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1) Jefferson and the Republican Ideal

a) New tone for the fed. Gov.

i) Emphasized national unity but actions involved big changes; equality and individual freedom (white men)
ii) Didnt like social hierarchies, wanted limited government
iii) Had small dinner parties w/ assigned seating
iv) United states was becoming a Demo-Repub. government with some republican beliefs
v) Americans valued freedom and equality (republicanism allowed for citizens to relate to each other)
vi) Lack of religion hurt campaign; informal @ white house events; owned slaves but fought for freedom; wanted
small farms but grew the country----- these gained him criticism
b) Jefferson the Political Leader
i) Shrank fed. Bureaucracy while doubling land mass of USA; Small offices already, made them smaller
ii) Chopped the size of the army and kept the national bank
iii) Abolished international taxes, but kept tariffs; Liked the capital city of DC
iv) Judiciary Act of 1801- expand # of fed. JudgesREPEALED
(a) Wanted fewer judges (midnight judges- judges appointed right before Adams left)
(b) Dared the Supreme Court to declare the act unconstitutional- if they did theyd reduce their power
v) Marbury v. Madison 1803- Helped the Supreme Court get the right to be able to determine is an act is
unconstitutional or not
(a) Marbury was appointed by Adams, but they wouldnt let him have his job>> Court couldnt do
anything bc of the Judiciary Act of 1789 didnt give them the right
(b) Not given the job, party overturned Act, showed that court had authority to determine if something
was unconstitutional or not------ Judicial Review
c) Rural America and the Agrarian Ideal
i) Population (900,000 slaves but 5.3 mil people), and people moved into the newer states to the west
ii) Republican virtue in the view of equality- property qualifications to vote disappeared (70%-80% now voting)
iii) Europeans disgusted by Americans, but we thought that we were on equal footing compared to everyone else
iv) Violent place- urban riots and political arguments (fist fights) also very common in rural communities
(b) Drinking began to double- lots of intoxicated people everywhere (5 gallons per person in 1820)
(c) Interracial violence between whites and Indians plus slaves beaten, raped, and killed
(d) Family life- divorce rates went up because women refused to stay in violent of unhappy marriages
d) Jefferson the Individual
i) Debated Jeffersons personal life
ii) At Monticello he lived the good life while he had slaves do the hard work
iii) Had a relationship with Sally Hemmings, one of his slaves, and had children with her
(a) Some people didnt believe it was true bc a newspaper wrote an article about it exposing him
(b) Promised he would free her children at the age of 21
2) The Ideal of Religious Freedom
a) Letter- the wall of separation between church and state
i) Just a phrased coined by the President.
ii) People believed that politics and religion should steer clear of each other- people wanted treated equally
regardless of wealth or family
iii) When letter was written, Connecticut was the4 only state with a state-supported Church- Religious
(a) CN required citizens to pay tax to support church
(b) Amendment 1- States can do as they please in church matters
(c) Some resented paying taxes that helped a religion that some didnt support
b) The Separation of Church and States at the State Level
i) Timothy Dwight couldnt good government without a state church
ii) 1817 Oliver Wolcott opposed state church in CN and defeated a federalist for governor- CN would end
support for state churches from then on
iii) Religion still flourished but eventually church became separated fully from the state
c) New Religious Expressions
i) Church attendance was dropping after the Revolution
ii) Deists- saw God as a distant force in human affairs- people began to ignore religion
iii) Second Great Awakening started-exceeded the Great Awakening in 1740s

d) Cane Ridge and the Revivals of the Early 1800s

i) Presbyterian minister, James McGready, moved to Kentucky
(a) Basically said Kentucky was disgusting
(b) He wanted to make the people there better and was successful
ii) Revival of 1799 led to more religious gathering- one of the largest at Cane Bridge in Bourbon County
(a) 5 days, 20,000 people led by Presbyterian and Methodist ministers who preached all day
(b) Barton W. Stone described things that happened there as miracles
e) Methodists, Baptists, and Other Protestants
i) Methodists and Baptists grew the most during the revival movement- became biggest Protestant groups
ii) Methodism in America through John Wesley
(a) Founded it with his brother, Charles
(b) However Francis Asbury established American Methodism
(c) Made ministry that moved from community to community
(d) Wesley believed that people had the choice to receive salvation
(e) Typical minister was circuit rider
iii) Baptists- Largest religious body in RI, founded Brown University
(a) Different from New England counterparts- more emotional and determined to assert local authority
(b) Decentralized and split into rival groups
(c) Typical minister was a farmer-preacher who was selected to lead while he supported himself with his
own labor
iv) Both religions effective in changing religious outlooks of the country
f) Faith in the Slave Quarters and Free Black Churches
i) Southern Black Churches and Religious Organizations
(a) At religious revivals sometime racial segregation was suspended
(b) Many plantation owners organized religious services for slaves but some met in secret at night in
(c) Effective preaching involved knowing the bible by memorizing it or (rarely) reading it
(i) Worship included singing, dancing, and emotional release and renewal
(d) Denmark Vesey- free black Sunday school teacher- led slave rebellion in SC in 1822.
(e) Nat Turner- led largest slave revolt before the civil war in 1831- confirmed what others feared about
the slave religion
(f) Depended on songs that gave them hope
ii) Northern Black Churches and Religious Organizations
(a) Richard Allen- slave in Delaware that converted to Methodism who was able to buy his freedom and
begin preaching
(i) Was convinced that racially integrated churches were impossible
(ii) Created Bethel Church in Philly in 1794
(iii) African Methodist Episcopal Church- 1820 had 4,000 members in Philly and 2,000 more in
(iv) Founded one in NY as well
iii) Southern states feared rebellion and blocked independent black churches
g) American Catholic and Jewish Communities
i) Few Roman Catholics and Jews in original 13 colonies
ii) Most immigrants were Protestant except for Catholics that had a safe haven in Maryland
iii) John Carroll appointed first Catholic Bishop in 1790
(a) Based in Maryland and then promoted to Archbishop of Baltimore
(b) Worked hard to build up Catholic strength and fit into Democratic America
(c) Established 1st Catholic college at Georgetown, Maryland and a seminary in Baltimore
iv) In many places Catholics make own churches and hire priests
v) Early 1800s American Catholicism has strong leadership by the hierarchical appointment of priests
vi) Few Jews, bur some congregations and synagogues formed in several cities and took on republican sentiments
3) Beyond the Mississippi: The Louisiana Purchase and the Expedition of Lewis and Clark
a) Western regions not happy
i) Farmers west of Alleghenies found it hard to ship goods over the mountains
ii) Jefferson worried that frustrated farmers would want to form independent country- Had to do something
iii) French were the first to reach the Mississippi , but they ceded the land to Spain bc of the 7 Years War

(a) Spain restricted others from sailing the Mississippi

(b) Not really thought bc the US still shipped things down river and through the port of New Orleans
iv) Napoleon Bonaparte negotiated treaty for Spain to return the land to France
v) We wanted New Orleans
b) The Louisiana Purchase
i) Sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to France to offer $6 mil. for the city
ii) Napoleon was running out of money- slave revolts in Haiti- if France couldnt control Haiti their ports would
be useless- Offered to sell the whole middle third of the country to the USA for $15 mil.
iii) Some opposed Jeffersons purchase, but most were enthusiastic
iv) Congress made sure the treaty confirming the transfer of land was quickly ratified
v) Doubled the nations size
c) The City of New Orleans
i) Inhabitants spoke Spanish or French, but business was now conducted in English
ii) Slaves in New Orleans could do their thing and have families and money and freedom- they could gather and
dance- UNDER THE WATCHFUL EYE OF THE WHITES- made jazz music though
iii) Mixed races- faced discrimination
iv) African women had good standing and were involved in their communities
(a) Carlota dErneville- purchased her and her sons freedom- became rich enough to buy tavern & home
v) City had population of 8,000- 1/3 were free people of African origin
vi) People in new Orleans referred to citizens of US as kaintucks- tough backwoods farmers
vii) Racial diversity scared some Americans
d) The Lewis and Clark Expedition
i) Jefferson asked Congress to support and expedition to study the people, lands, and wildlife in new purchased
territory to the Pacific Ocean
ii) Led by his private secretary and an army officer; Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
iii) Make treaties with people, learn about the land and its species
iv) Lewis and Clark and their team of skilled peeps- Corps of Discovery- prepared for trip from 1803-1804 in St.
Louis (gateway to new territory)
v) May 14, 1804- COD left Illinois to travel up the Missouri River>> October- reached ND and made camp at
Mandan Indian village
(a) Their first contact with Americans- previously traded with the French
(b) Traded with them and celebrate New Years with them
vi) Toussaint Charbonneau and Sacagawea joined their expedition- ended up paying Toussaint but not Sacagawea
vii) Kept going past what they owned into Oregon and almost starved
(a) Thought the Rockys would be like the Appalachians
(b) Faced higher mountains- but bumped into Nez Perce Indians who gave them lodging and food
(c) Indian leader, Twister Hair, drew them a river system map and showed them how to make canoes
November 24, 1805- COD left horses w/ Twisted Hair and followed the map they were given
(a) Built Fort Clatsop and wintered there until March 23, 1806
(b) Made a long journey home- reached St. Louis on September 23, 1806
ix) While they were gone, other expeditions took place
(a) Zebulon Pike- Explore Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers and much of Colorado
(b) Thomas Freeman- track Red River Valley in the southern part of new territory
4) The War of 1812