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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 234 (2016) 363 371

ASEAN-Turkey ASLI (Annual Serial Landmark International) Conferences on Quality of Life 2016

AMER International Conference on Quality of Life, AicQoL2016Medan


25 27 February 2016, Medan, Indonesia

ICT Evolution in Facilities Management (FM): Building


Information Modelling (BIM) as the Latest Technology
Nor Diana Aziz*, Abdul Hadi Nawawi, Nor Rima Muhamad Ariff
Centre of Postgraduate Studies, Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam,40450 Malaysia

Abstract
Undoubtedly, Information Communication Technology (ICT) can provide powerful strategic and tactical tools for organisations,
which, if properly applied and used, could bring significant advantages in promoting and strengthening their competitiveness.
The demand for better quality of life (QOL) in workplace trigger ICT Programmer to develop the diversity of software/tools in
Facilities Management (FM). The variety of software/tools in FM industry motivated to study the evolution of ICT and focus on
reviewing the most popular software/tools in FM industry. These study discussed the ICT evolution from past over 40 years in
FM and highlighted Building Information Modelling (BIM) as the latest technology.
2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers) and cE-Bs (Centre
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
for
Environment-Behaviour
Studies,
Faculty of Architecture,
Planning & Surveying,
Universiti AMER
Teknologi
MARA,
Malaysia.
Peer-review
under responsibility
of the Association
of Malaysian Environment-Behavior
Researchers,
(ABRA
malaysia)
Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); Information Communication Technology(ICT); Facilities Management (FM); evolution

1. Introduction
Managing collaborative working in the organization cannot be achieved without the use of Information
Communication Technology (ICT): equally, technology implementations that concentrate solely on the social and
economic aspects in organizations will also encore difficulties (Bouchlaghem & Shelbourn, 2012; Eseryel, Ganesan,
& Edmonds, 2002). Undoubtedly, ICT can provide powerful strategic and tactical tools for organizations, which, if

Corresponding Author. Tel.: +6013-2307322; fax: +0-000-000-0000 .


E-mail address: nordiana.aziz@gmail.com

1877-0428 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the Association of Malaysian Environment-Behavior Researchers, AMER (ABRA malaysia)
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.253

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properly applied and used, could bring significant advantages in promoting and strengthening their competitiveness
(Buhalis, 2004). ICT enable the firm to manage better their business processes through new and improved business
models and to increase their outreach activities interaction with the supply chain and outreach activities (Shelbourn,
Sheriff, Bouchlaghem, El-Hamalawi, & Yeomans, 2012). Yes, the main objective of software innovation in FM
industry is enhance the QOL in term of job satisfaction in organization. New technologies can trigger different
reactions from individuals as a result of the diverse, and subjective interpretations and perceptions of the level
change require although this does not always lead to resistance or rejection (Bouchlaghem & Shelbourn, 2012). The
trend of business changed, the capacity of the modern enterprise to compete largely based on application software
and ICT platform (Aerts, Goossenaerts, Hammer, & Wortmann, 2004).
Firstly, we would discuss briefly the improvement of Quality of Life (QOL) in the organization that changes the
development of Facilities Management (FM) software. Yet, the improvement of QOL over 40 years influence the
trend of work and demand the software to evolution suit with the work capacity. This paper builds based on
Harrison & Leaman (1986) thought that software is commercially used in architecture, building maintenance, energy
management, and building management for at least 40 years until recent. The history ICT evolution in FM started
due to revolution of the new culture in office demand the new requirement of the 1960s building for modern
business (Donaldson, 1992) and he believes that in maintenance management, the facilities managers find the
Computer Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) as alternative assembling the information. However, according to
Jones & Collis (1996) mentioned that Computerised Maintenance Management System (CMMS) in categorized of
maintenance management software was utilized before any software take place as on 1985, maintenance managers
face difficulty to first time deal the complicated software. He also declared that computer has been used to assist in
maintenance management process since the 1970s and at the mids 1980s, the substantial number of maintenance
organization using maintenance software. In fact, the evolution of software in FM started around the 1970s when the
email begins known widely in the earliest of 1970s.
Currently, we failed to find any publication that specification of software/tools until latest technology in FM
industry. We might have been overlook due our searching but these motivated authors to track the parallel evolution
of software in FM over time. The diversity of software in the market can induce confusion of Facility Managers to
select the best the most suitable software in FM. Furthermore, after review this paper, Facility Manager can select
best the software/ tools for higher job satisfaction among employee or building occupant suit with business
objective. This paper is quite interesting because we revealed the brief history of software implemented and the brief
application of software/tools specified. Thus, we study hundreds of tools/software in FM industry and focus the
most regular adopted and popular industry. Some of the past information is uneasy to search in latest journals and
less current journal discuss about this matter. Therefore we reviewed old journals but we tried to optimize and
maximize the use of current publications in our literature. In addition, when we talk about history, it is more
appropriate to reviewed past and old journals describing the history of exact years of software release in market and
study trend of software adoption in that era. The information is much accurate despite use old/past journal than latest
journals.
To address this, the present author highlight and reviewed the brief history or information of ICT evolution in
FM for over 40 years since the email begin globally. Limiting, only well-known type or brand of software reviewed
in this paper
2. Literature review
ICT is not new in the 2000s as compared to the earlier 1970s, ICT is a necessity in our life today. In term of
QOL, life become easier and simpler with aided of these complicated technology. The contribution of new
technology to economic growth can realize when and if the new technology is widely adopted and used (Takim,
Harris, & Nawawi, 2013). Traditionally without ICT, a face-to-face meeting can be an efficient communication.
However the limitation such as geographical barriers, facilitation problem, and time constraint prohibit the
engagement of stakeholder (Chung, Kumaraswamy, & Palaneeswaran, 2009). The collaboration merits of ICT tools
nowadays usually associated with their capabilities in supporting a high level of interaction, many to many
communication and information sharing, in a group of known users, across the hierarchical, divisional, time and
geographical boundaries (Bouchlaghem & Shelbourn, 2012) affected from current situation demand to increase the

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QOL in the workplace. Nevertheless, it is unrealistic to expect that a large and highly fragmented industry can adapt
to such wholesale change on so many fronts all at once (Smith & Tardif, 2009). However, the transformation of the
pattern of working trend due to improvement of QOL in the workplace urges wider use of ICT in organizations.
Referring to job satisfaction in QOL that influence to enhance the demand for better service in surrounding (DAnna
& Cascini, 2016). The provision of improved facilities is a challenge to facility manager to manage the services.
Therefore, the occurrence of ICT evolution in FM, which connected to improvement in QOL.
The emerging of ICT in global

>1958

TOOLS

Email

SOFTWARE/
TYPE

-visual
jpeg,
-MS office,
-pdf,
(normal
email
transaction)

>1970

Maintenance
management
software
-CMMS
-C-work
-TMA
-EAM

>1985

CAFM

BEMS

Agile
software

BIM

-Archibus
-WebTMA
-CAFM
Explore
-CAFM
-FSI

-BAS/BMS
(Devicenet,
XML)
-Electrical
saving

-Scrum
-Extreme
programming
(XP)
-Lean
software
-Kanban

-Archicad
-Tekla
-Revit
-Bentley
-Graphispft
-VectorWorks

>1986

>1989

>1990

2005
Year

Fig.1. ICT evolution in FM for over 40 years


(Source: CRC, 2007; Donaldson, 1992; Elmualim & Pelumi-Johnson, 2009; Gnanarednam & Jayasena, 2013; Harrison & Leaman, 1986;
Hyldegrd, 2006; Inayat, Salwah, Marczak, Daneva, & Shamshirband, 2015; Jones & Collis, 1996; Kupiainen, Mntyl, & Itkonen, 2015;
Marinakis, Doukas, Karakosta, & Psarras, 2012; Mrquez, Len, Fernndez, Mrquez, & Campos, 2009; Petrovcic, Petri, & Manfreda, 2016;
Potes Ruiz, Kamsu-Foguem, & Noyes, 2013; Wang & Xie, 2002)

Referring to Figure 1, the history of ICT in FM history briefly summarize in emerging style and specification of
software/tools reviewed in this parallel graphic. Each type of software has limitations and advantages (Weygant,
2011) but, many software applications already have changed management and tracking features that can help
building industry professionals maintain a record of the evolution of the information (Smith & Tardif, 2009). Some
of the software can be operate integrated with other software/ tools such as Building Energy Management Systems
(BEMS) and CAFM. This topic is quite interesting because to be able to see the correlation between tools/software
that evaluate with time.
2.1. Facilities management concept
The role of FM was not only included maintenance management, but also include Communication, Emergencies
Preparedness and, Business Continuity, Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability, Finance and Business,
Human Factors, Leadership and Strategy, Project Management, Quality, Real Estate and Property Management and
Technology (IFMA, 2013). FM can define as the total management that integrates all services to support the core
business of an organization (MAFM, 2013). The integration of people, process, place and technology (IFMA, 2013)
discipline are the main core to achieve the business objective and sustainability environment in the workplace.

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2.2 ICT evolution in facilities management


2.2.1 Email document
Send and receive data in the most structured electronic from possible (Smith & Tardif, 2009) related to email
usage is deeply entrenched in the communication habits of employees within organizations (Pillet & Carillo, 2016).
It. Email is the powerful ICT communication to transfer the solid information between the receiver and sender.
People still using the email to transfer the information in the organization. The private message in email is the best
method for low-cost communication and boundaries (Petrovcic et al., 2016) that usually traditionally utilized private
email. organization created organization account This phenomenon hinges on the development of a new class of
technology, enterprise social-collaborative technology, which supports the creation and exchange of user-generated
content through the use of blogs, wikis, social networking features, social tagging, and microblogging (Pillet &
Carillo, 2016). Of course, the privacy barriers when facility manager unable to view the back conservation in the
personal email. The facility managers would come out with another alternative to utilize organization email
supported by Microsoft Outlook or Agile software. The other limitation of this type of application occur when the
facility manager uneasy to retrieve the information in need in the email inbox. In term of negative QOL in
workplace, email has bias to organization, workload and civility of the stimulus email will interact such that high
workload will exacerbate the effect of civility of the stimulus email on the incivility of email responses (Francis,
Holmvall, & Brien, 2015).
2.2.2 Maintenance management software
The conventional software brands for maintenance management in the market are Computerised Maintenance
Management System (CMMS), C-work, TMA, EAM, etc. Different software brand offered the different application.
Each of the vendor competing for each other to market their process to boost sales. The selection criteria of software
need to be considered by facility manager depend to user-friendly, cost of the budget, return on investment (ROI),
suit to the industry objective such as property, commercial building, factory or, etc. Even though the vendor offered
additional application for this type of tools, the core the maintenance management software activities that include
but not limited to (a) equipment/asset records creation and maintenance; (b) equipment/asset bill of materials
creation and maintenance; (c) equipment/asset and work order history; (d) inventory control; (e) work order
creation, scheduling, execution and completion; (f) PM plan development and scheduling; (g) human resources; (h)
purchasing and receiving; (i) invoices matching and accounts payable; and (j) tables and reports (Mrquez et al.,
2009). Maintenance Management Software is precious operational and maintenance (O&M) information with the
limitation of visualization of the model. The facility manager is unable to view and uneasy to detach the particular
area when they are required to perform their task. Some of the commercially available BIM tools supported the
importing of facility data to a CMMS but transferred data limited to graphical spatial information (Akcamete,
Akinci, Garrett, & Jr, 2010).
2.2.3 Computer Aided Facilities Management (CAFM)
The most interoperable set of application is the office suite which typically consist of some combination of
word processing, spreadsheet, visual presentation, e-mail, relational database and desktop publishing applications
(Smith & Tardif, 2009). CAFM still largely based upon the conventional methods such as tabulated data and 2D
(two dimensional) drawings (Gnanarednam & Jayasena, 2013). CAFM is a tools for organizing and managing the
within the facilities asset such as: maintenance and operations, facility budgeting (Lee et al., 2013) and accounting,
construction and project management, space inventory and management, architectural and interior planning, space
forecasting, telecommunications and cable management, lease and property management, and furniture and
equipment management (Elmualim & Pelumi-Johnson, 2009). According to Fernandez, Labib, Walmsley, & Petty,
(2003), CAFM is the versatile enough in maintenance management objective. However, the limitation 2D
visualization or jpeg drawing limited the facility manager to capture the exact location of maintenance need to be
done and the history of modification in the model. Unlike BIM, Visualizing maintenance activities within a BIM
context helps in identifying spatial trends for each type of repair activity and spatial relationship between different
types of activities (A. Golabchi, M. Akula, 2013; Akcamete et al., 2010) and an analytical tool to support decision
making in FM (A. Golabchi, M. Akula, 2013).

Nor Diana Aziz et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 234 (2016) 363 371

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2.2.4 Building Energy Management (BEM)


The BEMS are regularly applied to the control of active systems, i.e. heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
(HVAC) system while also determining their operating times. In the above efforts, the performance of the BEMS is
directly related to the amount of energy consumed in the buildings and the comfort of the buildings occupants
(Marinakis, Karakosta, Doukas, Androulaki, & Psarras, 2013). In the last decades, several other domains were added
to BAS: telecommunications, office automation, computer building management, security, among others
(Figueiredo & Martins, 2010). There are also companies provided saving consumption for electrical such as
Schneider Electric that introduce utilities saving for luminaries that connected with ICT for electrical consumption
tracking and monitoring for electrical wastage in their client outlet. Commonly, for the huge building, Facility
Managers would advise the owner to integrate ICT that linked to Building Automation System (BAS) or Building
Management System (BMS) to control mechanical equipment from office. The complexity of BEMS can be
integrated to CAFM (Elmualim & Pelumi-Johnson, 2009), BIM and Maintenance Management System to control
the operating equipment. The system that adopted for over 30 years ago is linked with Intelligent Building (IB) that
support the interoperability of controller and sensor and actuators (Wang & Xie, 2002)
2.2.5 Agile software
The Agile Manifesto states that priority is given to individuals and interaction over processes and tools,
working software over comprehensive documentation, customer collaboration over contract negotiation, and
responding to changes over following a plan (Inayat et al., 2015). Agile software development method such as
Scrum, Extreme Programming (XP), Kanban and Lean software are the most common approach in the industry
(Kupiainen et al., 2015). In FM, Agile software is necessary as the technology able to support business objective.
FM hold responsibilities to integrates all services to support the core business of an organization. Today, the
technological evolution combined with an ever increasing customer focus has greatly influenced industrial practice
(Potes Ruiz et al., 2013). Many factors need to consider for successful software development (refer figure 2) and the
adoption of Agile software involving many stakeholders including internal customers, external customer, and
vendors (if the adoption is outsourcing). The contribution of Agile software in FM industry are booking, online
shopping, feedback from the external client, etc. The examples of the web page created by Agile software are
Lazada (online shopping) and Agoda (hotel booking). Agile software is a unique method of the software structures
by Agile engineers depend on the client demand.

Culture

Relationship
with external
customer

Team capacity

Communication
with the
customer

Success in
software
development

Environmental
configuration

Fig. 2. Factor associated with agile principles that influence the success in software development
(Source: Bermejo et al., 2014)

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2.2.6 Building Information Modelling (BIM)


Computerized Maintenance and Management System (CMMS) and Computer-Assisted Facility Maintenance
(CAFM) software applications by eliminating the tedious, time consuming, and duplicative data recollection effort
that is often the first step in developing these applications, a non-value added task that is eliminated to cost building
owners a minimum of US$50,000 per building (Smith & Tardif, 2009). Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an
extremely Information Communication Technologies (ICT) innovation that currently popular in building life cycle.
BIM advantage are the data rich information from the previous process that can be transfer and re-use in FM stage in
as-built model. In construction, BIM data can be used by contractors to simplify estimation by automating quantity
take off, perform clash detection studies to confirm that the design is buildable, and ultimately minimize errors and
change orders (Weygant, 2011). BIM modelling was introduced in pilot projects in the early 2000s to support
building architect and engineers (Volk, Stengel, & Schultmann, 2014). The first BIM project in FM industry
developed initially on April 2005 at Sydney Opera House and the project completed within two year (CRC, 2007).
The emerging technology on BIM is more information management focused involving the process of managing
human capital and structure of the building. BIM model might interact with two types of expert software (1) data
output applications; providing reports or technical analyses such as structural and energy analyses or clash detections
or (2) data input applications providing services of import, data capture and monitoring, data processing or
transformation of captured data into BIM (Volk et al., 2014)
3. Review approach
3.1. Methodology
To review this topic, we approach two scopes of study in related; book, proceeding paper, journal &
applied/official web page (refer Table 1). We searched in two scopes (1) Introduction and (2) ICT evolution. To
limit our searching, we searched wording and gathered the literature review of keyword QOL, BIM for FM, FM,
ICT, CMMS, CAFM, Agile software, email and Maintenance Management System. We faced difficulty to gain the
right year the some software/tools officially begin in the industry. However, we viewed the web page from regular
tools/software vendor to get the idea they start to market their product and refer the years of with the oldest previous
publication. Indeed, we matched the similarities of earliest writing related to software/tools and their company track.
We used six proceeding papers, twenty-one journals, two web pages, one book and three book sections to match the
topic.
Table 1. Resource for general review
Source

Quantity

Proceeding paper

Journal

21

Web page

Book

Book section

3.2. Data analysis


We gathered the literature review of keyword QOL, BIM for FM, FM, ICT, CMMS, CAFM, Agile software,
email and Maintenance Management System (refer Figure 3). Once we done collected the sources, we divided three
(3) main scope namely (1) QOL, (2) ICT software/tools and (3) Definition. The highest publication reviewed are
from Elsevier publication which 44.5% are from Journal published, and 9% are from Procedia Papers. We recycled
some of publications in the other scope as the information is related with to the other scope

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Number of reviewd publication by wording

10
8
6
4
2
0
QOL

BIM for FM

FM

ICT

CMMS

CAFM

Fig. 3. Number of reviewed publication by wording

4. Discussion and future needs


Considering the topic is regarding to QOL and ICT evolution in FM, we review 33 academic and proceeding
paper, journal, web page, publication book and publication book section. We search wording related with topic and
theme of QOL, BIM for FM, FM, ICT and BIM. We reviewed webpage for the definition of term by professional
body as we believe the definition will be updated. Nevertheless, some of the publication might have been overlook
due our searching. In this review, we discuss not only QOL related to ICT evolution, but also regarding the
description of each tools, and the gap between studies.

TOOLS

Email

Maintenance
management
software

CAFM

BEMS

Agile
software

BIM

Majority software
Minority software
Fig. 4. The forecast of majority and minority of software adopted in Malaysia FM

ICT plays critical roles in the integration of process, people, place and technology in FM industry. Considering
the QOL enhance in the workplace to facilitate business affect the demand for information management. As ICT can
collaborate teamwork, ICT was integrated with information management and evaluated by global demand by time.
The diversity of software in the market can induce confusion of Facilities Managers to select the best the most
suitable software in FM motivated the authors to review this topic. The evaluation started with application tools
from email, Maintenance Management software, Computer Aided Facilities Management (CAFM), Building Energy
Management (BEM), Agile software until BIM as the current technology. Indeed, when viewed the ICT evolution
figure, it is forecasted that in the future, innovation of diversity software/tools in the operational building probably

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introduce of more sophisticated. Nowadays, more advanced technologies and FM user shall adopt the current
technologies, or there will be potential for them becomes outdated. The record can be re-used to evaluate from the
previous tools/software for example from the set of information in the email to maintenance management and
continually to CAFM, and transfer to BIM. Different things with documentation in hardware, the information can be
preserve and transfer to other software. Despite the majority of software/ tools in FM focus to operation and
maintenance development, Agile software also plays a role in FM industry. The role of FM is not only included
maintenance management, but also include Communication, Emergencies Preparedness and, Business Continuity,
Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability, Finance and Business, Human Factors, Leadership and Strategy,
Project Management, Quality, Real Estate and Property Management and Technology. Facilities Management also
contribute to non-core activities relating people, place and process. Agile software able to facilitate.
We faced difficulty in reviewing the exact source of software/ tools. QOL of life changing with time affects the
demand in information management for a sustainability workplace. Yes, much recent publication had declared the
years of BIM set up in the FM industry officially. Undeniable, each type of software has limitations and advantages,
however, many software applications already have changed management and tracking features that can help
building industry professionals maintain a record of the evolution of the information. However, at the end of the
review, the parallel ICT evolution in FM can use as a parameter to indicate and summarize the current situation of
ICT usage (refer Figure 4). The arrow indicated the forecast of majority and minority software adopted in managing
facilities in Malaysia. The parallel ICT emerging can be used to highlight the actual trend in ICT
implemented/adopted in FM industry. We forecasted that most of organization in Malaysia adopted email in the
organization. The minority of Maintenance management software implemented goes to the big and high capital
organization. It is recommended for any researcher to do survey to get actual figure and indicate actual software
most utilized in market
5. Conclusion
In this study, we believe that ICT started from email, Maintenance Management software, Computer Aided
Facilities Management (CAFM), Building Energy Management (BEM), Agile software until BIM as the current
technology. The diversity of software in the market can induce confusion of Facility Managers to select the best the
most suitable software in FM. Furthermore, after review this paper, Facility Manager can select best the software/
tools for higher job satisfaction among employee or building occupant suit with business objective. In term of QOL,
life become easier and simpler with aided of these complicated technology. The contribution of new technology to
economic growth can realize when and if the new technology is widely adopted and used. The greater risk taken, the
higher benefit gain if Facility Manager adopt new technology in organization.

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