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Chapter 12 Discussion Questions

1. Summarize the "multifactorial concept of disease. How are pathogens
transmitted? Describe which factors are considered modifiable and which
ones are not modifiable.
A multifactorial disease is caused by interactions between multiple factors
inside and outside the body. The person must be in a susceptible state,
and agent capable of transmitting a disease must be present, and the
environment must be hospitable to the pathogen
2. When an antigen enters the body, describe the process through which the
body produces antibodies.
As soon as an antigen breaches the bodys initial defenses, the body
responds by
forming substances called antibodies that are matched to that specific
The body analyzes the antigen, considers its shape and size, verifies that the
antigen is not part of the body itself and then produces a specific antibody to
destroy or weaken it.
3. Major types of pathogens are: Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans,
parasitic worms, and prions. Please choose three pathogens and three
examples of infection by those pathogens. You can include Sexually
Transmitted Infections (STIs) in your discussion. Completely describe: What
they are, how do they infect the body, what are the major symptoms
associated with the infection, how are they diagnosed, and how are they
Bacteria- Examples include Staph, Pneumonia, and Meningitis.
Viruses-Hepatitis, Herpes, Mumps.
Fungi- Ringworm, jock itch, toenail fungus.
4. Fully explain the statement: "STIs disproportionately affect women,
minorities, and
infants and are most prevalent in teens and young adults.
STIs vastly affect women since they are more exposed to risk factors of
infection such as
sharing of toilet seats. Minorities are also affected greatly due to the mistrust
of the health
care system as well as the financial constraints due to poverty that hinders
treatment. Infants, however, get infected through mother to child
transmission during pregnancy or

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birth, or instances of accidental exposures to risk factors such as needles. In
teens and
young adults, however, the prevalence of STIs is due to risky sexual
behavior, multiple
partners, and drug usage
5. Go on a historical journey of HIV/AIDS infection: Include when HIV was first
diagnosed; what is the current prevalence and incidence in the US? In the
world? How is it transmitted? How is infection tested? And what can be done
to prevent infection in the US and globally.
HIV was first diagnosed in 1981 in the United States of America. The current
rates stand at approximately 1,218,400 persons living with HIV infection in
the United
States of America. Globally, the figures stand at 35 million people living with
the HIV
infection. Once infected, testing is usually done through ELISA methods. This
checks to see whether antibodies have formed in reaction to HIV infection in
the body.
Various methods can be used to prevent HIV infection. They include; using
during sexual intercourse, having one sexual partner, and proper use of
clean, sterile
medical equipment to prevent cross-transmission.