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THE REVOLT OF 1857
The revolt of 1857 is also called the Sepoy munity.
This is the result of a large number of years of suppression
and adverse affects of British rule in India.
All the sections of society including rulers of Indian states,
sepoys, zamindars, peasants, traders, artisans, pundits,
maulvis, etc. have participated in the revolt.
(You might have seen the revolts in the National and
International level. Every revolt is a result of a suppressed
frustration over a period of time. Now let us try to learn the
causes for the 1857 revolt).
CAUSES OF THE REVOLT:

There are various causes for the revolt of 1857. They


are
Political
Economic
Administrative
Military
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Socio-religious
Influence of outside events.
Let us learn each one in detail.

POLITICAL CAUSES:
With the Dalhousie's "doctrine of lapse" theory, satara was
annexed by the British in 1848.
Later Nagpur in the year 1854 and the Jhansi in the year 1853
were annexed to the British power.
The king of Tanjavoure and Nawabs of surat and Karnataka
were snatched off their titles by the British forces.
Nana saheb was denied pension by the British.
In 1849 Mughal emporer Bhadurshah was ordered to vacate the
Redfort of Delhi.
In 1853 Lord Canning has issued an order of not considering
Mughal Kings and their successors as the Princes.
ECONOMIC CAUSES:
British have started imposing a very high taxation on the
farmers.
This heavy taxation led them towards poverty.
India was used as a raw material supplier.
The country was converted into a colonial economy by the
British.
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The small scale and cottage industries of India were closed


because of the in ability to fight the machine made goods from
Europe.
Zamindars lost their rights over their estates.
ADMINISTRATIVE CAUSES:
Rampant corruption in the Company's administration, especially
among the police, petty officials and lower law courts, and the
absentee sovereignty ship character of British rule imparted a
foreign and alien look to it in the eyes of Indians.
Indians had to pay a large amount in the form of land tax. i.e,,
the tenants' rights were not protected.
Importance was given to commercial crops neglecting the food
crops.
MILITARY CAUSES:
Soldiers were not provided the minimum facilities.
The 1854 post offices act has withdrawn the postal facilities
given to the soldiers.
Soldiers had to work in other countries.
This led to spread of discontent among the Hindus who believed
that crossing seas will lead to losing their religion.
The soldiers of Sindh and Punjab who were asked to work
outside the country were denied the "Bhatta".
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Soldiers had to use the rifles coated with the fat of cow and pig.
This has sparked the revolt.
SOCIORELIGIOUS CAUSES:
Sati and child marriage abolition acts were implemented.
Widow Remarriage act was enacted.
Western education was introduced.
Government proposed to bring uniform civil code incorporating
all the religions into it.
INFLUENCE OF OUTSIDE EVENTS:
The revolt of 1857 coincided with certain outside events in
which the British suffered serious losses.
The First Afghan War (1883-42).
The Punjab Wars (1845-49).
The Crimean Wars (1854-56).
The Santhal rebellion (1855-57).
All these had obvious psychological repercussions.
SOME IMPORTANT REVOLTS BEFORE THE 1857 REVOLT:
SAWANTHAWADI REVOLT:
This was led by a Maratha chief Sawanth in the year 1844.
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The revolt involved occupying the British forts.

FARAIZI MOVEMENT:
This movement resulted in East Bengal under the leadership of
Haji Shariatulla.
His son Dudumia also participated in the movement.
He converted the movement into an armed struggle.
Dudumia died fighting in 1862 after that the revolt subsided.
SANYASI REBELLION (1780-1800):
This was a movement by some Sanyasis of Bengal.
This movement was against the attitude of the British during the
time of famine.
In Bengal these sanyasis took up looting of factories and
Khazana of the company.
This movement was suppressed by Waren Hastings.
GANJAM REVOLT:
In the year 1935 in Ganjam district (Odisha) under the
leadership of Dhanjawagh the revolt took place.
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VELU THAMPI REVOLT:


Velu Thampi was the Diwan of Travancore in Kerala.
During the period 180809 British had suspended his dewani.
As a result this he organized this movement.
POLIGARS REVOLT:
During the period 184647 Poligars of Kurnool had revolted
under the leadership of Narasimha Reddy against British.
This revolt is the outcome of the British policy of not granting
pension.

KUKA REBELLION:
In the beginning this was a religious movement.
Later it took the form of a political movement.
This emerged in the year 1840 in West Punjab under the
leadership of Bhagat Jawahar Mall or Siyan Saheb.
This is also considered as a Sikh religious reform movement.
WAHABI MOVEMENT:
The primary objective of this movement was the reform of
Muslim religion.
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This movement was initiated by Abdul Wahab.


Later it got prominence under the leadership of Syed Ahmad
Khan.

Most of these revolts were local in character and were organised


on a small scale.
But they motivated people towards a larger movement The
1857 Sepoy Mutiny".
BEGINNING AND SPREAD OF 1857 REVOLT:
The revolt began at Meerut.
This is located 58 km away from Delhi.
The revolt began on May 10, 1857.
Then the revolt embraced a vast area from the Punjab in the
north and the Narmada in the south to Bihar in the east and
Rajputana in the west.
Even before the Meerut incident, there was resentment in
various cantonments.
The 19th Native Infantry at Berhampur, which refused to use
the newly introduced Enfield rifle and broke out in mutiny in
February 1857.
A young sepoy of the 34th Native Infantry, Mangal Pande,
fired at the sergeant major of his unit at Barrackpore.
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The 7th Awadh Regiment which defied its officers on May 3


met with a similar fate.
On April 24 at Meerut the sepoy refused to accept the greased
cartridges.
On May 10, they announced the revolt.
They set off for Delhi and killed their own European officers
including Simon Fraser, the political agent, and seized the
city.
The aged and powerless Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed
the emperor of India.
Delhi became the centre of the Great Revolt.
Benga,l Awadh,, Rohilkhand, the Doab, the Bundelkhand,
central India, large parts of Bihar and East Punjab
participated.
The peasantry, the artisans, shopkeepers, day laborers,
zamindars, religious mendicants, priests and civil servant
participated in the revolt.
Within a month of the capture of Delhi, the revolt spread to
different parts of the country.

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LEADER OF REVOLT

PLACE BRITISH OFFICER


WHO RECAPTURED

General Bhakt Khan

Delhi

Begum Hazrat Mahal

Lucknow Sir Collin Campbell

Nana Saheb

Sir Collin Campbell

Kanpur

John Nicolson

Jhansi Laxmi Bai Jhansi

Sir Hugh Rose

Jhansi Laxmi Bai Gwalior

Sir Huge Rose

Khan Bahadur Khan

Baraili

Kunwar Singh

Col.Neil

Bihar

Col.Neil

CAUSES OF FAILURE OF THE REVOLT:


The revolt was restricted to only few places.
South India was largely absent in the revolt.
Scindhia of Gwalior, Holker of Indore, rulers of Sindh and
Patiala, King of Kashmir and the king of Nepal did not
participate in the revolt.
The educated middle class people were far away from the
movement.
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The revolt started at different times in different parts of the


country.
The mutiny did not have a single powerful leader to control and
lead struggle.
The leaders were concentrating on their individual interests
rather than a group interest or common interest.
The British were more powerful with modern weapons,
communication systems like telecom.
CONSEQUENCES:
The revolt of 1857 marks a turning point in the history of India.
It led to changes in the system of administration are the policy
of the Government.
The company rule was abolished.
The direct responsibility for the administration of the country
was assumed by the British Crown.
The assumption of the Government of India by the sovereign of
Great Britain was announced by Lord Canning at a durbar at
Allahabad and the 'Queen's Proclamation' issued on November
1, 1858.
The era of annexations and expansion came to an end.
The British promised to respect the dignity and rights of the
native princes.
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The Indian states were henceforth to recognize the paramount of


the British Crown and were to be treated as parts of a single
charge.
The Army, which was at the forefront of the outbreak, was
thoroughly reorganized.
The British military policy came to be dominated by the idea of
"division and counterpoise".
Racial hatred and suspicion between the Indians and the English
was aggravated.

RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL REFORMS MOVEMENTS IN


INDIA:
The dawn of the nineteenth century witnessed the birth of a
new vision.
The process of reawakening, sometimes, defined as the
'Renaissance' gained importance.
The impact of the British rule on the Indian society and
culture was widely different from what India had known
before.
Most of the earlier intruders who came to India had settled
within the Indian frontiers.
They absorbed by the superior culture and became a part of
the land and its people.
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However, the British conquest was different.


It came at a time when India presented the picture of a
stagnant civilization and a static and decadent society.
Indian society in the nineteenth century was caught in
religious superstitions and social obscurantism.
Hinduism became a compound of magic, animism and
superstition.
Social conditions were equally depressing.
The most distressing was the position of women.
Women when their husbands died were expected to commit
sati.
The child marriages and illiteracy marked the Indian life.
The impact of modern Western culture and consciousness of
defeat by a foreign power gave birth to a new awakening.
During the last decades of the nineteenth century, the rising
tide of nationalism and democracy also found expression in
movements to reform and democratize the social institutions
and religious outlook of the Indian people.
SOCIAL REFORMS:
ABOLITION OF SATI:
This was influenced by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
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The Government declared the practice of Sati or the burning


alive of windows illegal and punishable by criminal courts as
culpable homicide.
The regulation of 1829 was applicable in the first instance to
Bengal Presidency alone.
FEMALE INFANTICIDE:
The practice of killing the female infants immediately after
birth was common among upper class Bengalis and Rajputs
who considered females to be an economic burden.
The Bengal regulations of 1795 and 1804 declared infanticide
illegal.
The Act that was passed in 1870 made it compulsory for
parents to register the birth of all babies.
WINDOW REMARRIAGE:
The Brahmo Samaj had the issue of window remarriage high
on its agenda.
Due to the efforts of Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
(1820-91), the principal of Sanskrit College, Calcutta, the
Hindu Windows Remarriage Act, 1856 was passed by the
Government.
Vishnu Shastri Pandit founded the Widow Remarriage
Association in the 1850s.
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Karsondas Mulji started the Satya Prakash in Gujarati in 1852


to advocate widow remarriage.
CHILD MARRIAGE:
The first Legislation prohibiting child marriage took place in
the year 1872.
The Sarada Act (1930) pushed up the marriage age to 18 and
14 for boys and girls respectively.
In free India, the Child Marriage Restraint (Amendment) Act,
1978 raised the age of marriage for girls from 15 to 18 years
and for boys from 18 to 21.
EDUCATION OF WOMEN:
The Christian missionaries were the first to set up the
Calcutta Female Juvenile Society in 1819.
The Bethune School, founded by J.E.D. Pandit Ishwar
Chandra Vidyasagar is considered one of the pioneers of
women's education.
Charles Wood's Dispatch on Education (1854) laid great
stress on the need for female education.
The Indian Women's University was started by Professor
Karve in 1916.
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SOCIAL CULTURAL REFORM MOVEMENTS AND THEIR


LEADERS:
RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY AND BRAHMO SAMAJ:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy is considered to be the father of Indian
Renaissance.
Brahmo Samaj was established by him was the earliest
reform movement of the modern type.
He put his faith in monotheism (Belief in single God).
He wrote Gift to Monotheists (1809) and translated into
Bengali.
Precepts of Jesus was written by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in
the year 1820.
The Vedas and the five Upanishads to prove his conviction
that ancient Hindu texts support monotheism.
In the year 1814, he set up Atmiya Sabha in Calcutta to
campaign against idolatry, caste rigidities, meaningless rituals
and other social ills.
He founded the Brahmo Sabha (later renamed Brahmo
Samaj) in order to institutionalize his ideas and mission.
Roy was a crusader against the inhuman practice of sati.
His efforts were rewarded by the Government regulation in
1829 which declared the practice of sati a crime.
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He supported David Hare's efforts to found the Hindu College


in 1817.
In 1825, he established a Vedanta college where courses in
both Indian learning and Western social and physical sciences
were offered.
He knew more than a dozen languages including Sanskrit,
Persian, Arabic, English, French, Latin Greek and Hebrew.
Roy was an internationalist.
He stood for cooperation of thought and activity and
brotherhood among nations.
Roy had David Hare, Alexander Duff, Debendranath Tagore,
P.K.Tagore, Chandrashekhar Deb and Tarachand Chakraborty
as associates.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Sabha in August
1828.
It was later renamed Brahmo Samaj.
The long-term agenda of the Brahmo Samaj is to purify
Hinduism and to preach monotheism.
The monotheism was based on the twin pillars of reason and
the Vedas and upanishads.
Maharshi Debendranath Tagore (1817-1905), father of
Rabindranath Tagore joined the Samaj in 1842.
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Earlier, Tagore headed the Tattvabodhini Sabha which was


founded in 1839 along with its organ Tattvabodhini Patrika in
Bengali.
Debendranath Tagore's Samaj came to be known as the Adi
Brahmo Samaj which is another split in Keshub's Brahmo
Samaj of India.
CONTRIBUTION OF BRAHMO SAMAJ:
This denounced polytheism and idol worship.
It discarded faith in divine avataras (incarnations).
It denied that any scripture could enjoy the status of ultimate
authority transcending human reason and conscience.
It took no definite stand on the doctrine of karma and
transmigration of soul and left it to individual Brahmos to
believe either way.
It criticised the caste system.
It condemned sati.
It worked for abolition of purdah system.
It discouraged child marriages and polygamy (More than one
marriage).
It also attacked the casteism and un-touch-ability.
PRARTHANA SAMAJ:
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In 1863, Keshub Chandra Sen helped found the Prarthana


Samaj in Bombay.
There was a four-point social agenda :
Disapproval of caste system
Women's education
Widow remarriages and
Raising the age of marriage for both males and females.
Mahadeo Govind Ranade (1842-1901), R.G.Bhandarkar
(1837-1925) and N.G.Chandavarkar (1855-1923) are the
prominent leaders of Prarthana Samaj.
YOUNG BENGAL MOVEMENT AND HENRY VIVIAN
DEROZIO (1809-31):
A young Anglo-Indian, Henry Vivian Derozio, taught at the
Hindu College from 1826 to 1831.
Drawing inspiration from the great French Revolution,
Derozio inspired his pupils to think freely and rationally,
question all authority, love, liberty Quality and freedom, and
oppose decadent customs and traditions.
He supported women's rights and education.
Derozio was perhaps the first nationalist poet of modern
India.
Derozio was removed from the Hindu College in 1831
because of his radicalism.

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Derozians lacked any real link with the masses and their
radicalism was bookish in character.
ISWAR CHANDRA VIDYASAGAR:
In the year 1850, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar became the
principal of Sanskrit College.
He opened the Sanskrit College to non-brahmins.
Vidyasagar started a movement in support of widow
remarriage.
He was also a crusader against child marriage and polygamy.
As secretary of Bethune School (established in 1849), he was
one of the pioneers of higher education for women in India.
PARAMHANSA MANDALI :
This was founded in 1849 in Maharashtra.
They were primarily interested in breaking caste rules.
These Mandalis also advocated widow remarriage and women's
education.

SATYASHODHAK SAMAJ AND JYOTIBA PHULE:


Jyotiba Phule belonged to the Mali (gardener) community.

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He organized a powerful movement against upper caste


domination and brahminical supremacy.
Phule founded the Satyashodak Samaj (Truth Seekers'
Society) in 1873.
The main aims of the movement were social service and
spread of education among women and lower caste people.
Phule's works are Savajanik Satyadharma and Gulamgiri.
THE SERVANTS OF INDIA SOCIETY:
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was a liberal leader of Indian
National Congress.
He founded the Servants of India Society in 1905.
The aim of the society was to train national missionaries for
the service of India to promote, by all constitutional means,
the true interests of the Indian people and to prepare a cadre
of selfless workers who were to devote their lives to the cause
of the country in a religious spirit.
SOCIAL SERVICE LEAGUE:
This was founded by Narayan Malhar Joshi founded in
Bombay.
Joshi also founded the All India Trade Union Congress
(1920).
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THE RAMAKRISHNA MOVEMENT:


The teachings of Ramakrishna Paramahansa (1834-86), a
poor priest at the Kali temple in Dakshineshwar, Calcutta,
formed the basis of the Ramakrishna Movement.
Devine Paramhamsa himself founded the Ramakrishna Math.
This

was

taken

up

by

Swami

Vivekananda

after

Ramakrishna's death when he founded the Ramakrishna


Mission in 1897.
The headquarters of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission is
Belur near Calcutta.

SWAMI VIVEKANANDA:
He spread Ramakrishna Paramahamsa's message.
Vivekananda advocated the doctrine of service.
At the Parliament of Religions held at Chicago in 1893,
Swami Vivekananda made a great impression on people by
his learned interpretations.
DAYANANDA SARASWATHI AND ARYA SAMAJ:
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The Arya Samaj was founded by Dayanand Saraswati.


The Arya Samaj Movement was the result of a reaction to
western influences.
The first Arya Samaj unit was formally set up by him at
Bombay in 1875 and later the headquarters of the Samaj was
established at Lahore.
Dayanand's views were published in his famous work,
Satyarth Prakash.
Dayanands slogan was 'Back to the Vedas'.
The Arya Samaj's social ideals comprise, fatherhood of God
and brotherhood of Man, eqality of all sexes, absolute justice
and fairplay between man and man and nation and nation.
The Samaj started the shuddhi (purification) movement to
reconvert to the Hindu fold the converts to Christianity and
Islam.
SEVA SADAN:
Behramji M. Malabari, founded the seva sadan in 1885.
The organization specialized in taking care of those women
who were exploited and then discarded by society.
DEVA SAMAJ:

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The Deva Samaj was founded in 1887 at Lahore by Shiv


Narain Agnihotri.
He called for an ideal social behavior such as not accepting
bribes, avoiding intoxicants and non-vegetarian food, and
keeping away from violent actions.
Its teachings were compiled in a book, Deva Shastra.
DHARMA SABHA:
Radhakant Deb founded Dharma sabha in 1830.
An orthodox society, it stood for the preservation of socioreligious matters, opposing even the abolition of sati.
However, it favoured the promotion of western education,
even for girls.
RADHASWAMI MOVEMENT:
Tulsi Ram, also known as Shiv Dayal Saheb, founded this
movement in 1861.
This sect has no belief in temples, shrines and sacred places.
It considers the movement as necessary duties, works of faith
and charity, service and prayer.
JUSTICE MOVEMENT:
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This movement was started in Madras Presidency by


C.N.Mudaliar, T.M. Nair and P. Tyagaraja.
This movement is to secure jobs and representation for
the non-brahmins in the legislature.
SELFRESPECT MOVEMENT:
The self respect movement was started by E.V.Ramaswamy
Naicker, a Balija Naidu, in the mid-1920s.
TEMPLE ENTRY MOVEMENT:
This was started by reformers like Sri Narayana Guru, N.
Kumaran Asan, T.K.Madhavan etc.
In 1924, Vaikom Satyagraha led by K.P.Kesava, launched in
Kerala demanding the throwing open of Hindu temples and
roads to the untouchables.
Again in the year 1931 when the Civil Disobedience
Movement was suspended, temple entry movement was
organized in Kerala.
WAHABI/WALLIULLAH MOVEMENT:
Shah Walliullah (1702-62) was the first Indian Muslim leader
to organize Muslims around the two-fold ideals of the
movement:
Desirability of harmony
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Recognition of the role of individual conscience in


religion.
FERAIZI MOVEMENT:
This was founded by Haji Shariat-Allahh in East Bengal.
Under the leadership of Haji's son, Dudu Mian, the movement
took the revolutionary form since 1840.
The Faraidis organized paramilitary forces and Dudu Mian
was arrested several times.
His arrest in 1847 finally weakened the movement.
The movement survived merely as a religious movement
without political overtones after the death of Dudu Mian in
1862.
AHMADIYA MOVEMENT:
This movement was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed in the
year 1889.
The movement spread western liberal education among the
Indian Muslims.
SIR SYED
MOVEMENT:

AHMED

KHAN

AND

THE

ALIGARH

A section of Muslims led by Syed Ahemd Khan was ready to


allow the official patronage to stimulate a process of growth
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among Indian Muslims through better education and


employment opportunities.
Started in Mohammedan AngloOriental College at Aligarh
in 1875.
He also struggled opposing purdah and polygamy, advocating
easy divorce, and condemning the system of piri and muridi.
Syed's progressive social ideas were propagated through his
magazine Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq.
The Aligarh Movement emerged as a liberal, modern trend
among the Muslim intelligentsia based in Mohammedan
Anglo-Oriental College, Aligarh.
It aimed at spreading modern education among Indian
Muslims, social reforms among Muslims relating to purdah,
polygamy, widow remarriage, women's education, slavery,
divorce, etc.
THE DEOBAND SCHOOL:
This was established in 1866 by Mohammad Qasim Nanotavi
(1832-80) and Rashid Ahmed Gangohi (1828-1905).
This was organized by the orthodox section among the
Muslim ulema with the twin objectives of propagating pure
teachings of the Quran and Hadis among Muslims and
keeping alive the spirit of jihad against the foreign rulers.
PARSI REFORM MOVEMENTS:
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The Rahnumai Mazdayasnan Sabha (Religious Reform


Association) was founded in 1851 by a group of English
educated Parsis.
The movement had Naoroji Furdonji, Dadabhai Naoroji,
K.R.Cama and S.S. Bengalee as its leaders.
The message of reform was spread by the newspaper Rast
Goftar (Truth-Teller).
SIKH REFORM MOVEMENTS:
The Singh Sabha Movement was founded at Amritsar in 1873
with a twofold objective, to make available modern western
education to the Sikhs and to counter the proselytizing
activities of Christian missionaries as well as Hindu
revivalists.
The Akali movement was an offshoot of the Singh Sabha
Movement.
It aimed at liberating the Sikh gurudwaras from the control of
corrupt Mahants.
THE THEOSOPHICAL MOVEMENT:
A group of westerners led by Madame H.P. Blavatsky (1831
1891) and Colonel M.S.Olcott, founded the Theosophical
Society in the United States in 1875.
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In the year 1882, they shifted their headquarters to Adayar,


Madras.
In India, the movement became somewhat popular with the
election of Annie Besant as its president after the death of
Olcott in 1907.
The Theosophical Society provided a common denominator
for the various sects and fulfilled the urge of educated
Hindus.
POSITIVE CONTRIBUTIONS:
Liberation of individual from conformity out of fear psychosis.
Worship made a more personal affair
Cultural roots to the middle classes-thus mitigating the sense of
humiliation; much needed self-respect gained.
Fastered secular outlook
Encouraged social climate for modernisation.
Ended India's cultural, intellectual isolation from rest of the
world
Evolution of national consciousness.
NEGATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS:
Narrow social base
Indirectly encouraged mysticism
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Over emphasis on religious, philosophical aspects of culture


while under emphasizing secular and moral aspects
Hindus confined their praise to ancient Indian history and
Muslims to medieval historycreated a notion of two separate
people and increased communal consciousness
Historical process of evolution of composite culture arrested to
some extent.

TRIBAL AND PEASANT MOVEMENTS:

As many as 70 revolts have been listed in the period 17781947.


The tribal rebellions were sparked off by a number of factors.
The most important cause was concerned with the tribal lands
or forests.
Shifting cultivation in forests was curbed and this added to
the tribals' problems.
Exploitation by the police, traders and money lenders
aggravated their sufferings.
The tribal were also inspired by the socio-religious reform
activities raging all over the country.
SOME IMPORTANT TRIBAL MOVEMENTS:
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PAHARIYAS' REBELLION:
The British expansion on the Pahariyas territory led to an
uprising by the martial Pahariyas of the Raj Mahal Hills in 1778.
The British were forced to declare their territory as damni-kol
area.
CHUAR UPRISINGS:
The sufferings caused by famine, led to an uprising by the
Chuar aboriginal tribesmen in 1776.
KOL UPRISINGS (1831):
The Kols of Chhotanagpur resented the extension of British rule
in their areas.
HO AND MUNDA UPRISINGS:
The Raja of Parahat organized the tribals to revolt against the
occupation of Singhbhum.
The revolt continued till 1827.
In 1899-1900, Mundas in the region south of Ranchi rose under
Birsa Munda.
The rebellion that began as a religious movement gathered
political force to fight against introduction of feudal, zamindari
tenures, and exploitation by money lenders and forest
contractors.
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Birsa was captured and imprisoned.


KHOND UPRISINGS:
From the year 1837 to 1856, the Khonds of the hilly tracts
extending from Tamil Nadu to Bengal revolted.
Chakra Bisoi led the Khonds.
KONDA DORA CAMPAIGN:
Korra Mallaya, who claimed to be a Pandava avatar with
magical power started this campaign.
BHIL REVOLTS:
The Bhils who lived in the Western Ghats revolted against
Company rule in 1817-19.
BHUYAN AND JUANG REBELLION:
The revolt in Kheonihar (Orissa) of the Bhuyans who were
joined by the Kals was to protest against the installation of a
British rule.
The first uprising of 1867-68 took place under the leadership
Ratna Nayak.
The second uprising of 1891-93 under Dharni Dhar Nayak
forced the king to take protection Cuttack.
THE BASTAR REVOLT:
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The rebellion in the Jagdalpur region in 1910 caused by new


feudal and forest levied very violent with attacks on
communication services police and schools.
TANA BHAGAT MOVEMENTS:
The movements led by Tana Bhagat, Balram Bhagar.
The other bhagats converged to form the Tana Bhagat
movement preached that God's benevolent delegate would arrive
to free the tribal.
It was aimed at tribal reform and expulsion of outsiders.
RAMPA REVOLT:
This was launched by Alluri Sitarama Raju.
The region of Rampa, north of Godavari under Alluri Sitarama
Raju was quelled in 1924 by the Government after a lot of
effort.
PEASANT STRUGGLES:
The Indian agrarian system was forced to undergo many
changes under the British.
The 'reforms' created new land tenures.
The peasants were the sufferers.

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Peasants uprising in the 19th century were the protests against


evictions, increase in rents of land, and the moneylenders'
greedy attitude.
THE PAGAL PANTHIS:
This is a semi-religious group constituting the Hajong and Garo
tribes of Bengal.
This was founded by Karam Shah.
The aim is to fight against the oppression of the zamindars.
MOPLAH UPRISINGS:
Hike in land revenue and reduction of field size, suppression of
officials, resulted in unrest among the Moplahs of Malabar
between 1836 and 1854.
INDIGO REVOLT (185960):
The European indigo planters compelled the tenant farmers to
grow indigo at terms highly disadvantageous to the farmers.
The indigo movement was led by Digambar and Bishnu Biswas.
The factories were burnt down to take control of the situation.
The Government set up an indigo commission in 1860.
PABNA AGRARIAN RIOTS:

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In May 1873, an agrarian league was formed in the yusufshahi


pargana of Pabna district to organize mass meetings and a rent
strike.
The movement spread under the leadership of Shah Chandra
Roy, Shambhu Pal and Khoodi Mollah and others.
CHAMPARAN SATYAGRAHA:
The exploitation of peasants of Champaran (Bihar) by the
European indigo planters who forced the farmers to adopt the
tinkathia system and to pay increased rents and other dues
brought Gandhi to the assistance of the peasants.
With the help of Rajendra Prasad and others the champaran
satyagraha was launched
Gandhi encouraged the peasants to offer Satyagraha.
The Champaran Agrarian Act finally abolished the tinkathia
system and compensated the peasants for the raised dues
imposed on them.
THE KHEDA SATYAGRAHA:
The crop failures and ignored appeals for remission of land
revenue were the reasons for the Kheda or Kaira compaign in
Gujarat in 1918.
The peasants, guided by Gandhi, refused to pay revenue.
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The peasants offered Satyagraha.


The Government finally agreed to fulfill the peasants' demands.

BARDOLI SATYAGRAHA:
This is a no-revenue campaign.
This was organized by the Mehta brothers with Vallabhbhai
Patel's support when the Bombay Government increased
revenue by 22 per cent even after a decline in prices of cotton.

CASTE MOVEMENTS:
SATYASHODHAK

MOVEMENT,

Satyashodak

Samaj,

founded by Jyotiba Phule (1873); Maharashtra)


ARAVIPPURAM MOVEMENT, led by Shri Narayana Guru
(1888; Kerala)
JUSTICE PARTY MOVEMENT led by Dr T.M. Nair, P.
Tyagaraja Chetti and C.N.Mudalair on behalf of intermediate
castes (1916;Madras)
NAIR MOVEMENT led by C.V.Raman Pillai, K. Rama
Krishna Pillai, and M.Padmanabha Pillai (1891; Kerala)

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SELF-RESPECT MOVEMENT led by E.V.Ramaswami


Naicker or Periyar (1925; Tamil Nadu)
NADAR MOVEMENT by the untouchable Shanans who
imitated the kshatriya customs to emerge as the Nadars (Tamil
Nadu).
THE DEPRESSED CLASSES (MAHARS) MOVEMENT
led by B.R. Amebedkar (1924;Maharashtra).
CONGRESS HARIJAN MOVEMENT (1917 onwards)
KAIVARTAS' MOVEMENT by kaivartas who later became
the Mahishyas (1897 onwards; Midnapore, Bengal).

PEASANT MOVEMENTS:
TITU MIR'S MOVEMENT, startedunder leadership of Mir
nathar Ali or Titu Mir (1782-1831)in Bengal.
PAGAL PANTHIS MOVEMENT of the Hajong and Garo
tribes under the leadership of Karam Shah and Tipu Shah (18251835; Mymensingh district, earlier in Bengal)
MOPLAH UPRISINGS (1836-1854; Malabar)
INDIGO REVOLT by Bengal indigo cultivators led by
Digambar and Bishnu Biswas (1859-1860; Ndia district)
DECCAN PEASANTS' UPRISING by the Maratha peasants
(1875;Kardeh village and Poona in Maharashtra)

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PHADKE'S RAMOSI UPRISING by Ramosi peasants led by


Wasudeo Balwant Phadke (1877-1887; Maharashtra)
PABNA AGRARIAN UPRISING led by Shah Chandra Roy,
Shambhu Pal, Khoodi Mollah and supported by B.C. Chatterjee
and R.C.Dutt (1873; Pabna district, East Bengal, now in
Bangladesh)
PUNJAB PEASANT'S REVOLT (during the last decade of the
19th century, Punjab)
CHAMPARAN SATYAGRAHA by peasants of Champaran
(1917;Bihar)
KHEDA SATYAGRAHA by peasants of Kheda, led by Gandhi
(1918;Gujarat)
BARDOLI SATYAGRAHA by the Kunbi-Patidar land-owning
peasants and untouchables, supported by Mehta brothers,
Vallabhbhai Patel (1928; Surat, Gujarat)
EKA MOVEMENT by members of Pasi and Ahir castes (192122; Hardoi, Barabanki and Sitapur districts)
BAKASHT MOVEMENT (1936; Bihar)
TEBHAGA MOVEMENT by poor peasants and tenants and
bargardars or share-croppers (Bengal)
TELANGANA INSURRECTION (1946-51; Hyderabad)

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THE BEGINNING OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT:


Causes for growth of Nationalism: Worldwide upsurge of the concepts of nationalism and right
of self-determination initiated by the French Revolution.
Indian Renaissance.
Offshoot of modernisation initiated by the British in India.
Strong reaction of British imperialist policies in India.
Other Factors In Growth Of Modern Nationalism:
People were realized that colonial rule was the major cause of
India's economic backwardness.
Political, Administrative and Economic unification of the
country should be done to save the nation from the British
clutches.
The British created a unified large state than that of the
Mauryas or the great Mughals.
The British imposed political unity in India.
A professional civil service, a unified judiciary and codified
civil and criminal laws imparted a new dimension of political
unity.
Western Thought and Education:
The introduction of a modern system of education afforded
opportunities for assimilation of modern western ideas.
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The liberal and radical thought of European writers helped


many Indians imbibe modern rational, secular, democratic
and nationalist ideas.
The English language helped nationalist leaders from
different linguistic regions to communicate with each other.
Role of Press and Literature:
The second half of the nineteenth century saw growth of
Indian owned English and vernacular newspapers.
It

helped

spread

modern

ideas

of

self-government,

democracy, civil rights and industrialization.


Rediscovery of India's Past:
The historical researches by European and Indian scholars
created an entirely new picture of India's past.
This gave a psychological boost to the educated Indians.
The self-respect and confidence so gained helped the
nationalists to demolish colonial myths that India had a long
history of servility to foreign rulers.
Socio-religious Reform Movements:
The socio religious movements sought to remove social evils
that divided the Indian society.
Rise of Middle Class Intelligentsia:
The middle class provided
movement.

leadership to

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Impact of Contemporary Movements Worldwide:


Rise of a number of nations on the ruins of Spanish and
Portuguese empires in South America, and the national
liberation movements of Greece and Italy in general and of
Ireland in particular deeply influenced the Nationalist ranks.
Reactionary Policies and Racial Arrogance of Rulers:
Lytton's reactionary policies such as reduction of maximum
age limit for the I.C.S. examination from 21 years to 19 years
(1876), the grand Delhi Durbar of 1877 when the country was
in the severe grip of famine, the Vernacular Press Act (1878)
and the Arms Act (1878) provoked a storm of opposition in
the country.
Political Associations before the formation of Indian National
Congress:
The Bangabhasha Prakasika Sabha
This was formed in 1836 by associates of Raja Rammohan
Roy.

The Zamindari Association:


This is popularly known as 'Landholders' Society.
It was founded to safeguard the interests of the landlords.
This marked the beginning of an organized political activity
and use of methods of constitutional agitation for the
reddresal of grievances.
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The Bengal British India Society:


It was founded in the year 1843.
British Indian Association:
In the year 1851, both the Landholders Society and the
Bengal British India Society merged into the British Indian
Association.
The East India Association:
This is organized by Dadabhai Naoroji in 1866 in London.
This is to discuss the Indian question and influence of public
men in England to promote Indian Welfare.
The Indian League:
It was started in the year 1875 by Sisir Kumar Ghosh
simulating the sense of nationalism amongst the people and
of encouraging political education.
The Indian Association of Calcutta:
It was founded in 1876 by Surendranath Banerjea and Ananda
Mohan Bose.
This is considered to be the most important association of the
pre-Congress association.
The Indian association aimed to
Create a strong public opinion on political questions
Unify Indian-people on a common political programme.
The Poona Sarvajanik Sabha:
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It was founded in the year 1867 by Mahadeo Govind Ranade


and others.
The main purpose is to serve as a bridge between the
government and the people.
The Bombay Presidency Association:
It was started by Badruddin Tyabji, Pherozshah Mehta and
K.T.Telang in 1885.
The Madras Mahajan Sabha:
It was founded in 1884 by M.Viraraghavachari, B.
Subramaniya Aiyer and P.Ananda charlu.
EMERGENCE OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS:
Indian National Congress was founded by A.O. Hume in the
year 1885.
The first meeting was held in Bombay.
A.O. Hume a retired English civil servant mobilized leading
intellectuals of the time and with their cooperation organized
the first session of the Indian National Congress at Bombay
in December 1885.
Surendranath Banerjea and Ananda Mohan Bose were the
main architects of the Indian National Conference.
The first session of the Indian National Congress was
attended by 72 delegates.
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The first session was presided over by Womesh Chandra


Bennerje.
The Congress met every year in December, in a different part
of the country each time.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL
CONGRESS:
To educate the people politically.
To establish the headquarters for a movement.
To promote friendly relations among nationalist political
workers from different parts of the country.
To develop and propagate an anti-colonial nationalist ideology.
To formulate and present popular demands before the
Government with a view to unifying the people over a common
economic and political programme.
To develop and consolidate a feeling of national unity among
people irrespective of religion, caste or province.
To carefully promote and nurture Indian nationhood.
Safety Valve Theory:
Hume formed the Congress with the idea that it would prove
to be a 'safety valve for releasing the growing discontent of
the Indians.
Lord Dufferin was the Viceroy at that time.
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Modern Indian historians disputed the idea of 'safety valve'.


In the opinion of the industrialists the Indian National
Congress represented the urge of the politically conscious
Indians to set up a national body to express the political and
economic demands of the Indians.
Some observed that early Congress leaders used Hume as a
'lightning conductor'
PHASE OF MODERATES (1885-1905):
The national leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozshah
Mehta, D.E.Wacha, W.C.Bonnerjea, S.N.Banerjea were the
staunch believers in 'liberalism' and 'moderate' politics.
The moderate political activity involved constitutional
agitation within the confines of law and showed a slow but
orderly political progress.
Public demands to be presented to the Government through
resolutions, petitions, meetings.
The Moderate leaders believed that political connections with
Britain were in India's interest.
Contributions of Moderate Nationalists:
Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C.Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha and others, put
forward the "drain theory" to explain British exploitation of
India.
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They opposed the transformation of a basically self-sufficient


Indian economy into a colonial economy.
The early nationalists demanded reduction in land revenue,
abolition of salt tax, improvement in working conditions of
plantation labour, reduction in military expenditure and
encouragement to modern industry through tariff, protection
and direct government aid.
Constitutional Reforms and Propaganda in Legislature:
From the year 1885 to 1892, the nationalist demanded
For the expansion of councils i.e. greater participation of
Indians in councils.
To reform the councils i.e., more powers to councils,
especially greater control over finances.
Their demands for constitutional reforms were conceded in
1892 in the form of the Indian Council Act.
Later they demanded
A majority of elected Indians in the council and control over
the budget.
They gave the slogan "No taxation without representation".

INDIAN COUNCILS ACT 1892:

The main provisions of this Act were as follows.


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Number of additional members in the Imperial Legislative


Councils and the Provincial Legislative Council was raised.
In Imperial Legislative Council, now the governorgeneral
could have ten to sixteen non-officials (instead of six to ten
previously).
Some of these additional members could indirectly elected.
Thus an element of election was introduced for the first time
Budget could be discussed.
The officials retained their majority in the council, thus leaving
ineffective the non-official voice.
The reformed Imperial Legislative Council met, during its
tenure till 1909, on an average for only thirteen days in a year
and the number of unofficial Indian members present was only
five out of twentyfour.
The budget could not be voted upon, nor could any amendments
be made to it.
Supplementary questions could not be asked, nor could answers
be discussed.
NATIONAL MOVEMENT:
Growth of Militant Nationalism:
The militant nationalist approach took a concrete shape by
1905.
The reasons for the militant nationalism were:
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Recognition of the True Nature of British Rule:


The feeling that only an Indian Government could bring India
on a path of progress.
This started attracting more and more people.
Severe famines killed 90 lakh persons between 1896 and
1900.
Bubonic plague affected large areas of the Deccan.
There were large-scale riots in the Deccan.
The Acts which were opposed by people.
1892 The Indian Council Act.
1898 Repressive laws under IPC Section 124A were further
amplified with new provisions under IPC Section 156A.
1899 Number of Indian members in Calcutta Corporation were
reduced.
1904 Official Secrets Act curbed freedom of press.
1904 Indian Universities Act

Growth of Confidence and SelfRespect


Growth of Education:
The spread of education led to an increased awareness among
the masses.
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The

rise

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in

unemployment

and

poverty

and

the

underdeveloped state of the country's economy under colonial


rule.
International Influences:
The defeat of the Italian army by Ethiopians (1896), the Boer
wars (1899-1902) where the British faced reverses and
Japan's victory over Russia (1905) demolished myths of
European invincibility.
The Indians realized that a united people willing to make
sacrifices could take on the mightiest of empires.
Reaction to the increasing Westernization:
The intellectual and moral inspirations of the new leadership
were Indian.
Intellectuals like Swami Vivekananda, Bankim Chandra
Chatterjee and Swami Dayananda Saraswati inspired many
young nationalists with their forceful and articulate
arguments.
Dayanand's political message was 'India for the Indians'.
Dissatisfaction with Achievements of Moderates:

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The younger generation was strongly critical of the methods


of peaceful and constitutional agitation, popularly known as
the "Three 'P's
Prayer
Petition
Protest

Reactionary Policies of Curzon:


Lord Curzon refused to recognize India as a nation and
insulted Indian nationalists and the intelligentsia.
Administrative measures adopted during his rule include the
Official Secrets Act, the Indian Universities Act, The Calcutta
Corporation Act and The partition of Bengal.
The Swadeshi and Boycott Movement:
The Swadeshi Movement started to oppose the British
decision to partition Bengal.
The Government's decision to partition Bengal had been
made public in December 1903.
The official reason given the decision was that Bengal with a
population of 78 million had become too big to be
administered.
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The real motive behind the partition plan was the British
desire to weaken Bengal.
Bengal was the nerve centre of Indian nationalism.
Dividing Bengal
On the basis of language (thus reducing the Bengalis to a
minority in Bengal itself as the new proposal Bengal proper
was to have 17 million Bengalis and 37 million Hindu and
Oriya speakers).
On the basis of the religion, as the western half was to be a
Hindu majority area (42 million out of a total 54 million) and
the eastern half was to be a Muslim majority area.
Anti-Partition Compaign Under Moderates (1903-05):
The leadership was provided by Surendranath Banerjea,
K.K.Mitra and Prithwishchandra Ray.
The methods adopted were petitions to the Government,
public meetings, memoranda, and propaganda through
pamphlets and newspapers such as Hitabodini, Sanjibani and
Bengalee.
Objective was to exert sufficient pressure on the Government
through an educated public opinion in India.
The Government announced partition of Bengal in July 1905.
The protest meetings were held all over Bengal.
A pledge to boycott foreign goods was taken up.
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On August 7, 1905, with the passage of boycott resolution in


the formal proclamation of Swadeshi Movement was made.
October 16, 1905 the day the partition formally came into
force.
This day was observed as a day of mourning throughout
Bengal.
People throughout Bengal fasted, bathed in the Ganga and
walked barefoot in processions singing Bande Mataram.
People tied rakhis on each other's hands as a symbol of unity
of the two halves of Bengal.
Within a few hours of the meeting, Rs. 50,000/- was raised
for the movement.
The movement spread to other parts of the country.
The movement was held in Poona and Bombay under Tilak.
In Punjab it was held under Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh.
In Delhi it was under Syed Haider Raza.
In Madras it was held under Chidambaram Pillai.
Indian National Congress condemn the partition of Bengal
and the reactionary policies of Curzon, and supported antipartition and Swadeshi Movement of Bengal.
The militant nationalists led by Tilak, Lajpat Rai, Bipin
Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh a full-fledged political
mass struggle with the goal of attaining swaraj took place.
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Congress session held at Calcutta (1906) under the president


ship of Dadabhai Naoroji, declared that the goal of the Indian
National Congress was 'self-government' or swaraj.

The Movement under Militant Leadership:


After 1905, the Extremists acquired a dominant influence
over the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal.
The reasons:
The Moderate led movement had failed to yield results.
The divisive tactics of the Governments of both the west and
east Bengals had embittered the nationalists.
The Government had restored to suppressive measures like
ban on public singing of Bande Mataram and restriction on
public meetings.
The Extremists gave a call for passive resistance in addition
to swadeshi and boycott.
The passive resistance included government schools and
colleges, government service, courts, legislative councils,
municipalities, government titles, etc.
The militant nationalists tried to transform the anti-partition
and Swadeshi Movement into a mass struggle and gave the
slogan of India's independence from foreign rule.
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The militant nationalists put forward several fresh ideas at the


theoretical, propaganda and programme levels.
Boycott of foreign goods
Public meetings and processions
Samitis such as the Swadesh Bandhab Samiti of Ashwini
Kumar Dutta (in Barisal emerged as very popular and
powerful method of mass mobilisation.
Use of traditional popular festivals and melas.
Tilak's Ganapati and Shivaji festivals became a medium of
swadeshi propaganda.
Bengal National College was set up with Aurobindo
Ghosh as its principal.
On August 15, 1906, the National Council of Education
was set up to organize a system of education on national
lines.
Nationalist of all hues were written by Rabindranath
Tagore, Rajnikanth Sen, Dwijendralal Ray, Mukunda Das,
Syed Abu Mohammad and others.
Tagore's Amar Sonar Bangla written on this occasion was
later to inspire the liberation struggle of Bangladesh and
was adopted by Bangladesh as its national anthem.

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In science, Jagdish Chandra Bose, Prafulla chandra Roy


and others pioneered original research which was praised
the world over.
Mass Participation:
Students were pronounced propagate and practice swadeshi.
Women took active part in processions and picketing.
Some of the prominent Muslim leaders that participated in the
movement are barrister Abdul Rasul, Liaqat Hussain,
Guznavi, Maulana Azad.
The social base of the movement expanded to include certain
sections of the zamindari, the students, the women, and the
lower middle classes in cities and towns.
But the movement was not able to garner support of the
Muslims especially the Muslim peasantry, because of a
conscious government policy of divide and rule helped by
overlap of class and community at places.
Movements were organized in many parts of the country.
Tilak played a leading role in the spread of the movement
outside Bengal.

Annulment of Partition:
It was decided to annul the partition of Bengal in 1911.
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The decision to annul the partition was mainly to curb the


menace of revolutionary terrorism.
It was also decided to shift the capital from Calcutta to Delhi
as a sop to the Muslims.
Bihar and Orissa were taken out of Bengal and Assam was
made a separate province.
By 1908 the movement was almost over because
There was a severe government repression.
The movement was rendered leaderless.
Internal squabbles among loaders, Surat split (1907).
The movement largely remained confined to the upper and
middle classes.
Non-cooperation and passive resistance remained mere
ideas.
Differences between Moderates and Extremists
Moderates
Social basezamindars and upper middle classes in towns.
Ideological inspirationwestern liberal thought and European
history.
Believed in England's providential mission in India.
Believed political connections with Britain to be in India's
social, political and cultural interests.
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Professed loyalty to the Britaish Crown.


Believed that the movement should be limited to middle class
intelligentsia masses not yet ready for participation in political
work.
Demanded constitutional reforms and share for Indians in
services.
Insisted on the use of constitutional methods only.
They were patriots and did not play the role of a comprador
class.
Extremists:
Social base was educated middle and lower middle classes in
towns.
Ideological inspirationIndian history, cultural heritage and
Hindu traditional symbols.
Rejected 'providential mission theory' as an illusion.
Believed that political connections with Britain would
perpetuate British exploitation of India.
Believed that the British Crown was unworthy of claiming
Indian loyalty.
Had immense faith in the capacity of masses to participate and
to make sacrifices.
Demanded swaraj as the panacea for Indian ills.
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Did not hesitate to use extra constitutional methods like boycott


and passive resistance to achieve their objectives.
They were patriots who made sacrifices for the sake of the
country.

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