSIFICATION

al - Mutanabbi

:
Ji
^ L>Jl

" The

doves

professed

acknowledge

with

undertake

The
ones

first

two
as

verse

open

to
I

of

. 31

It

is

that
such

the

of

verses

( iqtibas

the

discernible

model

also

to

and

as

prose

hall

of

. The

found

in

critics

the

109 ,

Ibn

previous
which

full

Ibn

section
,

in

this

's

the

other
is

, there
idioms

is

, Pro

remarkable

a Prophetic
tadmln
least

is

idiom
] , and

of

in

not

imprecision

as
, in

QuPanic

characterization

important

prose
of

section

borrowing

analytical

in

is

to

used

al - Athir
and

in

at

exhibited

" , which

. 32 Proverbial
in

this

is

and

the

deviation

materials

of

an

the

believe

however

[ or

, or

al - Athir
is

to

Illus

sura

exemplars

or

, dimn

hall

envoi
skill

cited

a Quranic

confusion

section

Quranic

is

in

in

the

to , Quranic

quotational

of

particular

passages

be

by

a form

us

the

trait

in

to

although

. What

of

of

tadmin
as

this

sense

reflected

poetical

allusions

treated

utilized

wish

that

are

, involves

particular

change

of

incorporation

between

, " decorative

his

the

here

motif

this

would

reports

of

the

also

no

observe

, or

. Evidence

or

use

prayers

WM

of

tarsf

by

to

historical

sort

are
of

author

from

use
a

them

in

Another

horses

definition

exemplars

prosification

borderline

of

of

relevant

discussion
his
of

poetical
which

our

our

exhibit

suggestive

partial

as

utilization

iiUi

you

, by

content

, the

is

in

treatments

elements

that

, and

regards

to

own

borrowings

examples

regard

the

duties

? which

thought

, although

of

illustrations

form

way

anecdotes
he

, and

onerous

related

al - kimiya

example

illustrate

shortage

phetic

his

equally

to

i. "

leadership

, the

basic

madh

in

intended

the

. For

treatment

wise

31

of

contain

original

even

illustrations

. Whether

derivative

no

prose

question

tration

your

neighing

examples

transformation

given

song

lijj

."

adduced

the

in

Ljj

some
, the
case

non
of

in

this

prose

concluding

samples

illustrate

is
some

is

lines

samples
,

section

regard

proverbial

the

however

this
conclude

the

of

the

recognized
of

in
here
verses

in

poetry
this

,
are

section
consist
of

,
of

poetry

where he argues :

UaaJj

Jji

^ U

32 See Chapter One , note 59 . For the discussion about tarsf as a rhetorical term in the
sense of precise assonantal rhymed periods , see al - cAskarI , Sina catayn , 375 - 79 ;
al - Mathal al - sa ' ir , 3 / 361 - 65 .

IBN AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL - MARQUM

whose

wordings

sultaniyyat

partially

, " official

quaintances

some

teristic

of

that

ma cna

of

verbial

the

Qur

' anic

verse

Section

This

is

makes
even

the

highest

the

prose

when

be

identified

the

former

In

this

the

of

afforded

al - kimiya

by

him

can

in

model

they

which

That

are
they

which

sura

).

For

this

not
are

in

we

found

poetry

relation

may

cite

( About

33

WM , 151 .

34

Ibid . , 152 . See


1 / 288 .

35

Ibid . , 154 . For


by

Zuhayr

samahatu

the

: cala
wa

illustration
mukthirihim

' l - badhlu

Diwan

haqqu

is an equally

a pro

it

; and

wording

dif

of

, as

hall

recognized
, and

that
is

his

. Three

purposes

conceit

. 34

that

fashion

can
from

here

are

analysis

it

reproach

is

levels

for

, as

different
than

systematic

prose

author

rendering

are

had

wa

the
.

been

employed

al - lafy

, the
- naql

al -

tj
) 35

al - sa ' ir , 1/ 132 ; al - Q alqashand

, see

poem

category

three

examples

Generosity

also , al - Mathal

of

expression

( taghylr

<Jwj
i

contains

, or

prose

, and

third

different

following

charac

our

rather

this

any

unchanged

the

says

perceptible

latter

a full

into

. Whereas

the
the

imposed

transfer

remains

to

praise

to

in

the

hardly

, the

is

ac

he

sample

of

provided

. Admittedly

the

character

of

to

here

in

la j.j .ihi

those

in

are

given

which

anecdote

generated

illustrated

involves

expressed
thematic

essays

used
with

his

prayer

inspiration

have

be

distinctive

according

object

in

each

device

samples

identified

of

One

cr bi - ghayr

which

can

. 33

expressions
an

, 23

from

of

the

' seems

be

his

, but

hall

exercise

section

levels

of

source

samples

a Prophetic

al - shi

the

work

three

different

that

the

of

that

, " correspondence

another

, is that

the

exemplar

fact

makes

all

hall

's

poetical

, the

concept

order

writer

him

words

form

particular

ferent

by

in

such

, or

of

( Prosification

of

to

, or

prayers

ikhwaniyyat

of

, according

citation

. Such

matter

hundred

work
a

" , or

subject

one

poetic

retained

letters

" , are

contains

the

are

47

Abi
man

possible

'l - Tayyib
ya ctarihimu
inspirer

I , Subh

al - a csha ,

al - Mutanabbi

, 2 / 7 . The

/ wa - cinda

'l - muqilllna

here

. See

Diwan

Zuhayr

verse
al , 62 ;

THE

48

" His

gifts

though
me

ARABIC

travelled

I did

, even
are

away

poverty
early

their

and

not

The

as

on

jJ

souls

are

wealth
to

the

is

them

are

away
the

themselves

( begging

his

; they

place

the

stingy
for

as

is

modeled

to

to

for

them

, when

gratitudes

donation

a reward

are
of

for

drive

generous

. My
the

them

good

deeds

proffered

as

the

original

ex

those

home

them

confronts

his
away

Pardon

who

of

and

themselves

captured

efforts

provides

al - Isbahani

be

me

."

is

at

defend

they

turning

are

reach

the

visit
one

them

who

; their

does

not

come

."

enemies

defensive

. They

, and

al - Mutanabbi

given

( About

when

to

presented

at

come

lands

arms

anyone

to

] gifts

they

the

a guest

11

" The

the

that

passage

jb

meet

person

) inducement

by

my

decides
of

is

line

Jjj

to

of

. They

out

poor

[ quality

features

which

Jjj
" Their

every

( undue

them

proceed

AND VERSIFICATION

breadth

stretch

downpour

the

following

pression

and

receive

not

that

from

best

to

I did

ones

: for

length

travel

morning

twofold
Of

not

the

OF PROSIFICATION

the

though

They

the

THEORY

could
with

enemies

Forgiveness

against

, his

clemency

have

. When

helpers

out

in

with

war

) 36

him

by

protects
they

of

boundless

them

submit

compassion

fighting

to

fiercely
more

him

. The
bravery

; but

than
in

their

defeat

generous
, but

in

, he
one

peace

by

."

, al - Zahra

, 2 / 594 ; Ibn

Khalaf

, Mawadd

, 150 ; Ibn

AbI

' l - Isba

c, Tahrir

507 .
36

WM , 159 . For
al - ghawani

the

, 331 .

poetical

exemplar

see

Muslim

b . al - Walid

, Sharh

Diwan

Sarf

IBN

49

AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHYAL -MARQUM

The corresponding line of poetry here is attributed to Muslim Ibn


:

al - Walid

IS'

U-j *

OjJi Ji ol

^
j

-XAj

Your enemy is ever afraid ; but whenever he sees that you are
in position to retribute , he hopes for your clemency . "

"

In the first sample , eulogy is the common theme between the line of
poetry and the prose passage ; and in the second , indulgence is the shared
conceit . The difference in phraseology between the prose samples and the
respective lines of poetry that inspired them are too obvious to warrant
further elaboration .
B That which involves the generation of other conceits
ma cani ) from poetic pieces . 37

tawlid

al

This type , according to our author , is the most sublime of the hall
device , as the poetical source can hardly be detected , due to the fact that
the new expression has been skilfully composed to generate , as it were ,
a different motif which can easily passes a new creation that draws on
no antecedent . 38 The following serve as illustrations .
iljjlj JUJl Jwai ij
( On Excess Wealth and Provision ) 39

I
?

Ll2JJ IjjJ iLp-

LO ^

t <

S^

' ^2J

s~[

^ 2 !J-&J ;

Man , when his wealth surges [ violently ] , is like when his four senses
of humour do ; both require the same treatment to put aright . The latter
"

37

On

38

WM , 166 :

tawlid

jl

as a rhetorical

I bn A b I ' l - I sba c, Tahrir

JlSCiVl

^
^

, 494 - 98 .

^ Ob -j -lil

*)1

.
169 .

, see

t<

jJj
39 Ibid . ,

concept

y $ l-i &j

dUi Jl j , > 11 5i J .
CJj

Lo

t aJLL/

ajjl OjJil

The illustration could not be found in the Diwan .

^ 4 *^ 1

.. 1

50

THE

is

ARABIC

treated

his

through

wealth

whose

. It is

said

overburdened

with

the

The

poem

, to

be

is a man

who

of

on

AND VERSIFICATION

blood

some

; the

people

eyes

only

by

that

this

as

, hands

, and

brings

prose

former

, wealth

transgressed

treatment

which

his

mitigated
who

his

kind

of

that

can

. Here

OF PROSIFICATION

reduction

severity

purses

THEORY

the

use

he

became

belly

is

reduction

constitutes
of

of

a disease

purgatives

of

excessively

. He

normality

draws

by

to

should
the

attributed

to

be

body

mixture

Abu

iljjl
J

" I consider
as

a man

excess

Nothing

cures

The

the

model

motif

that

is

of

, as

can

treated

( Gratitude

to

honour

Tammam

his

seen

in

the

to

a Certain

honour

(_jl
I

, just

, nothing

it . "

with

additional

ideas

alIy

Jjl

l
' J

Benefactor

Ulj

) 40

OJjldJ

<dJSs

L5jU
cPid

Ijb
<y

Lsi

P viJJj

other

my

, you

former

and

would
and
If

make

40

not
[ the

he

see

have
first

and

shiny

the

would
my

encomiums
a

mirror

ij ^

lustre

of

shown

. I am

to ] portray
identify

pen

WM , 167 - 68 . For

idle

the

in

poetical

with
one

character

radiance

the

the

to

first

illustration

-* i

, let
finds

, see

true

in
him

a sharp

Diwan

of

a mirror
of

Abi

out

for
the
of

corporeal

sheathe
sword

each

. But

beauty

terms
not

encounter

image

make

traits

he

Jr

traits

beautiful

me

LgJUL / 3

oj -> - o

its

UJ

< i ol
X?- J

facing

character

this
; for

his

C - lioJ

ISjU ^

. < *.
" Whenever

, the

31jfi
J

spending

, amplifies
verse

his

body

controlling

be

(J -v2S

! *4^ V*J 1 S' 1hXi


to

like

like

JU

&j

a disease

a disease

' s disease

t-

4J

wealth

disease

is

ii

' s excess

a body

prose

yd

!kjj

nutrition

relieves

original

."

ol

), ...

treated

wc
J

the
rich

Tammam

latter
speech

images

my
, and

the

tongue
in

the

.
nor

other

, 1/ 106 - 7 .

51

IBN AL -ATHlR ' S AL - WASHYAL -MARQUM

a tireless

horseman

latter
to

idle

hold

for

me

down

nor

in

eulogy

character

any
C

of
one

treated
This
illustrated

of

."

lines

of

' s praises
conclusion

an

adept

in

the

says
with

( caks

, occurs
the

following

of

way

pedantry

him

that

need

be

al - ma cna

cala

rarely

eulogist

the

conceit

the

ground

not

be

friendly

that

diddih

the
of

mirror

the

claim

manifested
conceits

are

censure

is

is , according

recommend
strain

of

of

only

of

respect

for

a prototype

reveals

because

in

all , other

of

would

idea

only

can

is

principle

meaning

said

round

an

the

simple

praised

readily

is

singer

creating

prepare

he

of

the

going

which

."

that

. This

antithesis

very

praise
-

expression

which

that

illustrates

is being

, an
way

the

however
to

for

normative

prose

who

laboured

in
he

treatment

in

which

madih

2
^ j I

, is

character

argues

*
(3b

a marvel

introduced

patron

one

treatment

a good

is

the

, and

, the

prose

own

image
of

author

The

hoped
sense

following

refined

a marvelous

that

his

. Such

form

and

never
. For

malice

the

the

belong

had

course

by

, hence

, thus

al - Athir

is

eulogist

treated

our

render

not

produces

refined

, the

unfamiliar

the

Ibn

. In

introduced
to

a good

the

also

are

how

nobility

generous

praising

exemplar
person

the

marvelously

in

al - mcfani

reflecting

the

traits

explaining

through

in

generated

, especially
of

him

excelled

the

who

me

* " f-

praise

praised

that

nor

I do

someone

prejudice

been

former

of

said

good

where

best

poetical

me

with
and

have

the

by

competed

to

sheathe

place

overtaken

ever

said

j -\

tawlid

to

perplexity

is

"

In

be

not

" The

him

intends

to

had

prose

Tammam

His

he

generates

This
Abu

, unless

this

honour

. So , let

, rather

than

was

treated

in

very

tasking

. It

verse

is

can

be

).
it

is

52

THE

ARABIC

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

( About

^
Iv ^ ^ jp

c
^Jj \j

jj >- ij

\ Sa

cJl*j

4*S>- U<5>J

"

((jd

(jdJ

L^JI

<~9j

^ jwU (^ p l^ iai) C-Upi ^

^TLtJl

ji

J -^25 c5 ^j

se

oJ^jL) ^ jJ

azJLIL^ ? d -^>cjj

^j^ asl

^Laij . .oiSvJI

olp

OL>- 1

Jb - j

^4

lo^s (Jjill

c
jl ^23 0^>- ^

) 41

JwUL~J

c IjjI y * V

. -

Gratitude

c --^

UL &
' > - OUJS

AND VERSIFICATION

Aj' I

jtJp

JI ^

c^y ^>
^

UW2J

^ ^SCjJ !

C . gl-? '

. jS ^ LtJl

jS ^jo ^

^ LivJl

gJjj

(_^ jl

1 l^jLJ

. \ys
~ *-\

^a

<L>- 1>. jPlJjl

" Expression
one

of

who

lower

expresses

. His

wealth

; he

by

either

gave

some
that

doubter

the

. He
his

whose

has

intereracts

hand
just

his
him

the

someone

in

got

weighty

or
or

overvalued

offer

he

gratitude

ignorant

from
a

top

appearance
who

was

; and
given

rather
he

been

there
his

is

wages

than
is

little

the

and

has

there

for

one

than

fair

, he

[ for

of

value
is

no

].
the

suffering

misgiving

merit

for

[ in return

; he

of

recompense
. Had

riches

the

the

words

insincere

. What

with

exchanged

valuable

from

; the

better

is more

something
the

return

benevolence
the

, for

ignorant

a matching

lateness
and

either

than

substituting

and
of

droop
to

weight

simply

words

, is
of

in

prospered

scanty

certainly

without

admitted
tween

is

is

expression

fluff

lowly

goal

lighter

indeed

benevolent

from

made

has

claims
the

is

gratitude

trade

Whoever
gift

gratitude

match
would

; who
have

difference
a job

be
done

],

41 Ibid.. , 170 - 71 . The poetical exemplar could not be located in the Diwan . The opening
statement is doubtless a paraphrase of Qur ' an 2 : 61 , while the concluding statement
is borrowed from the following verse of Nusayb :
* JUbrJ

See Shi

! iil -lf-

C. . il

Ij

Rabah , 59 ; al - HatimI , Hilya , 1/ 258 ; al - JahshiyarI , al - Wuzara 3,


. al - Sahil , 348 ; al - cAskarI , Sina catayn , 214 . The prose also
contains a paraphrase of the hadith : Al -yad al - culya khayrun min al - yad al - sufla " The
giving ( lit . the upper ) hand is better than the receiving ( lit . the lower ) hand " . See
Sahih al - Bukhari , 2 / 292 . Compare the sample entitled Fi wasfsakhl above . But our
author does not illustrate any of the materials given here as sources to his prose
passage . - For more examples illustrating caks al - ma cna cala diddihl , see al - Mathal
al - sa ' ir , 1/ 144 .
cr

Nusayb

ji

b.

206 ; al - Ma c arri ,

IBN

thus

becoming

more

than

acts

of

( the

acts

the

. I

speech

that

a mere

do

bags

need

This

hireling

benevolence

When
no

a poet

prose

do

not

any

[ by

giving

goes

composition

for

bright

hand

Whereas
osity

the

, the

that

line

opposite

to

have

is

ii

by

the

jJi

the

one

1)^

iS.jlj

1^

plains

only

is

as

is

made

that

strong

as
is

complaints

openly

this

to

WM

infection

is

that

they

. Were
with

never
they
the

to

is

with

, they

( i . e . the

them

in

in

the

the

."

expense

prose

) 42

.
^

? The

time

, and
degree

. An

. 6jA 1> &J V J

to

body

characteristic
, and
) are

to

the

whom

, he

would
[ like

would
our

Lord
have

' s suffering

. Among

upon
; they

com

a complaint

complaint

face

of

servant
person

) come

face

a real

infected

of

him

'Cjjl

obedient

a person

confront

name

gener

(_5^

peoples

the

vicissitudes

of

(1)U

vicissitudes

his

1 JU2J

itself

possess

than

hopeful

at

of

attractive

the

Time

inversion

Tammam

more
of

( i . e . the

resolve

it

grateful

put

Jjiia^dl

of

by

it , terrified

171 - 72 .

for

C Lg^ - !j >-

vicissitudes

gauged

a duel

{j *

about

about

be

and

not

However

the

expressed

i,

to

premonitions

fought

the

, they

the

the

complaining

about

by

tongues
by

(jlS "

] L^ jj

is

Abu

*)}

tJA

" Who

by

AP-jlJlS
c

gratitude

preserved

own

from

gratitude

oU

<UAjl J

not

speech

derived

hope

values

( Complaints

ji

42

longed

poetry

view

) their

] , their

verse

is
out

of

if

gratitude

presents

following

brought

wind

of

."

said

which

the

of

L ^_ fOj _I
" Gratitude

expression

through

out

is
in

with

expression

' s encomiums

expressed

consider

( speaking

need

speak

of

meaning

. By
not

53

al - washy al - marqum

AL - ATHlR ' S

him

without

attack
have
; he

him

The poetical illustration occurs in Dlwan Dik al -Jinn ,

, but

challenged
would

caused

] servants

his

it
who

75

have
to

flee

commit

54

THE

crimes

ARABIC

, though

Whenever
their

sate

him

the

security

Part
the

of

this

the

time

illustrating

the

One

and

- hadha

cala

. .

the

such

' l - ma

' l - ma

al - na ^ ar
The
and

ment

of

the

But

an

guage

guages
terms
essential

the

use

interlingual

of

substitution

their
. This

is reported

adequate

structures
is

illustrated
to

have

as
of

them
Ibn

with
expressed

in

' l - ma

story
Persian

" wa

yughamiz
cald . . .

poetic

kind

: the
lines

exem
employ
of

poetry

motifs

in
-

in

this

that

the
, an

is

Persian
idea

is

is , where

an

another

lan

composition

and

languages
choice

section

straightforward

donor

the

, and

in

a prose
,

the

of

'l-

. .

cna

the

al - Athir

argues

of

yansahib

mabnahu

than

. .

hadha

ila

expressed

, dictions
the

hadha

to

poetic
. Thus

cala

" wa - ba cd

- hadha

between

knowledge

, nuances

- dhayl

's

" wa - hadha

al - nazar

of

he

the
them

..

corresponding

of

author

yatasawwar

. . ." ;

degree

by

, thus

the

from

it relates

the

victim

version

is

min

cna

" wa

" wa

. Whereas

between

phraseology

equivalents

in

is

human

section

. . . " ; " hadha

all

former

his
prose

derived

consciously

different

. The
of

an

is

this

tusariq

. .

who

obvious

' khudh

transfer

language

contained

ila

phrases

for

quite

' l - ma

. . ." ;

adumbrated

poetry

; although
of

ma

of

."

; but

relationship

yamur

those

time

diddihl

- hadha

min

principle

one

from

of

than

with

j -iv2

the

that

is more

issue

in

of

c min

check

sense

against

in

- hadha

these

other

between

- , and

" wa

derivatives

is

in

cala

min

compen
him

?"

a war

essays

" wa

the

fights

inverted

nature

mustanbat

underlying

derives

process

. .

between

important

expressed

of

discussion

the

al - sam

prose

distinction

is

' l - ma cna

yastariq

expressions

remains

waging

mukhtalas

. . . " ; " hadha

their

as

prose

hadha
min

cna

ila

throat

sample

role

as

uUjJI

time

prose

the

j > ^ 3

. . . " ; " wa - ba cd hadha

c na

difference

plars

that

of

phrases
min

the

Lord

):

the

cil - mcfna

of

mustamadd

hadha

idea

caks

corresponding

" wa - ba cd

cna

the

of
feature

mustall

" wa

who

sense

encounter

' l - ma cna

ma

, this

characterization

pieces

the

portrayed

significant

technical

we

is

in

as

in

such

provide

assaults

/ 850

make

our

and

of

responsible

too

that

them

inversion

and

held

, they

demands

(_gl j

a hand

prototype

an

being

grace

relentless

be

chest

inversion

that

poetic

me

is

through

( d . 235

Jj

lend

of

to

the

who

hereby

their

al - Jinn

against

to

Evidence

the

said

AND VERSIFICATION

his

suffered
put

is

Dlk

up

there

is

servant

would

enjoying

injuries

U J JI J

" I stood

Master

anyone

essay
by

( our

. The

the

OF PROSIFICATION

he

see

that

following

in

is

target

for

it

it

they

person

THEORY

target

lan

involved
of
poet

originally

words

in
is

still

, al - cUnsuri
expressed

55

IBN AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL -MARQVM

in

Arabic

, using

pursued
as

any

to

how

ence

further
such

will

in

be

turning
of

could

involving

noteworthy

the

generally

ings

can

lacking

in

in

expect

literary

For

now

provided

our

, it may

by

our

practice

may

hensive

evaluation

samples

demonstrate

possibilities

simply

be

sitions

. Furthermore

prose

samples

be
as

full

or

of

. Refer

al - Muqaffa

the

love

Greek

wisdom

popular

discourse

modus

operandi

as

essays

or

indeed

to

is

to

how

how

discussion

they

about

lacuna

reference

successful

QuPanic

. That

. The

that

is

not

it

filled

interlingual

essays

is

, as

borrow

hall

al - shi

in

of

cr

by

works

a more

various

prose

materials

materials

prose

the

of

in

from

in

compre
, the

fashion
context

source

which

passages

cr

, nonetheless

the

the

prose

al - shi

making

methodical

device

overlapping

the
hall

, thus

and

hall

how

difficult

explicit
the

although

of

somewhat

of
, the

remarked

complete

an

levels

on

focus

the

, and

illustrations

them
in

and

his

instructions

Ibn
to

not

author

not

in

is

Arabic

prose

discourse

author

of

and

Persian

formalized

or

main

effort

rendering

the

into

never

compositions

in

coherent

theoretical

, by

)
into

integrated

, his

the

, this

details

Arabic

into

, a

was

the

/ 1021

any

essays
to

into

crept

be

give

study

Zulaykha

However

theory

to

fables

and

. 43 Unfortunately

prose

this

( d . c . 411

.44

hall

would

to

in

perceptibly

" materials
to

one

have

fails

adapted

Bidpai

Yusuf

equally

relate

be

wording

author

elsewhere

al - Firdawsi

may

similar

our

Persian

sayings

" exotic

, as

made
the

attempt
story

a precisely

compo
his

the

model
QuPan

hadith , and popular anecdotes are also utilized in addition to poetic


pieces

, is

by

is

that

reveals
to

an

the

no

author

katib

pretation
types

means

the
are

hall

should

be

of

and

, it
as

evidence

forms

intertwined

. Moreover
of

an

various

adapted

into

analytical

source

should

be

Ibn

al - Athlr

illustrates

a technique

of
the

in

which

prose

so

all

imprecision

. What

materials

that

are

regarded

and

employed

' s understanding
forms

of

compositions

in

non

it

available

and
prose

by
inter

discourse

a pragmatic

way

II
Fi

hall

ay at

al - Qur

of

QuPanic

( Recomposition

The
the
in

uniqueness
justification
the

application

43

WM , 152 - 53 .

44

See

Rosenthal

of

the

style

for

the

recommendation

of

the

, " Sayings

and

hall

idiom

device

of the

Ancients

of
of
to

the

' an
Verses

the

Holy

Qur

3 an

a different

pattern

Scripture

. Constant

" , 29 - 54 and

150 - 83 .

is

adduced
of

approach
recitation

as

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION AND VERSIFICATION

56

of

the

Book

serious
as

meditation

practitioner

the

liar

and

Book

is

usages

equip
have

of
read

katib

with

roots

in

had
, but

analysis

of

, the
been

and

use

of

its

! r was

should

the

the

first
are

for

>

prosification

for

issue

examined
the

of

in

argument

is

Scripture
the

an

to

offer

to
a

be

in

essential

where

' an
he

made

distinction

of

idioms

is

the

text

in

a way

of

the

only

be

utilized

made

part

) , and
is

essay

, but

Qur

hall
to

in

the

prose
hall

of

3 anic

the

. 46 Ibn
hall
rather
in

Qur

3 an

the

also

latter

expressions

of

when

it

is

extensively

view

whole

composition

motifs

about

or
of

on

with

how

of

any

given
this

of

Quranic

ideas

in

a whole

a process

the

al - Mathal

. With

wording

blend

prose

in

borrowing

involves

in

' s prescription

the

its

, and

used

highlighted

incorporation

or

been

established

quotational

the

in

, as

contemporary

retained

prose

use

poetry

retained

has

and

than

the

be

as

, and

."

al - Athlr

is

speech

course

must

be

of

same

"

eloquent

classical

of

simply
the

most

Holy

must

between

former

a prose

that

to

/ iqtibas

. The

the

endorsement

may

prose
literary

systematic

of

approach

paralleled

, both

quality

that

the

and

objects

wording
or

lore

subjected

, ( i . e . tadmin

compositions

46

be

the

follow

peculiar
imitated

Quranic

may

and

in

a detailed

distinctive

is
to

uniqueness

material

idioms

Allah

intellectual

argues

Quranic

45

, its
be

a further

that

poetry

tool

>

made

' s unapproachable

Qur

clear

be

to

the

the
that

compositions

it

, would

expressions

idioms

as

of

not
, rather

impossible

The

Book

therefore

pecu

them

: 45

that

often

and

of

any

as

meanings
study

" Know

to

emerge

eloquent

QuPanic

recognized

says

images

a constant

ideas

argument

, he

and

recommended

of

from

idioms

his

ideas

are

Quranic

. In

new

sublime

al ~Ath

materials

meanings

understanding

Book

long

Ibn

how

compositions
Quranic

such
the

its

results

highlighted

compositions
enterprise

art , as

naturally

the

already

the

. A thorough

, which

their
As

over

of
the

verse

, a

new
in

integration
essay

and

WM , 174 .
On

the

doctrine

of

icjaz

and

the

scholarly

discussions

of

fikrat i cjaz al - Qur ' an " ; EI, s .v . " fdjaz " , and " al - Kur 'an
al - Khattab ' s Treatise on the i cgaz al - Qur 'an " .

it , see

al - H ims I , " Tarlkh


, " Al - Sultan

Poonawala

IBN AL - ATHIR ' S al - washy

flow

naturally

Chapter
in

One

Ibn

need

not

which

By

detain

to
a Qur

equally

ii

Qur

be

such

By

the

this

in

an

of

. In

under

some

QA

identified

is

to

, there

in

here

him

prose

essay

in

samples

, and

is

his

hall

he

success
is "

two

ways

: 48

of

does

the

technique
are

part

in

elements

compositions

with

it . This

not

from

the

more

can

designate

in

some

of

demonstrated
. In

the

47

al - Mathal

48

WM , 174 - 75 . See

' anic

last

it

expressing

of
is

by

descent

analysis

, the
are
or

under

and

paraphrase

instances

sample

, 1 / 170 .

the

of

classified

QBj

2;

QB

2;

some

some

most

the

group
is

QB

/ allusion

whereas

, the

groupings

para

others

overlapping

decides
five

grouped

under

come

verse

which

are

come

' anic

of

are

anecdotes

Qur

by

different
in

retained

single

the

afforded

samples

that

the

the

of

. Five

allusions

as

how

criteria

passages

quotation

deductive

classification

other

the
or

from
or

remark

, 1/ 190 .
al - Mathal

finer

features

of

a paraphrase

to

samples
each

or

wording

relevant

, each

exact

illustrating

verses

two

. Although
the

illustrating

. It

following

also

then

inductive

expressions

from
one

; it being

model
of

a blend

than

not

employ

the

Qur

the

+ QB

the

passages
,

we

' anic

, ; those

materials

lacking

allotted

purposes

Qur

of

to ,

model

, if

. For

illustrating

contain

and

through

. However

in

QB

does

27

possible

which

use

either

discernible

QA

content

relationship

gives

between

under

the

whose

the

under

classified

characteristic
it

the

second

practice

of

; those

combining

wholly

which

thought

established

is still

be

or

, the

in

usage

samples

samples

deviant
materials

within

? , although

involves

author

of

come

derive

be

wordings

the

the

' anic

interest

prose
tars

of

Qur

should

utilized

. 47 1 highlighted

sort

can

phrased

are

be

sense

selected

provided

can

its

type

function

exact

and

first

all , our

patterns

patterns

can

as

of

so

text

samples

of

. According

accordingly

the

levels

the

concluding

adoption

allusion

the

verse

or

some

use

. What

materials

indication

chapter
the

framework

' anic

prose

scriptural

two

again

characterized

piece

methods

this

prior

Whereas
Quranic

us

' anic

opening

as

in

or

about

a scientific

applicable

effort

elsewhere

' s discussion

formulating

in

it without

and

al - Athlr

issue
at

into

57

al -marqum

are

not

dominant
to
illustrated

which
.

Table

Table

of

model

QBi

Paraphrase

wasfkarim

( 175 )

fl

wasfkarim

( 175 - 6 )

balagha

ba cd al -fudala

al - iqtisad

'

fl dhamm

rajul

khutba

dhamm

talab

kitab

mawadda

wasf
jawab

ila

' l - Diwan

al - caziz

QBi

fl

' anic

can

wasf

+ Allusion

' l - ightirab

( 179 )

ba ^d al - tughat

( 176 )

kitab

al - shukr

fl

ta cziya

fi

wasf

' l - khida

( 182 )
kitab

( 191 )

c ( 183 )

' l - Malik

( 186 )
fl

wasf

ma craka

fl

wasf

al - manjaniq

fl

ma cna

( 187 )

( 189 )
' l - tawakkul

( 190 )
duVfi

sadr

kitab

( 192 )
du ca ^ akhar

The

number

within

( 192 - 3 )

du ' a * akhar

( 193 - 4 )

du ca 3 akhar

( 192 )

the

brackets

refers

to the

pages

on

which

the

passages

materials

+ QB 2

( 182 )

al - makr
ila

fl
ila

al - karim

( 179 - 80 )

kitab

Qur

Paraphrase
al - bakhil

wasf
wa

of

( 180 )

( 178 )

fi wasfqalam

fl

hall

( 175 )

( 176 )

( 177 )
( 191 )

the

Allusion
fi

al - rizq

( 187 - 8 )

illustrating
QB 2

QA

Quotation
fl

passages

1*

occur

in

WM .

( 185 )

in

prose

QA

+ QB

Quotation + Paraphrase /Allusion


kitab
fl

ila

wasfhisar

' l - Malik

al - cAziz

( 188 )

( 184 )

59

IBN AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHYAL -MARQUM

QA

Quotation

jk /
( About

" He
is

puts

no

blamed

( Allah

for
) the

giving

of

give

curtain

noble

him

prayer

are

strings

back

and

] ' Come

The

Qur

3anic

" Cultivate
away

to

verse

the

from

the

his

Man

wealth

generosity

and
not

a Noble

: ' Turn

are

man

calls

excessive

excuses

excuses

"

between

Exalted

Type

from

avarice

are

different

in

of
says

favour
:

salvation

of

the

ignorant

to

( Description

. (idJJ

49

WM

50

with

the

stingy
. In

the

that

those
bow

bypass
'

of

believes
and

beggar

munificence

he

statement

' . He

estimation
any

whenever

who
of

him

as

one

calls

is

good

, and

this
, he
[ to

in

part

forgiveness
" . ( Qur

is :

, commend
3an

of

: cJUi

a Noble

what

7 : 199

Js

turn

) .

Man

' s Eloquence

J >3

) 50

Vj

We may also draw attention to the fact that the expression : hayya cala
is borrowed from the text of the formal call to the Muslim prayer .

175 - 76 .

'l -falah

; and

ignorant
: the

. Should

' Come

I j Ji *J
li

replies
the

brothers
his

people

' ."

quoted

virtue

and
he

away

) 49

WM , 187 - 88 .

60

the

" The

arabic

theory

standards

produces

of

the

their

stray

expressions
the

souls

over

ideas

without
angel

it

being
will

imagination

The

ideas

will

' . He

said
not

' anic

been

them

the

in

reveal

: ' This

is

her

idea

utilized

here

are

only

they

; he

achieve
with

who

his

charms

. He

( certainly

them

being

him

charms

one

; and

) excel

( i . e . the

, he

is

on

any

daughter

on , you

dear

one

beauties

: ' Come

. He

the

through

to

could

them
to

human

his

saying

others

of
only

no

out

subservient

. When

] images
an

versification

made

cream

[ brilliant

bring

verses

and

belongs

not

without

Qur

of

achieves

expression

of

. He

have

wonderful

, he

, and

puts

prosification

eloquence

most
ones

of

images

nothing

but
of

an

( his

' ."

:
i

.
" And

they

nothing

said
but

in

amazement

a noble

l - L&i
: ' This

angel

' ."

( Qur

is

no

' an

human

L)

being

J15j

; it is

certainly

12 : 31 ) .
c
. dli

" And
one

she

locked

' . " ( Qur

' an

the

door

firmly

said

CJ

: ' Now

\ij

T he

ojj
( From

come

P araphrase

jSy

a Letter

4,1*5

si

dXUJl

to

King

Abu

prose

essay

founding

Aqsa

Mosque

Tiraz

cil - majcilis

See

the

Sharh

IsbahanI

Ibn

C (J JjJ

j > Jl

equally

contains

, some

, 230 - 231 . Our

contents

of the

Diwan

al - Hamasa

, al - Zahra

dear

ja

Bakr

4Uij

^~

Ibid . , 186 . The

reflects

on , you

Ayyub

) 51
c

4j !

of the

"
I C - 4.U -j

T ype

JS j

i >

12 : 23 ) .

QBi

and

C a

forty

author

following

by

, 2 / 782 ; Shark

, 2 / 550 ; al - TanukhI

after

, Kitab

Abu

C(J

jJsj

to the
the

to indicate

verse

AJLI J

41o

a reference
years

fails

that
Khirash

ash car

report

Ka cba . See
the

al - Qawafi

relating
Shihab

prose

sample
:

, 61 .

al - Hudhall

al - Hudhaliyyin

to the
al - DIn ,
equally

, 3 / 1230 ; al -

61

IBN AL - ATHIR ' S AL - WASHYAL -MARQUM

. L ZfJji * oLw

(jj

}\

CJ

^ IP

.
IJIO

I
Jj <Uii

4JL

.
c IJI & U*

^JL ( C,
0

on

them

His
in

the

that

did

the
named

same

would
our

of

his

sword

stones

relation

, so

to

the

made

that

they
would

one

have

. Certainly

threw

stones

on

paraphrased

" And

He
clay

sent

on

. " ( Qur

ii

' an

flights
105

wlL ^ 11 ll - Aw
JS " V

WM , 189 - 90 .

*
loi

him

birds

House

the
with

the

,
sword

the

edge
with

lesser

choices

in
would

evil

in

calamities
have

:
pre

."

is :

- Jc ^ 1 ty

, striking

them

of

>

a Catapult

with

J jlj
stones

of

) 52

C c

. IgJLj

^
^

] which
Holy

punishment

sword

p -frV
of

. He

:3 - 4 ) .

( Description

g *

52

them

are

here

<y

baked

them

it

the

a sign

chastisement

regarded

by

those

Islam

through

defaced

there

this

the

follows
on

Jerusalem

Divine

considered

completely

expression

escaped

have

that

in

after

Uol 1

changes

made

[ in

jjj

rained

birds

remembered

punishment

would

His
of

he

House

have

jU

never

of

flights

institution

had

would

destroyed

heaven

, and

that

, and

be

His
it an

a heavy

) who

greater

the

Quranic

suffered

to

1j
1>J

Oj *X*J
^

fortunes

act

sent

House

event

attempted

much

is

an

who

king

had

Holy

, and

. They

who
that

His
and

of

; a recent

SI

y*

C l^jL ? - ^ _tjl

place

j
- --

<>lA*Jl (

is a tradition

. He

makers

have

blessing

someone
ferred

those

( the

. That

act

destroy
times

still

in

interpretable

( mischief

Lord

them

water

earlier

to

to

these

of

not

a sanctuary

if

at

^ ^

of

His

- Islamic

],

they

The

are

out

Mecca

Even

place

of

set

pre

he
fin

in

pattern
had

5y

misfortunes

rocks

signs
the

who
in

threw

Ojj ^J

ll

A*Xi> t,_ i i 1 ^

" . . . Allah

yy > cju^ ^y > I^i 2-U

4^s

. 01

4Sl j * \ obi

4jIj

*
1>!^ J 1
; <CjUI

J
*^ 1 ^ > -

THE

62

ARABIC

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

AND VERSIFICATION

(Jjj

Tjj

^ Lgjl
" Catapults
which

were
is

They

will

not

ing

it , and

take

effect

lovely

they

essay

will
plant

come
among

following

is

city

without

a living

its

it

without

residents

them

, the

which

emptiness

never

all

mountains

of

of

for

' s decree

confusion

city

walls

hail

which

destroy

Allah

sorts

the

of

longed
they

making

bombarding

on

stones

clouds

from

upon

continued

of

generated

against

; raining

only

they
downpour

not

. They

shower

consisted

and
the

launched

. They

copious

up

and
be

crops

The

set

dreaded

, not

with

their

, however

."

Quranic

passages

are

said

to

have

been

utilized

in

this

:
6

-XL

is

Allah

who

drive

this

to

Thus

will

be

sends

a dead
the

winds

land

and

J.
<Uiij

,
" It

yzs

so

that

revive

resurrection

."

they
the

( Qur

raise

up

earth

' an

the

1-!'

cloud

therewith

. And

after

its

We

death

J -*1 li

35 : 9 ) .

" The
decree
16 : 1 )

of

" . . . then
it

like

( Qur

came
a

' an

Allah

has

upon

harvest

it

clean

come

our

by , never

decree

- mown

as

seek

by

night

if

it

to

or

had

by

not

hasten

day

it . "

. And

0 ^
they

lovely

it

<}f

denied

confused

upon

3an

made

of

late

."

10 : 24 ) .

. . . (V. j *

We

flourished

" But

( Qur

state

the

. . . And

mountains
pairs

."

' an

^
when

the

standing
( Qur

Lo-i

<y

truth

earth
firm

50 : 5 - 7 ) .

it

came
We

, and

to
have

produced

J "!
ifclo

them

, they

spread
therein

it

are
out
every

-u
indeed
and

in
threw

kind

of

AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHYAL - MARQUM

IBN

. aLto

AS

" And

He

taining

sends

hail

away

JJ

4j

down

. He

from

tLtj

causes

whom

He

the

them

to

pleases

place

immortalize

him

his

happiness

masses

of

pleases

and

He

3an

that

at
no

success

clouds

would

The

four

. pkJI

one

turns

( the
are

granted
81 )

let

be

him

Qur

those

not

tj *

land

at

morn

Danic

aJU > -

) said

raised

: 'O

my

Lord

said

the

day

:
of

here

dJils

are

as

, grant

his

a fight

Jl

J15

then

respite

till

are

among

those

. " ' ( Qur

3an

53

for

the

brought

mercy
here

of

my

. " ( Qur

Lord

, I would

' an

37 : 57 ) .

) , how

me

time

with

."

you

appointed

for
others

efforts

follows

p ;

him

forth
above

( for

) ; grant

admonished

J IS . OjX ^

' Certainly
the

crown

been

abundance

brought
tower

a people

had

paraphrased

' . Allah
till

, and

hell

be

him

of

who

to

make

in

( from

those

He

forecourt

Jl

glories

respite

among

those

verses

acquire

superiority

the

of

p ; Jl

Satan

be

his

who
given

. May

doubt

he
the

respite

be

them

) 53

those

like

would

CijJI

" But

con

24 : 43 ) .

Resurrection

. Should

evil

to

ijyoJ

among

name

; and

questioning

" It

whom

( Qur

^jA

Allah

they

strike

> - ^y >

" May

so

l ^ S JL

mountain

Supplication

0j ^ 2J>- \j
ur

sky

."

(A

from

iii
c

63

the

day
to

be

38 : 79 -

4^ aJ

have

surely

been

among

those

WM , 192 - 93 . It may be remarked that the Qur ' anic idioms paraphrased here occur
at the end of each period . This is a good example of the paraphrase type that also
combines the device of tarsf .

64

the arabic

Xai

theory

of prosification

Oj !Jkj

JL

AND versification

-U

LJjjl

.
" If

you

then

are

ask

has

."

" Is

come

to

( Qur

it

' an

our

When

it

those

who

doubt
who

truth

ers

in

those

you

that

been

from

punishment
descends

that
at

had

their

been

Lord

they

earnestly

warned

."

c ~ip ! iils

feature

of

facilitating

of

the

to

trates
in

Allah

The

his

[ like

37 : 176

- 7 ) .

by
worn

be

blamed
it

in

generosity

( of

overtakes

doubt

come
be

quickly
the

morn

of

176 - 77

is

their
good

one

reverence
and

in

hopes

. To

it belong

that

no

one

out

of

it

then

showers

praises

passion

C L^ Up

, Moses
wane

the

on

it

they

are

places

, it

honour
ever

admiration
out

which

possessed
and

of

- like

( lit . fall

when

watering

had

$-ULXO

healing

; and

into

thirst

to

l ^J

cure

glorifies

alluded

' IwCJO

entering

manners

of

lib

who

out

Owbi

) . When
with

] from

quenching

materials

4>

- like

animals
them

herds

, and

Messiah

.
pros

conviction

."

here

*4 *^

WM

the

c
^

is

watering

' s oneness

QuPanic

<cuj5

are

54

you

. Surely

) 54

f-LLto

thirsty

well

for

it

would

Noble

nobility

them

not

Not

among

evil

s-billj

the

) , his

prevented

is

not

to
you

Type

rescues

be

wished

' an

Allusion

. igj

LgJi

sick

, and

ils -U -

revealed
before

oli

f i

in

have

Book

, how

( Qur

( Description

" The

We

the

your

forecourt

The

(j *

which

reading

C ^5 "

10 : 94 ) .

QB 2

. ji

,_y

concerning
have

L>-4

t.

f
i_s j ? j

IBN AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHYAL - MARQUM

" ...

and

you

( QuPan

used

5 : 113

to

cure

blind

and

the

lepers

oJA~~J

e^ s "

when

he

group

of

women
is the

matter

until

the

arrived

men

who

J -^ SJ

other

very

old

a refuge

at the

their

keeping
you
shepherds

man

. ' So

UJXJSJ

they

watered
the

their

shade

."

( Reply

^ Ip

^ Jl

to

o JSsj

(jl

them

iJJwlxj

JjuJI

jU - - \S Uj &^ S' J
"""*
&
.

<ubj

LJ ^

Aj

{j &

our

then

. (JljSVl

turned

son

; their

that
is

allowed

Allah

WM

, which

away
and

would

a lamp

55

words

passes

*)!

I
^

<J

is

180 - 81 .

2 / 250 , lines

are

have

enclosed

, although

J4 ^

^ 2

everlasting

likened
in

, refuse

. Had

the

it

inferior
His

a glass

they

not
with

Prophet
. So , let

to

been
the
to
not

our

(j ^
above

wither

master

' 0

o4 ~ <a

compari

like

a flower

figurative

superior

a lamp

^ JI
c

are

that

1 Jj

^ JJ

i^ jy , LA -X> - I y

a while

comparing

not

that

after

<U^XJJ

meadows

to

0
c

S1PI > -I ^jp

are

<> tC

b -P
c
O ^ l ) Igl

^yo

' s letters

is

ij >l UwC!L *

elr

master

flocks

father

. <ul ^ Pj
" Our

two

: ' What

C l> -

I
4)il <-J

<djj

4jllS "

<

were

) 55

j3
*

^
there

them

our

and

found

water

, and

them

LJ _j

28 : 23 - 24 ) .

a Letter

c <JIj

asked

cannot

for

3an

1 Ji

beside

flocks

flocks

( Qur

Jij

."

2jj

J IS

, he

) . He

: ' We

their

-- U

Madyan

and

flocks

replied
back

- - -D^

in

( their

take

he

under

place
flocks

back

? ' , and

ii

VI

leave

*-L

watering

watering

were
with

take

my

AAZ-

Vfi
" And

by

) .

y \
U^ s

the

65

usage

permissible
, nor

His
feel

light

,
to

offended

For the poem of Abu Tammam in question see Dlwan Abi Tammam ,

24 and

25 ; I bn

A b I ' l - I sba c, Tahrlr

, 507 .

66

THE

ARABIC

that

I compared

one

of

it

the

( i . e . the

of

) is
of

one

has

experienced

the

spring

summer

The

of

, but

is

his

. He

the

both

, two

of

pleasant
and

its

to

the

its

of

seasons

the

: his

the

[ obedient

pleasure

outlook

as

for

the

charcoal

as

much

yearning

granted

annual

and

suffering

which

is

the

is

this

. As

confused

burning

sight

regard

idiom

too

have

affairs

should

a typical
, so

by

verses

as

both

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VERSIFICATION

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the

OF PROSIFICATION

letter

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- like

QuPan

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women
to

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Messiah

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33 : 45 - 46 ) .

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Earth
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in

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as

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sent

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are

insights

precisely

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lamp

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the

lamp

\yjj

; and

relationship

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extratextual

indeed

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referred
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kalim

have

illustrating

medicine

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24 : 35 ) .

explanations

sample

usage

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containing

illuminating

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first

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tidings

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to

QBi + QB 2

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a great
of

Abu

to

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llusion

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i

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; nor

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poet

] leads

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have

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both

56

matters

not

whether

disbelievers
of

them

WM , 179 .

drove
were

in

you

company

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him
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out

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sheath

is

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of

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Allah
more
9 : 40 ) .

the

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[ eventually

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companions

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them

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Allah
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,

68

THE

ARABIC

Although
as

the

this

one

from

THEORY

is

the

he

al - Yathribiyya

migration

from

refer

. ( For

only

which

al - ghurba

Quranic

to

, Qur

into

ii

in

( To

to

2 : 218

VERSIFICATION

that

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is

adduced

prose

Yathrib

Medina
3 an

AND

verse

borrowed
( Exile

Mecca

example

OF PROSIFICATION

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by

sample
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, the

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expression

to

of

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a Certain

Oppressor

(.

^ LLsJ1

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c oj L P
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historic

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; 33 : 50 ; 59 : 8 - 9 ) .

34JJL
^

author

asU

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deeply

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unjustly

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he

him

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his

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to

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, although

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tyrannical

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him

disbelief

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to

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Allah

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al - Samiri

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camel

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am

not

to

someone

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[ harshly

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Allah

. Thus
,

be

of

servants

commanded

sunk

and

malice

57

to

part

His

) away
was

letter

one

is

among

tyrant

. Moses

tyrant

established

birth

Calf

the

following

WM , 185 .

be

blamed
had

for

saying

openly

my

tongue

are

given

unpleasant

oppressed
; for

as

the

he

had

sources

words

me

and

talked

to

to

the

for
me

prose

aloud

against

talking
with

passage

his

to
sword

him
."

ibn al - athir

' s AL - WASHY AL - MARQUM

69

. . .
" And

when

more

sins

he

is

told

. " ( QuPan

: ' Fear
2 : 206

Allah

(Oil Jjj ! a ]

' , arrogance

leads

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you

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see

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Allah

a person

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to

commit

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en

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him

) .

(. olt

who
him

takes

to

be

as

his

god

so , allowed

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his
to

own

go

lowly

astray

desire

" . ( Qur

;
' an

45 : 23 ) .

. . . ^ JJs / y
" Allah

does

except

by

paraphrase

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prose

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Qur

J an

encounter
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QA + QB

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<jL *L
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58

WM , 184 - 85 .

4 : 148

, its

Qur
relating
his

mysterious

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is
in

worship

( Qur
by

are

contains

particularly
to

public

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kinsmen
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opening

sample

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in

) .

by

Pharaoh

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jij * .Jl

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of

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is
an

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abundantly
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3an

79 :

the

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20 : 85 - 89 ) , and

a member

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Allusion

Type

ilJLJI

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pronounced

91 : 11 - 15 .

Quotation

<uUiJl

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the

loudly

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illustrated

40 : 85 . Moreover

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( A Letter

those
. For

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i

be

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than

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places

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15 - 26 . Two
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THE

70

ARABIC

THEORY

<u3 III

OF PROSIFICATION

(JOLA

- Hp
" I ask
like

him

in

Him

. He

name

has

of

takes

care

of

Him

would

not

have

, He

allotted

to

both

of

not

leave

whoever

which

tongue

oppressed

oppression

nine

ewes

against

the

Qur

" Surely
one

' anic

verse

this

."

The

allowed

( Qur

is

my

' an

graces

one

here

brother

him

perpetrator
is

my

of

the

to

he

The

prose

cited
the

in

verse

One

Allah

also

of

, he

has

ninety

the

Qur

3an

- nine

, that

which

constrained

is

."

ewes

, while

I have

just

prose

improved

, let him

allusion

" Whosoever

. The

, the

arada

second

the

ties
hadith

to
addition

and

author

an yuzada

wishes

uphold

. In

here

that

his

of his

, which

may

be

from

Qur

' an

4 : 148

, some
as
not

fi cumrihi

kinship

dill

well

each

other

to

was

ft rizqihl
and

his

al - Bukhari

be a juristic

from

section

illustrate

wa - yubsat

Sahih

, which

borrowings
this

prolonged

. " See

' an : 4 : 1 ) .

insofar
chose

life

assistance

. . . " . ( Qur

sample

them

solicit

kinship

contains

is : man

, 4 / 1982

to

is :

you

reflected

discussing

of the hadlths

of

also

also

rahimah

Whom

ties

preceding

for

Muslim

by

] the

essay

are

intended

59

fear

the

hadlth

statement

[ fear

state
ninety

. . .

and

the

38 : 23 ) .

paraphrased

" . . . and

over

has

this

acts

is

with

, constrained

forbidden
if

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justice

utter

choice

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him

, he

with

fight

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it hard

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( i . e . the

brother

has

prosperity

aloud

before

to

. He

and

talk

him

am

is

to

of

dear

name

life

feared

welfare

been

His

, let
and

draw

its

one

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from

long

it be

the

had

perpetrator

quoted

it

of

. ' I find
I

be

it

, I would

, this

^ > caj
0 ^

that

happens

prayers
haunts

its

for

heart

this

statement

to

Hereafter

. Therefore

a heavy

of

may

the
) . If

grace

: ' Certainly

this

is

ordered

in

the

. When

, which

. Although

The

it

just

Allah

a word

best

I have

. ((3wX> - lj
ul -J1

world

coined

sleeplessly

while

forbidden

this

with

Almighty

him

Himself

( in

arrows

which
of

upon

His

moan

shooting

ment

utter

of

the

of

straight

are
to

which

it

protects

me

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'-

kinship

taken

whoever

VERSIFICATION

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^ L

the

AND

cliche

is
them

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not
. 59

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sustenance

be

, 8 / 12 ; Sahih
, is al - darurat

IBN AL -ATHlR ' S AL - WASHYAL - MARQUM

71

jLa ?- tJwj ^
( Description of a Siege ) 60

ii
J

stAJI jUaSI

. L^

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e

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Catapults were set into place ; so they threw their beams and ropes
and overwhelmed all parts of the city with their chastisement . Thus
did the city walls prostrate for them as did the magicians to the effect
of ( Moses ' ) staff ; and they hurriedly proceeded to submit like some
one who obeys and does not disobey . Except that their submission
came only after the threat of the stones which would not threat any
structure without leading it to destruction and causing it to fall from
all its sides ; thus becoming like a tree that is turned up by the root
from the surface of the earth ; it has no stability . "
"

This sample contains , among others , a paraphrase and an allusion


which derive from :
C

tJ

^ jli

U oudJ
*

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ji

*
1^

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i

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jiJ \

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He said : ' You throw ( first ) ' . And behold , their ropes and rods are
made to appear to him , on account of magic , as if they were in lively
motion . Moses then felt some fear in him . We said : ' Fear not , you
shall indeed have the upper hand . Throw that which is in your right
hand ; instantly will it swallow up that which they have conjured , for
what they have conjured is but a magic ' s trick ; and the magician
prospers not wherever he goes . ' So the magicians went down prostrate
"

tubih al - ma.h7.urat 2 : 173 ; 6 : 119 .


60

WM , 188 .

" Necessities

make illegalities permissible . " Compare Qur 3an

THE

72

and

said

ARABIC

: ' We

THEORY

believe

OF PROSIFICATION

in

the

Lord

of

AND VERSIFICATION

Moses

and

Aaron

. ' " ( Qur

Dan

20 :

4^ 15*"

_y

66 - 70 ) .

The

quoted

passage

of

the

Qur

' an

in

the

sample

is :
c
&

" The

similitude

earth

, it

has

Consistent
idioms
the
is

essay

Qur

sources

types

, for

utilized

Scripture
or

aspects

of

the

which

sumed
The

to
essays

of

this

of

the

al - Athlr
usages
number

they

historical

because

be

popular

to

essentially
of

category

the

samples
.

Qur

in

the

in

that

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the
form

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under

of

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him

, as

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they
as

it

. Almost
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table

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in

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pre

relates
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3anic

of
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may

even

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proverbs

with

of

author

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categories
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make

and

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to

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is

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samples

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materials

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to

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in

of

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by

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to

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to

introduced

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to

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passage

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. His

, juristic

. Allusions

are

tree

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himself

inspired

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of

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section

limiting

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principle

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in this
his

like

3an : 14 : 26 ) .

the

prose

provided

example

is

. " ( Qur

in

in

word

to

exemplars

also

evil

stability

utilized

reflected

3 anic

are

no

an

adherence

when

also

of

total
under

AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL - MARQUM

IBN

73

III

Fi hall

al - akhbar

( Recomposition

In

so

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retained

its

author

possible

passages

largely

in

versions

phraseology

treatment

these

used

of

certified

up

differing

khabar

its

sense

our

are

statements

to

that

and

the

According

that

of

ways

reports

are

Anecdotes

: 61

writing

various

in

Prophetic

part

adopting

in

ways

a prose

By

they

Prophetic

anecdotes

related

how

selecting

in
ii

or

often

. Nevertheless

utilized

to

Prophetic

are

approach

ble

of

al - Nabawiyya

prose

overlapping
feature
of

the

and
in

which
come

samples
can
reflected
category

Table
Table

of

HA

HBi

Quotation

Paraphrase

fasl

min

dhamm
fi

kitab

al - zaman

' l - mawaddat

min jumlat
fi

wasfkarim

( 208 )

( 210 )

fi sadr
kitab
difa ' li - man

( 211 )
ismuhu

kutub

fi

al - Diwan

akhar

( 202 )

( 213 )
( 212 )

du ca D akhar

( 214 )

dhamm

hall

of

HA

Prophetic

hathth

( 200 )

qalam

( 201 - 2 )

wasf al - hazm
( 204 )
ila ba cd al - cusat

'
fi

wasf

al - hilm

ila

bi - wilaya

du ' a ^fi sadr

kitab

( 209 )

number

within

the

( 198 )

bi - ba cd

al -fuqara

brackets

' ( 200 )
al - kujfar

refers

to the

pages

on

which

the

passages

maridin

fi

qital

kuffar

( 208 )

fi

talidhib

( 212 )

kitab

( 197 )

al - shayb

' l - Diwan

+ Qui ' 'an

ciyadat

' l -sadaqa

( 196 )
( 214 - 5 )

occur

prose

Haditli

+ Paraphrase
cala

taqlid

in

H + Q

Quotation

wasfkalam

akhbar

+ HB

( 206 )

di / a ' akhar

min futiih
( 208

The

the

Allusion

wasf

wasfkalam

cinaya

illustrating

fi

wasf al - ukhuwwa
( 210

( 213 )
duV

kitab

du ca ' li - qadin
cAli

( 213 - 14 )
du ' a ' fi

/ Adoption

( 199 - 200 )

( 207 )
( 207 )

kitab

passages
HB 2

fi sadr

( 199 )

model

2 *

in

WM .

ila

( 202 - 203 )
( 204 )

al - nafs

( 205 - 6 )

ba cd al - muluk

( 210 )

IBN AL - ATHlR ' S al - washyal

HA

Q uotation

(A

tyju

VI

" If

1 OyliJ

had

Vj

been

not

have

dared

and

with

respect

the

stray

The

the

forelock
sheep

from

a Letter

of
to

our

afflict

. But

and

) 62

C - Jil

neighbour

would

by

T ype

c ^l >Vl

highly
me

Section

75

-marqum

master

me

I was

tore

me

; they
far

up

the

vicissitudes

would

have

away

like

Ijb

from

a prey

jJ

of

time

assessed

him

; to

, so

me

they

the

wolf

the

following

held

belongs

."

Prophetic

hadlth

quoted

in

the

passage

is

from

:
t

. <Uv ^ lJiJI
" Allah
into

'

' s support
the

is

Hellfire

11

" May
may
and

Allah
He

whelm
that

key
his

no

the

of

WM , 199 . For

the

63

WM , 213 - 14 . The

hadlth
full

time

, see
text

Chancery

of

over
. May

Sunan

of the

the

office

report

grant
to

al - Tirmidhi

his

) 63

Noble
for

, but
to

without

Muslim

Dlwan

dynasty

. May
make

his

it
subjects

submitting

, 4 / 466 .

is in Sahlh

his

supremacy

luck

him

, deviates

."

a stabilizer

enemies

He

Prophetic

of

the

obedience

sheep

Letters

of

.
deviates

stray

a harbinger

gifts

declare

the

authority

freely

with

would

in

ly aj

. Whosoever

belongs

tenure
the

jji

community

, the

operate

friends

62

i jhJl

wolf

a prolonged
events

one

the

eternal

hand

the

UjIJ

Supplication

make

make

the

make

for

; to

(A

JjJJ

, 1 / 382 .

He
over
so
[ to

76

THE

him

ARABIC

THEORY

completely

service

without

This

prayer

so

OF PROSIFICATION

that

him

no

declaring

quotes

from

the

AND VERSIFICATION

one

would

: ' Set

her

acknowledge
free

following

, for

report

his

she

is

right

to

a believer

involving

the

.' "

Prophet

" c

cJUji

. . .
C
.

"

Lgjls
a

before
in

and

heaven

is

Lg_Sxc -l

belonging

him

the

she

maid

to

was

asked

' . So

a believer

Jlai

he

( the

. ((eU ^ Jl

certain

Ud 1')

companion

: ' Where

is

Prophet

) told

of

Allah

the

? ' , and

her

Prophet

she

master

came

replied

: ' Set

: ' He

her

free

is

, for

.' "

ObjJI
iii

( About

Affections

l^ iir

,y
- Lai

) 64
c

Cf ' W

14JU

toLi

ol -i

<_y

IA ^ UL

it

would

not

have

fingers

of

authority

could
one
theirs

The

be

not

that

hearts

, and

or
has

has

hadith

said

' . They

friendly

condition

oscillate

been

certainly

taken

quoted

between

that

one

' they

are

hearts

along

them
a route

state

-J

t Lgi .U

and

between

two

of

fall

apart

wishes

that

they

with

a character

close

that

is

not

" The

64

e-Li

hearts

fingers

of

single

person

authority

ed . " Bab

's

; they

other

theirs

in
than

."

~
l ly ^ - jJl

children
; he

turns

hadith

, see

of

jol

Adam

them

where

are

between
he

likes

two
, like

the

of

Allah

heart

's
of

Muslim

."

WM , 207 - 8 . For
Cairo

the

Allah

is :

C ~ >-

of

, it

remain

*
i liT

jS -

another

and

] get

. Whoever
burdened

them

here

[ the

unfriendly

VjJ

LS ^ "
*
If ; dlL

" Were

\ jjio

the

al - qadar

" , 4 / 2045

Ibn
.

Hanbal

, al - Musnad

, 2 / 168 ; Sahih

ibn al - athlr

HB

' s AL - WASHY AL - MARQUM

P araphrase

( At

4iol

the

T ype

Beginning

of

c ^ 53

j jfl

a Letter

) 65

Jly

jxS

? iil

A^b cl >J1

4 lSLft
C >

*ol >Jl
j;

4j ^ *o jj - bJI

frlpjJL

^ IoxpI

cJr

Jj > -1 lil

4jIiS "

^oUJ

C jtJ

O -*-^
.

77

o \j

l? y > a5sj !>LJI

#c3

O^ AU ? (j ^ -4 j ^ 5"

(Jjj

- ^ - jj

f6 j - 1- ^ c"

(J ?^ l

4-il > -

C4.UU ^Jl

AJL)
^

.
fijjSa (J ^*^

. 5LISCJI

" The

( obedient

ues

to

be

tongue

) servant

regular

. If he

[ in

is

affection

will

be

sky

of

the

whose

behaves

be

The

hadith

an

is

his
is

the

at

here

's

for

and
only

returning

this

for

the

65

due

child
to

WM , 199 - 200 . For


also

given

the

following

cala

Allah

yet

he

that

hadith
la - abarrah

a request

sent
should

Adam

lies
odour

hadith

: rubba

, see

, the

Sunan

a man

at the

come

the

above

the

; when

is

better

its
than

] servant
. Among

of

his

love

when

."

'

angels

stay

al - Tirmidhi
it is said

aghbar
with

doors

to pass , He
.

from

[ obedient

like

prayer

away

*ol

(jj \ * ijS ~ 1^ 1

from

him

a mile

."

ash cath

. " Many

al - birr " , 4 / 2024

this

his

is :

, 1/ 203 - 4 , where

back

there

JlpL '

bad

the

in al - Mathal

is never

ed . ) " Bab

of
his

found

giving

distance

of
themselves
. A

manner

the

like

'

" When

is
over

. The

in
in

to

emanates

it

contin

messenger

, and

dusty

that

distance

it

white

ones

of

close

) place

adventure

tradition

him
mile

place

prayer

and

when

( concrete

unkempt

beloved

only

immaculate

boundless

paraphrased

draw

others

no

the

heart

exhibition

as

exterior

his

with

angels

value

be

described

traits
adopt

of

might

towards

character

, the
keep

be

and

there

can

one

to

sources

interior

others

they

letter

to

back

] when

, although

his

companion

shoved

considered

noblest

begins

ghayr
an unkempt

, 4 / 348 . The

to contain
madfuf

bi

' l - abwab

hair , who

of ( blessings

) ; if he

would

it so . " See

make

prose

, in addition

is
of

, law

is covered

were

sample
, a sense

to swear

Sahih

aqsama

with

Muslim

by

dust ,
Allah
( Cairo

THE

78

ARABIC

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

AND VERSIFICATION

II

ii

( Care

for

a Certain

Needy

Person

'

&

. 3

(_5^

" Allah

has

JSj

. i .a a 1? 11 jJUJL

offer

it , even

may

be

[ His

if

sought

sustains

life

described

The

|J

to

as

two

granting

the

weak
. It

is

just

by

the

big

victory

the

and

paraphrased

weak

here

ones

sustenance

^v <>j I

for

the

you

( sake

of

the

4 liliS

that

and

would

front

of

Hellfire

66

none

Resurrection

save

al - Tirmidhi

of

you

] directly

which

he

see

only

him

and

, even

if

WM , 200 . For
al - Bukhari

the

both

the

date

fruit

, even

if

Oj

UJU
, for

" 4jj

Hellfire

. Whatever
it

cannot

be

put

that
would

it

first

, 2 / 285 . For

be

which
see

by

hadith

, see

Sahih

had

nothing
in

put
save

charity

Ibn

Hanbal

hadith

, see

Muslim

*>

life

, but

forward
the
] half

, al - Musnad
Ibn

Hanbal

, 2 / 703 - 4 .

."

^
[ on

would

see

would

; he
Hellfire
a date

^ ** ^ 1 (Sj 3

him

] , and

you

Js >~ I ^yj

^
to

granted

amongst

^ 5-vCo

right
this

be

talking

look
[ in

he

[ giving

the second

, 4 / 611 . Compare

would

forward

shall

Allah

(.

ones

<uiSw

without

. He

had

you

) weak

. 0j **J

of

acquire

amongst

be

J ^ > Uj

conditional
to

against

half

o j &jjij

will

sustenance

small

are

*^ 2j

from

(Sji

" There

ULJ

."

hadiths

me

*}ls

aspires

considered

. j*Sobi
" Find

of

Jlllaj

protection

donation
be

and

that

twj

<ulp

whosoever

known

not

jj j

4 4ji

of ] victory
. So , let

little

should

i.

O^

made

kindness

>

Ji

. 3li0

upon

) 66

the

nothing
look

would

look

. So , fear
fruit

left

,
in

the

."

, 5 / 198 . Compare
, al - Musnad

Day

Sahih

, 1/ 446 ; Sunan

IBN

iii

( A Prayer
c

* L^

Llj

c Lg^

l^ llij

) 67

oL

^ U

JI ijip

V SiU^ i Jyis - l ^J

jt-Jijj

jljp

fi-Lwjl

JjUj

. L^-alo -kj

" May

Allah

cery

and

cause

make

pervasive
sion

of

none
the

of

but

Him

terms

Harb

for

He
and

glory

, the

could
for

Murra

them

acts
; bring

until

virtuous

'

the

of

*^2J J

of
by

enemies

deeds

come

back
souls

preci
of

place
to

life

and

correlation

objects

[ the

contact

be

necklaces

a landing

meet
in

He
)

the

the

whose

proper

. May

fortunes

as

Chan

( lit . pens

; bring

nobility
to

anew

authority

matched

performed

Noble

authority

for
, by

bodies
and

inauspicious

with

Harith

]
and

."

sample

contains

Ojl >JI

tXs -

a paraphrase

of

the

following

hadith

jJI -Upj ail -Up !


.

67

AjljU

Prophetic

sanctuary

are

dead

tS

LS^ ~

pearls

be

its

its
his

it such

instal

the

of
that

not

ihram

resurrect

and

of

nights

will

. May

^ aj l^jJ >-

decree

string

talbiya

used

and

Hammam

This

its

t l^j

the
to

arrangement

, where
leave

Pen

, and

i L^ ^>yi

ji ^ -

^ JXlj (jl 0

authority

and

damsels

hopes

the

days

earth

which

beautiful

the

the

[ Original
on

lj

immortalize

the

jJI (jllaLw

(JU ^>li

t L^ al ^v^

i
<o) l

_^

jl

L [^ o \
L^

79

AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL - MARQUM

j1

**
'>j >~ i <uii

, 214 . For the hadith , see Ibn Hanbal , al - Musnad , 4 / 178 , 345 . Compare Sahih
, 8 / 134 , 144 . Talbiya is the recitation of a specific supplication during the
performance of the hajj ritual and ihram refers to the abandonment of ordinary clothes
WM

al - Bukhari

for two pieces of seamless white sheets also during hajj exercise . The image of the
original pen is to be understood from another hadith which says that it was the first
object created and then ordered to write all that would be from the beginning of the
world to the end . See Muhammad b . JarIr al - TabarI , Tarikh al - Tabarl , ed . Muham
mad Abu ' 1- Fadl Ibrahim ( Cairo , 1960ff . ) , 1/ 32 - 36 ; Ibn KathIr , al - Bidaya wa
' l - nihdya ( Beirut , n . d . ) , 1/ 8 . The names Harith and Hammam are proverbial names
that are meant to encourage hardwork and self - reliance . See al - HarIrI , al - Maqamat ,
author ' s introduction , p . 7 note 3 . Harb ( war ) and Murra ( bitter ) , are frowned upon
as names because they are ominous .

80

the

" The

arabic

most

beloved

al - Rahman
the

HB

theory

; the

most

of

of

most

hateful

prosification

names

to

truthful

to

Him

of

are

and

Allah

them

Harb

Allusion

( To

^ Ip

L^jIj

4jl $

Allah

al - Harith

and

and

Hammam

, and

."

Offender

jl

c pIP -J

) 68

4J

ULJu>- (1) 1 AjJ

J ^ lgj

^ya

" We

had

warned
not

Day

of

with

a bleating

it
his

of

sins

past

exhibits
neither

The
ered

by

UlJ

. ol

<ULJiJl
^

only

and

shows

one

character

you

in

o Ji

jA

(. Oli

the

of

the

> ill ) tiXUI

of

he

: JjSli

future

warns

from

the

against

<.

that

neck

hope

be

interces

following

WM , 206 . For
Sunan

Abi

the

Dawud

hadith

, see

, 3 / 135 .

Sahih

al - Bukhari

no

you

preceded
who

regrets

someone

who

its

would

reward

."

sermon

deliv

^ *4] I ^
lLU diUI

; J jJL3

* l *J

: Jjsl
0Li

, 2 / 276 ; Sahlh

Muslim

41 3>J
.

68

of

that

a person
for

or

would

4^ LA ! I
^

J J ~ *j

his

the

would

someone
for

^ J

you

on

which

cheating

'
^

but
come

blunders

, such

nor

and

. As

opposite

repentance

AJ

c
V

the

too

away

j ^ s.

round

Allah
, so

for

its

is

tied

sins

consideration

hadith

which

S-LP-J

^y

gate

the

if it wipes

conceals

would

sheep

of

about

but

in

into

disobedience

of

and

respect

of
who
camel

Messenger

camel

sincerity

through

Prophet

the

, even

taken

portion

the

someone

a braying

as

with

. Repentance

) , is

quoted
the

to

consequence
like

with

. Just

man

help

pass

sOil

cl lJ

no

the
now

either

the

committed

( of

are

sheep

to

be

have

about

you

Resurrection

assistance
sors

you

. Here

^Ji2J >xJl

heeded

cAbd

jjl

J ? *"*

gL

cAbd

Type

a Certain

SlJj

Murra

oUa * il
i

are

are

and

versification

Jj

, 3 / 1461 - 62 ;

IBN

" Let

me

not

a braying
'O

any

camel

of

you

coming
his

Allah

neck

you

11

he
me

in

please

full

of

never

is

weak

to

. If
decisions

the

; do

foreground

al - Husayn
on

was
the

not

be

help
say

cries
.'

Resurrection
out

For

full

for

with

help

reply

me

not

a bleating

:
:

see

'I

any

sheep

: 'O

: ' I cannot

saying

would

. ' Let

saying

Saqlfa

Resoluteness

tight

, it

tied

Messenger

of

; I delivered

( my

) 69

is

like

of

they

fall
on

caution

in

as

regard

resolute

the

Day

of

which

provided

( unattended
into

the

opportunity

have

described
matters

murdered
of

for

. Experiences

leave

until

Day

out

points

to

not

in

of

with

I would

wasted

want

me
you

Resurrection

held

it , and

you

he

rescue

of

be

once

concerning

identified

killed

rope

regained

warning

in

Day

.' "

( Description

" Resolve

the

while

) to

cries
. ' For

on

neck

message

Day

while
rescue

) to

( my
the

coming
his

Allah

on

, please

message

you

round

; I delivered

round

69

of

tied

Messenger

cannot
of

see

81

AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL - MARQVM

background
Karbala

sufficient

to
, do

is

it have
not

to ) when
.

been

embrace
they

Know

3 , rather

are
that

, he

was

."

WM , 204 . The Yawm al - Saqifa refers to the day on which Abu Bakr was proclaimed
the caliph after the demise of the Prophet , and this represents , as the prose sample
suggests , the starting point of the series of events that eventually culminated in the
murder of al - Husayn at Karbala 3 . See a report to this effect in cAbd al - Rahman b .
cIsa

al - HamadhanI

, al - Alfaz . al - Kitabiyya

( Beirut

, 1885 ) , 143 . About

Yawm

al -

Saqifa , see Ibn AbI ' l - Isba c, Badf al - Qur 'an , 277 ; Tirazal - majalis , 274 . The alleged
correspondence between Abu Bakr and cAli is also the subject of an epistle by Abu
Hayyan al - Tawhidi . See al - TawhidI , Risalat al - Saqifa , in Rasa 'il, 5 - 26 .

the

82

arabic

theory

111

of

prosification

( About

and

Forbearance

versification

) 70

. diiJ
" I ignored
leaving

him

devil

taking

The

sample

of

the

hadith

[ as

he

long

as

angel

left

and

sit

where

the

devil

HA + HB

of

the

allusion

is

kept

the

alluded

devil

his
to

took

a leave

."

in

talked
, for

which

presence

without
fear

the

with

an

of

the

Prophet
opponent

is :

when

the

he
him

you

] , but

and

over

incident

against

quiet

does

an
in

anything

did

help

taking

to

which

he

seek

angel

disputing

said

way

not

for

you

the

the

. I did

an

Bakr

" . . . whenever
a liar

behaved

and

contains
Abu

part

he

unsaid

a seat

reprimanded
The

until

anything

seat

, the
you

angel

declared

sought

; and

it

is

help
not

him

over

right

of

him

me

to

."

Quotation

+ Paraphrase

Type

J
( About

" Charity
he

70

not

for

someone

a nuisance
scratching

whips

clothed

by

with

WM , 209 . For
a similar

poverty

the
sample

full

text
, see

WM , 197 - 98 . For

the

second

also

hadith

, see

who

; whose

become

For
71

is

becomes

Charity

on
such

of the
Ibn

first

accustoms
face

is

is

a dress

hadith

, see

himself

injured

it . Charity

al - AthIr
hadith

) 71

that

report

, see

, al - Mathal
Ibn

ibid . , 1/ 384 ; Sahih

by

certainly
conceals

Ibn

to

begging

requests
for
his

Hanbal

until

until
the

need

one

they
that

; hence

, al - Musnad

is
he

, 2 / 436 .

, 1/ 194 - 95 .

Hanbal
al - Bukhari

, al - Musnad

, 2 / 93 - 4 . For

, 2 / 324 - 25 .

the

83

IBN AL -ATHIR ' S AL - WASHYAL -MARQUM

cannot

be

identified

as

beg

people

( for

alms

The

hadlth

paraphrased

to

be

given

charity

, nor

does

he

stand

up

to

) ."

here

j \ olkLJl

is :

tjLw

ol
. li

" Acts

of

begging

unseemly
in

; unless

respect

The

are

of

one

that

a scratching

it

be

an

affair

is

quoted

O-JI

UJ I

that

date

to

the

needs

he

iJ

one

up

needy

he

to

( On

Li

Jjj

CI

is

is not

beg

easily

people

jjis

Appointment

'

1 J W" 1

is

which

to

an

it to
we

him

until

backed

pray

to

up
Allah

of
we

one

occurs

two

, or

not

got

be

saw

in

view

that

we

not

find

in Sahih

him
of

Uj

be

like

the

first

Muslim

enough

given

charity

. j ">ls ^ s e

is

someone

l ^ji
C

in

the

opinion
who

in any

, 3 / 1342 ; Sunan

^ L)
^

have

the

secures

of the

did

people
of

sources

al - Tirmidhl

. Man

decided

- so . We

seen

aj ^JJ

suppositions

. We

so - and

1jjl } \

^
^

confirms
trial

to

with

hadith

Ij' -Up

and

such
what

him

or

) 72

iijjlj

through
- and

one

i fj *J ^

oliUI

blpjIJ
facts

revealed
such

our

WM , 208 - 9 . 1 could
second

to

>A> &J

) ."

Office

reveals
is

administration

(j *

prognosis

a mystery

has

as

alms

lS

or

who

noticed
( for

a ' *)}J

morsel

someone

L j
1

[ only

. l $Jyb

" Meticulous

the

72

or

face

ji

]
a

{y *~a 0j ^ -5 d) l
. Oiljjl

IA

LyflJ I f
/
e

his

sovereign

CO i 'io fl.U

receives

JJ
ii

the

renders

."

L <uLp

who

, the

, but

stand

from

man

is :

; rather

his

does

which

unavoidable

C 0 Lij .-j
-

not

fruits

satisfy

nor

is

by

requests

is

^ jj LI *)JJ

needy

two

he

that

.
" The

whip

of
our

to
not
virtue

advisers

twofold

consulted
, 3 / 615 .

give

entrust
, and
. We
recom

, but

the

the

84

pense

arabic

for

his

fear

of

The

quoted

theory

effort

Allah

in

; one

view

hadith

in

of

prosification

who

looks

his

and

after

versification

the

stewardship

citizenry

, who

keeps

."

is :
ji

~
>

" The

son

of

Adam

competence

but

That

is

which

is
is

a well

concealed

hidden

by

paraphrased

mystery

weakness

but

who

strives

fails

his

succeeds

reward

Prophetic

( A

. il ^ jl
*e
4jI

OU

obtains

for

that

Tradition

-ji

( striving

to

a Sick

^anic

4j i

U ^4kJ

VI

ajil

vj

Person

ol

- ^ J

cjjjJI

Jjlila

c 63f

Jij

Cl^ wJ?
4j J ,

^ 1

-U ^ l

(.

VI

Jip

i (s j ****

^ Jall

J \j >\ cJ

j > - ^ JUlS "

VI

jjl

. jj

cJu

SljJI

- u ^ i ol

oJU

5l

<oU -xlij
t

. l^ j> - ji
-*

C -- .JJ
l^ J

I 4^ <>J j > -

Vj .

ot -vJ

Oi
c

> tj

(_5wL^? l

Xj

C A L ,

CL- oU - Ij

^ <waJl

I^J
. oli

73

WM , 202 - 4 . The
Bakr

Ibn

cUsfur

is in Ibn Hanbal

first

of the

, al - Mawa
, al - Musnad

paraphrased

hadith

ciz al - c Usjuriyya
, 4 / 10 ; Sahih

41, 1

^^

(j ,
^ U> o

J &J
Jjij

cjl

-lpjjb

strives

) 73

^
^

who

Materials

ol $ v ^

JJLp

; he

' dlij

.1s t

rewards

uL ^ alll

oL> - lj Jij

through

) ."

Qur

O& J *
Visit

t cjl4

twofold

and

VjJj
c

is revealed

Oil

."

l > - \ ty *J

and

gets

; he

( '

is :

.
" He

the

can

( Cairo

Muslim

be found
, 1342

- Ia Li

in Muhammad

) , 11 , but

, 4 / 1773 ; Sunan

the

b . Abi
second

al - Tirmidhi

one

, 4 / 536 .

85

IBN AL -ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL -MARQUM

" When

the

break

got

tressed
is

news
broken

than

the
by

body

. Had

from

afield

by

would
had

the

which

tradition
with
he
trait

of

[ of

In

this

to

which

hadiths

] . It

, are

, and

many
dreams

or

the

his

soul
trait

) is of

the

host

your

a hand

Allah

, neither
Prophetic

is

optimistic

, which

statements

servant
this

has
is

Khuzaym

are

a verse

ones

paraphrased

of

through

the

; an

Qur

' an

is

the

tribe

allusion

also

is

utilized

by

it remains
once

he

[ person

The
that
to
a

tied

] or

witness

to

anecdote

leg

would

of

one

which

Prophet

, tried
who

, hence

made
. The

to

para

to

out

a bird
; so

abrogate

of
as

let

the

long

him

forty
as

he

relate

it

1? <1o

parts

of

does

not

only

to

to

a sale

Owl > -

prophethood
relate
an

;
it . But

intelligent

."

allusion
and

testify

one

{j * *j ' >r
Vj

is

drops

a loved

to
the

Prophet

the

it , it
to

most

."

JI

a believer

relates

involved
the

charity

U*
,

dream

this

."

f -5 L* J ^

" The

it

sick

t L^j

far

. Many

man

; that

. iiLU ^ Jb
" Cure

who

suffering

the

and

con

one

the

to

. The

testifies

would

thrown

his

men

beloved

own

a single

regain

that

adopted

in

his

, he

was

made

has

that

like

or

of
is

; and

in

nor

with

bosoms

person

( i . e . the

hadiths

, and

stay

dis

for

been

him

him

his

witness

, two

anecdote

phrased

intelligent

the

doctor
in

the

second

sample

Prophetic

to

witnesses
no

in

a pledge

charity

character

requires

Many

inspired

only

truthful
it

making

in

many

hoped

bird

confided

, more

protect

distress

the

not

point

have

would

love

and
.

statements

relates

the

only

was
of

ought

him

a meeting

by

had

protect

could

would

snatched

a visitor

prayer

he
find

. He

, what
healthy

could

tragedies

hope

than

countable

in
the

his

servant

recovery

throes

purify

in

he

souls

the

the

, though

. But

, was

. But

to

out
is

bear

longer

come

of

wished

a healthy

mortal

to

became

two

heaven

wind
last

only
stretched

to

its

the

not

is

affection

that

able

from

falling

of

been

been

he

had

. Sometimes

it not

got

, and

. He

degree

sciousness

suffering

him

sick

himself

have

his

in

the

highest

soul

not

of

is

a bedouin
the
that

sale
the

made

relates

. The
unless
sale

latter
the

agreement

, having
Prophet

transaction
sold

could
had

actually

a horse
produce
been

86

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION

concluded

. One

reference

to

quoted

Khuzaym

the

b . Thabit

Khuzaym

provided

tribe

in

the

this

testimony

sample

The

" Whoever
was

<
sy

Qur

hence

the

3 anic

verse

>- UjIS \ s cOil ) iSjjij

ascribes

snatched

afield

."

a partner

away

( Qur

' an

by

to

the

( Description

of

Allah

bird

is

or

as

if he

thrown

fell

from

away

by

the

(JU3

Muslims

in

a Fight

against

J1

the

wind

4 IStUjI

Ml

^ Uljl

US
'

t-lJtl > - 1^ 1 ^

was

death
too

as
long

ered

too

trade

; who

after

death

out
and

the
they

lead

none

cUmayr

and

shortened

much

by

people

killer

(SJ

to

are

drop

become

Day

of

Resurrection

the

odour

of

WM , 204 - 5 . For
, see

the
Ibn

musk

first
Hanbal

to

equal

the

in

war

. They
, though

of

Allah

feel

no

souls
them

against

pains

from

still

bear

the

hadlth

, see

Sunan

not

colour

life
consid

an

which

for

reward

is

article

, when

pulled

of

killed

the

souls

which

injuries
of

of

sustenance

( i . e . the
that

0 _jJ

decreed

present

with

; when

blame

of

his

' s offer

provided

l^ O

the

. This

be

anchors
. No

hope

l ^ a *jJj

considered

Allah

swords

^ zp
towards

intrepidity

and

their

in

match

considers

alive

from

destruction

ate

be

but

; who

taking

y *

L4 A^ -WXpx^

not

who
he

perseveringly

their

did

by

someone

the

second

it

. Such
heads

who

b . al - Humam

that

^ >"

IAJJWP ^Jl

them

wishes

fight
to

of

did

, cause

jJ _s *

. l ^ Sw ^
" There

Uj

wl^ - j

tai

l ^J4

far

) 74

Jl

ojji ^ p

the

the

, then

Unbelievers

I <oiI

if

heaven

ijufi

ibjs
vJ >- \J

^yaj

22 : 31 ) .

jliSOl

74

is :

ii

AND VERSIFICATION

which
blood

could
, on

, gener

."

paraphrased
, al - Musnad

al - Tirmidhl

, 2 / 391 , 537 ; Sahih

, 4 / 633 ; and

al - Bukharl

for

, 4 / 46 , 95 .

87

1BN AL -ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL -MARQVM

As
is

in

the

made

to

hadiths

previous
an

sample

anecdote

, two

; and

paraphrased

are

hadiths

are

Quranic

paraphrased

idiom

jl

, Allah

article

and

of

' s article

trade

is

also

; allusion

utilized

. The

of

the

<Ull

trade

c <LJIp

is certainly

paradise

expensive

jJJk

, verily

, Allah

."

i . L JI ^ y

frl > - U

iS ^

.
" I swear

by

Allah

sustained

in

Resurrection
musk

the

whose

hand

cause

with

Allusion

its

is

made

of

is

to

the

at

the

fight

a mouthful

of

been

too

long

if

fray

. He

then

got

The

soul

of

without

like

that

Muhammad

it
of

Qur

in

dates

he

on

and

(*

, no

appearing

blood

3anic

later

to
the

idiom

act

of

. OjSjJ
" Think

finish

its

and

employed

of

^ J "1

wound

the

odour

day

of

that

of

in

, enjoying

killed

in

sustenance

his

sample

is

the

cause

provided

duel

contained

^
Allah

their

have
into

the

.
in :

of
by

would
going

the

* * \
<0il

. cUmayr

span

before
in

by

encouraged

paradise
life

dates

martyred

the

Prophet

with

those

was

demonstrated

the

that

C Ul
those

bravery

reward

concluded
eating

fight

of

, when

of

>

not

Badr

anticipation
but

were
into

spectacular
Battle

alive

the

Allah

colour

to

b . al - Humam

followers

took

in

."

c Umayr
his

's

4jjJj

is

two

" Behold

is

here

1jlxis
as

Lord

^ J

dead
."

, nay

( Qur

they

3an

are

3 : 169

) .

Appraisal
With

the

concludes

illustration

his

discussion

shortcomings

in

highlighted
of

the

in

are

by

is

pattern
specific

probably

hadlth

is

the

theory

and

of

illustration

places
of

probably

adduced

how

of

pattern

will

authors
him

his

the

general

materials

of

his
be

to
the

illustrate
greatest

order
any

in

which

. That
of

testimony

the

prose

practice
or

in

presentation
in

used

essays
of

our

hall

. Some

characterization
they

occur

and

the

no

prose

various
to

his

author
of

have
, but

way

an

utilized

samples

by

of

high

view

been

overview

he

types

the

hall

his
other

discussed
of

his

own

88

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION AND VERSIFICATION

compositions

to

others

. 75 Neither

of

Nubata

Ibn

ledges

the

, talk

less

study

essays

instances

main
to

body

on

they

frequent

and

some

of

self

reports

, his

those

- assessment
forte

suggest

of

the

Cases

of
long

discussion

that

is

is

to

him

tajnls

the
, the

when

examples

given
?

be
no

he

be

; an

or

he

relates

referred
in

or

to

relation

estimation
is

that

no

indeed

had

the

reports

lack

been

in

the

that

style

of

Prophetic

statement

usage

'l-

in

made

there
and

two

Fi

end

already

, any
his

and

passages

3anic

in

Prophetic

have

them

Qur

beginning

only

the

the

effective

in

the

his

hall

of

analysis

thinks

overall

lines

when
in

that

analysis

Prophetic

of

constraints

and

use

could

the

High

changing

the

akhbar
of

being

is

poems
used
the

substitute

. For

found

the
in

example
in

the

wording

prose

wording
being

. 77
of

this

offered

by

of
More
type
him

. 78
important

figure

of

original

defect

speech

reused
an

of
in

illustration

feature

is

that

wording

being
as

how

retained

but

9 A common

of

familiar

the

treatment

isolated
with

retained

feels

whenever
a better

sample

to

, he

poetry

One

for

the

about

meant

of

the
to

should

model

, understandably

hadith

at

. Although

between

are

supposed

interestingly

offers

or

his

inspired

establish

materials

illustration

at

- a - vis

. We

of

treatment

avoids

digression

section
which

his

to

he

QuPan

drawn

arrogance

comparison

a fairly

ing

is

, as

a conscious

Idioms

of

in

here

materials

that
vis

that

intolerable

acknow

as

al - nafs

either

observation

exemplars

on

come
adhered

Tahdhib

estimation

poetic

by

sermons

he

him

his

is

come

have

in

efforts

the

authors

should

entitled

to

) nor

for

them

compositions

supposed

verged

similar

his

whose

cited

quotations

persistent

the

sometimes

of

are

being

. Another
of

/ 1122

the

. 76

akhbar

are

, of

enough

from

device

essays

essays

some

of

inspiring

selecting

, such

( d . 516

proficiency

Prophetic

the

dispraise

al - Hariri

hall

they

the
of

which

his
to

of

view

of

that

sometimes

been

the

when

, otherwise

his

) , the
have

of

namely

mawaddat

of

to

ramifications
stipulation

maqamat
/ 984

of

The

, and

, seems

various

prose

disregard

( d . 374

anyway

worthy

of

the

it is
any

of

76 - 77

supposed
line

prose

to

10

category

the

matching

illustrate

containing

treatment
this

in

one

actually

of

. Accord

tajnls
, but

of all the three chapters

75 Compare van Gelder , Beyond the Line ,


76 WM , 50 - 51 .
77 Ibid . , 59 - 66 .
78 See for example ibid . ,
79 Ibid . , 79 - 80 .

imprecision

should
of

the

contains

be
two
no

under which the

89

IBN AL - ATHlR ' S AL - WASHY AL -MARQUM

various

manifestations

them

is

concluded

poetry

is

poetry

containing

of

regard

covered
both

in

the

none

of

his

above

, and

his

still

excessively

as
we

see

think

in

that

this
the

. However

al - scfir

and

of

, 83 illustrate

these

Mamluk

his

, and

evidence
the

of

for

expressions

in

. Ibn

of

isms

natural

rare

al - Husayn

essay

other

we

al - Athlr

examples

words

have

WM , 99 - 101 , 148 - 50 .

81

Ibid . , 192 - 95 .

82

Ibid . , 212 - 15 .

83

See

al - Athir

the

rhyme
see

al - hazm
place

, and

relaxed

writing

al - Maqdisi

the

Day

( Beirut

, and

legitimate

instances

. For

of

al - Saqlfa

, 1959 ) .

of
,

the

where

inappropriate

of

. ii ) , where

any

style

idioms

( HB
on

exhibit

samples
or

of

the

determines

the

a number
2 illus

which
propor

not

's

ambiguous

of

dedi

a collection

for

to

terms

way
is

measured

contrast

familiar

, al - Mathal
in

in

is

tempted

book

found

do

style

as

the

al - Nayramanl

the

previous

be

book

expressed

in

from

the

may

being

employs

off

generations

idea

explained
in

it

of

in

, they

generated

be

, ed . Anis

from

rarely

taken

periods

, the

of

of
are

that

a thorough

, especially

model

fact

highlighted

style

the

as

place

. Nevertheless

which

works

to

to

. One
in

to

sentences

at

occur

Wasf

al - Washy

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95

STUDY

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AL - MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL

treat

of
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Table
Diwan

al - Hamasa

3 *
Manthur

Theme

No

of

poetic

pieces

al - manzum

Theme

No

of

essays

Hamasa

261

29 . 63

Hamasa

67

28 . 27

Marathl

137

15 . 55

Nasib

26

10 . 97

Adab

55

6 . 24

cItab

19

8 . 02

Nasib

140

15 . 89

Hija

26

10 . 97

Adab

24

10 . 13

Awsaf

19

8 . 02

/ Samaha

80

9 .08

Adyaf

110

12 .49

Madh

32

3 . 63

Ta cazi

25

10 . 55

0 . 34

Mulah

31

13 . 08

1 . 02

Total

237

Hijci

'

Sifdt
al - Sayr

wa

' l - nu cds

Mulali
Madhammat
Total

al - nisa

35

3 . 97

19

2 . 16

881

Themes and the quantity of corresponding illustrations of them in the Dlwan al - Hamasa and Manthur al - manzum . The percentage
given in respect of each selection category represents its proportion to the entire number of selections or illustrative essays in the
respective works .

MANTHUR AL - MANZUM \ AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

From

the

details

can

table

be

corresponds
large
of

it

to

as

an

independent

poetry

subject

matter

essays

and

madh

in

into

then

tinctly

, the

marked

which

are

the
domain

of

that
fasl

be

selected

of

varying

citations

on

nasib

per

line

; it

of
is

poetical
and

a poet

is

hamasa

. 14 Also

to

pieces

long

tional

to

line

12

given

by

MM

Abu

T amm

120 - 26

of

do

an

the

in

, adyaf

al - Hamasa

of

hamasa
are

, and
not

dis

al - nisa

conspicuously

not

inde

illustra

hamasa

madhammat

absent

strictly

belong

in

in

to

of

the

the

, each

which

is

essays

. The

longest

occurs

lines

an

essay

on

which

at
is

this

, for

of
in

the

sources
given

an

poets
the

may

verses

also

equally

draws

to

a seven

as

one

of

line
the

102 - 3 ; 92 - 93

in
range

not
. For
is

as

and
in
to

quota

the

seven

words

on

of
essay

sources

the

poets

various

on

just

are

used

a poem
in

any

chapter

from

instance

, essays on hamasa .

to
of

the

chapter

on

half

necessarily

one

prose
two

designated

draw

essay

b . al - As c ar

samples

number

draw

whose
second

is

the

, may

essay

it

Hilal

to

instance

essay

six

the

proportional

nor

utilized

which

of

necessarily

a long

is

average

draws

materials

on

an

not

it

essay

a certain

of

long

poem

MM

presentation

analysis
of

between

material

sentences

by

is

pattern

divergence

single

of

am

the

and

13 See in that order


14 Ibid . , 48 - 52 .
15 Ibid . , 169 - 72 .

at

from

length

the

as

as

look

and

essays

number

poetical

of

exemplars

largest

, the

poetry

treated

' l - nu cds

a prelude

, while

, and

of

peripheral

range

short

nine

that

lin e piece

of

poets

. The

of

- eight

it . A

. 13 The

essay

or

; they

and

forty

and

secondary

chapter

convergence

it . The

pieces

pieces

given

short

in

of

as

from

length

quoted

of

themes

both

assessment

length

poetic

often

three

, are

looms
treatment

these

al - Hamasa

areas

necessary

some

. 12 The

number
that

is

, which
the

themes

the

Manthur

.
the

to

not

other

from

chapters

under

wa

in

is

three

of

because

general

will

it

the

subsumed

independent

each

themes

is

the

Manthur
for

, a cursory

that

, al - sayr

examined

, are

tional

the

epistolography

Manthur

as

, and

in
c itab

, is

why

under

presumably

, a more

the

in

independent

Having
two

one

. Moreover

Manthur

cases

shows

illustrations

. The

al - Nayramanl

explain

treated

chapter

established

. Furthermore

Manthur
are

be

most

well

, scope

tcfazi

al - Hamasa

can

by

in

may

, which

it

theme

nomenclature

, the
in

as

al - Hamasa

the

collapsed

even

3 chapter

occurring

in

in

instance

genre

. This

theme

tive

in

. For

ritha

epistolary

pendent

the

the

the

in

difference

observed

in

status

are

, some

97

lines

propor
, a seventeen

the

two

poetical

, 15 while
used

in

a half
a

hija

98

THE

essay

of

long

poem

average
given

essay

line

, and

his

practical

is

incidentally

his

more

essay

are

in

which

corresponding
some

sort

knocked

is

the

short

the

other

The
during

of

these

ironical

stories

rather

, that

highlighted

eight

theme

essays

. The
one

MM

on

,
of

is

the

182 - 84

, each
given

description

to

in

' atin

youth

in

into

also

the

a poet

opportunity

his

own

poems

, in

the

given
three

the

selected

of

a horse

in

condolences

c , and

the

. For

Abu

samples
essays
, are

from

the

the

following

in
improvised

who

died

other

is

is

of

funny

thematic

author

as
,

illustrate
author

curious

Tammam

our

I shall

mulah

on

issue

in
now

the

chapter

of

pronounced
later

- 18 and
on

. 19 It

. The
critical

contain

other

a woman

al - shabab

the
carry

awsaf

the
chapter

over
bi -jam

pass

actually

on

after

occur

was

four

chapter

matat

more

with

in

several

generously

one

, marathi
should

on

be

in

are

runs

of

only

the

come

al - Nayramani

will

author
utilized

the

we

message

essays

chapter

; he

was

any

succession

remarkably

this

- chapters
titles

the

which

above
evidence

two

feature

are

author

, if
too

essays
in

of

is

the

simply

quote

work

essays

bi - imra

passage

in

, for

the

a condolence

these

than

incorrectness

further

the

not

may

Tenderers

there

whenever

in

Tammam

pieces

essay
our

essay

, their

although

entire

, an

by

cases

an

an
establish

particular

poetic

most

: two

both

occur

is

, the

corre

to

Abu

matter

, tcfziya

over

did

as

also

two

intercourse

not

he

, and

this

the

than

indicated

diction

in

subject

of
. As

. . .,

essays

contained

, which

lamentation

the

a horse

poet

when

into

. Furthermore

; where

fine

statements

of

intends

. Although

that

of

rather

author

. In

occur

and

noted

any

their

two

first

16

be

phrases

a given

wa - qala

illustration

essays

indicating
descriptions

end

even

it

or

above

its

from

our

poet

related

not

pure

for
237

ing

the

does

epigrammatic

titles

if

phrase

to

exemplar

Of

the

of

, that

borrowed

device

other

at

this

with

, 17 it

an

was

poetical

hall

, however

illustration

any

illustrated

is

words

the

AND VERSIFICATION

said

which

a poem

than
that

with

stances

as

prominent

note

introduced

of

most
often

prefatory

each

of
than

the

quoted

few

point

more

be

, what

strong

interpretation
from

should

a source

usually

the

OF PROSIFICATION

. 16 It

as

is

this

draw

is

THEORY

length

is

sponding

also

ARABIC

and
the

' s model
, excepting

17 For instance , see his lengthy nostalgic pieces over Baghdad , ibid . , 30 - 36 . See also
his praise poem for Baha 3 al - Dawla , and his poetical tirades against some of his own
kinsmen given in al - Tha caub I , Tatimma , 1 / 126 - 30 .
is MM , 243 - 48 .
19 Ibid . , 323 - 28 .

MANTHUR AL - MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

Bab

al - Hamasa

99

The Chapter on Chivalry )


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20 Ibid . , 52 - 55 . For the poetical illustrations : Bashshama = Hamasa , 1/ 100 - 10 , selec


tion 14 , lines 4 & 6 ( pp . 103 - 4 ) , where his father ' s name is given as Jaz 3, the
illustration also occurs in Ibn Qutayba , al - Shi cr , 2 / 533 ; al - Samaw ^ al = Hamasa ,
1/ 110 - 24 , selection

15 ; Sawwar
= Hamasa
, 1/ 130 - 33 , selection
18 , line 4 ( p . 132 ) ;
1/ 136 - 39 , selection 20 , line 4 ( p . 138 ) . Henceforth , ' S ' stands
' L ' for the line .

Qatar ! = Hamasa ,

for selection and

100

THE

ARABIC

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

AND VERSIFICATION

a /
r -jli
" As

for

the
honours

getting

there

. No

others

have

see

it

time

through

abstention

No

drawn

through

it ,

desecrated

in

defects

in

them

persistent
at

strikes

at
they

him

willingly

striking

he

feet

; he

offer

our
be

in

of

honour

and

the

. c Adiya

when

it

for

to

but

be

of

refrains

is
next

earnestly
to

the

whetstone
face
in

pursued

be

' ll

on

the

day

in

peace

of

fright

, they

are

; but

see

should
at

high

who

is

seen

do
as

for

death

hastens

their

appointed

span

is
our
is

leaders
ever

see

such

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prolonged

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fighting
c Amir

the

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time

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and

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dies

desecrated

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slain

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for

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offered

by

but

approach

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to

to

hitting

foremost

them

disturbed

advanced

surrender

from

of

from
horses

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to

and

him

is

lances

. If

war

] from

fast

were

is

continuous

their

enemies

is

. No

arose

from

enemy

. He

tribe

naturally

mobilizing

himself

through

:>

time

of

to

their

heroes

[ which

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for

perception

cheap

bargained

a people

ones

faces

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upon

die

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swords

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to

tradition
of

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used

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a

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planning

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Samaw ^ al

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take

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them

us .

prices

Our

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foremost

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stops

youthlike

amongst

We

he

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the

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effort

offer

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thinness

are

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the

their

the

but

hasten

of

and

without

as

their

in

set

sheathed

' ? jia
|-j

tribes

fighting

few

of

dent

rigours

still

b . Hazn

, and

without
that

any

. They

a shield

is

Whenever

al -

bitter

of

paleness
the

opponents

and

Bashshama

We

the

will

spearheads
firm

horsemen

so
[ the

of

peace

of

is

but

regiments

savour

offered

virtue

, the
heat

troops

were

. Only

except

theirs

blood

is

, but
see

when
of

no

defend

. They

intrepidity

goal

C-s

the

accord

. They

sword

armoured

to

them

led

no

it . They

dishonour

and

have

and

a cause

lands

midday

hitting

and

the

raised

with

as

appointed

subdued

is

bargain

-xiij

- so , they

controlling

they

they

so - and

banner
and

when

when

when

of

first

lives

price

children

quired

their

ajJl

los_ -Uxjlil

j,.

of
.

MANTHUR

Our

encounters
leave

Our

are

behind

swords

are

to

out

over

the

East

hitting

the

and

among
traces

at

our
and

and

that

sheathed

enemies

West

- clad
their

until

101

; they

distinctive

the

armour

tradition

then

STUDY

marks

; they

bear

soldiers

blades

.
would

a tribe

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not

, I would

ever

be

' sanctity

monger

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the

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after

youthlike

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struck

perception

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a war

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Then

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. He

allotted
made

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you

document

MM , 87 - 88 . For

tijj

il ' ji

a portion

represent
to

be

of
all

written

acts

every

honour

of
or

ij *

eminence
a

squadron

iiUsLplj

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lilUJI

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causing

be

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al - Sa c dI :

violating

" Allah

Certainly

Qatar

- known
known

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Sawwar

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drawn

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dents
They

AL -MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL

^j\

iii

and

a share

of

l ) 15j
:

every

; you

remain

, either

of

soldiers

to

be

the poetical illustrations : Buhturi , Diwan , 1/ 151 where " wa - a ' tahu "
is read in place of " wa - a ctaka " ; no source could be found for Mirdas ' verse ; for Abu
Tammam ' s verse , see Dlwan , 1/ 307 .

THE

102

ARABIC

dispatched

THEORY

. You

would

slip

; where

al - Buhturi
He

have

reached

the

the

hope

of

AND

summit

an

VERSIFICATION

where

optimist

the

cannot

feet

of

reach

the

careful

:
endowed
and

Mirdas

you

I saw

with

a portion

b . Abi

c Amir

the

not

every

every

honour

king

as

noteworthy

glory

the

most

of

soldiers

a squadron

few

of

Kindite

modest

of

and

them

horses

; he
that

are

Tammam
Allah

a share

of

dispatches

Abu

OF PROSIFICATION

established
plane

for

would

the

Tanukh
feet

iii

an

of

even

wU aJIj
( For

the

everlasting

glory

the

careful

the

Kin

, on

slip

its

jjili

Kith

and

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" The
and

love
his

both

of

the

22

the

generosity
them

intimacy

its

which

exercise

tional

with
of

, as

so - and

is

extended
two

two

demanded

the

- so

possesses
to

the

virtues

attributes
by

, as
with

MM , 115 - 16 . For
, 1 / 130 .

the

the

generosity
neighbour

Diwan

i*lI

blood

required

jewels

illustrations

kin

, except

puts

them

. But

he

favours

, and

: A bu

its

given
that

. He

is

driblets

T ammam

, Dlwan

he

into

) the
like
to

to
still

the

kith

the
the

kith
kin

embraces

consideration

the

( favours

nobility

sends

freely

and

ties

by
and

is

Jl

IS"

in

with

close

with

addi

sea

: it delights

regions

, 1/ 103 ; al - M utanabbi

103

MANTHUR AL - MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

Abu

Tammam
( His

) love
far

is

al - Mutanabbl
He

is

the

lands

kith

, but

; not

for

his

close

generosity

is

relatives

for

those

at

:
like

of

II

for

away

the

sea

generosity

Bab

that

throws

; but

al - Nasib

jewels

sends

( The

clouds

Chapter

to
to

on

the

the

one
one

nearby
far

Geneology

out

away

/ Love

."

JUsjJl
23
( On

^ (J

ij t . .

II

Union

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MM , 126 - 28 . The

first

poetical

illustration

\J ^
o 3-^

here

occurs

in Hamasa

oir

<^

>

J \~\

<Jli _j

ji
C5^
<-! ^

wCj

, 3 / 1312 , S . 515 ,

without attribution , too . The renderer of the second illustration could not be identified .
For that by al - Hudhali , see Hamasa , 3 / 1232 - 35 , S . 462 , L . l ; Hudhaliyyln , 2 / 972 - 75 ,
S . 17 , L . 31 ( p . 975 ) . The last poetical illustration in the prose essay is to be attributed
to Ibn Mutayr and not Ibn Dahhak , see Hamasa , 3 / 1228 - 30 , S . 460 , L . 6 ( p . 1230 ) .

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION

104

AND VERSIFICATION

^
^

Ji ? OL

j.

LJ J~ ~2

jJ

C-'2

iS~~>~

I ijlij
-M
w^

- ->

Although the guard , O my Master , may have prevented me from


reunion , the beloved had certainly entertained me with phantasy .
Although the guest of passion may have diverted me from his path ,
the pleasant slumber [ I had ] had allowed me through his paths . Here
I am , cherishing the hope that our breaths will meet in the air and that
our gazes will ascend into the light . In the hand of the one who
overspread my heart with the love of you and caused my hands to
stretch out begging , lies the relief from the agony that I suffer and the
facilitation of the reunion for which I long . It is Him I beseech to take
away from us the sign of separation ; spread the banner of friendship
over us ; and bring us together at gardens with extensive comforts and
at open spaces with still winds , so that we can enjoy from them the
glitter of the lavender and amuse ourselves with the rustling of the
ostriches .
"

A certain poet :

If you prevent Layla and her sweet talk [ from reaching


me ] , you cannot prevent my cry and poems .
Why not also prevent - since you prevented her speech
a
rightly guided phantasy from reaching me inspite of the
long distance ?
Another poet :
If her people would not make me happy and her guards
would not be inattentive ,
With the blowing of the wind my breaths and hers meet in
the air .
al -

Hudhall [ Abu Sakhr ] :


In the hand of the One who overspread the heart with love
of you lies the relief from the distress that I suffer .

al -

Husayn b . al - Dahhak :
They continued raising hope in us until our hearts glittered
like the lavender on which dews fell generously . "

MANTHUR AL -MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

ii

105

oyi \
(

jjJjJ

I JU

V
Jl

ls ^

The Beautiful Spot ) 24

18

4 jX^ZJ *)l

C.<" gllU

Awi

aISIp

I^-AP

^_5^ J

Ljbl >- ^

C ^ lij

jwLAII

AU

l*JJ^

"

L^JIS\2

. ujuiiscii

\J

Uoljjl

(. (JZ,Jb \j

JJi

IT

lpj .3 4J

i^jji >- o -0 ^ ij

Sj^aSC-twoJi iiJj ^ lp ^ IP

JlJJ .5

Uj .
^

(_

12"^

4j

liii I

'

U .JtSOlj jS I 4P

Li ^y l^J
i ^i

JJ

(^

C-JJol jtJ ^x*-oJ !

C^

j2?jo ] coir

tjJjilaJj jS - ^Jjyi

l ^j <jlS " O^*J

e '

JJ

^ ^ LoJj

bjJ ^J I

jl

IP ^3

C-^ >WJ UiJ

ajis ^j

_ &\n ~.r>rA

l^ P

ajll iJwbl d -J 1J . UoLxsl ^ il


'
te
. Jjil jU
jl

yJ

: jpLiJl

UILl* j -Ul

rfjji

<^

JJ1

^y >

l $j

dolj

IS"

\0 I \

CHJ I

JJ>-

o '
d l>-j

^P

^t

1 ^1 7

: * ji U *.
%
o *
wi>tj
d -Jw^
: (_r

iw-J^

I4J

sJl)

&S-j

ya '

LJ ^

JI

ol _

^ 1 Jj ^ i

-' J ^ ^

l ^jjl >-

C~~j
: _/ >!

jUL .

24

jli ^Jl

MM , 138 - 41 . The first illustration


L . 1 . For the illustration from B

JJJL

occurs

Jli

jjk

unattributed

"

Clo

^ lp ,C -fp

in Hamasa

J Is j

Iil _j

, 3 / 1286 , S . 496 ,

ashshar , see his Diwan , 2 / 222 ; I bn cA bd R abbih I ,


al - cIqd al -farid , 5 / 339 . For that by I mru 3 al - Q ays , see his Diwan , 110 . For the
fourth poetical illustration , see Hamasa , 3 / 1389 - 1404 , S . 577 , L . 24 ( p . 1397 ) ,
where it is attributed to Ziyad b . Hamal . The last illustration is to be attributed to
Ibn al - Dumayna . See Hamasa , 3 / 1384 , S . 572 , LI . The " Night of Majesty " in the
prose text refers to the historic night on which the Qur 3an started to be revealed to
the Prophet . See Qur 3an , sura 97 .

106

THE

" Of

things

into

a house

damsel

ARABIC

THEORY

I want

to

and

. It

that
her

for

by

as

cut

out

a while

my

me

returned
drunkard

covered
in

is

it

it , the

with

of
,

went

from

no

grace
you

with

place

be

to

acting

character

that

is

poet

if

I saw

certain
I looked
as

Bashshar
She

at

held

Imru

She

visits
walks

certain

poet

Whenever
whose
snake

you

her

the

your

your

[ if

while

she

was

surface

of

a cheek
like

and

revealed

a stroke

of

breath

was

walking
at

like

a sandhill

a drunk

mail

be

through

; it

returned

hit

by

breathing

:
her

neighbour

leisurely

only

; her

feet

to

fulfil

hardly

obligations
show

night

like

, she

:
you
sleep
- bite

."

scold

me

has

been

I pass
forcibly

the

taken

the

; a victim

one
of

assist

was

she

sleep

willing

moon

, then

and

] , God

full

. So

your

Allah

tradition

rising

] the

fulfilled

May

this

man

is , while

her

other

a
and

excessive

inattentive

the

to

the

she

taken

undertake

like

of

praiseworthy

you

if

a forcibly

Lordship

coat

bringing

. Your

like

, due
to

and

towards

climbing

she

poet

of

[ i . e . the

her

standing

as

neighbour

obligations

except

to

while

difficulties
Another

it
her

and

leisurely

is

at
cheek

away

while

. It

, or

and

eyes

turned

body

heart

back

intensely

away

3 al - Qays
While

turn
her

with

back

turned

and

are

according

her

her

) turned

walking

her

her

unmindful
my

then

darkness

visits

by

looking

was

difficulties

a kidnapped

known

b . Burd

dawn

a beautiful

from

( suddenly

started

from

of

roses

before

, she

out

I peeped

appeared

; she

she

that

. I continued

stable

pulled

there

leading

her

ripe

breathing

, is
sight

' had

on

plucking

then

mail

when

is

dazzled

hardly

her

your

will

by
already

the

Master
the

Majesty

. Then

. She

. She

except

safe

, and

been

of

a night

away

had

of

my

, oblivious

heart

a coat

exhaustion

I have

had

VERSIFICATION

curtains

became

my

breath

brightness

darkness

and

afflicted

she

of

AND

, O

moon

image

of

of

. But

the

inattentive

who

that

sandhill

behind

full

her

control

stroke

about

pleasure
was

someone

you

' Night

the

until

got

like

the

of

; she

- minded

position

if

with

glance

absent

inform

captured

was

a veil

OF PROSIFICATION

the
.

MANTHUR AL - MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

107

iii
( Youth

Jij

) 25

j >- lil

li

LJk ! lj

. tS - ^ ry ,

'.
(_

js_y>JI

" Youth

and

walked

and

(J --4

sensual
my

abandoned

Passion

was

after
homes
I am

to

intimate

alone

to

( to

ladies

, nor

my

( lady

ailment
not

in

) with
which

; I have
infect

for

the

hairless
I do

now

left

, but

both

) alone

in

al - c Itab

( The

left

their

seen

of

at
my

an

full

embracing

infect

Chapter

Thick

o|
lil t/ fclj 1^

description

cheeks

not

never

c
loi

the

the

door

companion

ailment

like

with
mine

that

1 cli

and

on

Reproach

Thin

) 26

' c
^ 5 "*SI
^
^
J . ijuJl

o -LxJI

lil

lil ^

*
Ij
0g ~
"
\j i / ui

e
^
y^ \

For the poem , see Diwan Kuthayyir cAzza , 445 , the first line only .
. I could not locate the second of the two illustrations in any source .
The first is to be attributed to Hani b . Ahmar . See al - A mid I , al - Mii'talif wa 7 mukhtalif ed . CA . S . Ahmad Farraj ( Cairo , 1961 ) , 45 . Lines 4 & 5 of this illustration
MM
MM

,
,

have

."

( Through

25
26

youth

for

IwLiJl

whenever

both

emotion

stay

passion

1
c
cip

companions

of

me

lust

Bab

1^

C~*J

. But

my

companion

abandoned

my

evening

Ill

my
I ran

O ^S" j

exhaust

decorated

does

been

me

al - Rahman

had

breasted

my

had
whenever

j ~ S' Jli

yet

an

(_g -Xe- l

, leaving

an

they

,jj

L^sJl

j'
passion

b . cAbd

j-^

UjLlS v iLiJl
i_S^

messengers
me

Kuthayyir

At

y Aij

iJ LSI

and

L5"^

o \5 ~ Ji _$

>

149 - 51 .

153 - 55

THE

108

\ $' \
>>

ARABIC

THEORY

a!ljlq \

OF PROSIFICATION

\ oJuA ^
^

AND

VERSIFICATION

6 wL&

->

II jUjJI
'

lit

iS j > - \j

wLo^Jl
Ijt J^

^ji

UU

^ o^ >J1

'- J -&4 -

--4

O^yi

oi

'^ b

c/

Jjlj

'

^ 4 J ^ j

<CL^2JiSl

Jjl -L^iJb*

d -j U < ' '^pxil

^ >^ > - 1 ywf

lil

j^ Ssl > c-Jil

3 ^ Ljj*

5L Xp

i_-OlS \ j

jjJLL l_2

UU

Jl

: 4JLT
i

. *WJ

- Jxjl
<jj

tali

'^ b
IJL &

lib

<_ s >zS' \

y >LJl

<C ^ A \

jjUJi

*^*

it part

ir

of

the

_/ "^^

with
in
war
put

nor

remove

from

not

the

clad

one
) with

certain

is

at

in

one

who

me

, as

but

me

a coat

of

mail

dJ - U

you

advises

b.

regard
be

red

but

me

throwing
me

me

to

the

you

swords

is

in

battlefield
returns

close

; for

bay

persist

peace

that

at

. Please

not

whenever

protects
flat

do

am

calamity
sings

and

be

. I
kept

whenever

shadow

, but

I am

fortune

to

that

I should

prosperity

summoned

to

, that

during
gets

Manat
are

you

, K . al - Hamasa

Master

spears

are

experienced

[ true

] brother

to

you

reach
( in

.
cAbd

, for

is attributed to Hammam

p' _STjj
s >-j

dJLv2 -5

whenever

mail

are also quoted in al - TanukhI , Kitab


Ibn al - ShajarI

my

discarding

unprotected

me

, O

a protective

of

Banu

am

in

a coat

from

, tell

a distance

out

me

lilj

warfront

behaviour

from

the

man
Damr

green

with

away

^^

forgotten

the

kept

breaks

not

but

gets

dealing

Do

brotherhood

when

this

jLx - s^ JI

Ol

distress

I am

4JLou

(_5^ Jij*>

and

pasture

affair

(J ^ai

closer

, but

whenever

A^j LL oJ i

fairness

discontinue

dealing

rt-fCsS

during

emerges

this

^ Lp

j' > s

brought

when

0^ . -|^ '

remembered
always

liJJj

pSsJwP

^j_^ JLj>cJ Li

" Is

<1)1 J

not
and

a liar
does

, your
not

al - Qawafi , 85 .

( Hyderabad

Murra

b . Kinana

lie

See also Hibat Allah

, 1345 / 1926 ) , 67 , where

al - Shaybanl

b . cAlI

this illustration

MANTHUR

AL - MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL

STUDY

109

Is it to be taken that whenever you are self - sufficient and in


peace I should be the distant stranger .
But once calamities upon calamities befall you I become
the closest friend ?
When there is a misfortune , I am called to it ; when the
army is being mobilized , Jundub is summoned .
This , I swear , is the real contempt , may I be bereaved of
my father and mother if that should continue .
To Malik belong the fresh herbage of the lands and their
green pastures ; but its wastes and barren fields are
meant for me .
What a surprise ! That is a serious affair ; but my staying
with you , inspite of that , is even more surprising .
Yazld b . al - Sa c iq al - Kilabi :
O children of c Ubayd , the report about staying with you
and about your night entertainer has reached your folks .
0 children of c Ubayd , your transgression and injustice
against your friend will make you a dead past .
When this ( advice ) reaches you , prepare for war , for spears
are experienced ( in dealing ) with the unprotected . " .
ii
(

aJsMl

Uj

Complaint ) 27

<0) 1

loi c
j

^ 'I
U

^ C^ l lilj

oJS 'j

cA

isu

dlillj
j

iJjjl

xzs -

^JiJL

Ml

mi dLJ

y > - oljl

. j Lj I < 0 1^ ""^ t ^ I j

ju

I
^ 51

$*
3

US ' 1

\ Mj
i

iij

iU y
y

mi

j UJI

dUi

i j WI

d &b

C
.

UJj

C~SJ^ 3J \

tal
I

'

* pi **

jjS

l^

iaj Lj
c

IJJJIJ

1)

OJIJ

t
Jk

27

MM , 162 - 63 . The
468 , L . 1 & 2 .

poetical

illustration

is also

<y

unattributed

L<d

f
L5i

in Hamasa

C ~U >-

, 3 / 1244 , S .

THE

110

ARABIC

THEORY

" I hereby

complain

to

from

the

barbarity

of

your

guards

requests

; about

and

back

has

the

. I could

only

you

only

occasionally

not

there

number

rude

and

throbs

( abnormally

[ its

uncouth
poor

your

their
once

in

snappy

a while

back

that

with

long

a hope

stand
as

unfriendly

. I

you

often

a passer

, it

was

( often

, and

I were
to

the

to

the

due
before

you

- bye

, or

heart

with

. I could

before
if

, due

stood

for

dashed

look

censurer

surround

I left
is

me

distressed

treated

you

that

has

I could

enough

] . Whenever

way

my

turning

, and

like

of
to

, I was

furious

guards

my

I suffer

behaviour

. Their

in

I came

what

attention

chamberlains

standing

I see

) and

the

the
your

a time

prey

about

of

watchful
people

and

went

, for

catch

save

period

the

I could
to

you

often

you

assistants

of

you

assist

experience

and

to

AND VERSIFICATION

Allah

. Whenever

stubborn

falcon

number

get

of

whenever

your

me

me

- May

what

devastated

large

you

large

, and

OF PROSIFICATION

for
that

not

secure

from

month

long

after

,
a

A certain

poet

When

I saw
very

I began
you

that

the

closely
-

and

although

for

secret
cast
not

a day

enemies

and

our

unfriendly

looks

at

of

hatred

nor

aversion

away

from

out
to

monitored

keep

you

love

us ,
for

to

visit

a month

."

Ill
( Preferential

28

MM , 173 - 75 . For
2 - 4 , where

. . .hajati

in al - Jahiz

, Bayan

line only . I could


source .

the

first

nazalat

poetical
is read

Treatment

illustration
in the

last

see

locate

the half

line

Hamasa

line . The

, 2 / 316 , 3 / 302 , 4 / 85 ; Shihab


not

) 28

illustration

, 3 / 1120 - 23 , S . 402 , L .

illustration

al - DIn , Tiraz
attributed

is also
al - majalis
to Ibn

to be found
, 97 , first

al - Hajjaj

in any

MANTHUR

AL - MANZUM

: AN ANALYTICAL

STUDY

111

yg
Cr ^i

f -'

J IS

LsM

J*
4p- L> - La ijil c C - Xso t

" You

have

every
as

fault

long

Your

of

as

his

spite

does

me

yours

I have

mine

) . I have

door

arises

tioned

this

to

so

c Isam

gave
as

Were

you

with

A state

of

aware

be

regard

would

my

state

those

can

( of

needs

( of

me

dictated

affairs

the

taken
most

the

, to

to

to

a people

that

by
has

should

of

a need
it

b . al - Hajjaj

that

into

consideration

not

forces

ancestors

dishonour
that

through

me

, I would

would

stay

the

me

to

.
bring

people

to

be

and

at

home

."

your
men

your

my

forced

respectable

abode

pass

affairs

said

it

house

. I have
as

of

rank

, nor

bring

excuse

that

to

that

companions

reception

pleased

of

track

dishonour

warm

from

many
that

of

to

in

and

back

your

against

admission

, should

arises
Allah

of

slippery

him

- so

tolerates

it .
be

from

cAbd

be

lead

can

about

] al - Zimanl
in

to

resolved

door

one

a need

honour

, have

ancestors

I have

may

every

so - and

held

friend

right

one

no

one

on

closeness

, I have
thinking

of

[ Allah

farthest

which

a true

nor
to

him

through

priority

of

the

Abu

it

home

position

, whenever

sense

b . c Ubayd
You

with

stopped

that

at

his

that

him

priority

wonder

with

according

act

pass

. My
stay

lower

resolved

, to

conviction
me

an

you

walks

conceding

. Little

and

assist

and

your

, is

overlooked

Allah

not

of

, and

of

may

brother

act

reception

be

this

recent

and
in

known

jjj $

112

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION AND VERSIFICATION

IV

Bab

al - Hija 3 ( The

Chapter on hija J ) 29

The One who Vaunts with Ancestors ) 30


^

J CAjLIJ

Vj. dJ *J
j S 'j
.

<w ^ > -

^aLJ VJ Ljj

<cp
A^

L lj

{jg ^

I ^ys Jkp^j

Qy )

^JJ

^ jr ^t ^

VJ

^JU

olT

aL>-

4^wflj

jl >
:

h ~JS

> Li

JjW

Jj JLp

ojj pJ W

li ^ 1

L^

Jjlsj

t>*

,_r ^

ifj

"

As for so - and - so , he did not achieve honour through self - respect but
through his ancestors ; nor glory by his personal efforts but through
his forebears . He prides himself only with noble uncles and grand
parents , and relies only on lucks and allotted lots . Is it of use to
someone who is a water jar that his father be a vizier ? Or is the
heftiness of his body and the grandeur of his name of any avail to him
if he does not by himself strive for glory or nobility nor achieve
renown or fame through his own effort ?
"

A certain poet :

Prosperity and poverty are not a man ' s own making , rather ,
they are allotted portions and lots .
Another poet :

29 On the difficulty of finding an adequate English equivalent for the term see G .J . H .
van Gelder ' s The Bad and the Ugly : Attitudes Towards Invective Poetry - hija 3- in
Classical Arabic Literature ( Leiden , 1988 ) .
30

MM , 187 - 88 . For the first


1148 ) , where it is attributed

illustration , see Hamasa , 3 / 1148 - 49 , S . 415 , L . 2 ( p .


to Ma c lut al - Sa cdi al - Qari ci . But it is attributed to cAbd
al - Rahman b . Hassan b . Thabit by al - Husri on the authority of al - Jahiz . See al - HusrI ,
Zahr al - adab , 1/ 496 . But compare al - Jahiz , Bayan , 2 / 364 , Hayawan , 3 / 51 , where
it is attributed to Hassan ' s grandson . It also cited without attribution in al - TanukhI ,
K . al - Qawafi , 59 . The second illustration is to be attributed to a certain Fazzari man .
See Hamasa , 3 / 1181 - 82 , S . 439 , L . 2 ( p . 1181 ) with nubliha in place of tuliha .

MANTHUR

There

is

no

AL -MANZUM

value

beauty

of

in

the

: AN ANALYTICAL

beauty

bodies

and
is

ii

size

not

of

bodies

adorned

113

STUDY

by

when

the

intelligence

."

0 ^ - ^ ' JluJl
( The

- Is

. ^ 2is>-

! j,

Enemy

J jP

415Ji
"
r*-^ Oij
JwoJu

Ij

. jPxPxJi

Q
<djl

cr ^

jl

t <J3
>

<U2J O ^ Jh
JJ

O aTj
J* .

AJ^ > Oj

jJbJI

4jjw \j >-

(_ ~L<2Jl

< Axi

^y > o ^>-j

jt-J

l-^j,

(_5^
<u ! |

>1

^ ' 15 c

) 31

jjj

Malicious

>A> cJ

^ ./ ? >

4> - \

c } 3-3.
: JJa > - ^ l J IS

iLi

yP-2>

jXi

Ai ^U - l

j SS^j

<

\^ j >-

Ji

a ~L& LJo

> JIT

d)l

C^ a^Ai

\ jJ

si

^&

.1

jj

ojU_>c_jlj

l & Lfllj <C*^ aJl


I

ytjJI

i > - lj \ \

(jJaj

dji ! l > ij

jv-w -sl

_ll

: j > -\
L_ W2UC <>JI

" Firmness
of

what

is
can

dangerous
and

the

most

be

you

[ subject

] , so

trigues

, and

though

he

. Scabies

( tends

to )

tantalizing

He

rendered

try

your

may

friend

die

not

out

in

is

the
his

but

be

a malicious
itself
then

speech

it

breaks

out

. Let
you

. He

not

the

worthiest
of

to

his
is

as

you

be

an

will

his

to

of

his

in

never

. Al
unreliable

; live
false

undefined

an

thereafter

is
,

machinations

certainly

would

risk

a confidant

. Beware

from
, he

burns

will

to

indefinite

-A-^ J

, taking

you
him

enemy
but

deceive

as

known

safe

is

precious

- so

had

predicate
to

advice

towards

one

utmost

be

is

so - and

friendliness

conceals

friendly

, and

L5^

charcoal

oath
make

nor

his
good

. For the first illustration , see Diwan al - Akhtal , 173 ; al - I sbahani ,


the first line only . The second poetical illustration is to be attributed
to Abu ' l - Hajna 3 . See Hamasa , 3 / 922 - 25 , S . 312 , L . 5 ( p . 924 ) .
MM

such
pal

act

. Contemplation
confiding

demonstrating
pen

praiseworthy

accepted

. I see

familiar

31

(_ ~L ^ali

Jlij

194 - 95

al - Zahra , 2 / 691 ,

114

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION AND VERSIFICATION

his pledge until hair keeps the company of the palms , and would never
say the truth whenever he talks until echo becomes deaf or the stone
talks .
al -

Akhtal :
O children of Umayya , I am advising you , let not Zufar
spend the night peacefully in your midst .
Take him for an enemy ; for that which is apparent and that
which is concealed of his characters are dreadful .
You ' ll find malice , even if it is suppressed for a long time ,
to be like scabies which conceals itself for a while but
breaks out later .
He hears no sound [ of reason ] , his ears are blocked ; he
would not speak until stone talks .
Glory has rightly vowed not to be their companion until
hair keeps the company of the palms .

Another poet :
He is fastidious , he seeks not the love of whoever turns
away , nor does he bother about the malicious opponent . "
iii

iljjJlj
(

<3^

Disgrace and Dishonour ) 32

jI

1*5"

^ Ip

LJ Alol Jjis

Oj2> JJU1

y * ^ Sl aj CUUli

si

^^LPI

* L>

^ e

Ij

JI

Jp - 1

cJUJ !
,

bli

\j

1j l ] loj <lp

jj

^i

Ljl ol

j \
^

*)l 1 o

c
4 Aj i

Uoj

lft >5

<cjjj

l > 0jpj

^ l >^ 1 o

uL*>JI (3

. <

^ Lp

32

ol ^

<

MM , 206 - 8 . Al - Nahshall

' s verse

\ . y'

&

iJlaSi

could

not

be

cc
p

located

3^

in any

source

Lv

, and

^ ll

the

one

attributed to Abu Nuwas either . For the illustration from Abu Tammam , see Diwan ,
4 / 465 and al - I sbahan I , al - Zahra , 2 / 615 ; for that from al - Mutanabbi , see Diwan
al - Mutanabbl , 4 / 76 . The one attributed to c Ubayd Allah does not occur in any of the
editions of the Diwan consulted .

MANTHUR

AL -MANZUM

: AN ANALYTICAL

115

STUDY

y .

" In

regard

to

self

- esteem

trap

; and

in

silver

. This

same

way

greater

as

( arising

) from

have

; both
put

Damra

you

it

show

will

and

The

dishonour

state

in

; on

on

with

.
to

the

status

of

so - and

of
the

round

it

the

Self

and

of

their

and

fault

while

the

in

me

one

my

gifts

the
of

who

is

honour

the

the

dove

years
and

' s ring

are

defiant

of

begging
of

spittle

your

palm
for

it

[ through

it

is

towards

is

a painful

, be
the

a bone

it
lustre

begging

that

lies

lump

generous

, under

or

[ lit . water
].

across
it

miserly
] of

the
is

, cannot
my

face

. In

disgrace

disgrace

cousins

is

giver

and
like

the

- respect

- so , the

dishonour

in

. Some

plates

neck

gold
,

gifts

days

silver

your

loudly

from

top

a replacement
exhaust

wealth

door

and

degradation

superior

pages

your

of

gift

choking
The

the

your

from

than

out

against

finds

is

it

against

above

the

you

al - Nahshall

, who

throat

at

rejected

away

by

remain

? Enough

is

had

honour

depreciate

blame

higher

- esteem

on

will

overwhelmed

I creak

Tammam

is

did

myself

water

or

me
my

keep

self

which

it ]

starving

Abu

, and
descent

b . Damra

me

I may

[ lit .

lowliness

Would

for

dignity

have

sent

protection

generosity

condemning

ahead

you

because

its

that

L a_>

that

that

presents
by

to

order

than

regard

gift

as

is

appreciate

[ for

the

and

d_,J

1 < J\

be
if

116

THE

Abu

ARABIC

Nuwas
He

him

, the

Among

is
the

status

of

the

ring

free

such

their

are

the

are

attributed

to

.
made

dingy

and

dreary

by

al - Ruqayyat

of

these

them

that

giver

dove

branches

:
which

invites

every

dove

to

favours

stick

rings

AND VERSIFICATION

, whenever
adorns

are

b . Qays

al - Mutanabbi
His

gifts

gifts

Allah
it

certain
attribution

the

the

In

OF PROSIFICATION

possesses

c Ubayd

THEORY

and

Bab

onto

the

the

necks

people

al - Adab

are

( The

, they

the

Chapter

( the

doves

."

on

Manners

favours

) are

/ Ethics

the

(o-W
( Forbearance
C

) 33

^C

IJjl
m

t
j \ rtJiall ^
aA&

O -o 1
Cj

4ijlp dJl
fj -* oj
olijl
^
^ .
%
tf ^
LUUiJ dJJi c3 .iL /? iij Ulw yj c
jA JJj

L) U . oj

j y^ j ^
>-jj

o43

jloL

-W5J
^lo

4^j29 C i

AJ

ou c

o ^ Lw<Ji

j
^ J > \ oU

(jp

LX Z*S

4JP

ol (j ^

'jLiL*Jlj 4^JLqJ (jl

0 -*

J -6 ^

'

^ r *- 4
.

33

I ^ --

yj1

, 211 - 13 . The first illustration is to be attributed to al - Marrar b . Sa c! d . See


Hamasa , 3 / 1119 - 20 , S . 401 , L . 2 ( p . 1119 ) . For the illustration from al - SharIf

MM

al - RadI

, see

his

Diwan

, 2 / 158

with

al - cafw

in place

of al - hilm

. The

illustration in the essay is the opening line of the poem attributed to


given in fn . 28 above .

final
poetical
al - Zimani

as

MANTHUR

" If

of

character

times
nizable
should
'a

effect

disgrace

.'

a light

' ,

of

or

baseness

The

evil

to
the

if

- so

that

he

virtuous

and

did

give

this
a

lifeline

of

better

, they

they

nonethe

are

recog

grace

nobility

and

it , it is said
with

( of

offence

deter

and

which

the

him

an

should

vicious

from

love

among

the

certain

poet

unless
al - Sharif

certainly

you

al - Radi

need
Dhu

Forbearance

is

( person

) be

poet

Convey
is

result

than

do
injuring

righteous

yourself

act

of

induced

oppression

;
.

nobility
to

from

folly

, but

it , people

should
say

a light
( of

him

):

c ; for

in

- hearted

' .

:
my

life

protect

' 1- Hasabayn

an

' a simpleton
certain

to

end

strong
among

message
peoples

to

Abu

Musma

reproach

."

( Derogatory

Talks

) 34

:
C
J ixj

34

MM

jL^

rep

:
is

act

daringly
, and

you

):

honour

he

, forsaken
least

but

against
is

of ) resolve

, the

certain

protection
forbearance

, rejected

to

and

forebearance

practise

will

the

of

to

him

, that

at

( a proof

punish

abandonment

of

the

Master

knowledge

. Exercising

and

my

populace

act

alienated

to

of

coincides

folly

be

, O

its
acts

an

."

Forbearance

the

induced

, for

will

among

injustice

refuse

strongly

realm

such

, and

so - and

you

him

brethren
A

weakness

. But

reproach

be
if
of

the

: ' Some
is

man

agree

commend

Indulgence

demand

rimanded

say

prevention

which

committed

and

especially

and

in

matters

they

- hearted

simpleton

oppression

all

exceptions

which

resolve

belongs
to

some

to

and

forbearance

generally

grant

117

STUDY

*>

understanding

of
this

less

: AN ANALYTICAL

people

apply

AL -MANZUM

, 220 . The Tenderer of the half line illustration could not be identified .

is

118

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION

AND VERSIFICATION

" Whoever is afraid of derogatory talks behind him would expend all
his wealth before it could be inherited .

certain poet :
I am afraid of derogatory talks behind me . "

iii
(

j .
c

Syr
\sjss>xj

jv-U- \

'jj

I (

^Ap

Moderation ) 35

'

L*5"

I
" .

iiiJ UJ

^ Jl ^ 1 iLw C^ S" hiil

^
*

dJJU

^~

cL*Jl ^ 11

^ ^

A Jwv

dixbu
-^tj

~Jl

c ~o~ow ?
C^iiL

>

(_

JL<JI

y >-y JI ^ s*' c
<y *
(^5^ "

jl
*ujL

. j

^ -ipL-.JI

! >- wX

iiJj *y\s

Lw<J !

cil

JT

^JJL!

IJ

jLWp

jt-U

>

jj jui
^ <J1

AXaj (_JIJ iSli


<.Li

iii
1

" ^

/ * ' CJlj

jljj -4 (jjJ (.j*""1

" Modesty in giving assistance is more of the character trait of the


nobles , and moderation in generosity is better than squandering of
that which is available . Do not be extremely generous with your
wealth and do not behave like an unwilling horse in giving your
favours . Know that some ( acts of ) holding back are resoluteness , and
some ( acts of ) giving are blameworthy . Protect your wealth as you
will protect your blood ties ; both collaborate with each other like the
two hands in preserving your honour , and both act in alliance like
friendly companions in strengthening your glory . Whenever you com
bine between wealth and contentment , between kinship and glory,
then you become an aspirant to glory , a striver towards honour . Let

35 Ibid . , 222 - 24 . For the illustration from Kuthayyir , see his Diwan , 308 - 9 , where
tuwainiquhii is read in place of tukhaliquhu . The one attributed to Nusayb could not
be found in his Diwan .

MANTHUR AL -MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

119

not your eye look back except towards the friend , and let not your
wealth be expended except on the right causes .
Kuthayyir b . cAbd al - Rahman :
If giving from your wealth does not lead to an act of piety
or goodness towards a close friend
Hold back ; for some holding back is resoluteness and
strength , and let only the rightful causes make you
expend your wealth .
Nusayb :
You are a man , for that is a wise decision , a high ambition ,
prudence , and an awe - inspiring , rising fortune .
Someone had tried to act like Marwan ; but it is only
Marwan and the people who strive hard that are the
noble ones . "

VI

Bab

al - Awsaf ( The

Chapter on Descriptions )

J
36
( Description of a Horse )

. jS

* *

*
AP- L

j ^ za] \

<j

JI Jt 1

"
J2jj

A-Jjjjj

"

MM , 243 - 44 . For
, see

^ c^>*

the

The

22 , 23 , 24 , 9 , and

jis -oj

illustration
Poems

10 , with

^ 2j2^

J ^ wc

from

of al - Tufail
slight

! (_j AA] 1

4.U - UI

'

(J

'

^>o

(JjwL ^

al - T ufayl

"

J-

36

I (_fjA (_jA

L>-Uj

dJJ
Ul

'

variae

Oj -W ^

al - A khtal
, Qaslda
lectione

, see

his

Diwan

^ > -^ 1
L

9 and

J ai

Lj IS"

, 152 ; for that

5 , pp . 29 - 34 , occurring
in lines

L^AlaJl

22 .

as lines

from
20 ,

THE

(J

jb

IflL

ARABIC

?J

THEORY

OF PROSIFICATION

tLJL

AND

VERSIFICATION

L>

J-^ " ^

"

LS

^ l3jbL
^ Jin

L j

She is of profusely sweating joints , of active limbs like a rain - soaked


wolf and a rain - beaten bird ; whenever it responds to a cry that it
should run , it swoops ( forth ) as a falcon swoops onto the nest .
Al - Akhtal :
Ibn Bakr ' s running saved him from our spears ; so too
did the profusely sweating horse which ran like a
lightning .
He was whispering into its ears as the spears continued
hitting him in succession : ' May my mother be your
ransom if you could run to safety by the evening ' .
He continued driving it hard until it appeared like an
eagle that is forced by nightfall to fly to the nest .
"

Al - Tufayl al - Ghanawi

:
Many a raid like locusts in the air ; they were dispatched
by a light - hearted warrior who was as active as the
sword blade .
I took part in them but did not take from the spoils as they
started rolling in , both in small and large quantities .
With a horse that had little flesh on its face ; its leg veins
had never been treated , it is well - catered for , but it is
freely sacrificed at war time .
It appeared , after its breasts had been sweat - soaked , like a
wolf soaked by the rain during the night .
A stoutly built horse will for ever be my companion as long
as I live ; a horse that is as strong as an ostrich with
long limbs .
Its galloping is pleasantly fast , yet it does not lose its
balance ; it is like a bird that is beaten by the rain . "

MANTHUR AL - MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

121

11
cW
( The

^
OJPL^ A
<M
^
y*
aip

^y

lijj

4 b ^

<. .Jl > -

JT

4j^a

tM
"

j v

(Syr ^ ^

^jp

^ LJ1 >cJIj

5 j >\^

jA >- ^y C-JLi >lj


aij

4j>-J

C
"* J^ } J ^ 4jl

oLijJI cIj

<U!P

l ^ilj -s^ l

^c^ aXsli

C^ -vJli L&^ L? 1y >-

J ^P

Cojj

i^

111)

WLJ

ij

. o ji

^j

O j >-

^ ^3l

oJ

>t-J^JI

C-Ji ^> J>L^?j ^ 1J


y

j j Jo oL ^oxJl CA Lj

Sjh ^

t o -Ulp

V -JL >JI _^

C -plJJj

jp

1 4jjP

ulixJlj 4JL^ J

<LblJL>J

(_ -i ^j

(ji

oJjwLi

e
t^juS"

^ SJ Ij -w i^ -^ >JI ^

^J ^v2j

^ ik

- c
^

^ j **

^y >

J3

) 3'

f
JJ
*

^JJ ^

CJ^

Winds

y *

^o

^
(1) 1

I JUajJl

<Up

Ji

1 ^^P

(_ ^P

^Jj>rJ

_b >-

d -j 1j 1

ipjj

AJIJP ^Z

; o jliaP

(. l^JLflS^ l

A>- l>-jj

! 4_JjXlaji

L^j4jli

(Jl ^

^ ;>~

JJ

jxll

^J

tal
: jPLi

ljL > -

uii *

IjL -P

p - "jk \j

1^^_>-

li ~i >- J

{j -y-

SLoJ

O l zl*jl

(^

j - ^JI

bjJI

37

l^J j u>-

^
^

Jl

MM , 252 - 55 . The first


Sham cala b . al - Akhdar

l ^j

jJ

C - DI

two

illustrations

*c

^_fi>^up

^ yJU

^i

ISI

Oy

Lg_I ^ t

Li|

di

here

^zj ^ i oir

-Lp

could

not

0
i^S

'jj

>^_j_

be

found

in

any

sources

was probably the author of the third illustration . Compare


, S . 183 . For al - F arazdaq ' s verse , see his Diwan , 1/ 29 ; A bu

Hamasa ,

2 / 565 - 67

' l - F araj

al - I sbahani
, Aghani
, 1/ 336 ; al - H atim I , Hilya , 2 / 32 . For
, 45 . The illustration from al - S ul I could not be located

see his Diwan

edition of his Diwan , but see al

- J urjan I ,

Asrar , 257 ; for

al - Suli ' s

that from J am I l ,
al - Nayramam ' s

in

verses see ibid .

122

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION

AND VERSIFICATION

lij
^ ~j <^

" I do

<u ^ > - ^ jJ

not

know

satisfaction

and

the

the

tive

times

, at

beautiful

towards
and

me
draw

of

enemies

, and

until

the

winds
the

veil

of
of

off

the

with

over

while

of

which

dispositions
shamed
Yazld

When

exterior
their

A certain

poet

When

the
is

Another
you

sign

, the

in
kissing

thus

beautiful

reveal

of

serve

as

their

Southwind

my

will

be

affected

, respond

greetings

to

to
you

between
my

messenger

it ; for

be
us

dust

, the

a better
when

transgressor

neighbour

its

blowing

it

blows

but

, we
than

you

fills

your

North

found
.
eyeballs

a face
cheek

the
show

preeminence

interior

the

a messenger

the

damsels
their

would

directions

seeing

blows

neighbour
to

nourishes
with

of

his

prevent

all

hands

proclaim

had

against

our

wind

secrets

to

Northwind

the
poet

none

me
.

features

exposed

in

incon
conse

who

would

I succeed
and

the

beloved

from

the

faces

evil

is

you

by

and

from
the

his

winds

their

protection

him

see

attention

over

mufflers

on

the

. When

oysters

dust

to

can

their

saved

his

do

[ i . e . the

from

as

loosened

shredded

that

turned

be

that

then

guard

so

secure

blows

withdrawn
their

reality

and

to

It

been
been

, their

there
you

are
. Only

from

b . al - Tathriyya

turban

had

the

fear

wind

move

inatten

blow

gown

they

was

I get

his

the

, a strong

indicate
and

in

, and

the

they

I can
be

whenever

up

had

pearls

that

passion

deliver

him

, they

and

Southwinds

equals

so

. But

his

which

their

eyes

of

me

, they

have

me

offering

whenever

. Whenever

mischievous

I entertain
him

the

raiment

their

himself

loops

and

the

from

Jj -il

. Sometimes

while

veil

range

watching

watch

kissing

(- 5 _/

rigours

me

blow

beloved

disturbance

their

wrapped

from

and

their

already

me

spies

over

of

iL^ '

continue

the

please
they

the

close

started

veils

veniences
quences

and

the

; they

over

. They

remove

from

winds

when

from

they

the

love

sorrow

greetings

that

the
, helping

of

from

spot

notice

thank

amusement

me

secretly

to

agonies

protect

^ LJ^ 1

how

and

reducing

jJUJI

the

and
trait

their
be

123

MANTHUR AL - MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

Farazdaq :
A party of travellers they are , it is as if the wind was
seeking a revenge from them by pulling their turbans .
al - Suli :
The wind is envious of me because of you ; although I
had never considered it as an opponent .
When I tried to give a kiss , it pulled a dress over the face .
Jamil b . Ma c mar :
You see slim - built women cursing the winds when these
blow ; but Buthna is always happy whenever the
wind blows on her .
When slim - built women avoid the winds , you see her
out of pride - but for fear of Allah - rejoicing
extravagantly . "

al -

iii

JlJaJl <&
( The Twangs of the Gazelle ) 38
AljS

JI Jxi

^ 3 i ^iai I

iS .

J <

<4.UUJ 1

Jl

' JaJgJli

L4 .

' - li

43jj

jLVPJ

L I^

I l^

l^J Ob

>-

IajL

Ailj l^J JC
Ji >- ijlj

l^J

^ .LLaJ
4-^
OJLe- l^i

^~ _f

Nj
aI

o ,

UxjjsLiU

tSj ^r

<0il

Beauty has brilliantly established its details in her and elegance has
drawn its image on her . She has the twang of the gazelle , the character
of the sun , the tenderness of the crescent , and the comfort of dress .
The roselike canam flower is not more pleasant in colour than her
"

38

MM

259 - 61 .

The poetical illustrations could not be found in any source .

124

VERSIFICATION

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION AND

dress

; the

immaculate

clustered

bunch

ing

of

locks

beauty

has

al - Husayn
A

( of

dates

hairs

. Charm

frozen

on

tree

is
Nor

not
is

than
Not

even

in
that

than
her

her

saliva

her

head

eyeballs

; nor

is

with

and

the

droop

a wine

- like

- like

flowers
than

is

fingers

.
rain

nicer

brilliance

drooping

head

fully

a heavy
with

bears

her

blossom

tender

from

adorned

that

than

that

her

down

al - Muharibiyya
my

calm

ran

eyelids

Bab

the

calm

charm

VII

than

clusters

which

bears

plenty

Allah
if

cheeks

tree

, whenever

May

through

which

attractive

Allah

attractive

run

flows

a date

al - Dahhak
I pray

) more

colour

teeth

hairs

sweeter

has

rose

hale

is

more
of

with

her

not

better

the

is

her

b . Mutayr

canam

Umm

hale

meet

eye

two

could
eyes

not
of

catch

his

Jahwash

and

( lit . irrigate

) his

two

eyes

through

point

at

which

the

sight

: may

protect
; they

them
are

the

as

two

."

al - Ta c azi

( The

Chapter

on

Condolences

i
( A rising

j JLU < JU-

C<^3I

'

ULU
. A5

jfJj
O

Ojljio

Star

s>

is

set

. i. -o

-ftli

1 .sI

Uj

'
1jt-> ^ o
VjLii3\_j
^

s-LaJ

SJUJIj

I^ P I ^

^ Lp I

< -a j

#-l !L

Jv

(jUjJi

I
"
<uil (Jfij

) 39

-l &>- NJ

L S^AjL^JL
I

J > - 1> J

jJb

4oL*JI

^ IP

0J

C bxl 1

Ig

<

<j ""

39

MM , 261 - 62 . See
3 / 1230 ; al - I sbahani

the

illustration
, al - Zahra

in Hamasa

, 2 / 782 - 89 , S . 262 , L . 1 ; Hudhaliyyin

, 2 / 550 ; al - T anukh

I , al - Qawafi

, 61 .

MANTHUR AL -MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

" All

praise

thanks

and

survival
the

other

side

decision

affair

are

of

meet

set

and

whom

risen

heart

is

[ now

adulterated

more

others

benefit
offer
that
Abu

than
. When

, but
praises
which

( to
is

Khirash
I offer

their

Him

survived

than

to

which
increase

is

with

died

caused

an

by

able

folds

less

and

calamity

bear

the

in

abundance

is replaced

upset

has
of

time

calamities
are

to

had

Khirash
events

we
, the

which

but

the

until

cracked

, that

changing

fortune

is

lost

in

set

misfortunes

, one

; all
for

have

. Scratches

some

Worlds

. Thanks

have

have

pure

, and

have

the

the

guidance

) , that
will

may

the

necessary

may

may

is mixed

's

al - Hudhali

( is
glory

may

concerning

bites

Allah

star

c Urwa

better

spared

praise

misfortune

with

of

of

of judges

a consolation

ease

Lord

fortitude
side

; a rising

secrecy

is not

bearable

than

at

the

fairest

, and

. Although

is no

Allah

the

one

safe

. There

to

Allah

spared

certainly

now

the

to

. Although

has

survived

due
He

deceased
is

belong

125

are
serious
with
loss

and
and

my

Lord

; some

evils

after
are

c Urwa
lesser

, as
than

Khirash
others

."

11
( Fortitude

jJJ015

40

"

jl

) 40

ttSj

, 272 - 73 . The author of the poetical illustration is given as Ibrahim b . Kunayf


in Hamasa , 1/ 258 - 61 , S . 70 , where the second hemistich of the third line according
to al - TibrlzI ' s recension reads : wa - na ' ibatin bi 'l - hurri awla wa - ajmalu .
MM

126

THE

" Every

ARABIC

living

Stop

ting

the

of

rainfall

for

of

ever

into

the

Ibrahim

use

consoled
is

Had

no
it

Consolation
( the

use

at

every

calamity

what

is

death

, and

from

that

the

is

more

to

reproof

and

for

man

for

a man

in
befit

tears

bring

bounds

excessive

of

the

Labid

lacking

is
. Had

able

there

as

like

back
in
it

one

mourn
is

from

never
enter

a place

of

man

matter

be

seen

is

not

for

is

decreed

aLJl
( I would

.
by

it ' s greater

miss

a man

, there

loftier

will

by

time

avail
if

been

one

noble

disturbed
of

, even
have

the
of

be

? No

iii

for

calamity

calamity

which

be

virtue

escape

Allah

better

resignation

there

no

not

shedding

to

, nor

is

) , would

the

deaf

long

that

that

or

by

endurance

or

of

exceeded

is

death

do

as

, fortitude

copious

is

decreed

against

of

calamity

But

of

is

security

more

. There

al - Nabhani
, for

been

; it

lives

and

. Surely

have

fate

place
which

it

) companion

reprieve

that

if

grave

as

would

is

watering

the

well

a ( dead
, we

AND VERSIFICATION

, even

is

as

that

b . Hakim

Be

in

restraint

to

away

die

reward

sorrow

granting

from

to

one

, and

. But

to

refuge

bound
the

and

passed

inclined
ing

noble

grief

has

OF PROSIFICATION

discountenance

been

who

is

about
nor

for

show

ing

being

worrying

endurance

THEORY

and
his

it

better

decreed

a place

Allah

than

of

refuge

."

C ...J

not

forget

him

) 41
o

" 0

V %'j yUll S/ N U sLji

jiiji

Yv

" I would

not

the

dawn

jiji

him

it

true

the

MM , 283 .

, O

as

iij

long

\%y

as

the

b \

he - goat

desires

iii

the

ye

cI :
servants

Burayd
female

al - Yarbu

meet

41

ybji

forget

breaks

al - Ubayrid
Is

again
?"

of
as

Allah
long

, that
as

the

I would

never

he - goat

desires

su

female

uU

, and

127

MANTHUR AL - MANZVM '. AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

VIII

Bab

al - Mulah

The Chapter on Entertaining Stories )

^ j \ iaj
(

Strange Claims ) 42
6

(Jl

>-

JL -

jjl

<jU

1j

l lilj

. . !wup ^ :!j

^ Jp

c -jjjl

wilsjij

| U
^Uls

cu3 ^ xp !j

^ Lp

jlaji

JJi '

djj ~*sj

^
dhk

Vj
N

*$ l o > cjjj

apil ? jt -l ^

<3^

dJ -^ J

djj

^
^ .Uj c

U C-iiajlj
e
We
4j ^ IPI dW CUo-Pjj
t

I'C.

viJj

Ijlj \ X& . J -LJl

^ 1*1?
:u j -[ dl -^

jl

|-3

do

.}j

Jj >- I I
l *j

*'*

dAjlj

jtj

wL>-jxi

c "5-loip

>"e

<J ~^

^j *

| . lijh

jlj

i^ -"y

^jj i j

^ ui ^

v ^r"

c
v*

'

m*

i3j

*^v4
j

C ^ p ^ ij

o > tpli

. jJIPU

dilP

(j -4

Cr

viixti
i ^pLJj

^ .

Jj *
I^

j ?M

a ~ "

cP2-
urr ^ 'j *

MM

(-S^

- r -*-~" or3 '

1 Ci" h

(J

'

J ^ *4J

Among your strange claims and unfamiliar views is your assertion


that my heart had forgotten you and that my bosom has no place for
you . You find fault in my ardent love and disgust in my creed . This
is inspite of the fact that I am a follower of the Muhammadan path ,
who keeps vigil at night , whereas you are an Israelite , a Jew . My
religion is the declaration of unity for Allah , the only One , but your
religion is that of the one who is never content with just one type of
food . You associate yourself with Ibn ' Adiya 3 in regard to loyalty , but
you inherited nothing from him except dishonesty and oppression . If
I inform you that I am overwhelmed by my intimacy with you and
preoccupied by my love for you , you reject my statement and claim
"

42 Ibid . , 321 - 23 . The illustration attributed to Ibn al - Ahnaf could not be found in any
of the editions of his Diwan consulted . In fact it is most likely to belong to Abu
Nuwas . See Diwan Abl Nuwas ( Beirut , Dar Sadir edition , 1962 ) , 585 . It is also given
as an example of the trope iqtibas in al - ZanjanI , K . Mi cyar al - nuizar , 2 / 109 .

128 '

THE

and

you

I am

ARABIC

falsify

THEORY

my

a pretender

wizard

in

than

myself

You

wish

you

who

no

friends
1 think

you

of
Another

to

) conjecture

affection

, and

for

you

will

apologize

pleases

; not

. You

you

claim

to

a reporter

your

VERSIFICATION

and

and

that

know

telling

me

confess

assert
you

that
are

more

about

about

myself

that

admit

a
it
.
my

year
one

even

two

thousand

.
of

never

the

surviving

content

followers

with

just

of

one

Moses

type

.
:
him

love

me

friend

were

I inform

of

AND

( mere

about

and

are

food
poet

He

of

every

who

claim

surprised

b . al - Ahnaf

you

by

I surrender

against

al - cAbbas

my

opinion

. I am
that

offence

knowledge

in

your

OF PROSIFICATION

; but

that
he

with

conjecture

tells

me

that

surprise

I am

sick

falsifies

from

the

( passion

certainty

) , enslaved

in

my

by

statement

.
I am

about

bereft

of

someone

any

affection

telling

me

; what

about

myself

."

ii
( The

Cadger

) 43
J
'

p -plla -oJI

\yb

\jS

41*
. 4/ 3LJ

(.

oLJlj

^Jsi

jJsJlj
!

djU

Ulj

Jff

Vj . y &j

Jljj
j" * taj .j

csojUI
, y "

cW

" As

for

intrudes
ance
every

43

1 (J

so - and
upon

to

sound
. Whenever

MM , 329 - 30 . The
See

Hamasa

- so , he
dinners

every

house

JwsJ 1

first

comes
and

, and

to
feasts

hunger
he

illustration

reads

parties
. The

and
echo

makes
[ from

is to be

banquets
leads

him
the

attributed

, 4 / 1557 - 62 , S . 674 , L . 1 ; al - HatimI

seek
Qur

and

without

guid

accommodation

3 an ] , he

to cUtba
, Hilya

uninvited
him

reads

b . Bujayr

, 2 / 207 .

at
only

the

al - Harithi

MANTHUR

Sura

of

the

Banquet

inconveniences
poet

Many

Ibn

at

A certain

AL -MANZUM

inciter

the

yet

he

Bassam

whenever

dinners

he

129

STUDY

flees

it

is

only

the

of

echo

dog

to

towards

remains

barking

the

unstable

, who

direction
on

is
of

his

led

aimlessly

every

camel

sound

They

memorized
content

the

Qur

, except

the

3an

and

Sura

of

iii

understood
the

all

Banquet

its

."

s- Jsj
(A

OlS "
Oj ^ wj Ij J2j J

Slow

Reader

c AL>O

) 44

jL *>

4.UI

bli

Vj

li _p -

J^LP ^ I ^ \J \

Jtejb

. ^ uiajl

*)lj

itysi

3l

'

l ~j

4jJJ

j!
JL

4iT

j.

dr 4

<jl

tjj

sLiS "'
ji

tlri
^

(J

a *

for

J 5*"

so - and

forms

the

purify

himself

dry

for

entertainment

the

Sura

till

nightfall

of

. He

does

of

out

of

he

lust

omen

if he

were

in

the
not

break

for

. He

sumptuous

, and
his
, and

wetness

on

a muddy

sunrise

feasting

from

travels

recitation

until

customary

does
recites

fast

on

would
food

the

^
, hence

festival
travel

he

. He
he

finish
the

I u Ii j

; and

not

"

Tigris

place

^
I Lju

from

Sura

of

days
only

per

would
nurses

the
for

in

not
hope

reciting

the

Night
fear

of

month

. The first poetical illustration here is attributed to ( Amr


in Shihab al - DIn , Tiraz al - majalis , 147 .

331 - 32

al - Kinani

if

through
Sun

evil

, even

, even

the

MM

draws

ablution

the

(H
<>1^

- so , he

providing
fasting

1: , L*

cr"

LJIS "

f - *r ^

tyj
l_S^

**'c

C -JLU*-

>

" As

(ji

^ iwai i

44

from

an
by

and

: AN ANALYTICAL

al - Hazin

130

the

arabic

theory

of

prosification

and

versification

Hasan b . al - Laythi :
It is as if his palms are created from stone ; no act of
generosity is ( ever ) done by his hands .
He prefers to perform the dry ablution , be he on land or
at sea , for fear that his palms might be seen wet .
He also said :
May Allah bless not the Ka c b and their assembly , what a
great dishonour and humiliation they bear .
They do not study Allah ' s Book among themselves , and
do not fast out of lust for full belly . "
al -

Appraisal

Al - Nayramani ' s

model compositions as illustrated above are complete


essays . This contrasts very sharply with what obtains in Ibn al - Athir , the
majority of whose samples as given in al - Wasliy are fragments containing
the specific source materials that are intended for illustration . A compre
hensive analysis of al - Nayramani ' s model essays through the standards
of thematic , rhetorical and linguistic structures and their inter - relation
ship is impracticable in a study of this nature : the focal point here is the
examination of the degree of harmony between the theory and the practice
of hall in the author ' s perception . Nevertheless , some investigation into
his style and technique within the context of the writing tradition of his
time would be in order .
Al - NayramanI was writing at a time when the flowery style of the
epistolary genre was the style par excellence . Indeed it became the standard
model for all forms of writings , viz . , literary , historiographical , and specu
lative . 45 It is therefore not surprising , judging by the success of our author
as an efficient katib , that his Manthur al - manzum can reasonably be re
garded as a noteworthy representative of the writing style of the period .
The prefatory note gives a clear indication of our author ' s preferred style :
a blend between the simplicity of the familiar idiom and the sophistication
of the uncommon usage . In his view, exclusive use of routine idioms
detracts from sublimity as much as intolerable archaism and unfamiliar
usage breed riddle and lead to barbarism . 46 His essays reveal a consistent
45 See R owson , " The Philosopher as Litterateur " ,
al - Khwarizmi " , 118 .
46 See note 5 above . Compare
al - Bayan , 1/ 144 .

87

osworth ,

" cAbu cAbdallah

orsch , Classical Literary Criticism ,

63

; al

- J ahiz

MANTHUR AL - MANZUM : AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

pattern

of

material

plar

is paired

The

parallelistic

tion

was

rhythm
by

our

and

of

we

read

of

the

rhetorical

wa

' l - gharr

, the

chapter

on
of

essay

the

especially
An

style

his

women

, the
focused

that

complaints

poetic

pieces

essays

the

men

misleading

have
are

the

conclusion

to

and the writing

range

but

, meta
most
in , for
under

- selected

are

too

obvious
does

are

the
recur

matter

sarcasm

of

the

selections

subject

observed

as
the

interpret

, especially
about

genre

, and

women

is

a modest
full

utilized

a well

of

' l -jamr

, simile

rhythms

to
not

discernible

majority

expression

of

their

social

central
this

as

style of the Abbasid

an

essays

essays

. One

era , see Latham

here

patrons

reunion
. Even
are

evidence

with

to

for

figures

characters

the

gratitude

topics

central

his

relationship
of

, requests

other

in

love

. The

entreaties
youth

made

our

the

elements

be

example

of

illustrates

mention

from

essentially

unreciprocated

men

On parallelism

may

of

/ wa

. 48 The

of

of

exemplars

not

for

passage
which

where

are

domain

about
over

mulah

first

follow
The

poetic

brilliantly

metrical

variety

the

Bab

qubila

entendre

are

arising

some

that

they

basic
on

tation

on

, the

and

, although

also

, to

these

precision

. The

feature

is

talf

stichoi

essays

important
,

. The

elaboration

in

naslb

afala

, balanced

general

of

ma
the

will

under

, where

metaphors

, anaphoras

some

entitled

specific

essay
as

be

subtleties

illustration

yantashiru

, double

isocola

, and

condolences

accents

warrant
affect

employed

same

. , paronomasia

, antithetical

, is

from
thumma

terms

the

selection

awla

and

parallelism
of

good

second

expressions

. . . . The

rhyming

of

analysis
one

" .
tradi

demonstrated

features

' l - nush

yakmunu

, " parallelism

of

al - daghln

/ wa

the

rhetorical

, viz

our

al - cAduww
fifila

of

cirru

and
devices

example

47

one

the

exem

hortatory

is eloquently

, but

from

izdiwaj

facilities

this
all

a poetic

Umayyad

the

feasible

is

ma

of

the

of

from

. A detailed

entitled

yasta

, assonance

this

with

grammatical

important

are

thumma

use

not

ahmad

in

fullest

obviously
, and

, a case

, and

the

structures

essay

on , and

yakhmudu

on

, the

: al - hazm

utilized

rence

is

his
roots

tradition
to

borrowed

use

, or

better

, namely

goes

phor

writing

this

of
its

telling

exploited

point

occurs

, expression

expression

had

with

. 47 He

the

essay

phrase

, which

Abbasid

varieties

al - hijcf
ing

the

sound

explain

a similar
style

author

of

: an

combined

in

they

with

utilization

131

, lamen
the

used

in

naslb
prose

tempting
of

but

versatility

, " Ibn al - Muqaffa

and Early Abbasid Prose " ; Beeston , " The Role of Parallelism in Arabic Prose " ;
Horst

, " Die Entstehung

" ; idem , " Besondere

Formen

".

48 The practice was also common in the Medieval Western literary culture , and this is
yet another fertile area in comparative studies awaiting investigation . See Curtius ,
European Literature , Excursus III , " Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms as Meta
phors " , 414 - 16 .

132

THE

But

the

fact

ARABIC

is

that

concerning

women

correctness

which

adduced

in

a fault

for

. Specific

essays

cannot

would

have

which

they

greater

not
treat

, even

to

mulah

sentiments

words

, some

A
device

of

be

and

contained

which
his

the

practice

of
: the

should

be

and

Ibn

the

relationship
of

altogether

between

the

the

his

wording

the

lacking
new

the

that

in

chap

entertaining
from

praise

expressions
. The

of

imprint

argue

in

of

favour

of

the

of

. In

device
the

of
the

hall

author

other

' s real

essays
both

that

life

original

way

in

demonstrates
theory
an

more

and

essay

the

two

in

draws
can

be

between
imperceptible

which
by

to

stereo

difference

the

artistic

, intended

. The

in

in

modified

an

thematic

which

major

instances

modification

the

between

was
,

place

clearly

on

as

Tammam

work

slightly

the

of

relationship

view

hall

first

Abu

his

represents

is

and

. The

intended

expression
the

. However

such

rhetorical

essays

prose
of

should

strong

models

our

imaginary

of

, in

into

utilized

poetical

whose

expression

are

Hamdsa

. This

, but

expressions

device

much

better

be

, essays
that

here

, the

hall

poetical

cultivate

which

are

effort

to

would

normal

other

elements

mere

is
of

that

and

will

citab

is

simple

essays

in

shortage

ranging

even

the

rendering

model

it

amusing

materials

ones

of

grotesque

' s understanding

essays

of
so

al - Athlr

the

to

in

the

only

all

courts

al - Nayramanl

without

him

likely

exemplars

how

after

the

the

essays

the

no

and

of

of

. However

, as
, but

periods

amusing
of

how

of

his

retained

established

not

deliberate

in

poetic

view

wording

are
at

revealed

a conscious

types

them

image

is

are

contains

, and

any

than

unjus

contents

values

of

some

katib

, especially
clear

in
in

they

adab

more

some

overlapping

verge

dispraise

lacking

other

essays

contain

the

certain

short

the

to

that

proverbial

collage
to

prospective

experience

not

are

that

the

supposed

say

is

rhymed

interesting

to

be

themes

of

there

moral

to

all

, although

on

, and

precise

discernible

supposition
teach

is
an

that

chapter

thematic
might

, although

respect

thought

theme

, ethics

model

necessary

and

. The

extolment

touch

the

, sometimes

, which

, from

personal

to

Htab

with

, is

satire

the

as

manners

exhibited

compositions

for

of

unrelated

in

themes

conventional

epigrammatic

pass

is

on

it

motifs

that
this

mixed

suffice

with

question

makes

, his

under

allow

the

essays

infatuation

artifices

, but

less

argument

. What

imprecision

appropriate
we

the
any

Tammam

here

if

more

deal

unwittingly

Abu

with

the

social

's

on

occur

essays

than

also

thematic

undertaken
more

once

efficiency
has

of

, especially

strictly

ter

criticized

been

in

materials

author

he

conformity

maintained

that

author

AND VERSIFICATION

nasib

important

stylistic

the

his

raises

more

cases
be

of

this

far

of

which

OF PROSIFICATION

majority

, and
is

is that

tifiably

the

favour

significant

THEORY

the

original

al - Nayramanl

hardly

obscures

idiom

that

inspired

the

are
affinity
it .

MANTHUR

Although
rowings

only

from

also

reflected

from

, or

is

once

in
was

theme
its
it

borrowings

proverbial
in

all

the

by

in
the

wording
more

than

once

. 51

awsaf

is

Chapter

on

mulah

remarkable

here
essays

is

drawn

the

and

the

out

of

ancients

only

twelve

in

may

the
By

literary
and

adventure
are

large

constraints

of

the

and

self

total

of

few

by

the

with

illustrates
hall

447

here

's

work

demand
saj

of

with

remarkable
in

theory

and

for

poem

of
using

by

Umm

the

concluding

essay

in

the

to

. What

have
poems

of

fairness

to

rhythm
work

clarity

the

in

practice

occur
more

to

whom
accorded
the

fact

that

attributable

this

effort

assonance

both

to

feminine

discuss

and
,

more

from

are

historic

even

expressions

. 53 But

pieces

not

is

been

of

is

, the

terms

the

expressions

c style

both

; similar

is

in

in

poetic

intention

same

the

author

Tammara

selection

convoluted

the

where

book

Abu

question

piece

to

essay

the

the

, a poetic

concluding

seems

some

provoke

our

than

the

- plagiarism

the

by

which

more

belonging

is

in

of

to

unfamiliar

in

of

first

are

borrowings

utilized

the

given

used

attention
in

. In

bor

statements
are

is

another

instance

of

, reference

piece

reason

is

, cases

popular

anecdotes

utilized

of

illustrated

fascinatingly

the

al - Nayramam

dictated

of

is

exception

. The

for

in

133

remarkable

instances

chapter

moderns

associated

concept

final

, equal

tradition

two

again

the

poetic

which

again

. Except

anyway

reading

once

. 50 No

second

evidence

are

women

The

the

illustrations

or

, is

once

. 52 With

usages

reused

STUDY

and

.49 More

question

al - Muharibiyya
on

both

in
is

al - lafz

Chapter

in

author

in

are

, anecdotes

3 anic

essay

piece

poetry

essays

except

an

, gharibat

al - Dahhak

the

our

essays

used

. That

of

to , Qur

made

-. AN ANALYTICAL

from
citations

some

allusions

nowhere

that

AL -MANZUM

poets
.

in

idioms
or

literary
,

which

stylistic

generally

offers

a good

author

' s interpretation

49 For instance , see MM , 196 - 97 , 202 - 5 . Reference to al - Samaw ' al ' s legendary dem
onstration of trustworthiness in the essay entitled al - Shikaya may also be noted .
50 Like the use of QuPan 50 : 18 , also in the essay al - Shikaya ( supra note 27 ) ; of QuPan
36 : 80 in the essay on fire , see MM , 255 - 56 ; and of Qur ' an 18 : 17 in an essay on
passion , see MM , 284 . The only case of allusion to a Qur 3anic story , which also
entails the use of a Qur ' anic phraseology , is in the essay entitled Bada ' F al - da cawa
above , where reference is made to an event involving Moses and the Jews ( see Qur ' an
2 : 61 ) . The other two essay samples illustrated in this chapter under Bab al - Mulah
should also be noted for their passing references to Qur ' anic or religious concepts .
51 See MM , 294 - 95 . The poem occurs first in an essay on pp . 282 - 83 .
52 See the essay entitled ghunnat al -ghazal and the last essay in the book occurring on
pp . 334 - 35 .
53 I was able to count 44 pieces taken from Abu Tammam .

CHAPTER

FOUR

Qur ' anic and Prose Conceits in Poetry :


the eazm " versification " Theory

According

to

al - Asma

chatological

themes

attributable

to

concrete
,

the

scriptures
on

these

able
and

ing

Zuhayr
in

. 2 Ka

terms
of

3a

. 3 Against

clude

that

sheer

the
has

al - Asma

this

to

ci , Fuhiilat

, which

have

) is

found

background
of
roots

the

al - shu card

the

in

that

exactly

would

on

religious

not

chronologically

be

themes
hardly

, the

and

same

in

distinc

' 1- Salt

" looked
line

"
of

the

unspecified

into

in
to

Arabic

(d .

poetry

wording

unreasonable

books

be

borrow

b . Abl

a certain

the

remark

extensive

Umayya

scriptures

argued

the

those

poet

an

written
drawing

can

early

from

, was

, it

drawing
in

derives

) also

of

correspondence
one

been

his

is

view

no

have

of

support

are

possess

which

probability

. But

read

in

es -

Zuhayr

may

milieu

in

and

we

poet

world

conceits

( d . 32 / 652

practice
some

them

largely

said

the

evidence

scriptural

poet

. 1 Although

the

the

poetry
scriptural

( d . 30 / 650

Jews

religious

coincidence

of

cb al - Ahbar

Torah

tradition

is

religious

- Islamic

that

. Further

of

whose

the

treating
pre

underpins

poetry

of

) . He

al - Hutay

in

between

versification
2 / 623

them

lived

' s expressions

character
and

circa

by

his

the

conjecture

available

correspondence

explained
tive

easily

with

any
he

) , verses
of

' s contact

that

in

/ 831

poetry

support

fact

sources

the

poet

to

were

( d . 216

in

the

proof

literate

ci

the
con

literary

period

before

34 .

2 So reported al - Zubayr b . Bakkar ( d . 256 / 870 ) on the authority of his uncle : kana
Umayya fi ' l-Jahiliyya na ^ ara ' l- kutub wa - qard 'aha . See al - Asqalani , al - Isaba ,
1/ 134 . See evidence of this observation in Umayya , Dlwan Umayya Ibn Abl ' l- Salt ,
passim . The most recent study on the poet is probably that by Tilman Seidensticker ,
" The Authenticity of the Poems ascribed to Umayya Ibn Abl ' 1- Salt " , Paper presented
at the 1994 Exeter Conference on Arabic Poetry . I am grateful to the author for
making a copy of the paper available to me . The paper is to be published soon .
3

Ibn

Abd

RabbihI

verse in question

, al - cIqd , 5 / 276 - 77 ; Ibn


is :

I ,

ji -ij

Munqidh

, Lubab

al - adab
"S

jSz.J1

, 424 - 25 . The

See Shi cr al - Hutay ' a , ed . cIsa Saba ( Beirut , 1951 ) , 77 ; al - HatimI , Hilya ,
Compare Ibn Hamdun , Tadhkirat Ibn Hamdun ( Cairo , 1927 ) , 21 .

2 / 86

136

THE

Islam

. But

indeed

period
the

ing

the

the

poet

pora

or

knowledge
motifs

of

terials

and
The

post

this

trend

vivid

was

and

the

Hassan

. But

the

literary

law

Nevertheless

Qur

audience
' an

al - Namir

to

Prophet

have

never

an

in

post

the

poets

, imaginary

practice
from

issue

, that

we

expression

among

Ibn

Qutayba

al - Asma

For

example

, see

1/ 247 ; al - Khalidiyyan
Introduction
7

Compare
of the

the

, in

- Islamic

and

the

or

and

original

of

ideas

that

derive

from

early

so
in

concepts

inspired

peri

sources
. It

the
his

the

.7
Islamic

called

),

) are
by

celestial

interest

an

( d . 65 / 684

applauded

audiences
the

.5

indeed

expressions

the

the
of

( c . 30 / 650

documentary

of

of

scriptures

that

of

their

generation

exhibition

was

was

only

muhdathiin
poet

' s source

treatment

of

' l - shu cara D, 1/ 230 .

al - shu cara \
al - Tha

idiom

the

a curious
in

pre

Prophet

attitude

, and

certain

not

many

quality

al - Ja c di

verse

of

the

the

b . Thawr

, if

which

his

the

expressions

in

connoisseurs

, al - Shi cr wa

cI , Fuhulat

the

the

a listening

tolerated

conventional

period

observe
and

of

the

- Classical

were

on

by

from

verse

descriptions

scriptures

ma

, facilitated

of

c I of

borrowing

in

cor

motifs

illustrates

Humayd

expressed

literary

representative

exploits

, al - Nabigha

) , and

was

moralizing

evidenced

al - Asma

, and

instance

and

and

found

, motifs

. For

of

difficult

attitude

Islam

classic

further
of

use

is

scriptural

of

) , as

kleea

period

( c . 14 / 635

literary

, borrowing

practice

verses

hadith

earlier

the

Islam

Islamic

consciously

from
the

the

which

idioms

by

under

the

, for

the

. 6 Besides

deriving

ods

and

b . Tawlab

reported

In

to
of

of

, his
.4 It

most

( d . 54 / 674

exclud
poets

and

scriptures

. The

) for

Jahiliyya

to

in
, one

authoritative

apologetic

provided

Thabit

poet

givers

, poets

enthusiastic
the

and
practice

/ 771

negative

the

measure

principal

belonging

poetry

this

the

assessment

the

his

, and

instance

presumably

in

for

small

, the

poet

of

, and
them

scriptures

. For

rank

whether

no

the

3 ( d . 154

compositions

in

negative
by

the

against

illustrations

authored

) from

literary

Ibn

al - ' Ala

scriptures

reaction

literary

of

the

evaluators

preference

themes

in

passionate

Islam

poetry

Ibn

from

hadith

new

draw

cAmr

the

of

advantage
literary

hallowed

the

of

could

the

AND VERSIFICATION

knowledge

the

precision

and

emergence

poets

of

contributed

' an

the

B . H . / 590

- Islamic

ideas

Qur

Abu

definitive

simply

the

to

borrowed

time

was

motifs

the

's

the

be
of

( c . 35

any

by

that

to

by

and
with

dictated

not

OF PROSIFICATION

estimation

cAd ! b . Zayd

judge

of

intriguing

adduced

expressions

of

quite
, were

in

reasons

was

to

THEORY

is

literacy

this
of

it

ARABIC

calibI

42 , 53 .
, Khass

, al - Ashbah

al - khass

wa

'l - naia

, 21 . Compare

al - HatimI

' ir , 1/ 38 . See

also

to Umayya

' s description

of the

in Ibn

RabbihI

Diwan

, Hilya
Humayd

, 9.
the

Divine

reaction
Throne

of the

Prophet

, al - cArsh

, given

cAbd

angelic

, al - cIqd , 5 / 277 .

bearers

,
,

qur

specific
the

motifs

. An

putative
by

of

audience

the

greedy

him

man

rejected

in

. 8 In

poetry

of

regard

as

patterns
as
the
an

example

of

as

a small

the

Qur

that
by

( d . 199

chapter

in

materials

are

used

in
, and

can

made

following

be

of
he

the

Qur

he

and
was

/ 970

' anic

verse
the

poet

the

the

following

that

basic
,

all , of

category

, but

anecdote
once

about

was

of

not

a certain

following

such

Quranic

, namely

, if

Nuwas

think

's
to

. 9 Two

materials

former

poet

majority

themes

the

the

brought

of

that

idioms

' s Diwan

. Most

Abu

to

- mind

the

) who

the

reading

moved

composed

with

QuPanic

from

Kufa

narrow

among

wine

to

robustly

and

adaptations

established
how

legendary

convention

is

belong

in

a member

expressions

of

or
of

of

of

),

certain

by

employment

frivolous
' s use

critic

/ 783

the
was

fascinated

intriguing

instantly

had

) . So

recension

form

school
was

out
day

poet

the

this

systematic

in

by

. A

observation

( d . 360

more

related

a local
Nuwas

his

al - Isfahanl

al - Dahhak
in

the
in

by

latter

/ 814

and

taunted

his

of

al - Isfahanl

is

3an . Abu
be

Quranic

. What

Ibn

could
the

of

( d . 167
better

made

) . The

exponent

ideas

the

boy

accuse

employment

discernible

, was

to

Burd
this

statement

further

Hamza

adduced

a gathering
a prose
/ 771

Nuwas

Ibn

, illustrates

c ( d . 154

deliberate

quotations

examples

at
of

went

a specific

are

Al - Husayn

read

was

3anic

direct

was

poets

137

in poetry

Bashshar

of

illustrious

Abu

and

Qur

class

the

containing

expressions
these

to
most

under

lines

this

who

conceits

involving

al - Tami

poet

device

prose

a derivative
c ab

was
the

gether

the

the

muhdathiin
use

, which

, Ash

by

edness

of

as

and

incident

father

poem

' anic

passed

by

portion

of

a wine

being

. 10

poem

recited

, and

.
*

*
p -J

jS

c.

0JSWJ

8 Aghani , 3 / 223 . The poem in question is :


" yurawwFuhu al - siraru bi - kulli ardin ,
makhafata an yakiina bihl 'l - siraru .
Secret talks instil fear in him anywhere ,
for fear of secret agents being there . "
See the illustration in Diwan Bashshar , 3 / 241 ; al - I sbahan I , al - Zahra , 1/ 138 .
9 See the Appendix .
10 Ibn Manzur , Akhbar Abi Nuwas , 79 ; Haddara , Mushkilat al - sariqat , 55 . See the
illustration in Der Diwan des Abu Nuwas 3 / 301 . The Qur 3anic verse in question is
. . . kullama add J lahum mashawfihi wa - idha a ?,lama calayhim qamu . . . QuPan 2 : 20 .
For a similar instance of the use of Qur 3an in a wine theme see illustration 2 in the
Appendix and the story connected with it given in Abu Hiffan , Akhbar Abi Nuwas ,
68 ; Ibn

al - Mu ctazz

, Tabaqat

al -shu cara \

206 - 7 .

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION

138

J Is

" [ It

\ji

was

by

midst
So

to
was

it

was

as

we

sip

When
is

to

them

if

its

and

audience

, even

al - Amln
maids

, Abu

Nuwas

the

( d . 211

works

/ 826

)
from

provoked

the

Nuwas

. 12 The

Allah

Ibn

, he

with

11 A bu H iffan

the

of

the

230

poet
vizier

following

, Akhbar

period

provides

piece

, 124 . The

an

when
to

his
him

Quranic

use

few

are

patience

among
to

utilize

the

drunk

by
Qur

his

also
it

verse

. 11
T - cAtahiya

illustrations

appears

of

of

not

by

court

that
the

appeared

order
to

to

have

of

Abu

vizier

cAbd

testimony
in

court

' anic

, Abu

eloquent
days

Quranic

' s ancestors

of

the

of

session

generated
at

."

, once

with

it

him

example

use

admiration

caliph

/ 845

Tammam

for

the

wine

the

their

waited

, and

away

, for

( d . 231

Abu

/ 844

had

journey

example

response

of

whenever

this

of

' an , although

favourable

(d .

the

those

Tammam

experience

to

us ,
fire

encouraged

illustrating

to

from

us ; but

. For

carried
at

poets

Qur

same

. The

sent

quick

Abu
the

remarks

our

a burning

a popular

have

had

with

elicited
may

being

similar

other

and

Tahir

observation
audience

of

have

casual

was

and

it

in

, a wine
of

1^ 1

; and

' s fascination

fact

) was

names

borrowing

out

passing

contains
In

to

after

intoxication

with

camels

Nuwas

which

of

light

stay

their

group

distance

the

] , they

seems

/ 813

the

way

darkness

our
out

of
was

Abu

when

singing

its

intense

from

spite

prepare

ideas

( d . 198

which

lad

missed

an

coming

, in

that

expressions

of

brightness

they

his

that

wing

[ unmixed

It is remarkable

them

the

a tune

it

mixed

literary

travellers

a young

appeared

jt- ji

la
of

covered

listened

jlT

>-

] a convoy

been
They

l &tUx

IyoM

AND VERSIFICATION

to

this

to

have

be

running

an

: 13

verse

employed

here

is : inna

ayata

mulkihi

an ya 'tiyakum al - tabut flhi sakinatun minima taraka alu Musa wa - alu Haruna . . .
See Qur 3an 2 : 248 .
12 One example from Abu al - cAtahiya is to be found in his poem about al - Mahdi . See
al - T ha calib I , Khass
2 / 109 .

al - khass , 87 ; Dlwan

Abi

' l - cAtahiya

, 375 ; al - Z anjan

I , Mi cyar ,

13 Al - SulI , Akhbar Abi Tammam , 211 . The poetical illustration is also given in al Tha calibI , Nathr al - nazm , 22 , without attribution ; al - BaghdadI , Tarikh Baghdad
( Cairo , 1931 ) , 12 / 421 , where one gets the impression that the piece was the product
of a joint effort . For the Qur ' anic passage on which the poem draws , see Qur ^ an
12 :78 - 88 .

QUR ' ANIC

AND PROSE

CONCEITS

LJ
" O

noble

one

our
In

! we

families

our

Few

is

their

value

Consider

of

desist

the
the

the

negative

then

ture

. In

support

borrowing

fact

' an

, it

courts

are

may

Yusuf
cAbd

dying

sent

trade

are

as

if

not

14

GAS , 2 / 533 .

15

Ibn

evolved

into

tried

to

of

from
its

the

their

into

verse

awe

to

a comment

, by

al - dhahab

talents

, 99 .

of

success

of

al - Ma
of

an

artistic

Iraq

turned

3mun

and

struc

on

literary

the

illustration
from

the
. But

never

frowned
talent
at

. In

various

turning

evidence
of

Ahmad

, who

plagiarism

deliberately

was

en

time

al - Kumayt

entertainment

earliest

him

This

poetry

derived

was

governor
by

. 15 Also
the

have

by

to

) . 14 Although

a form

of

. The

work
Sariqat

poetry

item

the

it was

demonstration

- inspiring

al - Tamimi

that

him

diction

Koran

title

as

an

in
of

twelfth

idioms

earliest
/ 822

drew

the

asking

poetic

the

into

exhibit

patrons

in

literati

( d . 207

statements

have

obviously

Quranic

presumed

, which

expressions

aspects

from

as

, be

Tammam

the

al - Kumayt

regarded

, Quradcit

Abu

Quranic

are

lost

contained

from

's

fact

ecstatic

as

characterized

prose

measures

is probably

of

they

poem

among

Kunasa

al - Kumayt

) , where

this

to

of

what

evident

of

full

borrowing

, it is

court

us

hence

brothers

certain

cited

ruins

warning

use

analyze

b . Ayyub

RashIq

and

."

his

at

Ibn

their

the

Allah

the

be

poets

at

of

them

in

by

and

thievings

in

of

amused

accordingly

( d . 95 / 714

delighted

give

are

routine

well

where

probably

and

was

to

by

was

statements

distress

articles

in

indeed

, especially

( the

of

is

Joseph

survived

, and

, and

our

us

Muhammad

turning

upon

, and

interested

attempt

may

poems

QuPan
the

man

by

we

towards

not

such

dispersed

for

of

started

al - Qur

afflicted

for

proponents

by

of

us

further

had

has

trade

J an , he

attitude

work

; our

vizier

Qur

some

min

really

story

from

joyed

old

are

to

Although

Sura

been

an

a reward

generous

on

been

<Js j \j

customers

heavily

all

have

convoy

limited

have

139

IN POETRY

of

the
this

, al - Hajjaj
into

( d . 218

Ibn

poetry
/ 833

b . Muhammad

is

by
)

was
al -

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION

140

Yazidi

( c . 230

caliph

had
It

into
or

may

be

Bidpai
at

the

similar

in

into
Qur

scientific
Ibn

works

Abl

poetry

, 19 as

lugha

Ibn

history

are

cifically

in

mnemotechnic

or

profoundly

the

pedagogical
.22 In

b .

al - Mu

the
,

may

be

c tamir

(d .

210

poetry

, 23

attempts

at

poetry

for

using

of

the

/ 845

popular

they
and

means

cited

through

was

the

pedagogical

less

the

example
Fasih

Mu

into
al / 957

, spe

literary

but
very

poetry

as

informa
c tazilite

Bishr

instructions

earliest

subject

' s Fiqh

and

the

and

( d . 346

of

of

in

turned

illustrate

preserving

ideas

by

or

purposes

a
ren

exertions

nature

his

also

c alibl

c ud ! ' s

not

probably

) was

/ 904

these

efforts

spreading

this

Kings

was

passing

. For

Tha

al - Mas

imparting

reported

at

and

) with

attractive

14000

. 18 Philological

' s ( d . 291

none

some

the

) . 17 This
in

versification

inspired

literary

turned

who

verse

. 21 Although

enduring

have
of

of

prose

than

mention

Book

of

were

impulses

in

support

may

c lab

/ 1372

made

tradition

instrument

tion

been

didactic

belief

of

the

turning

/ 803

al - Firdawsi

objects
Tha

to

a poetry

into

versifications

have

Arabic

by

( d . 774

, many

the

we

Zulaykha

made

of

( d . 187

( the

rendering

to

, into

, and

which

other

reported

b . Yahya

lines

and

practice
reasons

) is

Shahnamah

al - Mawsill

reported

the

- Dimna

remark

. 16

for

/ 815

wa

60000

attempted

did

that

Ja c far

equally

. 20 Furthermore

' s ancestors

tradition

Yusuf

were

' l - Hadld

Kalila

some

of

a certain

cultivated

vizier

. The

of

story

poet

( d . 200

the

Persian

poetry

parenthesis

literary

a poetry

' anic

the

was

, the
of

Arabic

event

dered

of
in

fables

to

into

al - Lahiql

request

limited

praise

a convention

. Aban

popular

the

in

rendering

mentioned

as

stylistics

lines

) in

passed

poetry

not

/ 844

AND VERSIFICATION

of
matters

such
that

16 Abu ' l - Faraj al - IsbahanI , Aghani ( Beirut , 1960 ) , 20 / 232 . For a similar anecdote
involving the vizier Yahya al - Barmaki ( d . 190 / 805 ) and a certain poet see al JahshiyarI

, al - Wuzara

201 .

17 Ibid . , 211 . See also Ibn al - Abbar , I ctab


18

Ibn

al - AthIr

, al - Mathal

al - kuttab

82

al - sa ' ir , 4 / 12 . Al - Firdawsi

was

anticipated

in the

versifi

cation of the Shahnamah by one Masudi Marvazi . See Julie S . Meisami , ( review
of ) Oldga Davidson ' s Poet and Hero in the Persian Book of Kings , in : Journal of
Islamic Studies [ Oxford ] 7 ( 1996 ) , 87 .
19

Ibn

AbI

20

al - Zirikl

' l - HadId

, al - Falak

al - da 'ir , 17 .

! , al - A clam , 7 / 269 .

21 Van Gelder , Beyond the Line , 146f . ,


22

For

wa

example
, see HusaynI
' l - tabyin , 1 / 75 . The

23

al - ighrid

. See

, eds . , Centres
of Learning
- Learning
Near East ( Leiden , 1995 ) .

, " The

Social

, 359 . But

compare

al - Jahiz

, al - Bayan

most recent study on didactic poetry is probably that by van

donalds

Gibb

" Arabic

Gelder

and the

his

, Nadrat

n. 4

Didactic

Significance

Verse

of the

" , in : Jan

Shu cublya

Willem

and

Location

" , 112 .

Drijvers

& A .A . Mac

in Pre - Modern

Europe

QUR ' ANIC

do

not

belong

however

in

, that

ables

into

word

all

do

the

to

has

of

Tammam

be

traced

to

a specific

the

Qur

from

the

terized

in
We

Dan

the

must

of

what

poetry

poetry

rubric
billI
poets

cara

from

terization

of

ash

) . It

of

borrowings

from

3 an

of

, " What

third

' an

as

isti

cana

- third

card

D min

, ( A discus
lifted

into

section

from

of
each

Jarlr

, lines

significance

is the

, ma

employed

" . 28

Dawud

examples

, namely
is

Almighty

ninety

al - shu

two

particular

provided

. The

the

example

other

charac

Ibn

they

one

, borrow

with

what

, in

roots

cdni

and

of

borrowings

case

al ~ma

with

. But

the
Qur

sai ' ir

its

generally

' hu

illustrates

ta cdld

Allah

min

are

Allah

carat

of
line

as

of

any

was

is , however

, and
usages

. 27 In

'sta

Qur

illustrations

kalam

word

cariha
the

lack

authorities
ma

actually

3anic

these

? min

the

ila

ideas

Qur

which

classical

practice

long

exception

Dhikr

al - Kumayt

containing

al - shu

the

that

) characterization

plagiarism

honourable

from

author

3 and

under

' hu

popular
the

al - Khansa

an

of

transfer

issues

. A similar

no

practice

a form

or

the

, as

was

either

poetic
as

sariqa

there

' s poems

in

borrowed

from
that

ctazz

entitled

naqalat

of

them

. 25 Reference

regarded

/ 908

the

the

tradition

felony

par

of

gives

had

of

, or

sense

anecdote

( d . 296

example

conceded

rhyme

one

literary
's

real

have

prose

who
of

be
ideas

the

not

literary

c tazz

must

and

was

? 6 But

) among
is

poets

chapter

from
of

wa - ma

an

hadith

, grant
/ 909

metre

of

a form

as

in

might

Arabic

al - Mu

discourse

Zahra

in

Kunasa

hadith

classical

his

as

Ibn

. It

poetry

another

in

al - Mu
or

, however

of

al - Qufan

Ibn

3 an

( d . 297

chapter

their

in

Qur

al - Isbahani

this

' an
in

Abu

from

sion

Qur

to

Ibn

art

, theological

as

forms

critics
to

by

could

ing

the

the

, versification

made

from

of

clothed

genre

of

discernible

a poem

are

141

IN POETRY

romances

prose

one

been

is

they
their

interest

already

thought

that

from

the

borrowing

of
qualify

Bonebakker

concept

provoked

domain

actually

which

According

CONCEITS

renditions

not

fact

distinction

ring

traditional

such

verse

. 24 But

some

the

AND PROSE

'sta

as

Al - Isbahani

, " facility

an
's

/ aid

cdnat
aid

by

charac

seeking

,"

24 The fact that the Kalila wa - Dimna was essentially a fictional story rather than a real
or likely event precludes it from being considered a poetry , even when put into verse ,
so argued Ibn Sina ( d . 428 / 1036 ) . See S troumsa , " Avicenna ' s Philosophical Stories " ,
25

201 . Compare
B onebakker

26

I bn

van

al - M u ctazz

Tammam

G elder

, " Poets

, Beyond

the

Line , 60 .

and Critics " , 108 .

, Kitdb

al - Badf

, 26 . For

the

verse

in

question

, see

Diwan

27 See an example from him as given in the Appendix under illustration

11

28

the

al - I sbahan
equally

Abi

, 3 / 26 .

I , al - Zahra

adduced

as a rhetorical

by Ibn
trope

, 2 / 815 - 20 . The
Khalaf

, see , for

. See
example

below

example
, note

, I bn

from

Jarlr

35 . On later

given

by

development

A b I ' l - I sba c, Tahrir

.
author

is

of isti cana

, 140 - 42 .

142

THE

rather

than

sariqa

vourable

view

employing

, he

J an , the

' l - shifara

poetry
Qur

cite
in

in

and

less

J an

attributed

survived

on
That

tional

Qur

the
poets

he

failed

. 33 In

his

to

also
to

analysis

of

this

borrow

of

mi

be

in

nature

) , which

QuPan

the
and

of

theorists
and
cat

[ min

the

issue

third

part

has
of

bor
of

his

. 32

of

types

of

enhances

Intiza

the

hadith

al - Jurjanl

context

meanings

unfortunately
of

, the

al - cAziz

wa

differently

borrowings

the

cAbd

cr

About

. 30 Moreover

Kitdb

as

other

portrayed

nation

.
ruin

al - shi

QuPan

which

taken

intertextual

this
the

discourse

an

iqtibds

al - Iqtibas

and

in

. 31 The

for
as

term

dhikr

words
the

/ 1042
exa

well

from
by

discuss

an
may

of

iqtibds

( d . 433

ft

from

are

the

fa

credit

wa - ma canih

QuPan

contexts

probability

noted

the

the

, his

' aii

his

convention
of

entitled

eloquence

al - cAmidi

subject

is

the

use

subject

al - Qur

from

examples

Dan , and

used
is

as

the

, borrowing

promotes

most

whole

usages

although

him

in

him

. But
the

, his

from

favourable

to

, is
from

trilogy

by

which

alfaz

borrowings

than

to

borrowings
to

practice

, namely

of

demonstrates

project

work

min

their

of

cited

rowings

c alibi

chapter

and

fact

al - Qut

work

poets

illustrations

might

al - Tha

' qtibasatihim

clearly

poetic

thenceforth

a whole

twentieth

productions

such

not

to

in

AND VERSIFICATION

" ,

would

' an " . 29 According

literary

/ thieving

convention
that

dedicates

wa

and

the

the

belongs

Furthermore

OF PROSIFICATION

" plagiarism

term

device

al - Qui

THEORY

,
of

the

artistic

are

ARABIC

any
literary

and
( d . 392

theoretical

conven
/ 1001

),

frame

borrowings

and

29 al - Tha calibI , al - Iqtibas , 27 . The second part of this work , which is expected to
contain the discussion of this topic is not available to me , hence it was not possible
to examine the author ' s discussion in this regard . It may be safely assumed , however ,
that it would be an illustration of good and bad cases of borrowings from QuPanic
idioms into poetry . It is not even clear whether the editor had access to the complete
work , as the published fragment contains eleven of the 25 chapters listed by the author .
30 See Chapter One , note 6 .
31 For instance , the following verse by al - Mutanabbi :
k

c.I

>.

crime committed by the fools from among a people , but the


punishment descended on the one who did not commit it . "
is suggested by him to be a case of iqtibds deriving from Qur ' an
"A

Tha

calibI

, Yatima

, 1 / 31 ; al - PamawI

, Khizana

, 113 . But

compare

7 : 155

. See al -

al - cAmIdI

, al -

Ibana , 70 . See the illustration in Dlwan al - Mutanabbi , 1/ 81 . For another example


of iqtibas given by al - Tha calibI see his Khass al - khass , 21 .
32

See

YaqOt

, Irshad

, 6 / 328 ; al - cAmIdI

, al - Ibana

, editor

' s introduction

, p . 15 . If we

take into consideration his two other works , namely , al - Irshad ild hall al - manium and
al - Hidaya ild naz.m al - manthur , it will be reasonable to consider him the first to attempt
a comprehensive investigation of the subject as a whole . Compare GAS , 2 / 83 .
33 For example , see al - Wasata , 347 , 364 , 387 .

QUR ' ANIC

imitation

Abd

course

into

the

caqli

former

verses

as

are

al - Jurjani

his

argument

the
as

in

original
ever

, an

verse

of

the

the

a common
. For

husn

in

use

details

and

an - Nablh

768

/ 1366

Mu

3min

most

( d . 619
are

Sura
him

, the

as

context

Qur

' an ,

to

them

. 35 How

the
the

good

of

portrays

the

of
of

works

, sometimes
c ( d . 654

by

the

the

twentieth
Qur

3 an ,

illustration

verse
of

in

the

now

) and

as

makers

is
of

fanatical
( d . circa
evidenced

a different

" . 37 The
prose

worked

out

by

extensive

his

of

the

mannerism
the

. Among

time
the

, as

poets

b . Nubata
,

/ 1203

and

writers

of

b . Muhammad
exponents

nomen
it a subtype

a tasteless
discourse

600

became

) considers

and

scholarly

being

al - Isfahani
,

under
/ 1256

it becoming

Muhammad
its

phenomenon

/ quotation

point

cultivator

iqtibas

' 1- Isba

as

Allah

) is

while

(d .

cAbd

al -

considered

homiletic

work

its
,

the

.1

34 al - JurjanI , Asrar
in EI .
Khalaf

by

use

inferior

inspired

allusive

hadiths

. He

as

such

attributed

the

from

a hadlth

eighteenth

cited

onwards

were
/ 1222

poetry

poet

, with

" . 36

device

mentioned

al - dhahab

the

an

from

be

to

have

illustrate

and

in

that
from

can

comes

other

argues

Dan

it
prose

to

incorporation

limitations

b . Hibat

Ibn

Qur

iqtibas

dis

derived

poets

of

of

makes

fact

response

outstanding

Atbaq

in

Abi

to

a corresponding

Ibn

35

the

, almost

of

to

other
the

of

presumed

Cave

is

rhetorical

of

period

found

are

the

, " good

from

literary

often

further

) among

a certain

a poet

, Ibn

/ 965

derived

and

in
" , and

, are

goes

versification

usage

instance

. He

superiority

17 th / 13 th century

exaggerated

its

of

al - tadmin

Ayyubid

Jarir

and

topos

clature
of

Siira

, " i . e . indirect
From

of

which

favourably

kinaya

the

that

in

fact

' s discussion

of

materials

of

discussion

' s presumed

instance

viewed

have

treated

, " imaginative

sages

analytical

b . Khalaf

cAntara

prose

of

143

IN POETRY

motifs

takhyill

( d . 354

to

borrowings
as

saws

or

favour

divides

and

al - Mutanabbi

. 34 cAlI

alleged
well

the

concrete

CONCEITS

statements

presumed

no

to

and

and

otherwise

,"

essentially

hadiths

al - Ruml

al - Jurjani

, " mental

, being

Prophetic
Ibn

al - Qahir

AND PROSE

al - balagha , 241 - 45 .

, Mawadd

al - bayan

For more on takhyll , see Heinrichs

, " Takhyil " ,

, 38 - 40 .

36 Ibid . , 225 .
37 Tahrlr , 140 . But compare his Badf al - QuiJ an , 277 , where the utilization of Qur 3anic
materials is not included in his definition of the term . His agreement with Ibn al - Athlr
in the characterization of borrowings from the Qur 3an is noteworthy . See Chapter
One , notes 11 & 12 .
38 al - HamawI , Khizana , 539 - 54 . About Atbaq al - dhahab , see GAL , 1/ 292 . For more
on iqtibas , see al - QazwInI , Shuriih al - talkhls , 4 / 509 - 13 ; al - SuyutI , Itmam al diraya

, 295 .

144

THE

In

regard

emerged

to

in

proof

the
of

applied

in

amazement

that

is , the

Tammam

literary

, the

into

his

poems

into

his

own

practice

in

( d . 285
prose

" Isma
are

c Il

Ibn

of

an

that

the

many

regard

to

of
Abu

, illustrates

acterized

the

39

Ibn

40

al - SulI

early

al - Jarrah

out

them

way

remark

statement

of

prose

, al - Waraqa

of

discourse

poetry

Abu
prose

from

which

"

of
from

borrowing

poetry

portrayed
in

the

al - Mubarrad

' s borrowings

his

poetry

from

such

anecdotes
with

( athar
ease

borrowing

ideas
) ; he

, and

as
turns

appropriat

are

Arabic

, 14 . One

Ahmad

' s " lifting

discussion

, its

, remains
prose

posited

laboured
the

' l - cAtahiya
's

from

' s verses
how

Abu

notwithstanding

materials

in

on

, al - Mubarrad

insights

efforts

in
he

."

' s passing

more

of

the

l - cAtahiya

, adapting

al - cAtahiya
once

leaves

was

:41

verse

issue
the

Abu
said

) and

theoretical
to

he

expressed

borrowing

view

as

criterion

al - Suli

exponent

( akhbar

elegiac

and

of

which

hardly

a subtle

al - Jahiz

of

it

b . al - Mubarak

by

of

discus

scriptural

major

masters

' s example
point

some

perspective

Ibrahim

of

reports

into

the

a noteworthy

critical

of

al - Qasim

in

for

sense

very

from

them

contribution

41

was

Allah

practice

other

found

first

enthralled

his

al - Suli

.40 The

respect

sayings

analytical

of

to

the

, " the

views

from

cAbd

. 39 When

, were

it , regarding

) was

3 al - kalam

it

terms

in

Except

ing

essays

obtainable

ing

in

prose

) . He

popular

fact

imitation

of

poet

of

of

borrowing
of

reports

opposing

subject

favour

it , like

umara

attributed

negative

/ 898

the

, two

the

in

adeptness

to
the

in

became
was

( prose

practitioners

latter

sources

) ; the

akhbar

how

general

. Representative

merits
at

AND VERSIFICATION

in

considered

/ 908

ascribing

his

issue
. One

plagiarism

from

prose

the

other

( d . 296

poetry

as

tradition

of

al - Jarrah

OF PROSIFICATION

from

soon

; the

, a form

making

the

as

scholarly

artistry

sources

THEORY

borrowing

almost

sion

Ibn

ARABIC

into

as

sources

far - fetched
pedantry
literary

by

and

the

al - Mubarrad

hardly

intuitiveness

criticism

.43

Allah

of

oldest

. 42 But

and

b . cUbayd

lack

the

poetry

" of

convinc
char

( fl . 3 rd / 9 th century

also commends the remarkable cease at which Abu ' l - cAtahiya turns prose into poetry
in his work . See al - MarzubanI , al - Muwashshah , ed . All Muhmmad al - Bijawi
( Cairo , 1995 ? ) , 327 . Cf . fn . 41 below .
, Akhbar

al - Mubarrad

shi crahii

Abi

Tammam

, al - Kamil

, 104 . Compare

, 2 / 11 : wa - kana

Chapter
Ismd

cll

Ibn

One , notes

20

& 21 .

al - Qasim

la

yakad

yukhll

minima taqaddama mill al - akhbar wa ' l-athar fa -yanpmu dhalika ' l - kalama
al - mashhura , wa - yatandwaluhii aqrab mutandwal wa -yasriquhu akhfa sariqa .
42 Compare al - Jahiz , al - Baydn wa 'l- tabyin , 1/ 407 - 8 .
43 al - Mubarrad , al - Kamil , 2 / 11 - 14 . A further illustration of this deficiency is the
suggestion that a certain poem by the pre - Islamic Uhayha b . al - Julalj ( d . circa 130

AND PROSE CONCEITS IN POETRY

QUR ' ANIC

It

is

to

Ibn

Tabataba

examination

of

experimented
issue
barking

to

clothing

a significant
order

subject

of

versification

is

' l - mushtaraka
argues

borrowing

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a usage

reused

to

form

express

, sermons

rable

to

silver
old

an

different

garment

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identifiable

itself

at

logical

two

ideas

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suppressed

that

should

the

theoretical

akhdh

be

Through

he

success

is

44

Ibn

45

A brilliant

46

Ibn

by
, his

was

its

trying

characterization

able

to

roots

introduce

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from

the

in a Qur

of

his
fact

' anic

new

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verse

of
later

. See

and

at

Tabataba

, cIyar
account
, cIyar

subject

is al - Zu cbI , Das

al - shi cr , 77 - 78 .

the

termino
of

vista

theorists

in

. On

form

of

importance

the

scholarly

was

a remark

took

al - Khalidiyyan

Verhaltnis

and
convention

as

on

prose

making

particular

discourse

is

reveals

verse

al - shi cr , 5 .
of the

treats

colour

of

practice

and

who

original

, 1/ 16 - 17 .

Tabataba

gold

challenged

is of

model

of

a form

the

sariqa

from

' s argument

hands

compa

dyer
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him

obtained

versification

into
his

and
to

becomes

successfully

practice

than

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conceptual
that

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idioms

competence

models

Tabataba

was

was

the

" , rather

evident

him

anyone

cast

that

Ibn

when

composi

of

outstanding

, the

. This

versification

B . H ./ 497 ) has
' l - nazcfir

before

as

cani
. He

instance

literary

poet

a
of

. According

ideas

perfectly
of

promoting

/ lifting

about

so

, namely

plagiarism
his

level

this

discussion

colour

an

also

skill

a new

, for

, the

the

al - ma

with

of

turns
or

significance

cultivated

, " borrowing

models

view

of
by

who

is

practice

transfer

doing

. 44 There
this

of

into

hence

then

was

poetic

device

is

' s discussion

manipulate

sublime
so

rhyme

analysis

motif

he

and

, which

in

a praise

and

such

levels

dominant
a form

fact

a new
. 46 The

to

literary

. By

better

fundamental

. The

verse

his

treated

the
em

ideas

, and

Tabataba

. Interthematic

goldsmith

but

of

good

epistles

adept

poetry

borrowing

in

, and

either

into

of

and

and

in

a satire
as

form

prose

antecedents

found

in

in

prose

are

examine

the

statement

able

to

also

. Anyone

metre

45 Ibn

who

ferment

this

conceptual

recognized
best

a poet

speeches

an

thus

, the

for

and

mind

framework

be

position

first

analytical

poet

from

" , that

first

perspectives

his

literati

should

verbal

and

is

however

the

the

esteemed

appropriate

the

motifs

poet

suggests

borrowed

images

able

good

from

. He

be

within

, " common

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tion

set

in

drawn

for

a better

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in

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turn

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to

must

was

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establish

them

of

puts

, he

inference

natural

is

and

) we
he

theoretical

making

express

/ 934

. That

device

the

poetry

to

proceed
is

subject
the

both

on

willing

the

with

from

( d . 322

145

it

as

, al -Ashbah

their

wa

146

THE

point

of

departure

evidence

in

device

is

That

chose

negative

lights

tropical

sense

had

ideas

and

the

prose

poet

or

bered

that

even

from

further
time

extent

the

) . He
poets

" gifted

/ natural

sources

of
,

poets

be

the

istfara

the

theoretical

Abu

cAmr

that

or

using

poetical
for

.48 It

his

must

be

of

have

been

which
remem

borrowing

compositions

may

Ibn
prose

transformation

in

in

borrowing

acknowledgement

the

Tammam

Ibn

cAbd

illustrates

cultivated

from

bihi

li - annaka

qad

For

example

arabischen
Winter
1989 ) .

conceal

by

on
and

of

Abu

cAmr

, 1/ 136 . See
term

with

of

a Greek

by

also , Grunebaum
the

practice

connotation

) as

rather

' 1- Rumma

, A Tenth

Century

of borrowing

than
their

( d . circa

225

post

the

one

of

the

older

that

is

statement

Dhu

, see

reveals

poems

wisdom

to

the

among

his

matbifun

prose

al - Warraq

one

verse

the

easily

( d . 90 / 709

with
of

on

imperceptible

latter

the

al - Akhtal

, illustrating

stealing

make
from

the

Mahmud

exponents

subtle
of

borrowing

drawing

mentions

of

( d . 388

some
or

, al - cIqd , 5 / 338 : " wa - ahsanu

, wa

Gregor

ideas

form

that

al - Hatiml

. 50 But

(d .

117 / 735 ) in

Document

also

be

al - SulI

, 7 . For
, Akhbar

, 211 .

RabbihI

' l - manziim

, his

. See

al - HatimI

to

was

says

versification

of

of the

He

sought

' l - cAtahiya

also

prose

or

device

, Hilya

Abi

a motif

often

a conscious

use

from

illustrious

comment

an early

50

portrayed

term

' s proposition

resorted

Abu

. He

of

al - Hatimi

49

be

the

of

it .

" borrow

, for

commended

his

Tabataba

because

most

See

Ibn

expressions

the

to

ila

be

of

that

time

discourse

practice

borrowing

" , poets

their

cultivators

48

to

frequently

cites

classical

47

heirs

. He
as

lieved

the

artistic

him

compositions

of

, and

the

to

argues

materials

which

presumably

sources
840

poet

ceased

from

poetical

prose

had

Rabbihi

should

to

considers

which

poetry

was

istfara

to

an

) discussion

of

believe

. Further

as

/ 940

meaning

unknown

right

a form

writer

- Arabic

to

thought

versification

practice

reason

in

is

of

of

on .49

Among
998

too

non

the

cAbd

them

prose

he

the

that

) . 47 Ibn

line

' s ( d . 328

literal

was
sense

writing

the

no

that

/ 771

view

the

metaphor
it

his

Rabbihi

that

have

of

expressing

in

cAbd

it under

. We

154

favourable

Ibn

AND VERSIFICATION

espoused

suggestion

assigned

D (d .

the

discuss
the

its

motifs

of

OF PROSIFICATION

indeed

in

to

in

al - cAla

and

support

" , underpins

lore

THEORY

discernible

he

ing

ARABIC

'l - manpim
naqalta

ila

'l - manthur

al - kalam

borrowing

from

ma

takunu

, wa - hadhih

min

hal

a certain

ila
Kitab

an yusta

al - isti cara

cara

al - manthiir

khafiyya

la yu ' bah

hal " .
al - Hind

in his

verse

treatment

of

artificiality

in poetry

, see

und

aristotelischen

cIqd , 3 / 18 .

, Hilya
Schoeler

, 2 / 92 . On the
, Einige

Literaturtheorie
( Leiden

issue

Grundprobleme

, 1984 ) ; Stefan

( Wiesbaden
Sperl

of naturalness
der
, 1975
, Mannerism

versus

autochthonen
) ; Mansour
in Arabic

Ajami
Poetry

der

, The Neckveins
( Cambridge

of
etc .

qur

the

general

dency

is

prose

statements

with

. It

equal

of

the

deficiencies

the

level

those

of

cast
to

concrete

. It

the

wide

in

quacy

the

See

of

of

the
and

is

sources

too

having

seen

in

the

practice

are

essentially

speculative

started

. 53 Through
both

this

, the

artistry

and

the

inade

from

learning
at

' s poems

which
the

' s attempt

al - Mutanabbi

and

culture

in

al - Hatimi

into
for

literary

sciences

engaged

alleged

. 52 Whatever

realized

philological
, also

of

the

establish

logic

compensate

, both

time
to

he

it offers

intellectual

period

derived

which

foreign

the

sought

poetry
of

the

to

that

sciences

is

which

demonstrated

period

sources

into

tradition

religious

judging

presumed

inroad

critic

the

of

in

insights

that

from
new

generation

, the

, a reflection

the

Hilya

literary
this

of

vividly

take

. The
an

traditional
for

sciences

51

the

. Similarly
of

52

making

in

criteria

to

culture

were

reflected

very

enough

aesthetic

belonging

versatility

illustrates

critics

of

al - Hatimi

ideas

, the

most

lines

of

reactions

expose

support

( the

concepts

philosophical

' s analytical
and

by

al - Hatimi

negative

of

renditions

roots

certain

, that

stock

half

verse

, the

Greek

poets

are

ten

in

114

offered

and

from

the

insight

, however

positive

among

net

, that

be

poet

noted

al - Hatimi

training

its

foreign

be

of

, to

the

al - a cjaz

al - Mutanabbi

convincingly

both

in

majority

growing

evidence

c amthal

phenomenon

by

a
into

. A clear
abda

significant

al - Mutanabbi

shortcomings

had

ing

may

this

suggests

technique

maker
of

verses

entirely

conviction

borrowings

his

not

philosophy

of

97

the

) . The

other

some

, although

lines

examples

. 51 One

verse

illustration

147

in poetry

clearly
of

the

his
half

of

conceits

' s analysis

to

in

as

illustration

and

to

allowed

instanced

prose

integration

citational

poetry

traces

full

discernible

fascinating

and

al - Hatimi

the

facilities

this

his

of

towards

artistic
of

tone

' anic

new

identify

. 54

, 1/ 255 - 68 .
his

praise

al - Risala
for

the

al - Hdtimiyya

poet

, in al - Tuhfa

as he says

. . .

j
ajU -

JJUJ

al - bahiyya

, 144 - 59 , where

! JIP

0
jAJ

^
oydl

JiUJVlj

AP!>UIJ

this

another

poem

laudatory

. See

parallels

between

Ibn

Munqidh

the

title

53

See

54

Compare

remarks

may

by al - Mutanabbi

Aristotle

his

al - Zu cbI , Das
Grunebaum

fi
bayna

be

' s poetry

naqd

, " Arabic

had

his

, in al - Ibana
and

Aristotle

i?J 1 LI

jj

, 260 . A later

al - Hakim

wa -Abi

Criticism

" , 57 .

sariqa

statement
illustration

is to be found

subsection
'l - Tayyib

u* ^
as

in a certain

' s statements

, 84 .
Literary

"

characterization

its roots

al -shi cr , 264 - 83 , which

Aristutalis

Verhaltnis

compared

he says

al - Hatimiyya

al - Mutanabbi

' s al - Badf

al - Munaqala

which

al - Risala

of

{J ^ Jr

Against

he is full

is headed
.

,
of
of
in

with

148

THE

Another
Wak

! c ( d . 393

into

poetry

tially

prose

, which
to

as

says

he

within

by

the

of
makes

that

s=

can

of

of
his

his

liken

UJU

. . . l ^ fU

" C15

JjLI

" . . .
that
cessor

Jjjjj

the

expense

into

in
poetry

JjJj

surely

, the

nothing

of

; the
of

who

sets

iiy ^ i y

because
they

utable

to

served

former

had

it . The

most

are

few

ignorant

are
of

author

prose
to

which
lies
verse
entitled

jjiuJI

Jk> - L

the

the

latter

our

[ present

turns

as

lifting

from

this

by

when

it

prose

is

one
. This

occur
fame

rhapsodists
to
],

in

attrib
and

consigned
poetry

taken
the

prose

sayings

[ into

suc

had
is

to

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much

the

and

possess

Lgib -

so

] poets

wisdom
not

for

attention

transmitted

renderer

all
day

his

do

speech

forerunner
in

useful

; they

4 l ^ Uaj

pre

writing
many

.
are

it .
of

composition

beauty

in

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exhausted

by

and

widely

JaUJIj

w^ -?

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is

skilled

of

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4j

La ^ U - liU

spared

] poetry

stray

of

days

skillful

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behalf

. . .

l ^ sjLJ

anticipated

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like

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been

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poetry

on

had

[ the

- 19

C - ~ ~J

of

merit

when

prose

Only

passing

aside

(3jLJI

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55

device

b !

djjli

. (Jj UI

more

essen

occurring

^*1

. j -iS '

into

at

turned

JjlyJlS

verse

alleged
is

: 55

IgJ

in

the

motifs

when

prose

a literary

poetry

elegant
only

JLo

An

of
al - Munsif

as

Ibn

from

analysis

to

preserved

was

borrowing

which

superiority

4JI

is

argument

versification

him

be

of

issue

to
of

concession

jewels

the

subject

VERSIFICATION

pattern

framework

justification

assumption

stray

AND

's
of

, the

his

his

Tabataba

discussion

al - Mutanabbi
. But

underlied

OF PROSIFICATION

Ibn

) . His

conies
by

prose

of

/ 1002

dedicated

was

THEORY

exponent

plagiarisms

of

ARABIC

wisdom
the

then
in

one

being
them

to

who

increases

their

adorns

sayings

lay

Ibn WakI c, al - Munsif , 1/ 7 .

might

the

in

get
to

given
steal

lustre

strung

, they
claim

has

verse

them

of

their
form

attributed

them

than

room

to
the

and

improvement

arrange

elegance
; so

the

for

. . .

when

for

in
their

arrangement

borrower

( original

them

) prose

who

is now
author

."

QUR ' ANIC

Ibn

Waki

" thief

" , need

indeed

the

express

of

that

, and

their

position

One

other

is

philosopher

who

inherited

with

philosophical

science

idea

" the

of

prose

into

the

^ , " words

to

56

the

See

and

ideas

study

, it

Diwan

should

be

Islamic
divides

Endress

, " The

a unit

us

of Reason

in

the

jewels

( d . 322

detain

us

be

" . But

is

it

defined

building

this

could

/ shared

of

the

as

, " knowledge

. It

exclusively

/ 934

tradition

as

poems
insight

between

. Insofar

a disciple

a significant

dichotomy

" , ZGAIW

be

former

here

offers

Tammam
, 1/ 214 , 2 / 161 . See
al -Ashbah wa ' l - nazcPir

Defense

long

significant

to

cilm

as

to

verse

stray

but

" . The

to

allowed

a
, as

intellectual

al - Khalidiyyan ,
- Hatimiyya , in al - Ibana , 287 .

Gerhard

of

al - Balkhl

, " common

almost

to

said

interest

tradition
not

was

mushtarak

engaged

poetry

prose

sort

con

, " ideas

the

, as
the

ancient

little

, as

of

assumption

to

of

of

classical

Abl

cani

new

- classical

that

of

defender

in

verse

undoubtedly

which
late

especially
54 ;

Farighun

understanding

the

Tammam ,

al
57

in

. 57 Ibn

is

post

copyright

prose

Zayd

the

" , or

the

expressed

. He

injecting

classification

philosophical

present

, Abu

ma

anything

this

admittedly

lettrist

that

words

into

is

" , and

mushtarak
of

put

existent

of

/ singular

the

in

pool

add

than
of

been

non

orientations

. " 58 His

scholars

belles

alfa

rather

concession

Farighun

was

and

the

outstanding
it

prose

proposition

exhausted
to

could

in

his

and

he

chronology

recommendation

treated

almost

tradition

ma cna , a phenomenon
the

Ibn

of

by

. 56 But

sources

when

context

treated

in

had

most

his

earlier

only

is

the

his

the

al - sariq

when

sense

contested

prose
is

the

successors

poems

had

the

knowledge

from

to

assured

, " independent

his

his

for

highlighted

their

underlied

ideas

and

" , into

mufrad
is

of

term

been

tradition

probably

point

him

in

vehemently

c , that

the

" , especially

already

simply

for

was

of

about

sense

had

poetical

room

with

" thief

subject

the

which

contribution

the

is

brilliant

security
The

term

turn

a motif

Information

the

was

Wakl

considered

whose

that

no

borrower

the

149

IN POETRY

pejorative

to

idea

a number

should

its

an

Tammam

poet

of

in

CONCEITS

later

merit

in

. This

Ibn

fundamental

left

in

treatment
he

of

. One

and

by

temporary

of

use

Abu

espoused

as

verse

his

tradition

ideas

taken

forerunners

poets

for

to

of

in

ideas

the

be

ideas

the

sublime
to

not

that

descent

reference

concession

better

indicates

is

c's

AND PROSE

lafy

and

attention

is

not

here

of

relevant

. The

view

also al - Suli , Akhbar


Abi
1/ 2 ; al - HatimI , al - Risala

6 ( 1990 ) , 150 ( p . 24 ) . Apart

from Heinrich ' s notice of the work in his " The Classification of the Sciences and
the Consolidation of Philology in Classical Islam " , pp . 129 - 39 in Jan Willem Drijvers
& A .A . Macdonalds

, as

given

in note

22

above

, Biesterfeldt

' s , " Ibn

Farighun

Chapter on Arabic Grammar " is probably the latest detailed study on the work .
58

Ibn FarIghOn
, Jawdmf
al - kalam al - manzum

al - culum

, 134 : ma crifat

mill al - manthiir .

al - alfai

wa

'l - ma cani

ma can , ka - tarkib

's

150

THE

that

the

making

formation
his
or

in

is

analysis

the

prose

further

idea

as
to

assigned

text

OF PROSIFICATION

from

word

the

be

a prose

poetry

explained

that
is

can

THEORY

of
not

meaning

word

ARABIC

by

then

in

an

him

a linguistic

which

, but

term

, it

be

without

may
can

of

it may

combined

word

conjectured

from

regard

mufrad

which

poetry

example

unit

the

a meaning

and

is

AND VERSIFICATION

to

applied
derive

then

from

be

its

, but

referent

when

its

such

occurrence

characterized

as

mush

tarak . This is probably the only plausible interpretation of an elliptical


thesis
tion

which

is

the

issue

on
Abu

Hilal

sion

assumed

prose

ideas

the

earliest
of

of

ceptual

unit

( the

author

( an
an

idea

tent

that

source

used

, do

argues

, the

on : the

new

demanding
the

; but

59

al - cAskarI

60

Ibid . , 216 .

could

, his

of

into

the

author

the

into

who

would

need

, Sina catayn

, 198 .

faced
to

exert

, or
, it

of

of
, hence

with

the
himself

into

lift

for

-b- lj

lift

, or

a madlh

into

only

him

prose

into

discourse

a wasf

the

and
the
as

compe

by

the

material
would

of

creating

little

bit

Ibn

as

his

tradition

former

task

of

analytical

that

the

having

task

an

is

prosifi

composition

. In

his

that
latter

argues

original

effort

>L~ul

."

. He

, and

li

is

to
is

individuality

advantage
else

to

provided

amount

is

wine

illustrations
hand

con

c_ <Wj

it

acknowledge

materials

the

concealed

; or

of

, his

someone

Ml

inject

this

' s model

one

same

of

is

poetry

to

of
com

a unified

4jl

and

achieve

and

has
of

one

versification

. However

failure

the

the

] theft

motif

discus

: 59

description

al - cAskari

on

product

scratch

the

discussion

require

the

complementary

both

poetry
it

a praise

context
his

mental

from

inject

, who

versification
not

as

Ij ^ J

. Nevertheless

the

and

in
in

obvious

through

cation

and

Ml
[ literary

idea

between

quite

within

revealed

an

found

notwithstanding

mind

from

take

outstanding

is

says

hands

considers

prose

proposi

whose

collapsed

and

which

prose

similarity

Tabataba

. He

he

t j ^ JI

by

was
is

, the

The

ways
) to

which

poetry
at

into

philosophical

^ cJtlia

J * lllj

) from

idea

that

other

the

into

scholar

poetry

purposes

only

\ t jb ^

. {OSJI
of

prose

one

, hence

analysis

oijjjS Jii

" One

of

device

the

character

turning

same

for

the

systematic

the

the

from

! was

a more

ponents

possibly

borrowing

al - cAskar

and

, and

on
case

the
, he

to

work

less

than

a new

idea

be

more

. 60 This

QUR ' ANIC

proposition
but

may

the

reality

composer

may

does

which

exercise

a crass

it , and

this

fused

poetry
form

the

is by

no

subject

of
the

not

fail

to

be

found

analytical

continues

some

prose

al - manthur
poetry

been

discussing

prose

Rashiq

debate

Tabataba
of

prose

form
is

of

motifs
theft

eminently

towards

at

/ 1064

model

the

expense

tradition

regularly

quotes

characterizing

in
the

the

was

also

artistic

al - mughtafara
his

treatment

phenomenon

device

is

from

lifted

too

him

great

, and

of

the

subject

terms

of

prose
can
have
that

he

superiority

to

equivalents

. 64

contributor

to

admirer

of

Ibn

versification

indeed

important

min

would

regards

one

traced

versification

final

. 65 But

in

are
nuqila

poetical

as

his

theoretical

minima

accords

their

. He

and

demonstrates

tipped

anyway

the

to

sustained

hands

in

from

that

did
is

, a

his

of

this

on

himself

sources

concept

discourse

of

be
. He

a commendable

illustrated

of
position

) may

at

which

a prose

contribution

he

period

dhirw

the

!'s

value

expect

practice
on

authorities

whose

that

of
to

entrenched

classical

as

of

discussion

motifs

, al - sariqa

rubric

phenomenon

achieved

verses

zenith

the
the

analytical

the

the

which

to
to

only

certain

; his

to

in

admissible

metre

al - cAskar

reference

high

optimism

he

illustrated

expressions

classical

, a fact

belonging

of

. 63 Perhaps

of

, whom

of

, " the

an

the

in

general

, al - cAskarI

attempted

the

inspired

been

, hence

imposing

. 61 Among

the

that

prose

often

simply

was

Khalaf

( d . 457

in

too

by

under

from

treatments
Ibn

, he

rhyme
culture

perceptible

has

a subtle

exhaustive

be

systematic
Ibn

a misplaced

was

the

to

considered

illustration

' l - manziim

" , no

ascribed

is

subject

statements

ila

utilizing

poet

and

highlighted
this

a tolerable
feature

is

the

rhetorical

which
tendency
filiation

. , 221 . For more examples of his borrowing from prose into poetry , see 243 and his Diwan al - Ma cani , 2 / 92 .
62 Sina catayn , 237 - 38 .
63 Mawadd , 316 - 18 .

Ibid

64

Ibid . , 38 - 42 .

65

I bn R

ash

Iq

, Quradat

al - dhahab

95 .

Compare his c Umda ,

verse

literary

original

already

of

works

to

his

prose

view

. 62 Although

the

the

of

hardly

, his

borrowing

to

make

, and

or

important

to

level

a serious
metre

abuse

one

it

and

an

. As

theoretical

with

as

into

admiration

attention

for

detailed

approach

. Except

into

his

other

contribution

task

borrowing

literary

draw
in

as

. As

most

easy

put

long

caught

to

prosification

, as

that

need

the

151

is because

prototype

composition

. Succinctly

direct

prose

would

an

at

. This

interpreted

, he

means
and

a
be

verse

convincing

otherwise

cloth

appropriation

remains

be

simply

his

through

prototype

to

just

positive

of

either

lore

not

of

and

prove

; rather

One
is

fact

will

versification

Chapter

attractive

in

plagiarism

indebtedness

in

look

AND PROSE CONCEITS IN POETRY

2 / 293 - 94

44

152

THE

Thus

simile

would

be

prose

previous

his

hands

may

traced

the

a
to

be

would

interest

in

century

onwards

pendent

inquiry

be

/ nazm

of

of

of

Ibn
the

sense

far

as

classical
indeed

and
the

especially

any

the
his

Quradat

61

GAS , 2 / 83 .

only

involves

al - dhahab

, Khizanat

al - QalqashandI
69

Ibn

Abi

' l - Isba

lillj

ijl ^ -

, Subh
c, Tahrir

the

the
the

caqd
of

considered
of

plagiarism
the

sense

the
an

rather

the

motif
offered
or

most

. 69 As

term

in

majority

artistic
than

in

\ adopting

of

convention

the

all

caqd

, as

on

into

was
of

works

a prose

borrowing

subject

's
, it

practical

was

dissent

, a form

inde

the
and

device

the

wording

68 For example see Ibn Munqidh ,


al - HamawI

be

view

sense
on

the

to

of

interpretation
to

borrowing

, passim

his

queer

considers

. 68

the

in

practitioners

of

is

topics

concept

an

, versification

admitted

the

, only

be

large

5 th / 11 th

survived

been

bordered

prose
is , in

the

had

adoption

definition

view
it

of

that

and

standard

literary

contributions

standard

66

or

wording
is

medieval

when

the

given

. By

case

al - cAmidi

not
to

is

central

the

in
has

it

any

of

reflected

intended

on ; both

understanding

his

was

, became

time
to

it

its
. In

subject

devel
, and

from

work

" ,

as

already

subject

the

as

poetry

interpretation

of

, hall
that

c . By

became

the

that
into

borrowing
one

' 1- Isba

know

prose

general

it

at

reasons

regarded

related

continued

was

" rhetoric

discourse
the

insignificance
be

has

makes

discourse

available

, the

that

title

sariqa

remotely

.61 Although

its

from

without
I

was

scholarly

prosification

expressions

the

it

into

theoretical

prose

, it

balagha

to

in

lacking

model
. Two

paled

of

altogether
his

qualify

which

of

from

quotational

Abi

work

versification

from

the

the

, however

the

conventions

poetry

any

have

issue

issue

strong

in

in

not

verse

example

illustration

equally
, the

naz .m al - manthiir

poetics

Although

into

, so

, and
or

sense

of

borrowing

rhetoric
fund

issue

conjectured
to

caqd

that

are

Tabataba

to

would

topic

any

this

a particular

, for

between

" , seemed

prominent

expected

ila

of
Ibn

distinction

either

in

occurrence

a prominent

. Secondly

examine
the

al - Hiddya

. The

on
other

very

first

in

found

criticism

the

its

found

instances

this

a work

theme

guide

for

to

therefore

of

especially

, " literary
that

into

may

place

tendency

proffered

naqd

oped

the

AND VERSIFICATION

a paronomasia

. 65 Although

contribution

by

to

that

much

OF PROSIFICATION

or

contributions

be

and

THEORY

, a metaphor

expression

in

so

ARABIC

al - adab

al - Badf , 259 - 63

, 560 - 61 ; al - cAbbasI

; QazwInI , Shuruh ,
, Ma ' ahid

al - a csha , 1/ 273 - 95 ; al - SuyutI


al - tahbir

, ltmam

al - tansls
al - diraya

4 / 509 - 28

, 4 / 182 - 94 ;
, 294 - 95 .

, 441 :
aba ]

tj1 . . .

QUR 5ANIC

of

prose

material

favourable

view

literary

tradition

highly

commended

English

language

The

of

forms

of

What

may

be
as

example
for

' l - shi

the

to

versification

of

the

London
According

mentioned
an

, the

passant

device

between

prose

that

is found

15 th century
the

153

IN POETRY

en

artistic

" versifying

as
of

rasa

in

rhetorician

depured

to

the

point

that

ma cquda

wa

simplistic

similarly

the

Western

, Lydgate

[ i . e . purified

prose
that

S aintsbury

and

dominant

, A

indeed

view

materials
both

are

History

in

T abataba

. See

both

provides
mutually

of

English

cIyar , 78 .

has
are

' l - rascfil

, was

] rhetoric

been

noted

described
shi

cr

in

prose

and

of

human

poetry
speech

literary
a strong

interdependent

Criticism

mutual

recogni

the

principal

performance

discourse
evidence

the

" . 71 The

the
as

in

as

mahlul

, it establishes

Arabic

, 1962 ) , 30 .
to I bn

poetry

. Nevertheless
between

discourse
the

and

Dil

symbiosis

literary

suggestion

G eorge

cr

too

inevitable

emerged

CONCEITS

" . 70

admittedly
the

PROSE

device

discourse

: fa

is

tion

71

. For

scholarly

derivatives
view

the

interdependency

Arabic

70

. It
of

AND

in
in

.
regard

support

, 2 nd edition

( Edinburgh

&

PERORATION

In

the

preceding

relating

to

chapters

attempted

to

selections

. The

illustrated

from

not

too

he

give

would

why

the

should

bear

it

: the

theory

, as

make

no

sand

and

literary

One

In

his

Abd
exponent

of

probably
should
are

, Ibn

of

the

the

to

from
khutab

in

examples
the

necessarily

1 See al - Marzubani , al - Muwashshah


2 al - Mathal al - sa Dir , 2 / 204 - 5 ; al ~Jami

his

that

the

' il , and

( Cairo

as

con
various
poetry

19

sermons

an

outstanding

' anic

Ibn

compositions
and

hadith

paraenetic

literary

the

by

1343 / 1925 ) , 325

c al - kablr

into

a fundamental

hortatory

and

' an

utilized

Qur

Qur

author

actually

, in

outset

Thou

theorists
to

from

provokes

was

epideictic

hall

authors

One

the

rasa

the

. The

relate

, the

. 1 We

theoretical

another

from

described

khatlb

practice

by

with

iqtibas

the

maqamat

said

in

did

being

of

to

understood

how

nor

nazm

around

Tammam

is

, works

and

be

efforts

demonstrate

hall

, the

Abu

are

sometimes

is not

to

borrowing

. 2 This
of

are

propositions

here

and

as

that

and
to

also

specific

models

drab

which

essays

illustrated

Nubata

say

them

the

khutab

noteworthy

in

is

of

quotational

device

most

more

do

prose

what

essays

. I have

through

were

understand

by

of

the

way

entertainment
how

theory

that

landscape

practice

rather

same

authors

highlight

practice

the

the

theoretical

authors

model

the

to

al - Athir

Ibn

hasten
found

, the

discussion

how

saying

ramifications

, namely

al - Rahlm

tion

. But

I intend

compositions

of

giving

Nights

various

what

the

perceived
at

of

not

that

aim

two

in

should

mind

main

genres
is

reader
in

individually

the

replied

of

al - Athir

the

charge

the

some

Ibn

of

the
literary

of

found
and

either

have

pretence

cerning

have

the

chart

Arabic

illustration

may

against

probably

analysis

practical

. If

to

in

al - Nayramani

asking

This

reader

himself

tried

borrowings

intelligible

defend

, I have

intertextual

epistles

of

ques
Nubata

. 3 One
materials
than

in

3 See Ibn Nubata al - KhatIb , Diwan Khutab Ibn Nubata . The number given within
the brackets in the text refers to the page ( s ) of the respective titles discussed in this
section .

156

THE

poetry

, and

ARABIC

this

is

overwhelming
Ibn

Nubata

's

made

influence

of

the

and

measured

of

phrases

blend

the

number
khutba

Qur

' anic

and

cases

It

is

this

passage
expressions

are

li - rabb
even

not

, the

be

read

khutbas

. This

mazid

can

which

' mtala

' t ? wa

naqul

be

illustrated

reads

(p .

20 : 111
with

cases

27

),

such

Qur

in

( pp . 38 - 39 )

wa

- khasha

Qur

^ an

cat
20 : 108

qad

wa - hattajba
shatta
stories

( p . 30 ) . A
quoted

in

two

great

and

the

sions

limited
full

( pp . 400

which

Ibn

quality

of

citing

lines

in

al - adha

his
of

- 18 ) . So

, namely

much

is

employed

sermons

. But
or

, the
laden

obvious
the

it is almost

borrowing

about

certain
its

quoted

statements

of
that
idioms

( see

^u

' l - camal
wa

allusion

from

not

respect

Ramadan

the

fasting
and

expres
manner

to

deliberately
.

even
of

comprehensive

he

to

paradise

are

verses

iqtibas

, as

nafsanl

of

in
of

^ an

jamfan

Adam

QurDanic

, for

( Qur

arja

use

khutab

the

( QuPan

hamsan

, which

the

yawma

nafsun

ilia

makes
of

min
hali

of

, tahsabuhum

instrument

from

cu

termination
with

hal

periods

ta crifu

materials
) . But

more

own

al - ladhina

also

hadith

may

or

is

his

tasma

expulsion

( p . 114

lavishly

Nubata

poetry

the
of

- ma

shadld

use

rhythmical

min

59 : 14 ) . He
,

occur

Islam

, are

fa
- la

for

al - Qayyum

similar

fa

al - nas

two

mazid

utilized

pairs

have

baynahum
3an

made

they

verse
' l - Hayy

Danic

li -jahannam

min

wa - qama

a rephrase

hal

li

al - hira

instance
is

the

) wa - lci takunu

Qur

use

are

of

' l - Rahmdn

' suhum

for

which

sometimes
that

( p . 113

when

festivals
cId

Nubata

li

( see
,

part

15 )
yaqum

in

,
full
the

. Qur

jahannam

Allah

- taqul

of

which

tarsf

used

yaqul

wa

al - wujiihu

shamalathum

) ; and

bi - sawfa

Danic

of

body

in

to

(p .

- qalat

in

sermon

selected

then

, and

quoted

yawma

verse

( p . 15 ) wa

the
and

the

extent

says

of

and

each
is

of

he

and

yawma

3t ?

of

the

when

, both

expressions

al - aswat

qulubuhum
Qur

only

end

in

treated

variation

form

one

mazid

, Ibn

Danic

as

Quranic

- canat

) . Furthermore

34 )

the

epigram

indication

illustration

83 : 6 ) . A

' mtala

wa

is

with

min
hali

some

example

good

than

(p .

hal

li -jahannam

50 : 30 ) . In

3an

more

- taqul

style

pas

expressions

quoted

indicates

modified

in

also

is

are

matter

author

the

without

at

subject

, which

( Qur

modified

that

the

. This

al - calamin

al - alamin
be

done

sometimes

li - rabb

verses

Meccan
of

both

are

a strong

effects

. Quranic

Quranic

remarkable

an

khutab

reflect

early

the

that

, often

to

is

should

' l - nas

quite

have

, his

the

of

sermons

statements

relevant

of

use

shows

his

, complete

passage

where

own

variety
which

that
full

. This

inspired

his

in
couplets

made

phrases

with

lacking

, especially

author

Scripture

of

the

, the

materials

rhythmical

style

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91 ) . In

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al - zaqqiim

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purposes

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al - Hamadhanl

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metrical

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phrases

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of

niyya

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iqtibas

hadith

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in

of

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maqama

device

al - Dinariyya
sions

the

157

al - Idah

and

the

iqtibas

's use
on the

of

margin

, 4 / 510 .

, 224 ; Sanni

, " Filiation

: the

Arabic

, Die

Rhetorik

Theorist

' s Prescription

for

" , 3 - 14 .

See

his

Risalat

See

Shuruh

al - Ma carri
al - ZanjanI

al - Tawabi

al - Talkhis
in one

c wa

'l - Za \ vabi c.

, 4 / 510 - 11 ; Mehren

of his

poems

, Mi cyar , 1/ 2 .

. See

Shuruh

saqt

al - zand

, 136 . It was
, Pt II ( Cairo

also

used

by

, 1946 ) , 649 ;

THE

158

device

are

poetry

ARABIC

reflected

compositions
It

is

it , as

to

he

which

to

above

iqtibas

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to

eral

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ya

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wa - camilu

QuPan

38 : 24 . The
the

how

al - Hariri

pression
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in

form

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is

used

prose

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cite

line

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point

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to

illustrated

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iqtibas

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derives
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al - Ummaniy
, ilia

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27

his
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expressions

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: 19 . This

akhbar
allusions

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- 209

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a number

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materials

Prophetic

to

to

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dahikan
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.8 I

cited

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scriptural

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( p . 433

ma

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al - Maqama

cite

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twists

Qur

standard

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( pp . 198

- 20 ) and

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too

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also

employment

we

, indirect

is

verses

. 209

fa

maqama

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articulate

rhymed

from

periods

copious

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is

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that

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indication

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used
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envoi
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Dan

):

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8 See Beeston
125 - 35
al - HarIri

I am

advising

advice

refuge

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( pp

of
in

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al - Maqama

- 38 ) . From

in

of

demands

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be

al - Furatiyya

amanu

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rhymed

in

may

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used

use

expression

point

a systematic

( pp . 425

AND VERSIFICATION

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cite
to

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use

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17 - 25 ) . 9 One

although

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to

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Shuhayd

Ibn

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OF PROSIFICATION

al - Hariri

was

THEORY

is
in

abode

you

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of

, " Al - HamadhanI , al - Hariri

al - adabiyya

shelter

tranquility

.
, al - Maqamat

the

,
religion
;

."

and the Maqamat Genre

" , in :

CHAL ( ABL ) ,

159

PERORATION

The

first

( Religion

is

illustrates
Arabs

derives

advice

that
. In

use

line

from

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last

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tifiers

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adequately

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concepts
view

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Pro

and

in

prose

of

caqd
the

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poetry

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utilization
one

forms

and

characterization

to

in

beau

. Borrowing

essentially

materials

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entire

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Qur

applied

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for

; the

dominant

in

. A

themselves

iqtibas

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made

designated

. 12 The

as

noted
insights

Ibn

nazm

was

the

; it

being

efforts

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of

a whole

. The

of
of

and

kind

patterns

poetical

composi

, and

need

al - Athlr

the
. In

time
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and

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indeed

establish

, perhaps

said

the

attention
tool

Ibn

al - Athlr

illustrates

of

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for

of

al - Tha
Nathr
this

, al - Tha

indeed

c alibI

- 30

treats

to

pro

a strong

see

how

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writings

literary
in

of

the

bear

us

of

writing

providing

al - nazm

clearly

and

10 al - HamawI , Khizanat al - adab , 540 .


u For example , see al - Ij[ill I , Sharh al - Kafiya , 326
12 See al - HamawI , Khizanat al - adab , 541 - 54 .

c alibI

work

quite

author

of

and

medieval

, the
about

. It

work

greater

compositions
in

role

be

important

model
to

to

attracted

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notwithstanding
during

is

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a fundamental

in

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, it

two

has

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study

former

. Nevertheless

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, but

employed

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. The
this

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retical

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coterie

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is

, that

scholars

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to

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was

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to

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expressions

borrowings

on

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term

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and

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of

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eulogy

scope

al - nasiha

successfully

oldest

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tions

the

poetry

epistles

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to

in

developments

iqtibas

term

an

had

the

and

, depending

term

in

rather

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in

into

of

as

literary

, with

should

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the

onwards

nauseam

found

important

. 11 Second

in

: al - Din

23 : 13 . The

character

) . 10 This

expansion

philological

materials

When

them

, two

limit

akhbar

these

is

characterized
to

phetic

, ad

developed

, the
,

device

6 th / 12 th century

the

says

QuPan

of

schemata

enhancers

from

complex

/ 1200

rhetorical

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a more

example

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drawn

second

coruscate

( d . 596

hadlth

a popular

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be

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stock

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iqtibas

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compositions

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from

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, has

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up
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the

to

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device
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topics

160

in

THE

prose

passages

trations

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poetical
to

his

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equally

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where

seen

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where

Imru

draw

device
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line

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( d . 383
illustrated

Khwarazml

al - napn

14

See

the

15

See

al - Tha

full

an

reading
calibi

not

to

verse
/ 993

encounter

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verse

7 -

al - rizq
is

one

proverbs

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motifs
lines

( pp

. 127

. 132
into

's
to

- four

( pp

turned

- 35 )
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conclude

stereotypes

of
who

authors

wholesale

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sudulahu

al - Nayramani

a representative

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were

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attempts

Arabic
lived

in

among

making

would

and

provide
verse

the

an

within

were

find

one

the
, Hilya

at

an

brackets
, 2 / 46 .

the

versatile
in

in

Abu

compositions

eloquent
and

illustration
employed

who

poetic

maker

in al - HatimI

, 4 / 194 - 241 .

and

authors

, we

prose

c alibI

prominent

combined
by

al - ' aqd . Numbers

, Yatima

mina

with

- nine

of

indicate

equally

thematic

al - shakwa

) . The

al - Tha

to

unreasonable

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not

conclusion

to

be

the

devices

accomplished

wa - hall

will

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proverbial

this

.
,

Bab

arkha

twenty

process

illustrated

raditu

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was

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Nathr

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nazjn

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of

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The same can be said

prose

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up

connoisseurs

popularity

writing

in

generation
do

Bab

found
he

hall
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. 14

necessary

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relate

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al - Khwarazml
author

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al - Ibyawardi

If

we

of

feel

to

remarkable

his

one

, for

height

13

line

made

al - Bustl

5 th / 11 th century

if

that

( pp . 82 - 83 ) under

not

is

al - Hamasa

generations

both

him

the

But

D al - Qays

being
did

to

how

to

the

para

as

indicate

hadith

in

ka - mawji

. One

exclusive

later

of

of

was

Imru

al - Darlr

by

application

verse

he

' 1- Fath

Allah

prosification

or

verse
or

wording

he

an

Quranic

citations

( p . 65 ) under

illustration

verses

. A similar

cAbd

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passage

wa - laylin

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Abu

treated

epigrams

's

by

by

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the

is

undertaken

32 ) are
by

by

reference

popular

qaslda

Qur

utilized

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on

first

first

3 al - Qays

from

drawing

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pieces

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as

original

nowhere

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poetical

line

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also

texts

iyabi is used but not so indicated

of

utilized

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popular
'l-

respect

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materials
all

the

the

ap

akhbarP

or

. 31 , 61 , 71 ) with

within

, pp . 8 , 13 , 22 , 70 , 79 ) , the

, not
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, pp

either

of

equally

Prophetic

, p . 30 )

illus

utilization

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and

example

poetical

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retained

materials

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instance

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in

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in

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Moreover
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AND VERSIFICATION

conscious

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trend

employment

illustrative

in

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our

phrases

THEORY

common

materials

plies

or

ARABIC

Bakr
of

evidence

this

. 15 Al -

epistolographer

of

are

page

references

PERORATION

note

with

prose

two

dlwans

essays

way

as

as

draw

his

from

century

an

" to

important

from

Ibn

less

characterized

have

observed

Arabic

uum

, and

alike

. The

show

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ards

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modes

of

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to

Sayf

be

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from

For

verse

dignity

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katib

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samples

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bi ' l - shi cr is listed

, 138 - 39 .

wanted

sobriquet

in

his

bye

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long

vowel

and

mim

from

calibi

among

3 / 77 .
Sina catayn

kaf

of correspondence
al - Tha

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seen

in poetry
, Yatlma

the works

name

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became

was

no

the

other

of

arts

al - cAskari

' s stand

orator

is

equally

as

by

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entitled
Ibn

the

two

katib

of

- laureate

he

( litterateur

al - cAmId

in

exponents

) , a poet

from

an

recog

in

/ 970

al - Mu ctazz . See

and
good

equally

came

to

( writer
) ; jim

/ mughann

Ibn

hardly

a condition

efficient

adib

munajjim

com

there

two

accepted

, 3 / 166 - 71 . A work
of Ibn

cosmos

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derived

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assessors

poetical

both

Kushajim

the

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correspondences

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, that

( d . 360

may

: that

competence

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feature

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literary

nazm

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and

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one

associated

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and

, by

also

the

b . al - Husayn

) ;

time

be

intellectual

instance

is
is

. 17 Some

honour

( poet

this

can

, as

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of

in

, for

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c ir

the

built

there

theory

, Mahmud

sha

to

regarded

attitudes

letters
as

, efficiency

expression

( generous

up

are

be

and

: one

instance

known

that

it should

. 16 Moreover

Jahizian

salon

- making
and

prose

literary

360 / 970 ) see

17

is
the

of
way

diwans

fact

literary

and

al - Dawla

jawwad

16

in

the

the

poet
,

these

" loyalty

- Islamic

boast
same

two

. In

the

well

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practitioners

Arabic

into

left

attenuates

perfect

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turned

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Prophetic
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: one

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discourse

in

5 th / 11 th

credit

poetry

conforms

frame

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reflect

popular

discernible

as

on

poems

materials

to

161

);

from

( astrologer

and

Ibn

Khallad

(d .

Mukatabat

al - ikhwan

Khallikan

, Wafayat

THE ARABIC THEORY OF PROSIFICATION

162

singer

) . 18 The

clearly

theoretical

establish

been

the

fascinated

Albert

Mehren

not

have

convention

literary

efficiency

insights

afforded

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by

retical

are

but

adequately
Allah

Ibn

could

be

complaining

interpreting

dent
does
bound

is

of
not

should
translations

about

have

the
limit

the

ideas
culture
luxury

, and

of

been

/ 735

, specifically
can
of

only
conducting

to

could
the

prose

, if

exhibit

their

materials

propositions

hall

and

. The
by

nazm

study

in

to

the

may

of

the

well
devel

be

, if

literary

practice

the

or

Arabic

poetical

, 20 the

indulgence

his

investigation

are

. But

if

philology

frustration

for

articulated

felicitous
of

theo

that

further
wholly
saint

not

the

interpretations

pursued
not

illustrate

Arabic

and

the
hope

view

determining

and

is

) , a patron

difficulty

, the

thought

may

" , as

pleasure

sought
of

always

Tales

estimation
for

a conscientious

have

( d . 117

whose

demonstrated

responses

of

, had

value

parameter

investigation

lines

which

in

practice

of

aesthetic

poets

borrowings

; some

background

intertextuality

this

intertextual
some

literary

time

in

kuttab

this

versification

into

literary

Singers

class

materials

of

the

" The

negligible

, the

on

do

Ishaq

, the

ramifications

theory

Abl

reeds
of

acceptable

prose

input

literary

the

an

various

of

the

secretarial

variety

to

of

cAbd

in

the

admittedly

adumbrated

of

conscious

the

reality

. Against

was

the

on

tried

landscape

poets

into

essential

I have

of

. 19 Similarly

a universal

What

more

to

the

products

call

through

an

men

device

drawing

to
as

the

developed

theorists

There

hall

acceptable

, in

and

mental
to

efficiency

ecstasy

be

the

had

native

like

that
been

that

the

would

professional
not

fact

with

Lord

by

discourse

AND VERSIFICATION

, involved
modern

stu

, especially
within

if
an

he
un

See H ana 3 D uwaydari

, " Rihlat

al - tard wa ' 1- sayd

bayna

' 1- Mashriq

wa ' 1- Andalus

",

MMLAD 70 , Pt 4 ( 1995 ) , 702 - 24 ( p . 723 fn . 25 ) . A slightly different source words


from which the sobriquet derived are given by M uhammad K hayr S haykh MO sa
in his article quoted in Chapter One , fn . 5 . See p . 510 , fn . 4 of the article .
19

M ehren

20 See al

, Die Rhetorik

, 141 .

ift I , Inbah

al - ruwat

-Q

2 / 106 - 7

APPENDIX *

Verses by Abu Nuwas containing QuPanic phrases


{ j '^

'

.*

ij^

'

c-5

Jj Vi ^-yJ-u
e
! O lo V1 i^juP

lvi;

01 yk

c
I] I L)

JJj /> (ya oJ**SJ

^Lj

Ui3

<S _P ^

Lxj

!>L

^r

~^ !TTt:-

^ c_5^

CJ>-

jSCJ^I

diJJ

*>

. fi

*
^>

^S" ^

da.L>- U

S^ Ml
/

C-^-

*-' -^

jj

I^UP

C-J>-

Y -

Cr4

^LJ^JI

jj>JS- Ji

^3 ^Ul5j

MJJj

1^

-9jJa_d C-JJij

LgJt>Lb ^

g .

Jj

iildi ^y.

LP

4_*J

|.

f'

]^

_j

jJl> <.jJ_S\-j

C/ ^

Cr *

Lil O-iljl

(_ *

APPENDIX

; [ -_r ^ JI y
"
^ ^" 0
CJg ^ J*

c
4 ->J ^XJi
c
LS^

UJ

<*J oLI

Jl5j

J1

C -Ojlp !

I^ LJI^OA

*
L5I

*^ J

(_/

VJ

; [ eJUji >J I
f

jJi

c- JJ

L *-S"

(j ^ >U ^23

CJLO I ^ya

4jili

<J

dJJ

lS"jL ^

L>r s-^ ^

cpljs

iilft

n -

1
^ / L -_ jj

UJ

LJ > ^ . J
j,
I til

*yL _<jjl

Ij _Jj _ d

oLjl

VULs
*
*U3

ls

p- $

l ^J _p -

jj

-^

<JI -^ jj

J _>-J
-*
I^ JkXpld

- ^ ' i > * ] y

Lp ^ - i

<-^ J

j^jl 1j

jis

: \j
* y'

^jy JUJ

: [ r
l^

JL>-

JUJ
,

\j >\ ja ]

j ^

'j

OU

j . Jlij

p- 4 j -^ 4j

165

APPENDIX

: [/
^

s-l__JJ

O - L - pl

^ ji > -

c
Ljl

IjJI

Oj >w2j

>

^ l^

Ijx ?-

* *f ^ 5

JjL*

AJ

iLS""

jUl

; [ JaJl
(3j -Jj

'
r

Ol

4_L*

>

Iii

OL

J *

*C> j

1-L&

>

^Js '

<j "* ]

4 ^
L

S *

OLol y Jlij
'M

J ^"

y Obx ~-*>

c
; [ CJj > JI
j

Jlij

6
l^

jr 4 UjI

OLI

Li

S5 c
jy L ^2J1 (Jlij

Iii

a
_ Lp

-b

: LM

Olj

: [ ^ ^ JI

j *]
c

iJLi
4^

^ l

IS^ j

^ Joj

u ^ .'

jl

jT ^ JI
^

cr ^ j '

JiiJ

OHLr * "

^ Ijil

ijl ^ w
*i

: <JA

LS^

Ijp

W-^

jJ

Jp
N

*]

Jl

4j UL ^ J
Gr " -*1

jjl
Vji

>

jjl

iljj

APPENDIX

166

^-~f ~ *

<jri

LLW Ml

\Sa

bJLi

LjLLJ

I^ JJJ >- Ij

IJwJjj

^jj > ^

ls 4^

-*

< _> nj>- l


: *- g . ; Lp

# ->

_JI

: \^ j
1j -

1 ^]

L^

e^ l

gi

S/1

C/

* -Aj

: LW

j _6

CyJ

: [ eW
Q

""

J3 j

ilj

^ ~Jl

,_y ]

IJj

jjl

JlSj

Si jjJl

Il

: J

. : ^ i ?
J>
1

"!

1_ J

1_ ^>1

) I

^ _J

1L > - MI

- f
j

IJW

: JJ

jJI

2JIJ
; 4JI

. OL
i.

Vi

wii5

^J

u ^ JP

J _ p1

<
y . &

JUs

?Ss3

jjii

J > o

(w^ xSsj ^ J ^l

^ Ji oV [

I <ULP

lj _>

d) l

<il

^
J ^ UJI

i 4_^0

^J _>JI

ol ^ ijl

\ r

: 4j

j > Jlj

<u !l oS /j ^

C ~ Xllj

^J >
.

Ijp y \ JL

^
iL >*w

(^ 1j >

j >- \

15"

: [ Q r uJl

J.

>

j * ^ 9 L5i ' cHl

^ c

/ dil jilJI

! oVj - 4

U*

L) 1^ J-I
^

j -

OwL 4IPL _* ^y

J
^

(JIS
^

18

e
j !

.AS "^

"

oJj

.5IJ1JI

<wJlS "j

c
4- L^ IJ

LO_)- 9

hj

APPENDIX

Further

examples

exemplar

from

Abu

167

Nuwas

that

are

not

contained

in

Wagner

's

*i

\ i

4 )1

'jiXjSj

L P

(J ^

(j -4

' Vj

4JLL>-

(_r Jl

IJI

LjLS

UJA

j !^ _ i

c
J _j

J >. \J

I
; CJJIS

(j ^ -4

J -

- r -^ - 4

JLT -

ur -H

Oj ^

I am

obliged

to the

kindness

to me . It is expected
Abu Nuws .
**

1 QuPn

Abi

part

Qur 3nic

Illustration
Akhbr

of Prof . Ewald

to be

The corresponding
follows
:

Tammm

al - Qur 'n , 77 ; Abu


76 : 14 . Illustration

La _L>tj

of his

Wagner

Hiffn

utilized

in the

Abi

making

this

of Der

poetical

, Tabaqt

Nuws

J aj>c_!

volume

2 - which

al - Mu ctazz

, Akhbr

3 - Qur 3n

for
fifth

73 :5 - 10 . Illustration

, 211 ; Ibn

UJ l ^ -

forthcoming

materials

>a

is also

available
Diwn

extracts

are

cited

on

4 - Qur ' n

des

given

as

in al - SlI

, 207 ; al - BqillnI

, 68 , draws

107 : 1- 2 . Illustration

text

, I cjz

Qur 3n

18 : 13 and

111 : 1 - 2 . Illustration

5 - Qur ' n 5 :45 .


Illustration
samples

6 Qur 3n 33 :25 . Illustration

given

under

Akhbr

Abi Nuws

QuPn

9 : 14 and

10 - Qur 3n

and

and

many

cAbbsI

and

65 : 3 . The

, utilizes

Diwn

one

Qur ' n

places

. Illustration
, Ma chid

al - Mu ctazz

. Illustration

from

72 : 11 &

2 pt 1 , p . 239 ) draws

other

declaration

4 : 56 respectively

attributed

, Tabaqt

11 - Qur ' n 21 : 69 . The

11 :44

stylist

( seehis

8 is to be

al - Mu ctazz

105 :3 . The

first

to Di cbil . ( See

, 207 ) . The

two

of the

Ibn

samples

two

Manzr
here

utilize

9 - Qur 3an 4 : 86 and 43 : 13 . Illustration

18 : 18 .

Illustration
Qur ' n

illustration

, 53 ; Ibn

7 - Qur 3n

illustrations

14 ; and

the

also

from

Ibn

one

attributed

, 4 / 184 ) draws

, 207 - 8 ; al - Tha

13 only

Manzr
on
clibi

Ibn

al - Rml

( d . 302 / 914 ) , the

on Qur ' n 25 : 63 . Illustration

Qur 3n . Illustration

14 ( see

al - tansis

, Tabaqt

Qur 3n 23 : 12 - 14 .

in the

two

al - Bassmi

, Akhbr

contains
Abi

to Ibn

al - naim

draw

on

satirist

al - Mu ctazz

12 - Qur ' n 92 : 166


a common
Nuws

Qur ' n 6 : 151 . Illustration


, Nathr

populr

Islamic

, 52 - 53 , al 15 ( see

, 167 ) makes

use

Ibn
of

ABBREVIATIONS

BEO
BSC)AS
CHAL ( UP )

CHAL ( ABL )
EI
GAL

GAP
GAS

JAL
JAOS
JESHO
JNES
MAY
MMII
MMLAD
ZGAIW

Bulletin des Etudes Orientales


Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature to the end of the
Umayyad Period , eds . A . F . L . Beeston et al . , Cambridge etc . ,
1983 .
The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature . Abbasid Belles
Lettres , eds . J . Ashtiany et al . , Cambridge etc . , 1990 .
Encyclopaedia of Islam , N . E . , Leiden 1954 - .
Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur , Leiden , 1943f .
Arabic translation = Tarikh al - adab al - arabi , by cAbd al - Halim
al - Najjar , Cairo , 1962 .
Grundriss der arabischen Philologie , Band II : Literaturwissen schaft , hrsg . von Helmut Gatje , Wiesbaden , 1987 .
Fuat Sezgin , Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums , Leiden ,
1967ff .
Arabic translation = Tarikh al - turath al - carabi , by cArafa
Mustafa , 2 / pt 1 only , Riyadh , 1983 .
Journal of Arabic Literature
Journal of American Oriental Society
Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
Journal of Near Eastern Studies
Majallat abhdth al - Yarmuk - Silsilat al - adab wa ' l - lughawiyyat
Majallat majma c al - c ilmi al - c iraql
Majallat majma c al - lugha al - arabiyya bi - Dimashq
Zeitschrift fur Geschichte der Arabisch - Islamischen Wissen schaften

WORKS CONSULTED

cAbbsI

cAbd

al

- RahIm

Muhammad
Abu

' l - cAthiya

Abu

Dwd

Abu

' l - Faraj

Hiffn

Abu

Nuws

, Diwn

-,

al

, 1352

, Dar

Nuws

' 1- Din

al - kutub

Abi

cAbd

edition

Nuws

, ed . Ewald

al - Hamid

, Cairo

, 1927

, ed . cAbd

Wagner

al - Dasql

- 74 .

al - Sattr

, Cairo

&

Beirut

- , al - lsba

fi

, 1970

, ed . Muham

, ed . Iliyy

Slim

al - Hwi

al - Bistl

42

. cAlI

Muhammad
.

al - Muta

al - qudm

al

- , Diwn

al - BajwI

al - sahba

cara

al - Subh
, Cairo

Allh

secretaires

sariqt

: Diy

3 al - Din

) , pp . 525 - 36 .
Allh

, 1952

' , eds

al - Zayni

al - Saq

can

, 1969

al - cArab

( 1967
cAbd

- , al - Ibna

, Cairo

al - nuqqd

tamyiz

al - shu

-,

al

al - Ma cni

, Bagh

, ed . cAlI

&

Muhammad

Muhammad

Ab

al - Bijwi

, vol

Muhammad

, cAbd

al - Taghlibi

Ibn

eds

, Cairo

, Cairo

Mustafa

al - Tibrizi

- 65 .

catayn

al

al - Khatib

, 1951

Ahmad

, " khir

al - Hasan

/ 1934

YOsuf

Ibn

" , in : MMLAD

cI , al - , Fuhlat
Th

bi - sharh
. , Cairo

al - Akhtal

Muhammad

Ibrahim

, al

des

- 48 .

Muhyl

, Akhbr

Tammm

- KarIm

al - Sin

BaghddI

, 1947

ed .

Abu

Diwn

Hill

1 only

cI ,

, 1964

al - Athir

, Abu

' 1- Fadl

BadI

Ahmad

, 4 vols

, ed . Ibrahim

, cAbd

cAsqalnI

, Cairo

, Beirut

al -Aghni

, 1953

Abi

Sharh

Sa cd

, Kitb

al - Hamid

al - tansis

des

cAzzm

, Abu
nabbi

Asma

, Cairo

cAbduh

, 1968

dad

al - , Mcfhid

ff .

, al

Ibn

- Rahmn

, ed . Muhammad

Ibn

Diwn

Beirut

cAskarI

cAbd

, Kitb
, 1960

Allh

Farrj

mad

Ashtar

al

' l - cAthiya

Dwd

, Beirut

, Der

Tammm

cAmIdI

Abi

, cAbd

1958

Akhtal

' 1- Din
Abi

al - IsbahnI
only

Ahmad

Abu

cAbd

, n . d .

, vol . 20
Abu

Muhyi
, Diwan

, Sunan

Beirut

Ibn

al
' de

. Muhammad

, Cairo

, 1953

al - munabbf
, 1963

- , Kitb

can

cAbd

al - Mun

cim

Khafji

&

.
haythiyyat

al - Mutanabbi

ed .

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al - Kuttb

cAbdallh

, in : Sourdel

al - Bagddi

Dominique

" , in : BEO

14

, " Le
( 1952

' Livre

- 54 ) , pp .

115 - 53 .
BqillnI

, Abu
al - Sayyid

Bashshr

, Diwn
vols

. , Cairo

Bakr

Muhammad

Ahmad

Saqr

Bashshr
, 1950

, Cairo
Ibn

- 66 .

Ibn

al

, 1954

Burd

- Tayyib

, ed . Muhammad

al - , Fjz

al - Thir

. al - Qur

Ibn

'n ,

c shr

ed .

, 4

works

Beeston

, A . F . L . , " The

Role

of

consulted

171

Parallelism

in

Arabic

Prose

" , in : CHAL

( UP ) ,

pp . 180 - 85 .
Biesterfeldt

, Hans

- Hinrich

Compendium

of

eds . , Studies

, " Ibn

the

in the

Farlgn

Sciences

History

' s Chapter

on

Arabic

" , in : K . Versteegh
of Arabic

&

Grammar

Grammar

Michael

in his

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Napoli , suppl . no . 4 , vol . 35 ) .
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in

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, ed . Hasan

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al - Bukhri

, ed . & trans

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Hasan

n . d .
Cachia

, P . , " Andalusi

Beiles

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" , in : S . Kh . Jayysi
16 .

, ed . , The

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Muslim Spain , Leiden , 1992 , pp . 307 Curtius

, Ernst
from

Di cbil

, Diwan
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DIk

Robert

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, Diwan

Beirut

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Penguin

' l - Khuz

al - Jinn

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and

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Ysuf

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, Beirut

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, G . E . von
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Matlb

&

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, 2 vols
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, " The

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( 1944

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cago

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edition
HjjI

, Muhammad

Khalifa

HalabI

, Mushkilat

, BadI
.

al - iunn

, Istanbul

al

c al

al - sariqt

fl

' l - naqd

al - carabi

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al
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HamadhnI
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il

sin

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al - taras

, Beirut

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, ed . Muhammad

cAbduh

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WORKS

HamawI

, TaqI
ghyat

' l - DIn

Abu

al - arab

HarIrI

, al - , al - Mciqmt

HtimI

, Abu

cAlI

Ali

, 1291

Ibn

Hijja

al - ,

, Cairo

Ibn

al

al - Kitnl

, 1326

- Hasan

, 2 vols

al

. , Baghdad
al - bahiyya

, al - Risla

al - Htimiyya

, q . v . in

, al - Ibna

, al - Risla

al - mdihafi

Najm

, Beirut

ship

in

Early

, Na

cIm

240

Literary

al

, Heribert

HudhaliyyIn

Ibn
1951

HumaydI

, Abu

Sezgin

Relation

) , pp . 180 - 211

fi ' culm
, 1983

al - balgha

.
wa -

" , in : MMLAD

Kunstprosa
ihre

27

( 1952

) , pp .

( 1954

) , pp .

- 56 ; 29

II , pp . 221

- 27 .

" , in : GAP

II , pp . 208

- 20 .

Ii

M . Shkir

, Diwn

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Arten

al - Hudhaliyyin

' l - Sukkari

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, ed . cAbd

, al

crif

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- Shib

Abd

Ibn

Ab ! Awn

. cAbd

, 1965

al -

al - Maymanl

, Cairo

, Facs

Ibn

Abi

, al - cIqd

' l - HadId

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, 1953

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wa - thamar

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shi cr al - Mutanabbi

, q . v . in : al -

- 70 .

b . Abd

Allh

, see

Zu cbI .

al -farid

al - Tashbiht
, cIzz

al

, ftb

c, Tahrir

, eds

. Ahmad

al - kuttb

Amin

, ed . M . cAbd

- DIn

al - d ' ir , q . v . in : Ibn
' l - Isba

al - tarsil

, ed . Slih

al - Ashtar

, al - Tayyib

, Kitb

can

, pp . 241

ta callum

! al - , Nadrat

- , Zahr

, Cairo

il

, Damascus
al

, al - Kashf

, 1961

RabbihI

Hasan

b . AlI

, Muhammad

AlI

, 1985

al - sabil

al - Alaw

al - Bajwi

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arabischen

Literaturtheorie

des

INDEX OF NAMES & TERMS

Aaron

, 72

Abn

al - Lhiqi

cAbbs

Alberici

Ibn

al - cAbbsI

al - Ahnaf
, 152n

, 127n

Allh

Ibn

Abi

Ishq

cAbd

Allh

Ibn

Marwn

cAbd

Allh

Ibn

Mubrak

cAbd

Allh

Ibn

Jhir

cAbd

Allh

al - Tamimi

cAbd

al - Hamid

, 215

, 191

Ibn
Ibn

, 185

Kubr

Ab

cAmr

Ibn

, Bishr
Ibn

Ash

, 6 , 7 , 13 , 14 ,

Ab

' 1- Athiya

Ab

Bakr

Ab

' 1- Fath

Hassn

cab

Ashtar

al - Tmi

Ab

' l - Hajn

Ab

Hiffn

Ab

Khirsh

Ab

Nuws

40n

182 , 183 , 216


Ab

Sakhr

Ab

Tammm

, 8 In , 166

126n

152n

154 ,

, 219

, Abd

al - Baghddi

, al - Khatib

Bah
, 137n

, 139

, 17 , 27 , 34 , 37 , 39 , 46 ,
, 58 , 66 , 68 , 70 , 87n

3 al - Dawla
, 15 , 203

Baldwin

, S . B . , 23n

198 , 205

Bashshr

, 209

b . cUbayd

Ahmad

al - Yazidi

Allah

135n

, 143n

Burd

Cachia

, 151 , 159n

al - ma cn , 68 , 72

, 160 , 195

Chase
Cicero

, 132n

, 140n

, 136

, P . , 14
, A . , In
, 1

, 134

, 142 , 181

, 209n

, S . A . , 187
,

, 185

, M . , 195n

al - Akhtal

Ibn

Hazn

, A . F .L . , 174n

al - Buhturi

Ahmad

, 220n

Bonebakker

, 180

, 14n , 15n
, 184n

, 220n
Ibn

Beeston

Allh

, 123 , 131n

balgha

Bashshma

, 1

, 17

al - Baghddi

176 , 177 , 178 , 183 , 184 , 187 , 191 ,

b . Zayd

, 179n

cI , 19n

al - Bassmi

cAdi

- 202

, 52n

al - Badi

, 220

al - Bqillni

Aesop

, 200

, St . , 2

121 , 124 , 130 , 131 , 136 , 137 , 154 ,

, 207

, 69n

Hajar

, Kulthm

, 89 ,

Adam

, Ibn

Augustine

badf

, 183n

al - Hudhall

54 , 56n

, 17n , 18 , 23 , 24 ,

, 62n

, 213

al - Hudhall
,

Hill

, 49n

cI , 179 , 180

al - cAttbi

, 213

3, 150n
, 182n

, 21

c , 181

, Ab

al - cAsqalni

, 182 , 194 , 143n

al - Bustl

/ dictandi

, A . , 28n

al - Asma
3 , 180 , 194

al - Khwrazmi

, 57n

al - cs , 57n

31 , 36n

, 149n

, 7

al - 'Al

Ysir

dictamini

al - cAskari

al - Rahmn

Abi

caks

Ammr

, 21 , 189

) , 183

al - A csh , 40n

, 183

15

Ajami

( caliph

ars

, 20 , 107n

, Muhammad

al - Amin

cAmr

, 6

al - Ktib

, al - Hasan

al - cAmidi

, 128

, 167n

cAbd

cAbd

, 21 , 22

al - midi

, 140

34 ,

41 ,

56n

58 ,

59 ,

INDEX

178

Curtius

, E . R . , In , 2n , 22n

, 175n

al - Humaydl

, Muhammad

al - Husayni
al - Dabbi

, Ahmad

Damra

, 20

b . Damra

Dh

al - Husri

al - Nahshali

' 1- Runxma

, 153

al - Hutay

' a , 179

, 220n

Ibn

cAbbd

, 71

Ibn

Abbr

Ibn

cAbd

, T . , 174n

Duwaydari

Ibn

, H . , 16 In

, 17n , 19
, 17n , 185n
, 27n

cAbd

RabbihI

181n
Endress

, G . , 199n

al - Fdil

, 210

al - Farazdaq

, 42 , 163

al - Firdawsi

, 73 , 186

al - Ghazzi
Gelder

, Ibrahim

Gully

, 47n

, 4 , 194n

Hajji

Ibn

, 196n

Ysuf

Khallfa

al - Halabi

, 185

, 20n

, 27n

, Shihb

al - Hamadhni

al - Din

, cAbd

al - Hamadhni

191n

Badi

Ibn

, 203n

Hammm

c al - zamn

Hijja

, 210n

b . Murra

Hamza

18 ,

al - Hariri

, 105n
Ibn

Hassan

Ibn

135n

al - Hilli
Himsi
Homer
Horst
Humayd

, 43n

181n

, 69n

' 1- Din

, 128n

194 - 6 ,

, 143n
, 21 In

14n ,

198n

Ibn

al - cAmid

Ibn

al - Athir

179n

, 63n

, 65n

, 56n

c , 17n , 38n

, 108n

, 188n

, 190 , 204n

, 17 , 19 , 214n
, Diy

28 ,

3 al - Din

29 , 32 - 34 ,
186n

Bassm

, 171

Ibn

Dahhk

, al - Husayn

Ibn

al - Dumayna

Ibn

Farighn

, 11 , 12 , 18 ,
51 ,

89 ,

, 190 , 205

Ibn

, 139

119 ,

, 211

, 182

, 140n
, 18 , 199

Ibn

al - Hajjj

, 147n

Ibn

Hamdn

, 135n

Ibn

Hanbai

Ibn

al - Jarrh

Ibn

Jinni

Ibn

Kathir

Ibn

Khalaf

Ibn

Khallikn

Ibn

Kunsa

, Muhammad

Ibn

Manzr

, 182n

Ibn

al - Mawsili

, 148

lOn ,

, 109n

10 In ,

, llln

103n

105n

, 114n

, 56n
, 105n
, cAli , 8 ,

11 ,

, 188n

12 ,

16n ,

, 190n

, 202

, 187

, 220

, 186

Ibn

al - Mudabbir

Ibn

Munqidh

, 15

Ibn

al - Muqaffa

Ibn

al - Mu ctamir

Ibn

Mutayr

Ibn

al - Mu ctazz

, 26 , 27n
c , 25n
, Bishr

, al - Husayn

, 179n

, 203n

, 73
, 186
, 136n

, 17n , 25n

Ibn

Nabih

, H . , 174n

Ibn

Nubta

, Muhammad

Ibn

Ibn

Nubta

al - Khatib

, 181

18 ,

, 17n , 16In

, 165

, 182n

, 187n

220n

, 1

, 191

, Na cim , 75n

Thawr

140n

, 28 , 29 , 186n

19 , 25 , 38 , 63n

, 180

, W . , 52n
, Safi

189n

- 10

212n
Heinrichs

, 172

Thbit

161n

' 1- Isba

, 211n

, 116 , 209

, 17n , 42n
,

42n

, 182

al - Lythi

al - Htimi

, 107n

al - Isfahni

Hasan

Abi

108n
, 8In

207
al - Hamawi

Ibn

, 30n

al - Rahmn

, 43n

172 , 177 ,

, M . , 182n

al - Hajjj

' 1- Hadid

, 116 , 186n

, A ., 6

Haddra

cAwn

Abi

26 ,

, H .A . R . , 13n , 186n

Grunebaum

Abi

Ibn

87n

, 194

Ibn

, 47

, G . J . H . van

Gibb

, 186n

, 194n

Dlk
Dorsch

, 25n

, 149n

Di cbil , 42n
al - Jinn

, 26

, Muhammad

, 190 , 210
, 190
, 116 , 205

-7

INDEX

Ibn

Nubta

Ibn

Qutayba

al - Sa c di , 50

Ibn

Rashiq

Ibn

al - Rmi

, 40n
, 43n

Ibn

Shajari

Ibn

Shuhayd

Ibn

Sin

Ibn

Kahhla

, 132n
, 185n

, 202

Allah

al - Khalil

, 107n

192 - 4 , 200

, 202

, 203

204
Ibn

cUsfr

, 84n

Ibn

Wahb

al - Ktib

Ibn

Wak

! c , 42n

Ibrahim

Ibn

Hakim

Ibrahim

Ibn

Hittn

Ibrahim

Ibn

i cjz

ikhwniyyt

3 al - Qays

, 43 , 49 , 50 , 140n

, 142 ,

, 2 , 11 , 61 , 75 , 187 - 91 , 205

al - Isbahni
60n

, Ibn
, 63n

181n

cil

Dwd

, 81n

, 187n

al - Isfahni

, 152n

Allh

cAbd

, 11 , 52n

Ibn

al - Jhiz

, 53n

, 165n

, 190

al - Hamid

al - Ktib

186n

, 194

Yahy
6 ,

, 185 , 188

cAli , Muhammad

130n

147n

149n

, 192n

, 142 , 157n

Kushjim

, 16 In

[ Buthayna

Joshua

, 39 , 40

Julius

Victor

] , 161n

, 185n

, 164

, S . , 24n
, 204
, M . C . , 121

al - Ma carri

, cAbd

( caliph
al - Warrq

Makdisi

, G . , 4 , 22n

al - Jurjni

, cAbd

al - Qhir

17 , 25 , 52 ,

, 2

( caliph

Marrr

Sa cId , 155n

Ibn

( caliph

), 6

, 208

al - Marzubni

, 143n

al - Marzqi

Miller

, 25n

, Ibn

Sinn

, 56n

, 205n

, 124

cdi , 186
, A .F . , 208n

, 38n

, 215

, 1
, J . , 22n

Minnis

, A .J . , 2n , 22n
, 136

Moses

, 179

) , 185

, M . , 140n

Marwn

, 88 , 91 , 92 , 94 , 95 , 169 , 177n
209

Ka cb al - Ahbr

, 195

al - Sa cdi , 149n

Mirds

189 , 190

) , 183n

al - Ma ^mn

Menander
, 189

, 5 In , 157n

Mahmd

Mehren

al - cAziz

, 37n

al - Mahdi

al - Mas

, 21

al - Jurjni

al - Khafji

, 158

, D . , 173n

Leder

Mary

, 13n , 14n , 68n

, 188 , 190

Juvencus

, 14n , 17n

Kuthayyir

Marvazi

, 185

25 ,

al - Jahshiyri

Jarir

, F . , 25

Ma clt

isti cra

Jamil

, J . L . , 22

Lyons

, 188n

, Hibat
Ibn

, 2n , 49n

, 150n

- 11

14

Ja cfar

^i , 38n

Lydgate

iqtibs

, 128n

, 190

Latham

212

Ism

, cAmr

, 61

, 1

Imru

J , 53 , 61 , 63 , 119

Kurd

' n , 11 , 75n

, 113

al - Kinni

al - Kumayt

, 167n

Thbit

al - kimiy

Kraenkow

, 213

al - Qur

Iliad

, 167

Kunayf

al - Ibyawardi

Ibn

, H . , 24n

Kraemer

, 6

, 28

3, 188

Kilpatrick

al - Kis

, 196 - 9

Ahmad

Khuzaym

kinya
, 16n , 17n

, 27n

, 18 In , 192 , 198n

Ibn

al - Khans

, 187
,

Rid

' i , 18n

al - Khlidiyyn

-3

, 208

Tabtab

, cUmar

al - Kal

, 180n

, 17 , 189 , 220n
, Hibat

179

mu ^kht

, 34

mu crada

, 32 , 53 ,

INDEX

180

al - Mubarrad

, 191 , 192n

al - Mufaddal
Murphy

al - Dabbl

Sawwr

, 121

Sayf

, J .J . , In , 2n

mushhaha

Sayfiyyt

/ mumthala

Muslim

Ibn

al - Sa c di , 132n
al - Dawla

, 52 - 53

al - Walld

, 28

Schnig

, 17 , 45 , 55 , 60 ,

65

, H . , 13

Schoeler

, G . , 195n

Seidensticker

al - Mutanabbi

, 19 , 28 , 34 , 37 , 40 , 44 ,

48 , 54 , 55 , 56n
136n

, 137n

Shaflq

, I . , 135n

Jabrl

Sham

, 154 , 189 , 190 ,

Sharif

al - Radi

Shaw

, H . , In

195 , 197

c ala

, 25n

, 58 , 59 , 61 , 64 ,

, 152n

al - Akhdar

al - Shaybni
al - Nbigha
Najm

al - Ja cdi , 181

al - Din

al - Namir

Ibn

Ibn

Ism

Tawlab

al - Nayramni

Shihb

nazm

/ tartib

Nusayb

Sinn

, 121 , 122 , 123 ,


, 211

, 53

, 25 , 69n

, 157n

, 158

Ibn

Socrates

Paul

, L . J . , 22n

Sperl

, 1

Strayer

, J . R . , In , 22n

al - Sli

, I .K . , 75n

, Wadd

Ibn

al - Fuj
, 191n

, 20n

Quintilian

, 132n

Ibn

, 203n

, 208n

, Ab

talmih

, 27 , 38

llln

al - Samiri
Sanni

, 20 , 25n

^al

Ibn

, [ Ms

, A . , 157n

' diy

3, 132n

] , 91 , 92

, 134

, 63

Ab

Ya c l ,

60n

107n

, 27n

, 184n

, 124n

, 12 , 62 , 76 , 84n
, Ab

tawlid

al - mcfnl

al - Tha

clibi

29n

, G . , 204n

al - sra

, 20n
, 46 , 117

tarsf

Ishq

wa - naql

tajnis

, 36n

, 29n

, 105n

al - lafz

Tahnwi
, 17

, F . , 73n

Sa cId , Jamil

al - Samaw

, 203n

, 12 , 61 , 75 , 119 , 190 , 211

al - Tawhidi

Saintsbury

, 17 , 163 , 191

, Jarir

taghyir

ctazilI

ca al - Dabbl

al - Sabi

184n

, E . , 173n

tadmin

S cida , 2

Rosenthal

17n ,

, 220n

, 191n

al - Tankhl
Rabi

, 17
,

, 52

al - Tabari

, 135

, 215n

al - Mu

Quss

191n

, 23n

, 62

Rowson

, 7

Qulayb

, 6n , 14n , 35n , 63n , 203n

al - Qazwini
al - Qifti

Wahb
Bakr

, Ibrahim

al - Suyti

, 6 , 7n

al - Qalqashandi
Qatari

sra

, A . , 2n

al - Qdl

Ibn
, Ab

sultniyyt

Preminger

llOn

, S . , 187n

194 , 198n

, 1

Poonawala

13n ,

, S . , 195n

al - Sli

, H . , In

Pindar

, 18

Statius

, 92 , 209

Phillips

Qurra

Sulaymn

, St . , 1

Pharaoh

, 7 , 15

al - Khafjl

, 1

Stroumsa
Paetow

, 156

, Ibrahim

al - Din

cil , 47n

, 27 , 28n

, 161n

, 155n

128n

, 181

126 , 131 , 173 , 177 , 205

, 135

, 28 , 161n

, 49n

, 206

Hayyn

, 108n

, 65 , 68 , 119

, 7 , 8n , 19n , 20 , 2In
, 131n

188 - 9 , 211

, 181n

, 212

al - Tibi

, al - Husayn

al - Tibi

, Muhammad

, 183n

- 13 , 214n

, 47n
, 13n

, 220n

INDEX

Tufayl

al - Ghanawi

Tyrtaeus

, 1

cUbayd

Allah

Uhayha

Ihn

cUmayr

Umayya
Umm

al - Khattb

Ibn

Abi

al - Dahhk

, 73

cUtba

Bujayr

Ibn

, 154

, 115
, 57n

al - Salt

, E . , 220n

Yahy

' 1- BarmakI

, 185n

Yqt

al - Hamawi

, 20n

Yazid

Ibn

Yazid

al - Kilbl

Ysuf

( Joseph

, 165 ,

, 1

, 145
) , 73 , 184 , 186

, 126n

, 13n , 157n

al - Zimni

, cIsm

, 148 , 154n

Ziyd

, 27n
Ibn

Abih

Al - Zu cbi , 27n
Vergil

, 189n
, 163

al - Zanjni

al - Zirikli
, 171n

al - Tathriyya

, 179

al - Muhribiyya

178
al - cUnsuri

, 152n

, 192n

al - Humm

Ibn

Wagner

, 160

al - Ruqiyyt
Julh

Ibn

cUmar

, 159n

Zuhayr
Zulaykha

, 63n

, 186n
, 6
, 193n

, 196n

, 179 , 208

, 73 , 186

SUMMARY

Arabic

literary

ment

it

course

theory

oscillates

The
sense

scriptural

and

the

for

and

the

, and

two

it was

imaginable

Of

the

al - mahlul

essays

and

started

to

calities
ultimate

marqum
the

various

and

of

speeches

; and

emerge

poetry

from

, the

into
in

of

the

132

/ 750

and

from
manuals

the

various
second

Arabic

this

compositions

a new

fol

of

the

, and

poet
styles

impor
the

greater

knowledgeable

in

, including
practice

poetry
was

^ um

, that

verse

the

use

is , prosi

making

the

study
of

and
the

nazm

for

highlight

poetry

hall

with
. His
a

from

optimum

the

techni

However

the

sound

and

al - Washy

scientific
Qur

artistic

prose

art , which
the

al - Athlr
in

the

into

secretarial

procedure

, illustrates
borrowing

to

, illustrated

on
Ibn

first

' an

century

discussion
to

the

on

with

the

of

Two

generation

, attracted

al - man

was
Qur

/ eighth

belongs

techniques

prose

the

focus

new

paramount

be

in

when

necessity

literary

materials

the

antholo

training

bi - tarf

, hall

prose

in

times

, rules

to

fann

borrowing

al -

fashion
' an , hadith

effect

. This

an

adventurous

was

' s ( d . 403

giving

efficient

associated

Chapter

Al - Nayramanl

reasons

for

for

of

required

kulli

(d .

injecting

main

obvious

min

poetical

techniques
became

was

later

as

. The

culture

dis

framework

forms

at

of

dimensions
for

the

composition

al - Katib

logical

analyzed

prose

is , versification

credit

enduring

spectrum

, akhidh

dimensions

and

, for
, he

in

administrative
state

of

, who
things

well

develop

training

models

of

Islamic

literary

utilization

al - Hamid

aesthetic

the

katib

in

the

, that

cAbd

the

case

, as
and

of
analytical

formal

the

study

formalization

other

materials

was

pattern

tortuous

no

a product

recommended

; and

it

of

of

subjects

poetical

attempt

the

techniques

fication

was

of

. Among

all

katib

and

materials

objects
.

exponents

. But

attention

, as

prose

the

a peculiar

required

prose

establishment

katib

the

tance

of

verse

on

poet

concept

as

professional

lowing
and

the

available

of

The

Arab

of

by

intuitiveness

documentary

became

authors

characterized

between

classical

elaborate

gies

is

/ 1012

) Manthur

interpretation
poetical

to
tradition

al - manzum
the

concept
as

reflected

is
of

hall
in

. The
the

thematic

Hamdsa

of

SUMMARY

184

Abu

Taramam

thought

is

contents

He

composed

the

literary

erary

and

practice

to

should

not

be

innovations

(d .

154

Zayd

),

's

terials

into

. It

; the

practice

was
The

of

is

order

long

found
to

, a

to

was

in

Ibn

practical

enhance

the

by

al - Tha

c alibi

status

of

coherent

from

Tabataba
the

/ 934

) , Ibn

Ibn

Rashiq

Wakl

( d . 457

assumed

the

/ 1037

convention

analytical

seal

/ 1064
of

as

far

as

),

it

legitimacy

is

Hilal

obvious

plagia

ultimately

. This

attitude
/ 909

the

develop

advantage

. His

line

of

hands

al - cAskari
the

was

prob

as

a form

thought

was

technique
as

regard

to

, introduced
modalities

( d . 396

nazm

as

Ibn

. And
( d . 388

/ 1005

procedure

bor

by

, al - Hatimi

indeed

in

designated

in

its

example

the

of

the

was

highlighting

, constituting

) . He

take

discourse

that

towards

may

, however

, for

) , Abu

ma

poetical

of

poetry

which

was

authorities

(d .

to

into

whose

of

poetry

went

/ 1002

at

model

into

later

c ( d . 393

( d . 297

( d . 429

his

prose

form
, and

QuPan

formal

to

Tammam

usages

3
b .

in

from

a canon

eirenic

from

works

) who

of

early

their

cAdi

versesmiths
of

materials

analyses

998

nique

prose

an

b . al - 'Ala

related

Abu

and

into

Four

repellent

concettos

and

contrary

al - Isbahani

which

and

( d . 322

from

Dawud

quality

the

rowing

of

aid

assumed
. A

borrowing

followed

iqtibas

evidence

and

, it

, and

be

cAmr

a reprehensible

indeed

Chapter

motifs

, before

of

to

borrowing

Quranic

, developing

characterize

/ 826

fact

disapproval

ultimately

lit

literary

, excluded
be

either

considered

matter

Abu

expressions

for

, however

why

scholarship

( d . 211

adapting

remarkable

first

facility

for

subject

most

the

' l - cAtahiya

prevailed

the

technique
ably

not

view

criticized

, or

was

dominant

Abu

variously

poetry

expressions

ment

) were

ideas

known

some

Arabic

of

is

should

.
of

. In

in

one

reasons

Arabic
poets

scriptural

But

was
culture

the

of

authoritative

of

. Similarly
/ 845

rism

of

utilization

poetry
231

list

of

saint

in

antiquities
.

model

practised

Roman

procedure

his

the

intertextuality

Three

widely

and

literary

, one

patron

Chapter

, using
in

the

efficiency

the

; the

instance

the

the

to

surprising

. For

/ 771

from

cAdi

reaction

of
was

literary

version

exemplars

illustrate

focus

poetry

of

a prose

poetical

, Greek

proof

initial

the

into

example

the

in

vividly

was

prose

, for
as

, the

of
which

. This

from

regarded

treated

wordings
essays

discourse

traditions

was

al - Nayramani

model

Borrowing

this

what

) , and

eventually

key

artistic

tech

.
By

and

techniques
ment
epistles

of

large
in

both
, gnomic

, the

significance

literary
in

the

productions
various

verses

of

hall

can
literary

, homilies

be

gauged

genres
, and

and

, viz

popular

from
. , the
poetry

the

essential
artistic

maqama
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Amidu

Sanni

Born at Ibadan , Nigeria , he gradu ated B . A . ( First Class ) in Arabic Lan guage and Literature ( 1980 ) , M . A . in
Arabic and Islamic Studies ( 1984 ) ,
both from the University of Ibadan .
He was a British Commonwealth
scholar at SO AS ( University of Lon
don ) 1986 - 89 , during which he com pleted his Ph . D . He was a fellow of
the Alexander von Humboldt Foun
dation Germany , 1994 - 96 .
Since 1984 , he has lectured at the Lagos State University where he
currently heads the Arabic programme . He has to his credit several
publications in Arabic and English in learned international journals
on Arabic literary theory and philology . He has attended many inter
national Conferences on Middle Eastern Studies in Europe , Asia and
North America .