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ISSN 0484-8942

REVUE -------------------------------------------------- NUMISMATIQUE


Dirige par

Secrtaires de la rdaction

Fr. Duyrat, C. Grandjean, C. Morrisson,


M. Bompaire, A. Suspne

V. Drost, J. Jambu, J. Olivier

2015

(172e volume)

Revue soutenue par lInstitut National des Sciences Humaines et Sociales


du Centre national de la recherche scientifique

---------------------------------------------------SOCIT FRANAISE DE NUMISMATIQUE


Diffusion : Socit ddition Les Belles Lettres
2015

Zeliha Demirel Gkalp*, Andrei Gandila**

A Hoard of Sixth-Century Solidi, Light-Weight Solidi


and Fractions from Gkler (Phrygia)
Summary A hoard of 6th century solidi and fractions was found in 1994 in Gkler, Turkey,
during illegal prospections with a metal detector. The hoard includes seven die-linked solidi
of Justinian, three solidi of Justin II, five solidi of Tiberius II and thirty-six solidi, semisses,
and tremisses of Maurice, many of them die-linked. The most interesting coins in the hoard are
two 23-carat light-weight solidi of Maurice. The hoard was probably concealed in the last decade
of the 6th century.
Keywords Die-link, light-weight solidus, donativa, Justinian, Maurice, Phrygia.
Rsum Un trsor de monnaies dor byzantines du vie sicle a t trouv Gkler, Turquie en
1994 au cours de prospections illgales au dtecteur de mtaux. Le trsor comprend sept solidi
de Justinien lis de coins, trois solidi de Justin II, cinq solidi de Tibre II et trente-six solidi,
semisses et tremisses de Maurice, ces derniers avec plusieurs liaisons. Les pices les plus intressantes sont les deux solidi lgers de 23 carats de Maurice. Le trsor a probablement t enfoui
pendant la dernire dcennie du vie sicle.
Mots cls Liaison de coins, solidus lger, donativa, Justinien, Maurice, Phrygie.

A hoard of early Byzantine gold coins was found in 1994 at Gkler (Ktahya
district), in the ancient province of Phrygia. Although ancient remains have
been reported in the past, no systematic excavations have been conducted so far
at Gkler.1 The modern village is located ca. 10 km east of Gediz (ancient Kadoi)
off the main highway going east to Ktahya (ancient Kotyaeion), a town with
a rich history spanning several millennia. In the same region of Kotyaeion
an early Christian church and a Byzantine fortification are currently being
excavated at Aslanapa and Simav, respectively. In addition, some 50 km southwest of Ktahya excavations are being conducted at avdarhisar (ancient Aizanoi)
where the Late Antique layers have already yielded a significant number of coins.2
Aside from 14 sixth-century gold coins with unknown provenance, the collection

*Anadolu University, Art History Department, 26470 Yunusemre Campus, Eskiehir, Turkey.
Email: zdgokalp@anadolu.edu.tr.
**University of Alabama in Huntsville, History Department, Roberts Hall, Huntsville,
AL 35899, USA. Email: andrei.gandila@uah.edu.
1.Belke, Mersich 1990, p.261.
2.Kker 2013, p.133-151.
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ZELIHA DEMIREL GKALP / ANDREI GANDILA

of the Ktahya Museum includes no less than 1250 Byzantine bronze coins,
of which 296 are sixth-century issues, most of them found on the territory of
ancient Phrygia.3
The Gkler hoard was found in circumstances unfortunately all too common
in the last decades, by illegal prospections with the metal detector. Investigations conducted by the local authorities between 1994 and 1996 have revealed
the fact that an unknown number of coins, possibly belonging to the hoard, had
been smuggled abroad and sold to a German collector.4 Although the 59 coins
(247.7g total) now in the Ktahya Museum may represent an incomplete hoard,
the selection of pieces removed from the hoard seems to have been done randomly
by the two illegal metal detectorists, who clearly knew little to nothing about
Byzantine gold coins. This explains why the treasure hunters left untouched
the most valuable coins of the hoard, the two rare and highly collectible lightweight solidi of Maurice. Moreover, the age structure of the hoard is quite typical
for accumulations closed towards the end of the sixth century, which lends
some credibility to the statistical charts proposed below.
Many of the coins are uncirculated, some still retaining the original mint luster,
although quite a few are struck with worn or even cracked dies. The average
weight of the regular solidi is 4.47g, close to the 24-carat standard, with
the heaviest weighing 4.51g and the lightest 4.31g (figure 3).5 Several coins
of Maurice have test marks on the center, a practice known from other hoards
as well (nos. 30, 38 and 45).6 The hoard covers several decades, from Justinian
to Maurice, which is common for medium-sized hoards of this period. Due to
the broad dating of solidi of Justinian and Maurice, the emperors who enjoyed
the longest reigns of the sixth-century, we are unable to determine a more precise
chronology. The actual age span of the hoard can be as short as two decades
(c. 565-585) or as long as five (c. 542-592) (figure 1).
From a numismatic perspective the hoard found at Gkler presents a number
of interesting peculiarities. The most unusual feature is the presence of seven
die-linked solidi of Justinian in a hoard concealed as late as five decades later,
towards the end of the century. The obverse portrait corresponds to MIBE 75
and 76, which Wolfgang Hahn dates to the second half of the reign. Three obverse
dies and three reverse dies were used to strike the seven coins, all from officina .
3.The coins have been studied by Zeliha Demirel Gkalp in 2013 at the Ktahya Museum.
This study was carried out under the Project no. 1208E123 submitted to Anadolu University
Council of Scientific Research Projects.
4.The authors wish to thank Recep Karaca (Ktahya Museum) for information regarding
the investigation.
5.Elaborate metrological calculations do not seem warranted for our hoard, but they have been
done with important results for larger hoards published in the past, most of them seventh-century
accumulations, such as Nikertai, Beth Shean, Limassol, Rougga, and Aydin, to name only the
most significant.
6.See for example Ahipaz 2007, p.159.
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A HOARD OF SIXTH-CENTURY SOLIDI FROM GKLER (PHRYGIA)

Emperor

Date

Solidus

23-sil. solidus

Semissis

Tremissis

319

Total

Justinian I

545-565

7/11.87%

Justin II

565-567
567-578

1
2

1
2

3/5.08%

Tiberius II

578-582

5/8.48%

582
582-583
583-602

1
8
27

1
8
36

45/76.27%

51

59

59/100%

Maurice

Total

Figure 1 - The age structure of the Gkler hoard.

22 - 23 carats


(3.92%)

Semissis Tremissis
(5.08%) (5.08%)
23-carat solidus
(3.39%)

23 - 23 carats


(19.61%)
23 - 24 carats
(76.47%)

Solidus
(86.45%)
Figure 2 - Frequency
of gold denominations.

Figure 3 - Metrology
of the regular solidi.

50
40
30
20

Afyon

Kstll

Limassol

Nikertai

Beth Shean

Bilecik

Daphne

Samos

Bakrky

Sekulica

Rougga

Thessalonica

0

Gkler

10

Figure 4 - Frequency of die-linked solidi.


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ZELIHA DEMIREL GKALP / ANDREI GANDILA

Two pairs of dies are cross-linked. The coins probably arrived as a homogeneous
group directly from the mint and were subsequently hoarded by the owner.
On average, the die-linked solidi of Justinian are also the heaviest pieces in the
hoard. These coins may well reflect the reception of a quinquennial donativum,
estimated at five solidi per man.7 If the donativum was kept intact then nos. 1,
2, 3, 5 and 6, cross-linked, represent the five solidi in question, the customary gift.
Nos. 4 and 7 could be a fraction of a distinct payment, simultaneous with the first,
most likely, since the coins were also issued by the fourth officina in Constantinople. Although it is generally believed that officinae operated according to the
fiscal and administrative needs of the state, their exact function and evolution
in time remain to be determined. Further hoard evidence might confirm the
supposition that the fourth officina was occasionally commissioned by Justinians
officials to produce coinage for purposes of imperial largesse.
Although the circumstances of the find are less than ideal, there is no evidence
to indicate that the coins of Justinian may have belonged to a different hoard.
Indeed, the seven coins of Justinian correspond to the chronological logic of
the hoard, as they are dated in the later part of his reign. Moreover, the presence
of Justinianic issues in hoards buried during the reign of Maurice is almost
a general norm. Based on evidence from the Balkans, they are only missing in
hoards where the accumulation is too small to be statistically relevant.8 Unlike
other hoards, however, in the case of Gkler the coins were kept by the owner
in his savings account for several decades. Less homogeneous groups of coins
were added in time, although die-links can still be found among the coins of
Tiberius II and Maurice. The obverse of nos. 11 and 15, both solidi of Tiberius II,
was struck by the same die although the coins were issued in different officinae,
A and Z, respectively. Since officinae may have operated in the same facility,
this is not necessarily an anomaly, and the practice has long been noted and
discussed.9 The same situation can be found on the die-linked solidi of Maurice,
where three coins have the same obverse but two different officina marks on the
reverse (nos. 19-21). Additional die-links, less consistent, can be found throughout the list of coins dating from the reign of Maurice. Not only pairs of solidi
(nos. 30-51, 33-40, and 48-49), but also fractions, semisses (nos. 54-55) and
tremisses (nos. 57-58), show evidence of die-linkage. This seems to be a defining
feature of our hoard, but how common are die-links in early Byzantine gold
hoards (figure 4)?

7.Hendy 1985, p.177.


8.Hoards from the Balkans closed during the reign of Maurice containing issues of Justinian:
Jambol (Trsors, no. 19), Slava Rus (Trsors, no. 79), Zaldapa (Trsors, no. 82), Patras (Trsors,
no. 174), Vid (Marovi 1988, p.299), and four hoards from Sadovec (Trsors, nos. 243-246).
9.See for instance Morrisson 1972, p.42-43, who suggested that the official in charge with
coin dies redistributed them indiscriminately to officinae of the same mint; Bijovsky 2002,
p.167-171.
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321

Leaving aside exceptional situations like the single-die hoard of Heraclian


solidi recently found in Jerusalem,10 we can still mention several notable cases.
One of the best documented is the hoard of Nikertai, concealed a century after
the Gkler hoard, which contains frequent die-links with several different officinae
recorded.11 A contemporary hoard found close to Antioch (Daphne), although
much smaller in size, has the same characteristics.12 Close to the Turkish coast,
the large hoard found on the island of Samos, contains many die-linked specimens
of Phocas and Heraclius, while the Molos hoard from Limassol (Cyprus) has
surprisingly few die-links given the narrow age structure of the hoard.13 From
Turkey, the hoard found at Afyon in Phrygia, just 150 km east of Gkler, contains
only one obverse die-link (Justinian), while the hoard of Kstll, close to
Mersin, contains three die-linked solidi of Phocas, which are also the latest in
the hoard.14 Further north, in Bithynia and Europa, two hoards found near
Bilecik and at Bakrky, respectively included die-linked solidi of Phocas.15
In Transcaucasia, on the territory of modern Georgia, the large, but unfortunately
dispersed, hoard from Chibati included a large number of die-linked solidi of
Phocas and Heraclius.16 In the Eastern Mediterranean, the hoard of Bat Galim
in Haifa, also dispersed, contained a large number of solidi of Phocas, most of
them die-linked.17 A much more detailed publication of another large Palestinian
hoard (Bet Shean) has revealed an equally large number of die-links.18 Further
west, at Rougga in North Africa, a large hoard of 268 coins included a significant number of die-links.19 In most of these cases, however, we are dealing with
seventh-century hoards. Unfortunately, hoards from the Balkans, where we find
the bulk of the early Byzantine hoards concealed in the second half of the sixth
century, offer little information about die-links unless we deal with rare issues
of Thessalonica.20 Illustration is often missing and the quality of the images,
where available, prevents any assumptions regarding possible die-link situations.21

10.Bijovsky 2010, p.55-92.


11.Morrisson 1972, p.42-43.
12.Metcalf 1980, p.91-101.
13.Caramessini-Oeconomides, Drossoyianni 1989, p.153-161; Nicolaou, Metcalf 2007,
p.405 (all coins of Heraclius).
14.Morrisson et al. 1989, p.142; Tekin, nl 1998, p.280, pl. I.
15.Gandila, Demirel Gkalp 2014, p. 202-203; Akyay 1966, p.161-162.
16.Abramishvili 1968, p.159-176. Only 124 coins were retrieved out of ca. 2000 mentioned
in the initial report.
17.Bendall 1975, p.66. Some of the coins from this large hoard may have found their way
to Jerash where a similar group of coins was reported around the same time. Bendall 1976, p.80,
no. 330.
18.Bijovsky 2002, p.168-170.
19.Gury 1982, p.27, 35, 44 and 54.
20.Caramessini-Oeconomides, Touratsoglou 1979, p.311.
21.A notable exception is the hoard from Sekulica, for which see Ivanievi, Kondijanov
1992, p.82, table 2.
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322

ZELIHA DEMIREL GKALP / ANDREI GANDILA

To conclude this brief overview, die-links are by no means uncommon in


early Byzantine gold hoards, but they tend to be more frequent in large hoards
of several hundred pieces. There is frustratingly little comparanda material in
Anatolia or Syria to help us contextualize the sixth-century hoard of Gkler,
buried decades before the hoarding frenzy of the next century when historical
circumstances favored intensive hoarding and loss (figure 5). At any rate, the heavy
presence of die links in the Gkler hoard (40.67%) compels us to classify this
accumulation as a savings hoard, developed in several stages.

Dan

ube

Baki Monostor

Slava Rus
ub
Dan

Abrit

a

rav

Mo

Samarinovac Sadovec

Adriatic
Sea

Bargala

Nokalakevi

Adamclisi

Black Sea

Provadija
p
Eu

Nicaea
Dorylaeum
Pergamon

Apidea
Patras

Eleusis Athens

tes

hra

Jambol
lys

Vid

e

Ha

5000 m
1500 m
500 m
200 m
100 m
0m

Sardis

Tigr
is

Amorion

Gkler

Side

Eup

hra

tes

Selinti
Mediterranean Sea

200

400 km

Figure 5 - Hoards of Byzantine gold closed during the reign of Maurice.


(in fine print: major Byzantine cities in Anatolia)

The seven die-linked coins of Justinian clearly reflect the first phase of the
accumulation. The coins of Justin II and Tiberius II were added later and the
obverse die-link noted for two solidi of Tiberius II (nos. 11 and 15) suggests
additional payments of money that saw little circulation.The bulk of the hoard
is represented by the abundant coinage of Maurice, whose close inspection
reveals at least two more stages of accumulation.The early coinage of Maurice,
dated by Hahn in the first two years of reign, is represented in our hoard by nine
issues. Five of the later ones (MIBEC 5) are die-linked. Moreover, nos. 19-20
and 23-24, respectively were struck with the same pair of dies. The earliest coin
in the series, however, is a very rare MIBEC 3 issue from the very beginning of
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A HOARD OF SIXTH-CENTURY SOLIDI FROM GKLER (PHRYGIA)

323

the reign when Maurice still used the name of his predecessor (no. 16). The
rarity of this issue is confirmed by the fact that the specimen in the Gkler hoard
was struck with the same obverse die as the coin illustrated in Hahns latest catalogue. Given the die-linkage and the large number of early issues of Maurice in
our hoard, amounting to almost a quarter of all coins of this emperor, we can
safely assume that they reflect another important stage in the creation of this
savings deposit. This group of early issues could be related to the imperial
largesse occasioned by the emperors accession or perhaps his first consulship
assumed shortly after (583).
In all hoards dating from this period the bulk of Maurices coinage is represented by issues minted after 583. The chronology of solidi dated 583-602
remains uncertain, but several numismatists have long suggested that the size
of the emperors head/helmet on the obverse decreased during the almost two
decades when this type was in use.22 Hahn has identified four sub-types based
on this stylistic feature. Although we consider Hahns criteria for distinguishing
between these four types to be somewhat arbitrary due to the much wider
stylistic variety of Maurices coinage, the coins from the Gkler hoard seem to
belong to the earliest types. This tentatively places the hoard in the first decade
of Maurices reign, up to the early 590s. The two 23-carat light solidi from the
hoard seem to strengthen this hypothesis, since they both belong to the large
head type (MIBEC 111), clearly distinguished from the small head version
also used on 23-carat light-weight solidi (MIBEC 112).
The actual function of light-weight solidi still eludes modern scholars despite
the fact that these irregular issues received plenty of attention in the last few
decades. Several explanations have been put forward, from circumstances related
to foreign payments to administrative reasons related to taxation.23 There is still
insufficient evidence to reach a consensus but we should still note the presence
of two 23-carat light solidi in the Gkler hoard, found in the heartland of the
empire. Light-weight solidi are extremely rare in hoards from within the boundaries of Early Byzantium. It has been repeatedly pointed out that most of them
come from Syria, but evidence accumulating from Anatolia seems to challenge
this notion.24 Aside from the hoard of Gkler, the deposit found in 1998 at
Allianoi, not far from Bergama, also included two light-weight solidi of
Maurice worth 23 siliquae, while a larger hoard found near Bilecik (Bithynia)
included a similar light-weight solidus of Phocas.25

22.Bellinger 1966, p.106-107.


23.For a recent discussion of the function of light-weight solidi and the previous theories,
see Carl 2009, p.378-390.
24.Smedley 1988, p.126-127. Sixth-century light-weight solidi were also part of a large hoard
found at Hama in Syria, unfortunately dispersed, for which see Adelson 1957, p.80.
25.Tekin, Erol-zdizbay 2012, p.400, nos. 289-290. Gandila, Demirel Gkalp 2014, p. 202,
no. 64.
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ZELIHA DEMIREL GKALP / ANDREI GANDILA

To be sure, less than 0.5% of the gold coins from hoards found in the Balkans
and Asia Minor are light-weight issues.26 Two hoards found in Bulgaria at
Provadija and Sadovec, in the frontier provinces of the Lower Danube, include
two light-weight solidi of Maurice of 22 and 23 siliquae, respectively.27 Evidence
from the Near East is more substantial. In Palestine, the dispersed hoard of
Bat Galim, already mentioned, included four light-weight solidi of Phocas.28
The hoard of Meroth, also from Palestine, has no less than 22 underweight
solidi of 23 and 22 siliquae, but the author did not clarify whether he referred
to weight loss during circulation or the special light-weight solidi issued by the
mint.29 Several other Syro-Palestinian hoards include light-weight solidi issued
by seventh-century emperors.30 Despite new evidence from the Empire, the most
significant collective find of light-weight solidi of Maurice remains the hoard
found at Nokalakevi (Georgia) during archaeological excavations at Archaeopolis,
the capital of Lazica, a Byzantine client state in the sixth century.31 The 23 pieces of
23-carat light weight-solidi of Maurice are die-linked and belong to the small
head type dated in the second half of the reign. The find of such anomalous
solidi both in the heartland of the empire and in the frontier region and beyond may
suggest that they actually performed several distinct functions, depending on
circumstances. We are, unfortunately, far from reaching any definitive conclusions.
One last notable feature of the Gkler hoard is the significant presence of
semisses (figure 2). Numismatists have long suggested that semisses gained
a ceremonial nature, being primarily related to donativa and other instances
of imperial largesse. Such an interpretation seems to be grounded not just in
the typology but also in the relative rarity of semisses among finds, as they are
definitely scarcer than the other major fraction, the tremissis. Hoard evidence
confirms this difference. Only 2.62% of the gold coins from hoards found in
the Balkans and Asia Minor are semisses, while the proportion of tremisses
is significantly higher, 13.05%.32 In fact, with the exception of the small sixthcentury hoard from Cernavod, on the Lower Danube, the only hoards from
the Balkans containing semisses are from Turkey and Greece.33 Perhaps it is
not a coincidence that the hoard found at Afyon, not far from Gkler, has no

26.Morrisson, Ivanievi 2006, p.45, fig. 1.


27.Provadija (Trsors, no. 52), Sadovec (Trsors, no. 243). Other significant hoards from
the Balkans with light-weight solidi: Meuluje (three solidi of Justinian worth 20 siliquae,
Trsors, no. 263); Mecitz (22-carat solidus of Phocas, Trsors, no. 338).
28.Bijovsky 2013, no. 54.
29.Kindler 1989, p.317.
30.Bijovsky 2002, p.171-172, n.9.
31.Abramishvili 1963, p.158-165.
32.Morrisson, Ivanievi 2006, p.45, fig. 1.
33.Cernavod (Trsors, no. 65), Bakrky (Trsors, no. 3), Athens (Trsors, no. 133), and
Patras (Trsors, no. 175).
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325

less than 17 semisses in its composition, more than a third of the entire hoard.34
Off the coast of Turkey, the small accumulation found on the shipwreck of
Yass Ada included nine semisses of Heraclius, while two of the seventhcentury hoards found on the islands of Samos and Cyprus, respectively, also
included semisses.35 In addition, such hoards are recorded in Syria (Daphne and
Nikertai), Palestine (Awarta, Bet Shean, and Meroth), and Egypt (Alexandria
and Saqqara).36 In the hoards of Meroth and Alexandria semisses account for a
significant percentage of the accumulation (c. 15%) while in the seventh-century
hoard from Awarta semisses represent one third of the entire hoard.
In the Gkler hoard, two of the three semisses (nos. 54-55) were struck with
the same pair of dies, which further substantiates the idea that they were part of
a payment received directly from the mint. Interestingly, two of the three tremisses from the hoard (nos. 57-58) were also struck with the same pair of dies,
already worn and cracked in several places. Unlike the solidus, the chronology
of its fractions cannot be established with any precision. Consequently, the
semisses in question may belong to the early group of die-linked solidi of
Maurice from the hoard.
To conclude this discussion, we seem to be dealing with at least two distinct
payments, probably donativa, the first dating from the later part of Justinians
reign and the second from the early regnal years of Maurice. The hoard was
completed with fragments of dispersed payments or imperial gifts, as well as
with random additions of coins withdrawn from more regular payments. In
what concerns the historical value of the hoard and the circumstances of its loss
we are of course in the realm of speculation.Judging by the structural and
chronological particularities of the hoard it seems plausible to suggest that the
accumulation belonged to an officer, or in any case to a family of several career
soldiers, who began by serving in Justinians army during the war with Persia
which concluded with the peace treaty of 561, so well recorded by Menander
the Guardsman, and continued to serve under his successors during renewed
conflict with Persia from ca. 572 to 591.37
General insecurity explains why so many gold hoards, some amounting to
real fortunes, were never retrieved. According to a recent inventory, the last
decades of the sixth century mark an important peak in the hoarding of gold
coins, mainly in the Balkans.38 Hoard evidence from Turkey is unfortunately

34.Morrisson 1989, p.139.


35.Fagerlie 1982, p.145-154. For Samos and Limassol see above, n.13.
36.Daphne: Metcalf 1980, p.91-101. Awarta: Dajani 1951, p.41-43. Alexandria: Dutilh
1905, p.155-164. Saqqara: Quibell 1912, p.38. For Nikertai and Bet Shean see above, n.11
and 18.
37.The best historical narrative of the late sixth century remains Whitby 1988.
38.Morrisson, Ivanievi 2006, p.46-47.
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326

ZELIHA DEMIREL GKALP / ANDREI GANDILA

less generous, but historical accounts suggest similar levels of insecurity. On


the other hand, western Anatolia was not directly affected by warfare with Persia
until the second decade of the seventh century. The theater of operations in the
second half of the sixth century shifted between Transcaucasia and northern
Syria, too far east to threaten the region of modern Gediz, where the hoard was
found. The owner of the hoard, an officer according to our tentative scenario,
may have hailed from the region of Gkler but tragically met his fate during
one of the fierce battles recorded in the 580s on the long front stretching from
the Caucasus to Syria. This interpretation dovetails nicely with the chronology
of the hoard, which dates to the first half of Maurices reign, if we rely on the
typology of the obverse. After peace was concluded with Persia in 591, the theater
of operations moved to the Danube where operations continued until the mutiny
led by Phocas in 602.
The hoard found at Gkler only begins to fill a chronological gap in the record
of Byzantine gold hoards from modern Turkey and hopefully contributes to
a better understanding of the still obscure mechanisms of hoard formation in
the Byzantine heartland.

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327

CATALOGUE39
JUSTINIAN I
Solidus
542-565
Die links:
Obv. 1 (no. 1)---------------Rv. 1 (no. 1)
Obv. 1 (nos. 2, 3)-----------Rv. 2 (nos. 2, 3)
Obv. 2 (nos. 4, 7)-----------Rv. 3 (nos. 4, 7)
Obv. 3 (no. 5)---------------Rv. 1 (no. 5)
Obv. 3 (no. 6)---------------Rv. 2 (no. 6)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

4.51 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBE 7 (pl. 13); Inv. no. 7043.
4.51 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6.: Off. ; Ref.: MIBE 7 (pl. 13); Inv. no. 7046.
4.50 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBE 7 (pl. 13); Inv. no. 7045.
4.50 g, 20 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBE 7 (pl. 13); Inv. no. 7048.
4.49 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBE 7 (pl. 13); Inv. no. 7030.
4.47 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBE 7 (pl. 13); Inv. no. 7047.
4.45 g, 21 mm, die pos. 7. Off. ; Ref.: MIBE 7 (pl. 13); Inv. no. 7044.

JUSTIN II
Solidus
565-567
8
4.51 g, 21/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref: MIBEC 1 (pl. 1); Inv. no. 7028.
567-578
9
4.47 g, 20 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref: MIBEC 5 (pl. 1); Inv. no. 7031.
10
4.48 g, 20 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBEC 5 (pl. 1); Inv. no. 7029.
TIBERIUS II
Solidus
578-582
11
4.48 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. A, same obv. die as no. 15; Ref.: MIBEC 4
(pl. 11); Inv. no. 7038.

39.All coins minted in Constantinople.


RN 2015, p. 317-335

328

12
13
14
15

ZELIHA DEMIREL GKALP / ANDREI GANDILA

4.49 g, 21 mm, die pos. 7. Off. B; Ref.: MIBEC 4 (pl. 11); Inv. no. 7041.
4.48 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. B; Ref.: MIBEC 4 (pl. 11); Inv. no. 7039.
4.50 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. Z; Ref.: MIBEC 4 (pl. 11); Inv. no.7042.
4.47 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. Z, same obv. die as no. 11; Ref.: MIBEC 4
(pl. 11); Inv. no. 7040.

MAURICE
Solidus
582
16

4.48 g, 21/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBEC 3 (pl. 17), same obverse die
as the coin on Hahns plate; Inv. no. 7051.

582/83
Die links:
Obv. 1 (nos. 19, 20)--------Rv. 1 (nos. 19, 20)
Obv. 1 (no. 21)-------------Rv. 2 (no. 21)
Obv. 2 (nos. 23, 24)--------Rv. 3 (nos. 23, 24)
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

4.46 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. I; Ref.: MIBEC 4a (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7069.
4.31 g, 22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. I; Ref.: MIBEC 4a (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7067.
4.48 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBEC 5 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7080.
4.47 g, 20/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBEC 5 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7077.
4.45 g, 21 mm, die pos. 7. Off. H; Ref.: MIBEC 5 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7055.
4.47 g, 22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. I; Ref.: MIBEC 5 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7085.
4.51 g, 21/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBEC 5 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7060.
4.43 g, 21/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: Ref.: MIBEC 5 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7083.

583-602
25
4.49 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. A; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7056.
26
4.47 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. A; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7053.
27
4.46 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. A; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7061.
28
4.45 g, 22/23 mm, die pos. 7. Off. A; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7058.
29
4.49 g, 22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. B; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7084.
30
4.47 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. B; same obv. die as no. 51; center obv. test punch;
Ref.: MIBEC 62 (pl. 17);; Inv. no. 7064.
31
4.45 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7086.
32
4.49 g, 20/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7078.
33
4.49 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6.: Off. S; same rv. die as no. 40; Ref.: MIBEC 62
(pl. 17); Inv. no. 7072.
34
4.48 g, 22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. S; Ref.: MIBEC 62 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7075.
35
4.48 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. S; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7068.
36
4.46 g, 21/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. S; Ref.: MIBEC 62 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7070.
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A HOARD OF SIXTH-CENTURY SOLIDI FROM GKLER (PHRYGIA)

37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

329

4.46 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6.: Off. S; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7073.
4.45 g, 21/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. S; center obv. test punch; Ref.: MIBEC 61
(pl. 17); Inv. no. 7065.
4.45 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. S; Ref.: MIBEC 62 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7082.
4.34 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. S; same rv. die as no. 33; Ref.: MIBEC 62
(pl. 17); Inv. no. 7081.
4.49 g, 22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. H; double strike; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17);
Inv. no. 7052.
4.45 g, 21/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. H; Ref.: MIBEC 62 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7054.
4.43 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. H; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7050.
4.51 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6. Of: ; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7062.
4.49 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; rv. center test punch; Ref.: MIBEC 62 (pl. 17);
Inv. no. 7057.
4.51 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. I; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7071.
4.50 g, 21/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. I; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7074.
4.49 g, 21 mm, die pos. 6.: Off. I; Ref.: MIBEC 62 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7063.
4.47 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. I; same pair of dies as no. 48; Ref.: MIBEC 62
(pl. 17); Inv. no. 7049.
4.44 g, 21/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. I; Ref.: MIBEC 61 (pl. 17); Inv. no. 7076.
4.47 g, 22/2 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; same obv. die as no. 30. Ref.: MIBEC 61
(pl. 17); Inv. no. 7059.

Light Weight 23-carat Solidus


583-602
52
4.24 g, 22/22 mm, die pos. 6. Off. ; Ref.: MIBEC 111 (pl. 18); Inv. no. 7066.
53
4.31 g, 20/21 mm, die pos. 6. Off. I; Ref.: MIBEC 111 (pl. 18); Inv. no. 7979.
Semissis
583-602
54
2.24 g, 20 mm, die pos. 6; Ref.: MIBEC 17a2 (pl. 18); Inv. no. 7032.
55
2.23 g, 18/21 mm, die pos. 6; same pair of dies as n.54; Ref.: MIBEC 17a2
(pl. 18); Inv. no. 7034.
56
2.23 g, 16/18 mm, die pos. 6; Ref.: MIBEC 17a2 (pl. 18); Inv. no. 7033.
Tremissis
583-602
57
1.47 g, 16/17 mm, die pos. 6; Ref.: Ref.: MIBEC 201 (pl. 18); Inv. no. 7036.
58
1.47 g, 15/16 mm, die pos. 6; Ref.: Ref.: MIBEC 201 (pl. 18), same pair of dies
as n.57; Inv. no. 7035.
59
1.51 g, 16 mm, die pos. 6; Ref.: MIBEC 201 (pl. 18); Inv. no. 7037.

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330

ZELIHA DEMIREL GKALP / ANDREI GANDILA

Abbreviations
Trsors: C. Morrisson, Vl. Popovi, V. Ivanievi (eds.), Les Trsors montaires byzantins
des Balkans et dAsie Mineure (491-713), (Ralits Byzantines, 13), Paris, 2006.

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10

11

12

13

14

15

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16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30
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ZELIHA DEMIREL GKALP / ANDREI GANDILA

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

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47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

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