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# Refrigeration

## Performance of Refrigeration Systems

Temperature

Refrigerating System

Tc

Te
COPc =
=
Net energy input
Tc Te

Te

## Useful Heating effect

Tc
COPh =
=
Net energy input
Tc Te

Refrigerating Efficiency
s

COP
=
COPideal

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

Effect of Temperature
COPc =

Te
=
Net energy input
Tc Te
Tc-COP

14

COP

12

COP T

16

Example
Te= 273 K and
Tc= (273+40) K
COPc =

10

273
= 6.825
40

If Te +10 K

6
4
2

Te-COP

COPc =

Tc=320K

283
= 9.433
30

0
0

50

100

150

200

Te , Tc250

300

## Effect of change in lower temperature, Te

Is more pronounced than the change in higher
Temperature, Tc.

350

If Tc -10 K
COPc =

273
= 9.1
30

## Unit and rating of Refrigerant

1 ton refrigerat ion =
= 3000 kcal

hr

## 1 2000 lb 144 Btu

24hr

= 50 kcal

min

lb = 12000 Btu

= 12600 kJ

hr

= 210 kJ

hr

= 200 Btu

miin

min

= 3.5kW

Rating
hp

12,000 Btu

4.72
=
=
ton
(COP)2545 Btu (hp - hr ) COP

(ton - hr )

or

kW

12,000 Btu
ton

(ton - hr )

## (COP)3412 Btu (kW - hr )

3.52
COP

In US,
Performanc e of HVAC System is given in Energy Efficiency Ratio (EES) Btu
1Btu = 3.412W hr, 1 EES =

W - hr

1
COPc = 0.293 COPc
3.412

## Typical Refrigeration Equipment

Compressor
Condenser
Evaporator
Expansion Valve
Control System
Cooling Tower - Sometimes

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Distinctions of Refrigerators
Evaporator
cools the air stream directly Direct
Expansion (DX) coil systems
cools water or brine chillers (common in
commercial units)

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Types of Compressors
Positive Displacement Compressor
Increases the pressure of refrigerant vapour by
reducing volume Reciprocating, Rotary, Scroll,
etc.,

## Dynamic Displacement Compressor

Increase pressure of refrigerant vapour by a
continuous transfer of angular momentum to the
vapour from the rotating member followed by
conversion of this momentum to pressure rise
Centrifugal Compressors

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

Compressor
Energy Consuming Component
Reciprocating 1/16 to 150 hp or 50 to 112 kW
Orbital Scroll 1 15 tons or 3.5 to 52.5 kW
Helical Rotary 100 to 1000 tons or 350 to 3500 kW
Centrifugal 100 tons or 350 kW, upper limit
determined by physical size

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Reciprocating Compressor

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10

Rotating Compressors

Axial Flow

Centrifugal Type

Roots
TypeMcMaster University
Department of Mechanical
Engineering,

11

Reciprocating Compressor

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12

Reciprocating Compressor
Pa = Pb and Pc = Pd
3

State d State a
Gas remaining in state d, Vd expands
polytropically to state a

Pressure, P

P4

State a State b
Mixing of clearance volume vapour
and intake vapour

State b State c
Vapour is compressed polytropically
Heat transfer in this exhaust process
P3

Cylinder Volume, V

13

P-V diagram

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14

Reciprocating Compressor
Polytropic exponent n is same for
state bstate c and state dstate a
Heat Transfer during exhaust is
negligible state c & d are same

Pressure, P

P4

P3

## As a result State of mixture of reexpanded clearance volume gas at a

and the intake gas at 3 is the same as
a state b and is designated a.

## Note: Work done in compressing

clearance volume vapour is equal to
work done in expanding clearance
volume vapour

Cylinder Volume, V

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15

Reciprocating Compressor
Assumptions
Polytropic exponent n is same for
state bstate c and state dstate a
Heat Transfer during exhaust is
negligible state c & d are same

Pressure, P

c, d
P4

P3

b, a

specific Volume, v

## Compression Polytropic Process

PV n = Constant
Also, Pb v nb = Pc v cn

## As a result State of mixture of reexpanded clearance volume gas at a

and the intake gas at 3 is the same as
a state b and is designated a.
Note: Work done in compressing
clearance volume vapour is equal to
work done in expanding clearance
volume vapour

16

## P vs v for Reciprocating Compressor

Pb v nb = Pc v cn

Pressure, P

c, d
P4

## Assume Tc = Td minimum heat transfer during discharge

state c state d and v c = vd

Forrelaxationprocess,
Pd v dn = Pa v an
P3

specific Volume, v

and

n = n

v a = v b

## Compression curve reexpansio n curve

! =0
b, a To compressclearance vapour W
net

At state b,
mass of vapour in cylinder =
massofclearancevapou r =

Vb
vb

Va
v a

Vb Va Vb Va

=
v b v a
vb

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17

Volumetric Efficiency, v
v =

## [Actual mass of vapour compressed ]

Mass of vapour that could be compressed if intake volume equaled
the piston displacement and the state of the vapour at the begining of

the compression

(Vb Va )v3
(Vb Vd )vb
But,Vb Va = (Vb Vd ) (Va Vd )

v =

P
and ,Va = Vd d
Pa

Pressure, P

c, d
P4

P3

P
= Vd c
Pb

LetusdefinieclearanceFactor , C =

specific Volume, v

b, a

Vd
Vb Vd

Pc n v 3
v = 1 + C C

Pb v b

## Pc n Effect of clearance volume

1 + C C
P
and reexpansio n of the clearance volume vapour

v 3
[Effect of pressure drop and heating of intake vapour]
v b

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18

Volumetric Efficiency, v
Factors affecting Volumetric
Efficiency
Reexpansion of Clearance
Vapour
Pressure drop in suction and
discharge valves
Heating of vapour on the
intake stroke
1

Pc n v 3
v = 1 + C C

Pb v b

## Pc n Effect of clearance volume

1 + C C
P
and reexpansion of the clearance volume vapour

v 3
[Effect of pressure drop and heating of intake vapour]
v b

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19

Volumetric Efficiency, v
Also,

! v3
m
PD
PD Piston Displacement in volume per unit time
v =

c, d

Pressure, P

P4

## {note : PD is also refered to as CD Compressor PD}

! mass flow rate of refrigerant
m

P3

Specific Volume, v

b, a

Pc n PD
! = 1 + C - C

m
P
v

b b

n isentropic exponent, k

## k = 1.30 for R 134a and k = 1.16 for R 22

(n 1 )

n
P
c
Compressor Work, w =
Pb v b
1
Pb

n -1

!w
! =m
Power Requirement = W
m

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20

Pressure, P

P4

P3

Compressor Work, v

a
Cylinder Volume, V

## Wcycle = VdP VdP

b

Using PV n = constant
(n 1 )

n
P
c
Compressor Work, W =
Pb (Vb Va )
1
Pb

n -1

(n 1 )

n
P
w=
Pb v b c
1
Pb

n -1

21

## Practical Single Stage Cycle with

Reciprocating Compressor

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22

Power Requirements
23 = m
(h 3 h 2 )
Capacity = Q
=
m

v PD
v4

,& ) n 1n /
nP
v
P
45 = W
comp = m
w 45 = m
b b .( c +
Power = W
11
1
n 1 .' Pb *
0
,& ) n 1 n /
Power
nPb v b
.( Pc +

=
11
1
Capacity (n 1)(h 3 h 2 ) .' Pb *
0
comp
W

## Actual Shaft Power required = Wshaft =

m
m Compressor mechanical effificeny (accounts for frictional loses)

## Also, Welec = shaft

E
elec Electric Power supplied to the motor driving compressor
W

## E Electric Motor Efficiency

1 /,
n 1
,
/
n
n
&
)
&
)
w comp
m
nP
PD
P
P
(
)
b
.1+ C C( c + 1.( c +
elec =
W
=
11
1
mE
(n 1)?m ?E .' Pb * 10.-' Pb *
0
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23

Example Problem 1
Refrigerant 134a vapour enters the suction header
of a single-stage reciprocating compressor at 45
psia and 40 F. The discharge pressure is 200 psia.
Pressure drop in the suction valve is 2 psi, and the
pressure loss in the discharge valve is 4 psi. The
vapour is superheated by 12 F during the intake
stroke. The clearance volume is 5 % of piston
displacement. Determine:
(a) Volumetric efficiency
(b) Compressor pumping capacity if the piston
displacement is 10 in3 and the crankshaft rotates
at 1725 rpm, and
(c) Shaft horsepower required for a mechanical
efficiency of 70 %
Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

24

Solution to 1
c, d
Pressure, P

P4

P3

b, a

Specific Volume, v

P4 = 200 psia;
Pc = Pd = P4 + 4 = 204 psia
P3 = 45 psia and Pb = P3 2 = 43 psia
Tb = 52 F

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

25

Solution to 1
Given,
C = 0.05
n = k = 1.26
1

Pc n v 3
v = 1 + C C

Pb v b

204

1.26 1.09
(a) v = 1 + 0.05 0.05

= 0.83
43
1.16

v (PD )
0.83
10 in3 1725 rpm
! =
(b)m
=

= 7.6 lbm
3
3
min
v3
1728 in 3
1.09 ft
lbm
ft
(n 1 )

n
!
!

m
w
m
n
P

!
(c)W
=
1

Pb v b c
shaft =
Pb

m m n 1

!
W
shaft
!
W
shaft

(1.26 1 )

1.26
7.6 1.26
204

=
1

(43 )(144)(1.16 )

0.7 1.26 1
43

= 143,000 ft lbf
= 4.3 hp
min

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

26

Solution to 1

v3 = 1.09 ft3/lbm

3
b v = 1.16 ft3/lbm
b

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

27

Solution to 1
Given,
C = 0.05
n = k = 1.26
1

Pc n v 3
v = 1 + C C

Pb v b

204

1.26 1.09
(a) v = 1 + 0.05 0.05

= 0.83
43
1.16

v (PD )
0.83
10 in3 1725 rpm
! =
(b)m
=

= 7.6 lbm
3
3
min
v3
1728 in 3
1.09 ft
lbm
ft
(n 1 )

n
!
!

m
w
m
n
P

!
(c)W
=
1

Pb v b c
shaft =
Pb

m m n 1

!
W
shaft
!
W
shaft

(1.26 1 )

1.26
7.6 1.26
204

=
1

(43 )(144)(1.16 )

0.7 1.26 1
43

= 143,000 ft lbf
= 4.3 hp
min

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

28

Types of Compressors

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Rotary Compressors

Two Types
Rolling Piston Type
Rotary Vane Type

30

## Rolling Piston Type Rotary Compressor

Volume of Suction Gas =
Difference in volume between
the rolling piston diameter B and
the housing diameter A

Vs =

W
4

(A

B2 )

## Where, W is the width of the

roller and housing
1

Pc n v 3
v = 1 + C C
Pb v b

31

Also,
! v3
m
v =
PD
1

Pc n PD
! = 1 + C - C

m
P
v

b b

## ! mass flow rate of refrigerant

m

(PD) = Vs (comp )
Also, comp =

(PD ) =

W
4

shaft
A A
B 1 B

(A

B2 )

shaft
A A
B 1 B

32

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33

Scroll Compressors

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34

Screw Compressors

35

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36

Example Problem 2
An air cooled direct-expansion single-stage mechanical
vapour-compression refrigeration system uses
Refrigerant-22 and operated under steady conditions. A
schematic drawing of this system is shown in Fig. 4.21.
Pressure drops occur in all piping, and heat gains or loses
occur as indicated. Power input includes compressor
power and the power required to operate fans. The
following performance data are obtained:
Ambient Temperature, T0

90 F

20 F

2 tons

## Compressor Power Input, W!comp

Condenser-Fan Input, W!CF

3 hp

Evaporator-Fan Input

0.15 hp

0.2 hp

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

37

Example Problem 2
Refrigerant Pressures and Temperatures are measured in seven
locations shown in the schematic. The table lists the measured and
computed properties of R-22, neglecting dissolved oil. A P-h diagram
of this cycle is shown comparing this cycle with a theoretical single
stage cycle between the air temperatures TR and To. Compute the
energy transfers to the refrigerant in each component of the system
and determine the second law irreversibility in each component.
Show that the total exergy destruction is equal to the difference
between the actual power input and the power required by a Carnot
cycle operating between TR and To with the same refrigerating load.
State

Measured

Computed

P, psia

T, F

h, Btu/lbm

s, Btu/lbm.R

v, ft3/lbm

45

15

106

0.2291

1.21

44

25

108

0.233

1.28

210

180

129

0.2374

0.33

208

160

125

0.2314

0.32

205

94

37.4

0.0761

0.01

204

92

36.8

0.075

0.01

46.5

36.8

0.08

0.31

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

38

Example Problem 2

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39

Example Problem 2

40

Solution to 2

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41

Solution to Problem 2
Evaporator
! =m
! = 2tons 12,000 Btu
! (h1 h7 ) = Q
EB :
Q
71
E
! =
m
2nd Law :

24,000 Btu
hr
Btu
(106.4 36.8)

Sgen

71

hr

= 24,000 Btu

= 345 lbm

hr
lbm
!
Q
24,000
! (s1 s7 ) 71 = 345(0.2291 0.08 )
=m
= 1.405 Btu
hr R
TR
479.67

Suction Line
! =m
! (h 2 h1 ) = 345(108.1 106.4 ) = 586 Btu
EB :
Q
12
2nd Law :

Sgen

12

hr

hr

!
Q
! (s 2 s1 ) 12 = 0.279 Btu
=m
hr R
To

Compressor
! =m
! = 345(128.8 108.1) 3 2545 = 494 Btu
! (h 3 h 2 ) + W
EB :
Q
23
23
2nd Law :

Sgen

23

! (s 3 s 2 )
=m

!
Q
23
= 2.417 Btu
hr R
To

Discharge Line
! =m
! (h4 h 3 ) = 345(108.1 106.4 ) = 1380 Btu
EB :
Q
34
2nd Law :

Sgen

34

! (s4 s 3 )
=m

hr

!
Q
34
= 0.441 Btu
hr R
To

Condenser
! =m
! (h5 h4 ) = 345(108.1 106.4 ) = 30,153 Btu
EB :
Q
45
2nd Law :

Sgen

45

! (s5 s4 )
=m

hr

!
Q
45
= 1.278 Btu
hr R
To

hr

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

42

Solution to Problem 2
Liquid Line
! =m
! (h6 h5 ) = 207 Btu
EB :
Q
56
2nd Law :

Sgen

56

! (s6 s5 )
=m

hr

!
Q
56
0 Btu
hr R
To

Expansion Device
! =m
! (h7 h6 ) = 0 Btu
EB :
Q
67
2nd Law :

Sgen

67

hr
!
Q
! (s7 s6 ) 67 = 1.725 Btu
=m
hr R
To

TR
= 6.852
To TR
!
Q
E
=
= 3502 Btu
hr
(COP )carnot

(COP )carnot =
!
W
carnot
!
W
comp

actual

Btu
!
=W
carnot + ToS gen = 3502 + 7.545 549.67 = 7649

hr

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

43

Solution to Problem 2
Component

Q
Btu/hr

W
Btu/hr

Sgen
Btu/lbm.R

Sgen/Stotal
%

Evaporator

24,000

1.405

19

Suction Line

586

0.279

Compressor

-494

7,653

2.417

32

Discharge Line

-1,380

0.441

Condenser

-30,153

1.278

17

Liquid Line

-207

Expansion
Device

1.725

23

Total

-7,648

7,653

7.545

W!comp

actual

## = W!carnot + To S gen = 3502 + 7.545 549.67 = 7649 Btu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

hr
44

Absorption Refrigeration

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

Distinctions of Refrigeration
Evaporation
cools the air stream directly Direct Expansion (DX)
coil systems
cools water or brine chillers (common in commercial
units)

Compression
Mechanical Vapour Compression
Absorption Principle

Criteria

Changing
Economics and
Fuel Availability

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

46

Types of Compressors
Positive Displacement Compressor
Increases the pressure of refrigerant vapour by
reducing volume Reciprocating, Rotary, Scroll,
etc.,

## Dynamic Displacement Compressor

Increase pressure of refrigerant vapour by a
continuous transfer of angular momentum to the
vapour from the rotating member followed by
conversion of this momentum to pressure rise
Centrifugal Compressors

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

47

Compressor
Energy Consuming Component
Reciprocating 1/16 to 150 hp or 50 to 112 kW
Orbital Scroll 1 15 tons or 3.5 to 52.5 kW
Helical Rotary 100 to 1000 tons or 350 to 3500 kW
Centrifugal 100 tons or 350 kW, upper limit
determined by physical size

48

49

## Means to increase pressure of refrigerant without

appreciably altering the volume.
Amount of work required greatly reduces.
Heat input many times greater than the work
input in mechanical vapour compression cycle.

50

51

## External Energy Transfer

Generator Heating
Medium

TG

Pump

QG

WP
Absorption
Fluids
System

TR

QE

Refrigerated
Space

Qo=QA+QC
To
Environment

52

## COP for Absorption System

1st Law Qo = QG + QE + WP

2nd Law S = S G + S R + S o 0

ForGenerator

or

S G =

QG
TG

S =

QG Q E Qo

0
TG TR To

(2)

## For Refrigerat ed Substance

Q
S R = E
TR

TG To
To TR

WP
QG
QE

TR
TG
Assuming WP is negligible,

For Environment
Q
S o = o
To

COP =

QE TR (TG To )

QG TG (To TR )

## For completely reversible systems,

(
TR
TG To )
(COP )max =

(\$T!o #
TR )
T
!
"
\$!#G!
"
ideal
(COP )refr
ig between TR &To

ideal
engine
between TG &To

## For given environment, To ,

(COP
) of Mechanical
with Engineering,
TG McMaster
& University
TR
Department

53

54

55

56

## Adiabatic mixing of two streams

Mixing of two streams with heat exchange
Simple heating and cooling processes
Throttling

57

## Adiabatic Mixing of Two Streams

! 1h1 + m
! 2h 2 = m
! 3h 3
m
!1 +m
!2 =m
!3
m
! 1x 1 + m
! 2x 2 = m
! 3x 3
m
mass of material two
x=
mass of mixture
! 1 h2 h3 x 2 x 3
m

=
=
! 2 h 3 h1 x 3 x 1
m
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58

Example 3
A stream of liquid aqua-ammonia
! = 10 lbm
m

min

, x = 0.7

lbmNH3

lbmmix.

## is adiabatically mixed with a stream of saturated

liquid aqua-ammonia
! = 5 lbm
m

min

## Assuming steady state conditions, determine:

(a)
The mixture concentration
(b)
the mixture specific enthalpy
(c)
The equilibrium temperature of mixture
(d)
percentage liquid and percent vapour
composition of mixture after equilibrium is
reached.
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59

Solution to 3

60

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

61

Solution to Problem 3
(a) Let the state of stream for the flow of 10 lbm/min be
state 1. We find that the state 1 is subcooled condition
and we locate the point at T=60 F and x=0.7. State 2,
being saturated I located at T=200 F and p=100 psia.
!2
m
5
(x 2 x1 ) = 0.70 + (0.26 0.70) = 0.533 lbm NH 3 lbm mix
x 3 = x1 +
!3
m
15

## (b) We connect states 1 and 2 by a straight line. At the

intersection of x3 with this line, the mixture state is
established. From the chart, we read h3=38.0 Btu/lbm
mix.
(c) We know P3=100 psia. We observe that state 3 lies
above the equilibrium liquid and saturated vapour.
Hence, using the Equilibrium Construction Lines we
find states f and g. The line connecting states f and g is
an isotherm and hence, at state f, Tf = Tg = T3 = 110 F.
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62

Solution to Problem 3
(d) Since state 3 is a mixture of liquid and vapour, the
usual mixing equations apply. Thus,
! g x 3 x f
m
=
! 3 x g x f
m

f 3
=
= 0.033
fg

vapour

63

## Mixing of Two Streams with Heat Exchange

!
! 1 h1 + m
! 2h 2 = m
! 3h 3 + Q
m
!1 +m
!2 =m
!3
m
! 1x 1 + m
! 2x 2 = m
! 3x 3
m
! 1 x2 x3
m

=
! 2 x 3 x1
m
and,
!
!2
m
Q
(h 2 h1 )
h 3 = h1 +
!3
!3
m
m
Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

64

Example #4
1 Kg/min of saturated ammonia vapour with
concentration equal to 1 at 30 kPa is mixed
with 10 kg/min of saturated liquid aquaammonia at 30 kPa and 40 C. The final
desired mixture is to be saturated liquid at
30 kPa. Determine:
(a)The concentration, T and h of the mixture
state.
(b) The rate of heat removal during the
process in kJ/min
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65

## Simple Heating and Cooling Process

! =m
! 1 (h 2 h1 )
Q
12
!1=m
!2
m
For Separator A we have,
! 2h 2 = m
! 3h 3 + m
! 4h4
m
!2 =m
! 3 +m
!4
m
! 2x 2 = m
! 3x 3 + m
! 4x 4
m
! 3 x 4 x 2 h4 h 2
m

=
=
! 2 x 4 x 3 h4 h 3
m
! 4 x 2 x 3 h2 h3
m
=
=
! 2 x 4 x 3 h4 h 3
m
and,
!
!2
m
Q
(h 2 h1 )
h 3 = h1 +
!3
! 66
m
m
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3

Throttling

67

Example 4

## One lbm/min of saturated ammonia vapour

(x=1.0) at 30 psia is mixed with 10 lbm/min
of saturated liquid aqua-ammonia at 30
psia and 100 F. The final mixture state is
saturated liquid at 30 psia. Find:
(a) The concentration, temperature and
enthalpy of the mixture state, and
(b) The heat removal in Btu/min.

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

68

Solution to Problem 4
We draw straight line (12)
and locate state 3. We then
proceed vertically
downward to the saturated
liquid line for 30 psia and
locate state 3. We read T3 =
80 F, h3 = -24.0 Btu/lbm mix.
!2
m
(x 2 x1 ) = 0.345 + 1 (1.0 0.345 ) = 0.405 lbm NH 3 lbm mix
(a) x 3 = x1 +
!3
m
11
(b)From figure (b)
!
Q
= h3 h 3 = 54 ( 24) = 78 Btu
lbmmix
!3
m
! = 11 lbm
Q

min

78 Btu

lbmmix

= 858 Btu

min

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

69

Example Problem 5
Exam 2 in 2007
The schema-c shows a part of an aqua-ammonia
absorp-on refrigera-on system. 0.5 kg/min of saturated
vapour of 100 % ammonia coming from the evaporator at
50 kPa, is mixed in an adiaba-c absorber with a weak
solu-on containing 10 % by weight of ammonia at 50 kPa
and 10 C, and owing at 10 kg/min. The resultant mixture
at 50 kPa is pumped to a pressure of 100 kPa. The solu-on
is then passed through a generator and separator to be
heated to 80 C at 100 kPa. The resultant vapour is cooled
to obtain a saturated vapour containing 94 % ammonia by
weight. What is the net energy required in kW, hp and tons
for this opera-on.
Assume density of liquid water to be 1000 kg/m3.

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Example Problem 5

71

Solution
Problem 5

72

Solution
Problem 5

73

Solution
Problem 5

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## Advantage of Absorption Refrigeration over

Compression Refrigeration
Electrolux system has no moving parts and
hence very quiet
Work done by pump is far less than compression
systems for same capacity
Absorption system can use any low grade
available thermal energy
Large capacities >>1000 tons each.
Easily used in co-generation systems at low cost.
Easy maintenance
Very insensitive to part load operations.
Insensitive to change in evaporator temperature
is needed.

75

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

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Problem 6
Design the (generator + rectifier) unit followed by a (cooling +
rectifier) unit for the aqua-ammonia system shown in Figure
P3. The properties of a few state points are shown below. The
refrigeration required is 10 Tons. The residual heat from the
mixture of weak water solutions coming out of the two
rectifiers is used to heat the strong mixture in a heat
exchanger (HX) before getting further heated in the
generator. Carry out an energy audit for the system. 1 Ton =
12000 Btu/h. Neglect pump work.

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Problem 6

78

Separation

NOT EFFICIENT

79

## Rectification of Binary Mixtures

Theoretical
Simple heating Separating
Cooling Separating So on.
Very Inefficient
Rectifying Column
Intimate contact between
ascending vapour and
descending liquid Efficient
separation.
Efficient
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Rectification
Ascending Vaopour Strengthens
Descending Liquid Weakens
At any two locations in the column, AA and
BB as in the figure. Mass flowing up is +ve &
vice-versa.
mVA+mLB = mVB+mLA
Or, mVA - mLA = mVB - mLB
Thus, at any cross-section,
mV mL = Constant = m3
Mass balance mVcV mLcL = m3c3
Energy Balance
mVhV mLhL = m3h3 + qD
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81

Rectification
Mass balance mVcV mLcL = m3c3
Energy Balance
mVhV mLhL = m3h3 + qD
Thus,

82

Rectification
@ SSSF

83

## Rectification (Mass Balance)

@ SSSF
Introducing Liquid at the middle of
rectifying column is more efficient.

Cool

## Consider two cross-sections pp and qq

very close to eachother @SSSF.
mvp mLp = mvq mLq
Let cv and cL Concentration of B in
vapour and liquid, respectively.
Hence, at section pp, net mass of B going
upwards is:

Heat

## mvcv mLcL = mc (assume)

c combined concentration of B in
section pp

84

## Rectification (Mass Balance)

@ SSSF
At the entrance of the dephlegmator, in
section aa,

Cool

## Total mass balance is given by:

mva mLa = m3 = m (assume)
And, mass balance of B is:
m3c3 = mvacva mLacLa = mca (assume)
KNOWN m3 = m

Heat

KNOWN c3 = ca = c
m and c are mass flow and concentration
of vapour to the Condenser.

85

## Rectification (Energy Balance)

@ SSSF
Let h be the enthalpy of mass through
section pp,

Cool

## Hence, enthalpy of the mass crossing

section pp in the upward direction is:
mvhv mLhL = mh (assume)
We know that, at section pp, net mass of B
going upwards is:

Heat

## mvcv mLcL = mc (assume), and

mv mL = m = constant

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@ SSSF

## Point 3 in the h-c diagram satisfies the

above equation as seen from the similar
triangles Lev and Lf3.
For any section of the rectifier the L and V
line should extend to meet other lines at 3.
As the Vapour rises Conc. Of B increase
Hence, line 3vL will swing anti-clockwise
until 33f is reached.

87

## Rectification (Mass Balance)

@ SSSF
Introducing Liquid at the middle of
rectifying column is more efficient.

Cool

## Consider two cross-sections pp and qq

very close to eachother @SSSF.
mvp mLp = mvq mLq

Heat

## Let cv and cL Concentration of B in

vapour and liquid, respectively.
Hence, at section pp, net mass of B going
upwards is:
mvcv + mLcL = mc (assume)
c combined concentration of B in
section pp

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@ SSSF

bb,

Cool

## Total mass balance is given by:

mLb mvb = m2 (moving downwards)
And, mass balance of B is:
m2c2 = mLbcLb + mvbcvb

Heat

KNOWN m2
KNOWN c2 = cb
m and c are mass flow and concentration
of weak solution leaving generator.

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## Rectification (Energy Balance)

@ SSSF
Let h be the enthalpy of mass through
section pp,

Cool

## Hence, enthalpy of the mass crossing

section pp in the downward direction is:
mLhL mvhv = m2h (assume)
We know that, at section pp, net mass of B
going downwards is:

Heat

## mLcL mvcv = m2c2 , and

mL mv = m2 = constant

90

@ SSSF

## Point 2 in the h-c diagram satisfies the

above equation as seen from the similar
triangles vxL and vy2.
Hence, h = h2
For any section of the rectifier the L and V
line should extend to meet other lines at 2.
As the weak solution falls Conc. of B
decreases
Hence, line 2Lv will swing anti-clockwise
towards 22y.

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

91

Rectification process

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

92

Rectification process
Combining
Vapour leaving
generator travels up
and gets purified to 3.
This vapour continues
and gets purified to
state 3 in
dephlegmator.
Strong solution enters at
state 1 and mixed with
liquid leaving the
middle column.

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

93

Rectification process
Combined Process
Total Mass balance:
m1 = m2 + m3
Mass balance of B:
m1c1 = m2c2 + m3c3
Energy balance:
Ein = Eout (@SSSF)
Ein = m1h1 + qG
Ein = m2h2 + m3h3 + qD
Combining all
Equations, we get:

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

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Rectification process

## Line P1P2 is the Principle Operating Line

The POL passes through state 1 (strong
solution entering the rectifying column.
Also, T3 = T1 + 5 C T1 + 8 F

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

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Problem #7
The following data are known for an absorption refrigeration system.
Condensing pressure 200 psia
Evaporator pressure 30 psia
Generator temperature 240 F
Temperature of vapour leaving dephlegmator 130 F
Ambient temperature 79 F
Temperature of Strong solution entering column 200 F.
The temperature of liquid leaving the condenser is reduced 10 F in the heat exchanger.
Assume equilibrium (saturated) conditions for the states 7, 9, 10, 1, 2 and 6. Neglect
pressure drop in components and lines. Assume that the system produces 100 tons of
refrigeration. Determine
a. Thermodynamic properties p, T, x and h for all the state points of the system.
b. The mass flow rates in lbm/min for all parts of the system.
c. Horsepower required for the pump if the mechanical efficiency is 75 %.
d. System COP
e. System refrigeration efficiency
f. Compare COP of the cycle with that of the theoretical sycle.
g. Energy balance for the entire system in Btu/min.
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Problem #7 Figure

## Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University

97

Problem 8
Design the combined generator + rectifier + dephlegmator
unit for the aqua-ammonia system shown in Figure P8. The
properties of a few state points are shown below. The
refrigeration required is 10 Tons. The residual heat from the
mixture of weak water solutions coming out of the two
rectifiers is used to heat the strong mixture in a heat
exchanger (HX) before getting further heated in the
generator. Carry out an energy audit for the system. 1 Ton =
12000 Btu/h. Neglect pump work.

98

Problem 8

99