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11 vues99 pagesComprehensive document on absorption refrigeration cycles, and dephlagmation process.

Dec 18, 2016

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Comprehensive document on absorption refrigeration cycles, and dephlagmation process.

© All Rights Reserved

11 vues

Comprehensive document on absorption refrigeration cycles, and dephlagmation process.

© All Rights Reserved

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Temperature

Refrigerating System

Tc

Te

COPc =

=

Net energy input

Tc Te

Te

Tc

COPh =

=

Net energy input

Tc Te

Refrigerating Efficiency

s

COP

=

COPideal

Effect of Temperature

COPc =

Te

=

Net energy input

Tc Te

Tc-COP

14

COP

12

COP T

16

Example

Te= 273 K and

Tc= (273+40) K

COPc =

10

273

= 6.825

40

If Te +10 K

6

4

2

Te-COP

COPc =

Tc=320K

283

= 9.433

30

0

0

50

100

150

200

Te , Tc250

300

Is more pronounced than the change in higher

Temperature, Tc.

350

If Tc -10 K

COPc =

273

= 9.1

30

1 ton refrigerat ion =

= 3000 kcal

hr

24hr

= 50 kcal

min

lb = 12000 Btu

= 12600 kJ

hr

= 210 kJ

hr

= 200 Btu

miin

min

= 3.5kW

Rating

hp

12,000 Btu

4.72

=

=

ton

(COP)2545 Btu (hp - hr ) COP

(ton - hr )

or

kW

12,000 Btu

ton

(ton - hr )

3.52

COP

In US,

Performanc e of HVAC System is given in Energy Efficiency Ratio (EES) Btu

1Btu = 3.412W hr, 1 EES =

W - hr

1

COPc = 0.293 COPc

3.412

Compressor

Condenser

Evaporator

Expansion Valve

Control System

Cooling Tower - Sometimes

Distinctions of Refrigerators

Evaporator

cools the air stream directly Direct

Expansion (DX) coil systems

cools water or brine chillers (common in

commercial units)

Types of Compressors

Positive Displacement Compressor

Increases the pressure of refrigerant vapour by

reducing volume Reciprocating, Rotary, Scroll,

etc.,

Increase pressure of refrigerant vapour by a

continuous transfer of angular momentum to the

vapour from the rotating member followed by

conversion of this momentum to pressure rise

Centrifugal Compressors

Compressor

Energy Consuming Component

Reciprocating 1/16 to 150 hp or 50 to 112 kW

Orbital Scroll 1 15 tons or 3.5 to 52.5 kW

Helical Rotary 100 to 1000 tons or 350 to 3500 kW

Centrifugal 100 tons or 350 kW, upper limit

determined by physical size

Reciprocating Compressor

10

Rotating Compressors

Axial Flow

Centrifugal Type

Roots

TypeMcMaster University

Department of Mechanical

Engineering,

11

Reciprocating Compressor

12

Reciprocating Compressor

Pa = Pb and Pc = Pd

3

State d State a

Gas remaining in state d, Vd expands

polytropically to state a

Pressure, P

P4

State a State b

Mixing of clearance volume vapour

and intake vapour

State b State c

Vapour is compressed polytropically

Heat transfer in this exhaust process

P3

Cylinder Volume, V

13

P-V diagram

14

Reciprocating Compressor

Additional Assumptions

Polytropic exponent n is same for

state bstate c and state dstate a

Heat Transfer during exhaust is

negligible state c & d are same

Pressure, P

P4

P3

and the intake gas at 3 is the same as

a state b and is designated a.

clearance volume vapour is equal to

work done in expanding clearance

volume vapour

Cylinder Volume, V

15

Reciprocating Compressor

Assumptions

Polytropic exponent n is same for

state bstate c and state dstate a

Heat Transfer during exhaust is

negligible state c & d are same

Pressure, P

c, d

P4

P3

b, a

specific Volume, v

PV n = Constant

Also, Pb v nb = Pc v cn

and the intake gas at 3 is the same as

a state b and is designated a.

Note: Work done in compressing

clearance volume vapour is equal to

work done in expanding clearance

volume vapour

16

Pb v nb = Pc v cn

Pressure, P

c, d

P4

state c state d and v c = vd

Forrelaxationprocess,

Pd v dn = Pa v an

P3

specific Volume, v

and

n = n

v a = v b

! =0

b, a To compressclearance vapour W

net

At state b,

mass of vapour in cylinder =

massofclearancevapou r =

Vb

vb

Va

v a

Vb Va Vb Va

=

v b v a

vb

17

Volumetric Efficiency, v

v =

Mass of vapour that could be compressed if intake volume equaled

the piston displacement and the state of the vapour at the begining of

the compression

(Vb Va )v3

(Vb Vd )vb

But,Vb Va = (Vb Vd ) (Va Vd )

v =

P

and ,Va = Vd d

Pa

Pressure, P

c, d

P4

P3

P

= Vd c

Pb

LetusdefinieclearanceFactor , C =

specific Volume, v

b, a

Vd

Vb Vd

Pc n v 3

v = 1 + C C

Pb v b

1 + C C

P

and reexpansio n of the clearance volume vapour

v 3

[Effect of pressure drop and heating of intake vapour]

v b

18

Volumetric Efficiency, v

Factors affecting Volumetric

Efficiency

Reexpansion of Clearance

Vapour

Pressure drop in suction and

discharge valves

Heating of vapour on the

intake stroke

1

Pc n v 3

v = 1 + C C

Pb v b

1 + C C

P

and reexpansion of the clearance volume vapour

v 3

[Effect of pressure drop and heating of intake vapour]

v b

19

Volumetric Efficiency, v

Also,

! v3

m

PD

PD Piston Displacement in volume per unit time

v =

c, d

Pressure, P

P4

! mass flow rate of refrigerant

m

P3

Specific Volume, v

b, a

Pc n PD

! = 1 + C - C

m

P

v

b b

n isentropic exponent, k

(n 1 )

n

P

c

Compressor Work, w =

Pb v b

1

Pb

n -1

!w

! =m

Power Requirement = W

m

20

Pressure, P

P4

P3

Compressor Work, v

a

Cylinder Volume, V

b

Using PV n = constant

(n 1 )

n

P

c

Compressor Work, W =

Pb (Vb Va )

1

Pb

n -1

(n 1 )

n

P

w=

Pb v b c

1

Pb

n -1

21

Reciprocating Compressor

22

Power Requirements

23 = m

(h 3 h 2 )

Capacity = Q

=

m

v PD

v4

,& ) n 1n /

nP

v

P

45 = W

comp = m

w 45 = m

b b .( c +

Power = W

11

1

n 1 .' Pb *

0

,& ) n 1 n /

Power

nPb v b

.( Pc +

=

11

1

Capacity (n 1)(h 3 h 2 ) .' Pb *

0

comp

W

m

m Compressor mechanical effificeny (accounts for frictional loses)

E

elec Electric Power supplied to the motor driving compressor

W

1 /,

n 1

,

/

n

n

&

)

&

)

w comp

m

nP

PD

P

P

(

)

b

.1+ C C( c + 1.( c +

elec =

W

=

11

1

mE

(n 1)?m ?E .' Pb * 10.-' Pb *

0

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

23

Example Problem 1

Refrigerant 134a vapour enters the suction header

of a single-stage reciprocating compressor at 45

psia and 40 F. The discharge pressure is 200 psia.

Pressure drop in the suction valve is 2 psi, and the

pressure loss in the discharge valve is 4 psi. The

vapour is superheated by 12 F during the intake

stroke. The clearance volume is 5 % of piston

displacement. Determine:

(a) Volumetric efficiency

(b) Compressor pumping capacity if the piston

displacement is 10 in3 and the crankshaft rotates

at 1725 rpm, and

(c) Shaft horsepower required for a mechanical

efficiency of 70 %

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

24

Solution to 1

c, d

Pressure, P

P4

P3

b, a

Specific Volume, v

P4 = 200 psia;

Pc = Pd = P4 + 4 = 204 psia

P3 = 45 psia and Pb = P3 2 = 43 psia

Tb = 52 F

25

Solution to 1

Given,

C = 0.05

n = k = 1.26

1

Pc n v 3

v = 1 + C C

Pb v b

204

1.26 1.09

(a) v = 1 + 0.05 0.05

= 0.83

43

1.16

v (PD )

0.83

10 in3 1725 rpm

! =

(b)m

=

= 7.6 lbm

3

3

min

v3

1728 in 3

1.09 ft

lbm

ft

(n 1 )

n

!

!

m

w

m

n

P

!

(c)W

=

1

Pb v b c

shaft =

Pb

m m n 1

!

W

shaft

!

W

shaft

(1.26 1 )

1.26

7.6 1.26

204

=

1

(43 )(144)(1.16 )

0.7 1.26 1

43

= 143,000 ft lbf

= 4.3 hp

min

26

Solution to 1

v3 = 1.09 ft3/lbm

3

b v = 1.16 ft3/lbm

b

27

Solution to 1

Given,

C = 0.05

n = k = 1.26

1

Pc n v 3

v = 1 + C C

Pb v b

204

1.26 1.09

(a) v = 1 + 0.05 0.05

= 0.83

43

1.16

v (PD )

0.83

10 in3 1725 rpm

! =

(b)m

=

= 7.6 lbm

3

3

min

v3

1728 in 3

1.09 ft

lbm

ft

(n 1 )

n

!

!

m

w

m

n

P

!

(c)W

=

1

Pb v b c

shaft =

Pb

m m n 1

!

W

shaft

!

W

shaft

(1.26 1 )

1.26

7.6 1.26

204

=

1

(43 )(144)(1.16 )

0.7 1.26 1

43

= 143,000 ft lbf

= 4.3 hp

min

28

Types of Compressors

Rotary Compressors

Two Types

Rolling Piston Type

Rotary Vane Type

30

Volume of Suction Gas =

Difference in volume between

the rolling piston diameter B and

the housing diameter A

Vs =

W

4

(A

B2 )

roller and housing

1

Pc n v 3

v = 1 + C C

Pb v b

31

Also,

! v3

m

v =

PD

1

Pc n PD

! = 1 + C - C

m

P

v

b b

m

(PD) = Vs (comp )

Also, comp =

(PD ) =

W

4

shaft

A A

B 1 B

(A

B2 )

shaft

A A

B 1 B

32

33

Scroll Compressors

34

Screw Compressors

35

36

Example Problem 2

An air cooled direct-expansion single-stage mechanical

vapour-compression refrigeration system uses

Refrigerant-22 and operated under steady conditions. A

schematic drawing of this system is shown in Fig. 4.21.

Pressure drops occur in all piping, and heat gains or loses

occur as indicated. Power input includes compressor

power and the power required to operate fans. The

following performance data are obtained:

Ambient Temperature, T0

90 F

20 F

Refrigeration Load, Q! E

2 tons

Condenser-Fan Input, W!CF

3 hp

Evaporator-Fan Input

0.15 hp

0.2 hp

37

Example Problem 2

Refrigerant Pressures and Temperatures are measured in seven

locations shown in the schematic. The table lists the measured and

computed properties of R-22, neglecting dissolved oil. A P-h diagram

of this cycle is shown comparing this cycle with a theoretical single

stage cycle between the air temperatures TR and To. Compute the

energy transfers to the refrigerant in each component of the system

and determine the second law irreversibility in each component.

Show that the total exergy destruction is equal to the difference

between the actual power input and the power required by a Carnot

cycle operating between TR and To with the same refrigerating load.

State

Measured

Computed

P, psia

T, F

h, Btu/lbm

s, Btu/lbm.R

v, ft3/lbm

45

15

106

0.2291

1.21

44

25

108

0.233

1.28

210

180

129

0.2374

0.33

208

160

125

0.2314

0.32

205

94

37.4

0.0761

0.01

204

92

36.8

0.075

0.01

46.5

36.8

0.08

0.31

38

Example Problem 2

39

Example Problem 2

40

Solution to 2

41

Solution to Problem 2

Evaporator

! =m

! = 2tons 12,000 Btu

! (h1 h7 ) = Q

EB :

Q

71

E

! =

m

2nd Law :

24,000 Btu

hr

Btu

(106.4 36.8)

Sgen

71

hr

= 24,000 Btu

= 345 lbm

hr

lbm

!

Q

24,000

! (s1 s7 ) 71 = 345(0.2291 0.08 )

=m

= 1.405 Btu

hr R

TR

479.67

Suction Line

! =m

! (h 2 h1 ) = 345(108.1 106.4 ) = 586 Btu

EB :

Q

12

2nd Law :

Sgen

12

hr

hr

!

Q

! (s 2 s1 ) 12 = 0.279 Btu

=m

hr R

To

Compressor

! =m

! = 345(128.8 108.1) 3 2545 = 494 Btu

! (h 3 h 2 ) + W

EB :

Q

23

23

2nd Law :

Sgen

23

! (s 3 s 2 )

=m

!

Q

23

= 2.417 Btu

hr R

To

Discharge Line

! =m

! (h4 h 3 ) = 345(108.1 106.4 ) = 1380 Btu

EB :

Q

34

2nd Law :

Sgen

34

! (s4 s 3 )

=m

hr

!

Q

34

= 0.441 Btu

hr R

To

Condenser

! =m

! (h5 h4 ) = 345(108.1 106.4 ) = 30,153 Btu

EB :

Q

45

2nd Law :

Sgen

45

! (s5 s4 )

=m

hr

!

Q

45

= 1.278 Btu

hr R

To

hr

42

Solution to Problem 2

Liquid Line

! =m

! (h6 h5 ) = 207 Btu

EB :

Q

56

2nd Law :

Sgen

56

! (s6 s5 )

=m

hr

!

Q

56

0 Btu

hr R

To

Expansion Device

! =m

! (h7 h6 ) = 0 Btu

EB :

Q

67

2nd Law :

Sgen

67

hr

!

Q

! (s7 s6 ) 67 = 1.725 Btu

=m

hr R

To

TR

= 6.852

To TR

!

Q

E

=

= 3502 Btu

hr

(COP )carnot

(COP )carnot =

!

W

carnot

!

W

comp

actual

Btu

!

=W

carnot + ToS gen = 3502 + 7.545 549.67 = 7649

hr

43

Solution to Problem 2

Component

Q

Btu/hr

W

Btu/hr

Sgen

Btu/lbm.R

Sgen/Stotal

%

Evaporator

24,000

1.405

19

Suction Line

586

0.279

Compressor

-494

7,653

2.417

32

Discharge Line

-1,380

0.441

Condenser

-30,153

1.278

17

Liquid Line

-207

Expansion

Device

1.725

23

Total

-7,648

7,653

7.545

W!comp

actual

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

hr

44

Absorption Refrigeration

Distinctions of Refrigeration

Evaporation

cools the air stream directly Direct Expansion (DX)

coil systems

cools water or brine chillers (common in commercial

units)

Compression

Mechanical Vapour Compression

Absorption Principle

Criteria

Changing

Economics and

Fuel Availability

46

Types of Compressors

Positive Displacement Compressor

Increases the pressure of refrigerant vapour by

reducing volume Reciprocating, Rotary, Scroll,

etc.,

Increase pressure of refrigerant vapour by a

continuous transfer of angular momentum to the

vapour from the rotating member followed by

conversion of this momentum to pressure rise

Centrifugal Compressors

47

Compressor

Energy Consuming Component

Reciprocating 1/16 to 150 hp or 50 to 112 kW

Orbital Scroll 1 15 tons or 3.5 to 52.5 kW

Helical Rotary 100 to 1000 tons or 350 to 3500 kW

Centrifugal 100 tons or 350 kW, upper limit

determined by physical size

48

49

appreciably altering the volume.

Amount of work required greatly reduces.

Heat input many times greater than the work

input in mechanical vapour compression cycle.

50

51

Generator Heating

Medium

TG

Pump

QG

WP

Absorption

Fluids

System

TR

QE

Refrigerated

Space

Qo=QA+QC

To

Environment

52

1st Law Qo = QG + QE + WP

2nd Law S = S G + S R + S o 0

ForGenerator

or

S G =

QG

TG

S =

QG Q E Qo

0

TG TR To

(2)

Q

S R = E

TR

TG To

To TR

WP

QG

QE

TR

TG

Assuming WP is negligible,

For Environment

Q

S o = o

To

COP =

QE TR (TG To )

QG TG (To TR )

(

TR

TG To )

(COP )max =

($T!o #

TR )

T

!

"

$!#G!

"

ideal

(COP )refr

ig between TR &To

ideal

engine

between TG &To

(COP

) of Mechanical

with Engineering,

TG McMaster

& University

TR

Department

53

54

55

56

Mixing of two streams with heat exchange

Simple heating and cooling processes

Throttling

57

! 1h1 + m

! 2h 2 = m

! 3h 3

m

!1 +m

!2 =m

!3

m

! 1x 1 + m

! 2x 2 = m

! 3x 3

m

mass of material two

x=

mass of mixture

! 1 h2 h3 x 2 x 3

m

=

=

! 2 h 3 h1 x 3 x 1

m

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

58

Example 3

A stream of liquid aqua-ammonia

! = 10 lbm

m

min

, x = 0.7

lbmNH3

lbmmix.

liquid aqua-ammonia

! = 5 lbm

m

min

(a)

The mixture concentration

(b)

the mixture specific enthalpy

(c)

The equilibrium temperature of mixture

(d)

percentage liquid and percent vapour

composition of mixture after equilibrium is

reached.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

59

Solution to 3

60

61

Solution to Problem 3

(a) Let the state of stream for the flow of 10 lbm/min be

state 1. We find that the state 1 is subcooled condition

and we locate the point at T=60 F and x=0.7. State 2,

being saturated I located at T=200 F and p=100 psia.

!2

m

5

(x 2 x1 ) = 0.70 + (0.26 0.70) = 0.533 lbm NH 3 lbm mix

x 3 = x1 +

!3

m

15

intersection of x3 with this line, the mixture state is

established. From the chart, we read h3=38.0 Btu/lbm

mix.

(c) We know P3=100 psia. We observe that state 3 lies

above the equilibrium liquid and saturated vapour.

Hence, using the Equilibrium Construction Lines we

find states f and g. The line connecting states f and g is

an isotherm and hence, at state f, Tf = Tg = T3 = 110 F.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

62

Solution to Problem 3

(d) Since state 3 is a mixture of liquid and vapour, the

usual mixing equations apply. Thus,

! g x 3 x f

m

=

! 3 x g x f

m

f 3

=

= 0.033

fg

vapour

63

!

! 1 h1 + m

! 2h 2 = m

! 3h 3 + Q

m

!1 +m

!2 =m

!3

m

! 1x 1 + m

! 2x 2 = m

! 3x 3

m

! 1 x2 x3

m

=

! 2 x 3 x1

m

and,

!

!2

m

Q

(h 2 h1 )

h 3 = h1 +

!3

!3

m

m

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

64

Example #4

1 Kg/min of saturated ammonia vapour with

concentration equal to 1 at 30 kPa is mixed

with 10 kg/min of saturated liquid aquaammonia at 30 kPa and 40 C. The final

desired mixture is to be saturated liquid at

30 kPa. Determine:

(a)The concentration, T and h of the mixture

state.

(b) The rate of heat removal during the

process in kJ/min

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

65

! =m

! 1 (h 2 h1 )

Q

12

!1=m

!2

m

For Separator A we have,

! 2h 2 = m

! 3h 3 + m

! 4h4

m

!2 =m

! 3 +m

!4

m

! 2x 2 = m

! 3x 3 + m

! 4x 4

m

! 3 x 4 x 2 h4 h 2

m

=

=

! 2 x 4 x 3 h4 h 3

m

! 4 x 2 x 3 h2 h3

m

=

=

! 2 x 4 x 3 h4 h 3

m

and,

!

!2

m

Q

(h 2 h1 )

h 3 = h1 +

!3

! 66

m

m

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

3

Throttling

67

Example 4

(x=1.0) at 30 psia is mixed with 10 lbm/min

of saturated liquid aqua-ammonia at 30

psia and 100 F. The final mixture state is

saturated liquid at 30 psia. Find:

(a) The concentration, temperature and

enthalpy of the mixture state, and

(b) The heat removal in Btu/min.

68

Solution to Problem 4

We draw straight line (12)

and locate state 3. We then

proceed vertically

downward to the saturated

liquid line for 30 psia and

locate state 3. We read T3 =

80 F, h3 = -24.0 Btu/lbm mix.

!2

m

(x 2 x1 ) = 0.345 + 1 (1.0 0.345 ) = 0.405 lbm NH 3 lbm mix

(a) x 3 = x1 +

!3

m

11

(b)From figure (b)

!

Q

= h3 h 3 = 54 ( 24) = 78 Btu

lbmmix

!3

m

! = 11 lbm

Q

min

78 Btu

lbmmix

= 858 Btu

min

69

Example Problem 5

Exam 2 in 2007

The
schema-c
shows
a
part
of
an
aqua-ammonia

absorp-on
refrigera-on
system.
0.5
kg/min
of
saturated

vapour
of
100
%
ammonia
coming
from
the
evaporator
at

50
kPa,
is
mixed
in
an
adiaba-c
absorber
with
a
weak

solu-on
containing
10
%
by
weight
of
ammonia
at
50
kPa

and
10
C,
and
owing
at
10
kg/min.
The
resultant
mixture

at
50
kPa
is
pumped
to
a
pressure
of
100
kPa.
The
solu-on

is
then
passed
through
a
generator
and
separator
to
be

heated
to
80
C
at
100
kPa.
The
resultant
vapour
is
cooled

to
obtain
a
saturated
vapour
containing
94
%
ammonia
by

weight.
What
is
the
net
energy
required
in
kW,
hp
and
tons

for
this
opera-on.

Assume
density
of
liquid
water
to
be
1000
kg/m3.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

70

Example Problem 5

71

Solution

Problem 5

72

Solution

Problem 5

73

Solution

Problem 5

74

Compression Refrigeration

Electrolux system has no moving parts and

hence very quiet

Work done by pump is far less than compression

systems for same capacity

Absorption system can use any low grade

available thermal energy

Large capacities >>1000 tons each.

Easily used in co-generation systems at low cost.

Easy maintenance

Very insensitive to part load operations.

Insensitive to change in evaporator temperature

is needed.

75

76

Problem 6

Design the (generator + rectifier) unit followed by a (cooling +

rectifier) unit for the aqua-ammonia system shown in Figure

P3. The properties of a few state points are shown below. The

refrigeration required is 10 Tons. The residual heat from the

mixture of weak water solutions coming out of the two

rectifiers is used to heat the strong mixture in a heat

exchanger (HX) before getting further heated in the

generator. Carry out an energy audit for the system. 1 Ton =

12000 Btu/h. Neglect pump work.

77

Problem 6

78

Separation

NOT EFFICIENT

79

Theoretical

Simple heating Separating

Cooling Separating So on.

Very Inefficient

Rectifying Column

Intimate contact between

ascending vapour and

descending liquid Efficient

separation.

Efficient

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

80

Rectification

@ Steady State Steady Flow

Ascending Vaopour Strengthens

Descending Liquid Weakens

At any two locations in the column, AA and

BB as in the figure. Mass flowing up is +ve &

vice-versa.

mVA+mLB = mVB+mLA

Or, mVA - mLA = mVB - mLB

Thus, at any cross-section,

mV mL = Constant = m3

Mass balance mVcV mLcL = m3c3

Energy Balance

mVhV mLhL = m3h3 + qD

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

81

Rectification

@ Steady State Steady Flow

Mass balance mVcV mLcL = m3c3

Energy Balance

mVhV mLhL = m3h3 + qD

Thus,

82

Rectification

@ SSSF

83

@ SSSF

Introducing Liquid at the middle of

rectifying column is more efficient.

Cool

very close to eachother @SSSF.

mvp mLp = mvq mLq

Let cv and cL Concentration of B in

vapour and liquid, respectively.

Hence, at section pp, net mass of B going

upwards is:

Heat

c combined concentration of B in

section pp

84

@ SSSF

At the entrance of the dephlegmator, in

section aa,

Cool

mva mLa = m3 = m (assume)

And, mass balance of B is:

m3c3 = mvacva mLacLa = mca (assume)

KNOWN m3 = m

Heat

KNOWN c3 = ca = c

m and c are mass flow and concentration

of vapour to the Condenser.

85

@ SSSF

Let h be the enthalpy of mass through

section pp,

Cool

section pp in the upward direction is:

mvhv mLhL = mh (assume)

We know that, at section pp, net mass of B

going upwards is:

Heat

mv mL = m = constant

86

@ SSSF

above equation as seen from the similar

triangles Lev and Lf3.

For any section of the rectifier the L and V

line should extend to meet other lines at 3.

As the Vapour rises Conc. Of B increase

Hence, line 3vL will swing anti-clockwise

until 33f is reached.

87

@ SSSF

Introducing Liquid at the middle of

rectifying column is more efficient.

Cool

very close to eachother @SSSF.

mvp mLp = mvq mLq

Heat

vapour and liquid, respectively.

Hence, at section pp, net mass of B going

upwards is:

mvcv + mLcL = mc (assume)

c combined concentration of B in

section pp

88

@ SSSF

bb,

Cool

mLb mvb = m2 (moving downwards)

And, mass balance of B is:

m2c2 = mLbcLb + mvbcvb

Heat

KNOWN m2

KNOWN c2 = cb

m and c are mass flow and concentration

of weak solution leaving generator.

89

@ SSSF

Let h be the enthalpy of mass through

section pp,

Cool

section pp in the downward direction is:

mLhL mvhv = m2h (assume)

We know that, at section pp, net mass of B

going downwards is:

Heat

mL mv = m2 = constant

90

@ SSSF

above equation as seen from the similar

triangles vxL and vy2.

Hence, h = h2

For any section of the rectifier the L and V

line should extend to meet other lines at 2.

As the weak solution falls Conc. of B

decreases

Hence, line 2Lv will swing anti-clockwise

towards 22y.

91

Rectification process

92

Rectification process

Combining

Vapour leaving

generator travels up

and gets purified to 3.

This vapour continues

and gets purified to

state 3 in

dephlegmator.

Strong solution enters at

state 1 and mixed with

liquid leaving the

middle column.

93

Rectification process

Combined Process

Total Mass balance:

m1 = m2 + m3

Mass balance of B:

m1c1 = m2c2 + m3c3

Energy balance:

Ein = Eout (@SSSF)

Ein = m1h1 + qG

Ein = m2h2 + m3h3 + qD

Combining all

Equations, we get:

94

Rectification process

The POL passes through state 1 (strong

solution entering the rectifying column.

Also, T3 = T1 + 5 C T1 + 8 F

95

Problem #7

The following data are known for an absorption refrigeration system.

Condensing pressure 200 psia

Evaporator pressure 30 psia

Generator temperature 240 F

Temperature of vapour leaving dephlegmator 130 F

Ambient temperature 79 F

Temperature of Strong solution entering column 200 F.

The temperature of liquid leaving the condenser is reduced 10 F in the heat exchanger.

Assume equilibrium (saturated) conditions for the states 7, 9, 10, 1, 2 and 6. Neglect

pressure drop in components and lines. Assume that the system produces 100 tons of

refrigeration. Determine

a. Thermodynamic properties p, T, x and h for all the state points of the system.

b. The mass flow rates in lbm/min for all parts of the system.

c. Horsepower required for the pump if the mechanical efficiency is 75 %.

d. System COP

e. System refrigeration efficiency

f. Compare COP of the cycle with that of the theoretical sycle.

g. Energy balance for the entire system in Btu/min.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

96

Problem #7 Figure

97

Problem 8

Design the combined generator + rectifier + dephlegmator

unit for the aqua-ammonia system shown in Figure P8. The

properties of a few state points are shown below. The

refrigeration required is 10 Tons. The residual heat from the

mixture of weak water solutions coming out of the two

rectifiers is used to heat the strong mixture in a heat

exchanger (HX) before getting further heated in the

generator. Carry out an energy audit for the system. 1 Ton =

12000 Btu/h. Neglect pump work.

98

Problem 8

99

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