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7.

0 QUESTION AND DISCUSSION


(1) Give two (2) methods to draw the structural geology data and discuss based on what situation we choose
that method
(each method).

a)

Cross Section Techniques


This kind of technique is generated from geological maps and can be seen as vertical slices

through a map area showing a profile view of subsurface structure. Cross-sections are either trial sections,
drawn to solve structural problems, or are drawn to supplement a fair copy map or illustrate a report. They
are also drawn to site boreholes in the search for a lost aquifer or ore body. The geological cross sections
drawing are not a small or trivial undertaking and methods for their generation have become sophisticated.
This is because we are trying to make interpretations about the geometry of features (e.g. bedding, faults) at
depth on the basis of surface geometries. Some aid in this regards may exist in the form of borehole or
geophysical data. However, this is often the exception and skills should be tuned for cross section
construction without such subsurface information.

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A cross section of the map


b)

Dip and strike of a bedding plane

Streonet Techniques
In this technique, all circles on the sphere plot as circles on the plane, making it easier to

construct the projection. The projection is conformal, meaning that angles and small shapes on the sphere
project are true on the plane. Each projection represents the important data in the map so the contour can be
made. Small regions on the sphere project true on the plane, making the stereographic a good map
projection for small areas, but radial distortion increases away from the tangency point.

(2) Explain the type of geological structure plotted in the stereonet with the aid of diagram.

According to the geological structure that has been plotted in this experiment by the stereonet, we
can determine the earth geographysuch as the hill, mountain and many other earth surface that represent by
the contour. There are several datas that required in this experiment such as the dip directions and dip
angles in the geological map. It can be plotted on polar stereonet which dip direction and dip degree is being
used. In this experiment, we have 120 datas to be plotted. Using the tracing paper, we have plotted 120
dotes on it which is requires focus on the plotting work or else the result will be slightly unaccurate base on
the datas. After the datas were plotted, there are groups of plotted dotes then calculated. After that, another
tracing paper was used to plot the contour. By using this kind of plotting contour method, the slope stability
and the failure of slope can be determined. The failure of slope is whether planar, wedge, circular or toppling.

(3) Explain the methodology to determine the discontinuities survey data.


Discontinuities can be defined as any form of mechanical breaks or fractures within a rock mass
which can cause tensile strength across the fracture planes to approach zero or even lower. To determine the
discontinuities survey data, we need to collect some data and assuming some parameters in order to
measure he discontinuities. To collect such data, the best tool is the geological compass. Collecting datas by
using geological compass is a better method because it can save a lot of time while using other method that
wasting much time on calculation to find the data needed. There are another kind of method to determine the
discontinuities which called Scanline Survey. Before conducting this job, there is some preliminary
preparation before we do the right procedure smoothly. The discontinuities survey data sheet is prepared
which is containing all of the data that we need to measure on the site.