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U.S.

Department of Justice

Officeof Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Race of Prisoners
Admitted to State
and Federal
Institutions,
1926-86
By Patrick A. Langan, Ph.D.
BJS Statistician
May 1991, NCJ-125618

U.S. Department of Jualce


Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics

Steven D. Dillingham, Ph.D.


Director

Acknowledgments. This report was


edited by Thomas Hester. Statistical assistance was provided by Richard Solarl.
Marilyn Marbrook, BJS publications unit
chief, administered production, assisted
by Priscilla Middleton.
Many people contributed to building the
data set used in this report. Special
recognition goes to Victoria Schneider,
Ruth Fujimoto, Catherine Gardner, Lisa
Renaud, Robert Denk, and Dena G.
Myers, staff members of the National
Archive of Crlmlnal Justice Data at the
University of Michigan.
The Bureau of Justice Statistics acknowledges the contributions of those many
correctional officials, both past and present, whose cooperation over the more
than 60-year history of National Prisoner
Statistics (NPS) made this report possible. We deeply appreciate the continuing
commitment of all NPS participants to this
series.

How to order the data set


Data utilized in this report are available
from the National Archive of Criminal
Justice Data at the University of
Michigan, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor,
MI 48106; toll free 1-800-999-0960.
The data set is archived as the Race
of Prisoners Admitted to State and
Federal Institutions, 1926-86 (ICPSR
9165).
The Assistant Attorney General, Office of

Justice Programs, coordinates the activi-

ties of the following program offices and

bureaus: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Na-

tional Institute of Justice, Bureau of Jus-

tice Assistance, Office of Juvenile Justice

and Delinquency Prevention, and Office

for Victims of Crime.

ii Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Foreword

This report carefully documents the racial


composition of U.S. prisoners across 60
years. It is the first single-volume publicatlon of year-by-year and State-by-State
statistics on the race of persons admitted
to State and Federal prisons in the United
States. The compilation covers the period
from the year when the Federal Government began keeping detailed annual
records on prison admissions, 1926, to
the latest year of available data, 1986.
The publication is possible because of the
generous cooperation of the many State
and Federal prison officials, both past and
present, who made the information available. Their contribution is gratefully acknowledged.
Steven D. Dillingham, Ph.D.
Director

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 iii

Contents

Introduction

Tables

National Prisoner Statistics

1. Persons admitted to State and

Statistics on race
from the admission series

Definitions used in the admission


series

Gaps in the admission series

Federal prisons in the United States

and number of reporting States

for movement and admission

statistical series, 1926-86


2. Race of admissions to State

and Federal prisons, 1926-86

3. Documentedand estimated

Long-term growth of the


black prison population
in the United States

Growth in per capita rates


of black imprisonment

Increase In the number


of blacks in State versus
Federal prisons
Comparing the growth in the prison
population of blacks and of Asians,
Alaska Natives, American Indians,
and Pacific Islanders

I3

r8

I
b

4. Documentedand estimated

racial distribution of admissions

to State and Federal prisons:

1926 versus 1986

5. Estimated imprisonment rate,

by race: 1926 versus 1986

6. Documented and estimated

Regional variation in the growth


of the black prison population

Recent trends in the racial


composition of persons admitted
to State prisons

State-by-State statistics and


Federal statistics on prison
admissions, by race, 1926-86

Methodology

Appendixes

number of admissions to State

and Federal prisons, by race:

1926 versus 1986

number of blacks as a percentage

of admissions to State prisons,

by region: 1926 versus 1986

7. Sentenced prisoners admitted

to State and Federal institutions,

10

by race, 1926-86

45

Appendix A: National Prisoner


Statistics data collection forms,
1926

45

Appendix B

51

Appendix C: Sources on table 1

52

iv Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Introduction

The FederalGovernment'sfirst census of


prisoners was in 1850. Thereafter, until
1926, the Federal Government collected
prisoner statistics about every 10 years,
usually as a part of the decennial census.
In 1926the gatheringand reporting of
national prisoner statistics became an
annual series. Later named National Prisoner Statistics (NPS), the series has been
in continuous operation for over 60 years.

to another prison). Statistics from the series now exist for every year from 1926to
the present. Before 1978the series collected no information on race, but in 1978
the series began compiling a yearend
count of prisoners of each race.

Admission series. The data collection


form for this series, which started in 1926,
obtains informationon each individual admittedto prison during the year (see selected facsimile forms in Appendix A).
NPS is the Nation's principalsource of
Gaps exist in the statistics becausethe
historicalstatistical informationon U.S.
FederalGovernmentdid not collect indiprison populations. Decennialcensus
statistics on prisonersfurnish comparable vidual admission records in some years.
Recordsincludesuch information as the
information, but only at 10-yearintervals.
In addition, definitions and data collection prisoner's age, race, sex, conviction ofprocedureschanged markedly from the
fense, and sentence length.
earliest decennial censuses to later ones.
NPS definitionsand data collection proceRelease series. The data collection
dures have remained comparatively unform for this series, begun in 1926, obchanged.
tains informationon each person released
from prison during the year. Among other
This compilation of NPS counts from 1926 things the records contain data on the
~~
to 1986 representsthe first single V O I U prisoner's
race, sex, conviction offense,
giving historically complete details on the and how muchtime was served before reracial breakdown of the prison population. lease. As with the admission series, gaps
It is based on published and unpublished exist because the Federal Government
data.
did not collect individual release records
in some years.
Natlonai Prisoner Statistics
Capitalpunishment series. This series
A voluntary reporting program, NPS gath- uses several forms to compile information
ers data by asking State and Federal
on each personadmittedto prison under
prison officials to complete collection
sentence of death during the year, each
forms. NPS has consisted of four core
person under sentence of death at
data collections or "series":
yearend, and each person executed or
otherwise relieved of the death penalty.
Movementseries. This series uses a
Statistics on the number executed extend
form that asks prison officialsto summato 1930. Statistics on the number present
rize in the aggregate the movements of
began in 1953. In 1960 the series began
the entire prison population: a count of all counts of persons admitted under a seninmates in prisonon December 31 of the
tence of death and of personswhose
year; counts of categories of persons ad- death sentence was removed. The prismitted throughoutthe year (such as num- oners who died awaiting executionwere
ber admittedfrom court and number of
also included in these counts. The series
escapees returnedto prison); and counts provides such information as the prisonof categories of prisoners released
er's race, sex, conviction offense, date of
throughout the year (such as number resentence, and date of removalor execuleasedon parole and number transferred tion.

'

~-

71nthe past, NPS includedtwo other series, but the two


were not primarily concernedwith countingprisoners.
One compiled statistics on prison personnel;the other,
on prison finances.

Statisticson race from the admission


series

The historical statistics compiled here are


entirely from the admission series. They
are taken directly from published and unpublished reports, tabulations, and, for
certain years when NPS had no Federal
prison data, published reports of the U.S.
Bureau of Prisons.
The following rules guided selection of
which particular statistics from the admission series to include in the compilation:
Where more than one published report
contains figures on race for the same
year, the latest report is taken as the
source. initial reports sometimes had
errors that were corrected in later reports.
Where the only existing data are unpublished, the unpublished report is used.
The only data from 1974through 1980
are contained in unpublished reports from
the files of the Bureau of Justice Statistics
(BJS). BJS now administers the NPS, retaining the Bureau of the Census to collect and processthe data. For 1982an
unpublished compilationfrom BJS files
is used because, unlike the published
report, the unpublished numbers include
State-by-Statecounts.
Where records from the admission series are available on magnetic tape, the
tape is the source of data on race. The
tapes from 1983to 1986, unlike the published materialfrom those years, permit
presentation of categories precisely comparableto earlier reports.
e Where admissiondata are available on
"sentencedfelons admittedto prison as
new court commitments," these data are
used. Where there are no data on new
court commitments, data on a more
broadly defined category of admitted prisoners are the source of the numbers for
race.

Today NPS includes additionalcollection


activities, but in the past it was largely limited to the four series.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and FederalInstitutions, 1926-86 1

Years havingonly the more broadly defined category of prisoners are 1926to
1936 and 1980to 1982. For 1926to
1936 the only available data are for new
court commitments that include both sentenced felons and a small number of sentenced misdemeanants. For 1980the
data cover all types of sentencedfelons
admittedto prison, not just new court
commitments. For 1981 and 1982the figures for race cover sentenced felons who
were new court commitmentsor returned
conditionalrelease violators.

From 1937to 1960felons were defined


as prisoners with maximumsentences of
6 months or longer. Misdemeanant sentences were defined as prisoners with
sentences shorter than 6 monthsor prisoners convicted of certain offenses that
were typlcally considered as misdemeanors (such as simple assault and disorderly
conduct). From 1964to 1970felons were
defined as prisoners with maximumsentences of 1 year or longer. After 1970
felons were defined as prisoners with
maximum sentences longer than 1 year.

Deflnitlons used In the admission


series

New court commitments differ from


other types of admissions because, as
the name indicates, they come directly
From 1926to 1970the admission series
from being sentenced although they may
collected individual records on one type of have served a part of their sentence
admitted prisoner: the "new court commit- under supervision in the community (proment." The series did not operate from
bation or a previously suspended sen1971to 1973. From 1974through 1982
tence being imposed). Many new court
records were for all types of sentenced
commitments, however, have served time
felons: the new court commitment, the
in localjails while awaitingtrial or transfer
parole violator returnedto prison, the
to prison. The most common examples of
escapee returnedto prison, the prison
admissions that are not new court comtransfer, and any other sentenced felon
mitments are parolees who are returned
admitted to prison. Continuingin 1983
to prisonto complete their sentence, capunder the new name of NationalCorrectured prison escapees, and prisoners
tions Reporting Program (NCRP), the
transferred from other facilities.
series collects records on all admitted
prisoners, including misdemeanants
Gaps in the admission series
and unsentenced prisoners.
The Bureau of the Census was responsiOther definitions underlyingthe admission ble for NPS from 1926to 1949; the Fedseries follow:
eral Bureau of Prisons, from 1950to
1970; and BJS and its predecessor, the
The two basic types of U.S. penal insti- National CriminalJustice Informationand
tutions are prisons (also called reformato- Statistics Service in the Law Enforcement
ries, penitentiaries, and correctional
Assistance Administration, from 1971to
facilities) and jails. Each State and the
the present. Basedon the reports of
FederalGovernmentoperate prisons for
these agencies, the following summarizes
personswith sentences generally over
the FederalGovernment'sefforts to collect, report, and presewe annual statistia year; jails are, with few exceptions,
county- and city-operated short-term facii- cal data on the race of persons admitted
Ries for persons with sentences less than to prison:
a year. The admission series only collects records on persons admitted to
The Federal Government annually comState prisons and Federal prisons. Bepiled statistics on prisoners' race from incause the series omitted Federalfacilities dividual prisoner recordsvoluntarily
from 1960through 1985, Federaladmissubmitted by State and Federal officials.
sion figures for those years are from anExcept for submissions since 1981, these
nual published reports of the Bureau of
records were routinely destroyed after
Prisons.
each report was written. The Bureau of
the Census stores State prison admission
2 Race of PrisonersAdmitted to State and FederalInstitutions, 1926-86

records for 1981 and 1982, and the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data at
the University of Michigan has the State
prison admission records for 1983to
1986 and Federal prison admission
records for 1986.
The following years since 1926 have no
admission statistics, published or unpublished: 1951through 1959, 1961, 1963,
1965through 1969, and 1971 through
1973. There are published statistics for
1962, but they do not give any information
on race. The FederalGovernment apparently did not operate the series in the
missing years.
From 1937to 1941the combined State
and Federal prison admission statistics on
prisoner race include both men and women, but the only existing State-by-State
data on the race of admitted prisoners are
the published statistics on males. From
1947to 1949 available racialstatistics are
for males only.
For 1928,1937 through 1941,1947
through 1949, and 1981, no State-byState admission statistics on prisoner
race exist.
Racialstatistics on admissionsto Federal prisons, 1960to 1985, are for the fiscal year rather than the calendar year.
Also, the Federalfigures for this period
are incomplete (see Appendix 6).
Some admission records submittedto
the FederalGovernment deviated from
collection rules, accordingto the explanatory notes accompanyingthe reports.
Consequently, State-to-State and yearto-year comparisons of admission data
that fail to take into account such rule
violations may lead to erroneous conciusions.
The Federal Government operatedthe
admission series for 42 of the 61 years
from 1926to 1986 and tabulated information on race for 41 of the years. Data on
race for the 41 years are incompleteto
the extent that for any of the years some
States -

a) submitted no records (called "missing


States"),
b) submitted records that did not include
all those admitted as new court commltments during the year (referred to as
"missing records")? or

Relative number of admission records


plete for these years. For example, the
submitted. The completeness of the ad1931 movement series count of 71,520
mission series was measured by compar- new court commitments did not Include
ing its total number to the total from the
Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. If
movement series. Both series report
account were taken of such missing data,
statistics on new court commitments: the the success at counting all individual
movement series compiling aggregate
records in 1931 would be less than 100%.
c) submitted records that failed to identify counts and the admission series cornpilThere has never been a year in which the
the race of the person admitted (referred
ing individual records. In the past, more
Federal Government fully succeeded in
to as "incomplete records").
States participatedin the movement secollecting information on the race of every
ries than in the admission series. Any dif- person admitted to prison from court.
Submitted records rarely lacked the prisference between admission series counts
oner's race. Most incomplete information and movement series counts of new court Reporting completeness has fluctuated
on race resulted from missing States and commitments can be attributed to the ad- widely over the years. However, since
mission series missing States or records. 1983 the trend has been toward fuller remissing records. (See Appendix Bfor
more detail.)
porting. In 1983, 29 States submitted adFrom 1929 to 1936 no differences apmission records covering 65% of new
Number of States submitting admission
peared between the numbers of new
court commitments nationwide. In 1984,
records. Over the series' 41 years of op- court commitments reported by the two
32 States reported 76% of the Nation's
eration, the Federal Government gained
series. During that period, the Federal
admissions; in 1985, 36 States reported
fullest cooperation in obtaining individual
Government gathered all individual
84%; and in 1986,37 States, 84%. The
records of prison admissions in 1960 and records of new court commitments in the
1986 participation marks the largest num1964, when 48 States and the District of
ber of States and the most extensive covsubmitting States. However, the 100%
Columbia participated. The least success agreement does not take into account the erage since the record set in 1964.
occurred in 1975, when 17 States submit- movement series statistics being incomted records (table 1).
4

f
#

' ~ nexample of missing records is the 1926 admission


data for Tennessee, that reported race on 253 of the
811 new courtcommifments.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 3

Table 1. Persons admltted to State and Federal prlsons In the Unlted States and number
of reporting States for movement and admlsslon statistleal series, 192686
(a)

Year
1928
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
194.5
1948
1947
1948
1949
1950
1960
1964
1970
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
198e
1981b
1982~
1983
1984
1985
1986

(b)
Basedon
movement
series:
Total
admissions
from court
to State
and Federal
prisons
48,108
51,938
56,748
58,908
66,013
71,520
87,477
62,801
62,251
85,m

60,925
BOB

68,328
68,024
73,104
68,700
58,858

50,082
50,162
53,212
81.338
84,804
69,m

68,925
69,473
88,575
87.578
79,351
103,754
129,573
129,482
128,050
1%,121
131,047
162,617
195,048
216,112
187,408
180,416
198,499
219,382

(c)

Number
ofstates
included
inadmissions
total shown
in column b
46
46
45
44

44
46
45
45
48
46
46
48
47
47
47
47
47
47
47
49
49

49
49
49
49
50
50

46
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

(dl

Numberof
Statesnot
includedin
admissions
total shown
in column b
3
3
4
5
5
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
5

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Note: For this table's purposes the District of


Columbia is defined as a State.
.Column band column e figures for this year include
all types of State prison admissions, not only new

(0)
State and
Federal
prison admission rec
ordscompiled in
theadmission series
43,328
44,062
48,212
58,904
86,013
71,520
67,477
62,601
62,251
85,723
60,925
59,073
64,265
62.000
62,692
56,023
47,761
40,273
41,058
43,281
56,432
51.016
49,634
54.370
57,988
84,066
61,099
48,497
52.245
42,351
69,746
72.1 83
95,502
94,828
134,634
135,611
131,617
122,575
137,583
186,743
183,769

(0
Number
of States
includedin
admissions
total shown
in column e

(s)

(h)

Numberof
Statesnot
includedin
admissions
total shown
in column e

Admission
series total
asa percentage of
movement
seriestotal
(columne l
column b)

41
39
39
44
44
48

45
45
46
46
46
46
47
47
47
46
46
46
46
46
48
46
46
46
47
49
49
34
23
17
26
24
30
31
32
30
29
29
32
36
37

court commitments.
b~olumnb and column e figures for this year
include 2 types of State prison admissions:, .
new court commitments and returned condlhonal

4 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

8
10
10

5
5
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
1
3
3
3
2
2
2
17
28
34
25
27
21
20
19
21
22
22
19
15
14

909b
65
86
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
93
94
94
86
82
61
80
82
61
92
79
78
79
83
95
93
61
50
33
54
56
76
72
74
69
61
85
76
84
84

release violators.

Sources: See appendix pages 52-54 for column b

and column e sources.

Table 2 that appears on this page has been replaced with the table on the next page.

Table 2 Race of admlsdons to State and Federal prisons, 1926-86

Year

Numberof
admissions
to State
and Federal
prisons

Percentof
State and Federal
prison admissions
Total Whlte Black Other

Numberof
admissions
to State
prisons

1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1960
1964
1970
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986

43,328
44,062
48,212
58.906
66,013
71,520
67,477
62,801
62,251
65,723
60,925
59,073
64,265
62,000
62,692
56,023
47,761
40,273
41,058
43,281
56,432
51,016~
49,~34~
54,370~
57,988
84,068
81,099
48,497
52,245
42,351
69,746
72,183
95,502
94,828
134,634
135,611
131,617
122,575
137,583
166,743
183,769

100% 78%
100 78
100 78
10078
100 77
100 77
100 77
100 76
100 75
100 74
100 73
100 73
100 73
100 73
100 71
100 70
100 68
100 69
100 69
100 68
100 66
100 69
100 70
100 70
100 69
100 66
100 65
I00 61
100 59
100 64
100 61
100 61
100 58
100 60
100 58
100 57
100 55
100 58
100 58
100 56
100 55

38,318
100% 75%'
39,041
100 77
100
42,642
49.1 72
100 76
56,213
100 75
100 76
60,905
57,825
100 76
54,468
100 74
52,976
100 73
53,886
100 72
49,466
100 72
100 72
46,412~
50,169~
100 72
~ , 3 2 4 ~ 100 72
47,462b
100 70
41,202~
100 69
100 65
35,649
29,537
100 65
28.641
100 66
31,450
100 66
100 64
43,679
100 68
40,601~
100 68
30,899~
100 69
43,941b
100 69
46,496
100 65
69,235
100 63
67,879
100 57
37,437
100 54
37,064
25,796
100 60
51,035
100 58
54,023
100 59
100 55
77,017
100 58
79,535
117,251
100 57
100 55
121,211
114,391
100 53
103,588
100 55
100 55
119,042
146,862
100 54
167,474
100 53

21%
21
21
21
22
22
22
23
24
25
26
26
26
26
28
29
31
30
30
31
33
30
29
29
30
32
33
39'
38
35
35
38
41
39
41
42
44
41
41
43
44

1%
1
1
1
1
1
1

I
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
2
2

3
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Note: Number of admissions to State and Federal


prisons includes prisoners whose race was unknown.
Percentagesare based on figures that exclude
cases where race was unknown. The "other races"

Percentof State
prison admissions
Total White Black Other

23% 2%'
22
1

23
24
23
23
25
26
27
27
27
27
27
29
30
34
34
33
33
35
31
31
30
30
34
35
43'
41
38
37
40
44
41
42
44
46
44
44
45
46

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

5
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

category consists of Asians, American Indians,


Alaska Natives, and Pacific Islanders.
-Detail not available.
?or 1926 the "white" total shown excludes

Numberof
admissions
to Federal

prisons

Percentof Federal
prison admissions
Total White Black Other

5,010
100%
5,021
100
5,570
100
9,734
100
9,800
100
10,615
100
9,652
100
8,333
100
9,275
100
11,837
100
11,459
100
10,342~
100
11,664~
100
11,108~
lo0
12,621b
100
12,586~
100
12,112
100
10,736
100
12,417
100
11,831
100
12,753
100
10,415~
100
9 , ~ 5 ~ 100
10.429~
100
11,492
100
14,833
100
13,220
100
11,060
100
15,181
100
16,555
100
18,711
100
18,160
100
18,485
100
15,293
100
17,383
100
14,400
100
17,226
100
18,987
100
18,541
100
100
19,881
16,295
100

81%'
84

13%
14

6%'
2

86
86
87
88
88
87
84
80
80
78
76
75
74
76
78
76
74
73
75
76
74
70
71
73
73
71
70
71
70
69
73
73
74
75
76
77
76
77

12
12
11
\O
10
11
14
17
18
20
21
23
24
22
20
21
24
25
23
22
24
28
25
25
27'
29'
30'
29'
30'
31'
27'
27'
26'
25'
24'
23'
24'
21

2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2

Mexicans, and the "other races" total shown Includes

exicans.

!Males only.

Includes blacks plus "other"races.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 5


U S . Government Printing Offfce: 1991

- 282-068/44134

The recorded number of biack prisoners


In 1986 was nearly 9 times larger than the
number recorded in 1926 (80,814 in 1986
versus 9,292 in 1926) (table 3). The
recorded number of white prisoners was
3 times larger (100,874 in 1986versus
33,626 in 1926), and the number of other
races was 5 times larger (2,081 versus
410).
Such comparisons, however, are limited
by reporting and coverage differences
in 1926 and 1986. For example, eight
States failed to report prison admissions
for 1926. Six of the eight were Southern
States that had large black populations.
This and other underreporling, however,
had little effect on the estimate of the increase from 1926to 1986 in the number
of blacks admittedto prison. The conclusion is based on these facts:
When estimates for missing States (8
In 1926; 14 in 1986), for missing records,
and for incomplete records are added to
recorded figuresfor 1926 and 1986, results still indicate an eightfold increase in
the number of biack prisoners, from
12,075 in 1926to 98,519 in 1986, and an
increase in the percentageof black admissions, from 24% in 1926to 44% in
1986 (tables 3 and 4). (See the discussion of estimation procedures in MethodO~O~Y.)

Thirty-two States and the Bureau of


Prisons submitted prison admission
records in both 1926 and 1986. In the
prisonscovered by these data, admissions more than doubledfrom 21% black
in 1926to 44% in 1986.

Table 3. Documented and estlmated number of admlsalons


to State and Federal prisons, by race: 1926 versus 1986
Number of admissions to
State and Federalprisons
Number
documented in
admission seriesa
Number estimatedb
1926
1986
1926
1986
Total
White
Black
Other

43,328 183,769

50,312

223,883

33,626 100,874
9,292 80,814
2,081
410

37,734
12,075
503

122,483
98,519
2,881

.Figures were correctedfor incomplete records


(State and Federaladmission records that had no
race designation were distributedacross the races
in the same proportionsas cases with a race desig
etion).
igures were corrected for missingStates (States
not submitting any admission records), for missing
records (Statesfailingto submit records on all their
admissions), and for incompleterecords. The publicalion PrisonersinState andFederalPrisonsandRebmtories 1926(Bureauof the Census, 1929)

Table 4. Documented and estlmated


radal distrlbutlon of admissions to
State and Federal prisons:
1926 versus 1986
Percentof prison admissions
Documented in
admission series
Estimated
1926 1986
1926 1986
Total
White
Black
Other

100%

100%

10O0'

100%

78
21
1

55
44

75
24
1

55
44
I

The eightfold increase in the black prison


populationis not explained by the change
In the size of the black population of the
United States. Between 1926 and 1986
the black populationgrew 2.6 times
larger, from about 11 million in 1926to 29
millionin 1986 (table 5). By comparison,
the white populationdoubled In size (from
about 100 millionto about 200 million),
and other races grew 21 times larger
(from less than a millionto about 17 million).

6 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

estimated"approximately 49,000" new court commitmentsin 1926 (page 1). The total 50,312 estimated here is reasonably close to the 49,000 figure.
The publication CorrectionalPopuktbns h the United
States, 1986(BJS, 1989) reported219,382 new
court commitmentsin 1986 (p. 53). The total
223,883 estimatedhere is larger than the 219,382
figure because for some States the number of admission recordsthe State submittedexceeded the
new court commitmenttotal it reported in the movement series.

Growth in per capita rates


of black imprisonment
Based on prison admission records corrected for underreporting, the estimated
black imprisonment rate (per 100,000
black population) was 3 times higher in
1986 than it was in 1926 (342 versus
106). The white Imprisonment rate (per
100,000 whites) grew at a much slower
pace, going from 36 in 1926 to 63 in
1986, or about 1.8 times higher.
Increase in the number of blacks
in State versus Federal prisons
The black population accounted for 23%
of recorded stateprison admissions in
1926 and 46% in 986 (table 2). A~~~~
Federal prison admissidns the 'percentGe
of black prisoners increased from 13% of

recorded admisslons in 1926 to 21% in


1986. From 1978 to 1986 blacks comprised about 45% of each year's admissions to State prisons but represented a
declining percentage of inmates entering
Federal prison-from a high of 31% in
1978 to a low of 21% in 1986. The decline in the black percentage among Federal admisslons is partly attributed to
increased numbers of drug offenders
being sent to Federal prisons. Federal
drug offenders are predominantly white,
and drug offenders comprised 27% of
personssentencedto ~ederalprison in

1980 and 43% in 1986.

Table 5. Estimated Imprisonment rate, by race: 1926 versus 1986


1926
Estimated
admissions
to State and Estimated
Federal
resident
prisons
population

Total
White
Black
Other

1986

Estimated
admissions
per 100,000
population

Estimated
admissions
to State and
Federal
prisons

Estimated
resident
population

Estimated
admissions
per 100,000
population

50,312

116,330,000

43

223,883

240,551,200

93

37,734
12,075
503

104,201,000
11,381,800
810,400

36
106

122,483
98,519
2,881

194,748,200
28,844,600
16,958,400

63
342
17

62

Note: Resident population may not sum to total shown because of rounding. See notes at table 3.

The largest deviations from the 1% figure


in the 1970's are attributed to inconsisten-

ties in recordkeeping-

From 1926 to 1986 the imprisonment rate

for blacks rose, while the imprisonment

rate of "other races" dropped. The black

imprisonment rate in 1986 was 3 times

higher than it was in 1926 (342 admis-

sions per 100,000 blacks in 1986 versus

106 per 100,000 in 1926) (table 5). The

rate of imprisonment of Asians, Alaska

Natives, American Indians, and Pacific Is-

landers, considered as a group, in 1986

was 27% of its 1926 level (17 admissions

per 100,000 in 1986 versus 62 per

100,000 in 1926).

Comparlng the growth in the prison


population of blacks and of Asians,
Alaska Natives, American Indians,
and Pacific islanders
While the percentage of black admissions
to State and Federal prisons about doubled between 1926 and 1986, the percentage of other races considered
together Asians, Alaska Natives, American Indians, and Pacific Islanders
remained fairly stable at 1% of admissions (tables 2 and 4).3

2
-6
to 1934 NPS reports grouped Mexicans
under the heading "other races," but after 1934 Mexicans were largely classified as white. For the sake of
continuity. Mexicans classified as "other races" from
1926 to 1934 were reclassified here as white.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 7

Introduction

Recent trends in the racial composition State-by-State statlstlcs and Federal


statlstlcs on prison admlsslons, by
of persons admittedto State prlsons
race, 1926-86
During the 1970's racial distributions in
In 1926 an estimated 45% of all persons
prison admissions fluctuated widely (table Statistics on race compiled in the admisadmittedto State prisons in the South
were black, comparedto 18% in the North 2),probably because State reportingwas sion series from 1926 to 1986 are summarized in table 7.
at its lowest levels during some of those
Central, 14% in the Northeast, and 5% in
years (table 1). For this reason admission
the West (table 6). By 1986 the situation
statistics may not provide a stable basis
had changed:
for describing recent trends In racialcomBlacks were an estimated 51% of all ad- position. An alternative source of national
trend data is a sample survey conducted
missionsto State prisons in the South.
periodically of the State prison population.
These
comparable NPS surveys were
Blacks accounted for 56% of the admissions in the Northeastand 43% of the ad- done in 1974,1979,and 1986 and are
based on face-to-faceinterviews with permissions in the North Central.
sons in prison on the day of the survey.
Results of the surveys suggest that the
Table 6. Documented and
number
of blacks as a percentage of the
estimated number of black inmates
1 -day State prison populations has
as a percentage of admlsslons
changed little since 1974: 47% in 1974,
to State prlsons, by region:
1926 versus 1986
48% in 1979,and 47% in 1986.~

Regional variation in the growth


of the black prison population

Black inmatesas a percentage


of State prison admissions
Documentedin
admission series
Estimated
1926
1986
1926 1986
Total

23%

14
Northeast
NorthCentral 18
44
South
5
West

46%

26%

46%

56
46
50
30

14
18
45
5

56
43
51
26

+ T h e a t e surveys reveal racial distributionsquite


similar to those in the admission series. An advantage
of the surveys over the admission series is that the surveys have greater success in gathering information on
Hispanic origin. Survey results on race and Hispanic
origin are summarized below:
Percent of prison
population
1974
1979
1986
White
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic

51.2%
5.8
45.4

49.6%
8.2
41.4

49.7%
10.1
39.6

Black
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic

47.0
.4
46.6

47.8
1.0
46.8

46.9
1.5
45.4

Other
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic

1.8
.2
1.6

2.6
.2
2.4

3.4
.9
2.5

8 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Methodology

Estimation procedures

Missing States, 1986. To estimate the


1986 racial group composition of prison
The increase in black prisoners from 1926 admissions, one procedure was adopted
for the 14 missing States, and a different
to 1986 is a valid finding even when account is taken of missing States, missing procedure was followed for the remaining
records, and incomplete records. The foi- 37 States (including the District of
lowing describes procedures used to esti- Columbia). For each of the 14 missing
mate missing data:
States in 1986, the yearend racial distribution in a State's movement data was
Missing States, 1926. Of the eight States applied to each new court commitment
that failed to submit admission records in total, giving an estimated number of admissions for each race.
1926, six were in the South (Alabama,
Delaware, the District of Columbia,
For each of the remaining 37 States, the
Florida, Georgia, and Texas), and two
new court commitment total was defined
were in the West (Idaho and New Mexico). Although technically Delaware and
as either the total reported in the movethe District of Columbia did not have any
ment series or the total recorded in the
admission series, whichever was larger.
State prisons in 1926, they are treated
The raciai distribution documented in the
here as nonparticipants in the admission
admission series was then applied to the
series.
larger total to obtain State-by-State estimates of the number of persons of each
Admissions by race in 1926 for some of
race entering prison.
the missing States were estimated from
later admission statistics. Idaho's figures
Missing records, 1926 and 1986. The
are from 1927; estimates for Florida,
term "missing records" applies only to
Texas, and New Mexico are from 1929;
States that participated in the admission
and estimates for Delaware and the
series. A State was considered to have
District of Columbia are from 1931.
missing records if the number of individual
Estimation from succeeding admission re- admission records it submitted to the admission series (regardless of whether the
ports was not used for Alabama and
record had a race designation) was lower
Georgia because they did not participate
than the number of new court commitin the annual admission series until long
after 1926. Instead, estimates for the
ments it reported in the movement series.
By this definition 1 State (Tennessee) had
two States were derived from the closest
missing records in 1926 (69% of
source with a racial distribution: a 1923
census of prisoners (Prisoners 1923, Bu- Tennessee's admissions were missing
an admission record), and 24 States had
reau of the Census, U.S. Department of
missing records in 1986 (overall, 10% of
Commerce, 1926, page 247). An estiadmissions in these States were missing
mate of Georgia's raciai distribution
an admission record).
in admissions came from applying its
movement series count of new court comTo correct for missing records the racial
mitments reported In 1926 to Its
admissions distribution by race for 1923.
distribution computed from a State's adThe estimate for Alabama is based
mission records was applied to the new
on Alabama's 1923 figures corrected
court commitment total that it reported in
for half-year coverage.
the movement series. This produced an
estimate of the number of persons of
each race that entered prison in the State.

Incomplete records, 1926 and 1986. The


term "incomplete records" applies only to
States that participated in the admission
series. A State was said to have incornplete records if the designation of race
was missing from any admission record
received. Incomplete records were compensated for by computing the racial distribution from records that gave a raclal
designation and then applying the percentage distribution to the new court commitment total obtained from either the
admission series or the movement series,
whichever was larger.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and FederalInstitutions, 1926-86 9

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmltted to Stateand Federalinstltutlons, by race,


1926
Jurisdiction

U.S. total
Federal
states
Northenet
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsytvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
Nolth Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
west
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
MontanaNevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

...

1,882
649
580
1,680
302
253

759
199
319
1,206
161
185

1,120
448
256
390
140
67

3
2
4
84
1
1

844
854

361
634

482
220

...
...
...
...
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

806

139
1,466
637

21
129
41

97
254
128

...

...

...

...

...

257
1,849

...

...

...

...

277
123

233
93

16
4

28
26

332
155
827
76

314
133
775
61

1
3
34
3

17
19
18
12

...

Note: Federal and State totals in 1926 sum


to U.S. totals for "white" and for "other
races." The white U.S. total includes Mexicans, but the Federal and State totals for
whites exclude Mexicans. The "other races"

...

...

...

...
1

...

...

...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...

U.S. total excludes Mexicans, but the Federai and State totals for "other races" include

Mexicans.

...Data not available.

Sources: See Appendix pages 53-54.

10 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadmlttedto Stateand Federal Institutions, by race,


1927
Jurisdiclon

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

...Data not available.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 1 1

Tabie7. Sentenced prlsonersadmitted to Stateand Federal institutions, by race,


1928
Jurisdiction

Total

White

Black

Other
races

U.S. total
Federal
States

48,212
5,570
42.642

37,724

9,959

518

...
...

...
...

...
...

Race not
reported
11

...
...

Note: Detail by State not available.


Data not available.

...

12 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prlsanersadmlttedta Stateand Federal Instltutlons, by race,


1929
Jurisdiction

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Malne
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

...Data not available.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 13

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadmittedto Stateand Federal institutions, by race,


1930
Jurisdiction

US. total
Federal
states
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hamphire
NewJersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama

Arkansas

Delaware

District of Columbia

Florida

Georgia

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maryland

Mississippi

North Carolina

Oklahoma

South Carolina

Tennessee

Texas

Virginia

West Virginia

West
Alaska

Arizona

California

Colorado

Hawaii

Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black

Other
races

66,013

50,663

9,m

8,471
42,192

14,771
1,211
13,560

568
117
451

37
11

33
2

56,213

Race not
reoorted

...

363

Ill

253

483

214

1,053
135

983

122

...

...

...Data not available.

14 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadmitted to Stateand Federal Institutions, by race,


1931
Jurisdiclion

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reoorted

U.S. total
Federal
states
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawail
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon

Utah
Washington
Wyoming

...Data not available.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 15

Table7. Sentenced priaonersadmltted to Stateand Federal Institutions, by race,


1932
Jurisdiction
US. total
Federal
States
Northrrt
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hamphire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
NorthCentral
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabema
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black

Other
races

67,477
9,652
57,825

52,200
8,469
43,761

14,613
997
13,616

664
186
478

861
314
1,133
93
1,743
3,629
2,248
198
358

606
312
1,168
92
1,295
2,957
1,797
177
355

2,582
1,864

2,091
1,631

930

866

1,246
3,258
1,129
1,932

1,074
2,707
1,078
1,446
610
201
2,493
345
1.209

664

216
3,235
380
1,247

...

1,145
4W

...

1
54
1
441
644
450
20
3

487
233
62
1 70
528
27
486
47
2
740

187

2,671
1,316
2,873

1,927
532
1,282

743
784
1,590

1,211
2,517

665
1,937

543

...

1,422
3,300
1,849
1,498

...

...

...

901
2,219
844

1,254

...

...
4

...
2
2
23
24

...

...

584

.,.

7
28
1
1

...

1,336

...

...

18

606

204

2
1
3

7
13
2
34
20

416
199
418
752

...

729

44

...

...

510

...

521
1,081
1,005
244

...

...
1
...

3
70

...

...
...
...
...
...

1 72

172
267
110
291
472
187
964
103

11
5
6
8
3
33
3

37
6
7
13
2
34
1

493
192
1,031
107

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

19
100
g

304

...

...

...

32
207
43

315
121

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

317
2,307
8s

......

...

......

...

...

...

...

...
...

368
2,614
911

...

Race not
reported

...
...

...

...

...

...

......

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...Data not available.

16 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadmlttedto State and FederalInstitutions, by race,


1933

Jurisdiction

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
ConnecUcut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
west
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black

Other
races

62,801
8,333
54,468

47,717
7,334
40,323

14,368
799
13,569

716
200
516

597
318
1,003
79
1.774
3,203
2,010
220
288

554
316
939
1.303
2,636
1,568
202
282

43
2
63
2
406
551
440
18
6

2,707
1,620
871
1,251
2,767
1,125
1,862
765
284
2,774
280
1,016

2,175
1,346
830
1,090
2,226
1,095
1,396
682
264
2,092
249
971

77

525
273
40
156
518
11
466
71
3
679

...

24

...
...
1

...

5
12
2

...

...
7
1
1
5
23
I9

...

12
17
3
31
21

1,220

712

508

...
...

663
1,134

213
486

450
648

...
...

2,293
1,171
2,961

1,633
433
1,387

660
738
1,574

1,274
2,405
641
1,614
3,118
1,827
1,075

700
1,830
308
954
2,033
777
886

...

...
...
...

...

...
...
...
...

...

...
...

...
...

563
49 1

332
660
1,083
1,050
189

...

...
...

...
...
1

...

11
84
1

...
2
...
...
...

336
2,396
873

295
2,117
825

27
168
43

14
ill
5

159
318
83
356
420
198
986
130

152
271
68
328
396
193
911
122

4
38
8
8
21

...

...

...

9
7
20
3
5
35
6

...

...

40
2

Race not
reported

...

...
...

...

...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
......
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...Data not available.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 17

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadrnitted to Stateand Federal instltutlons, by race,

1934
Jurisdiction

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsyivania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

...Data not available

18 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadmlttedto Stateand Federal Instltutlons, by race,


1935
Jurisdiction

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reoorted

U.S. total
Federal
states
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Dlstrict of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

...Data not available

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 19

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmlttedto Stateand Federal Institutions, by race,


1936
Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
states
N0lth.s.t
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsyhrania
Rhode Island
Vermont
Nolth Cmtral
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Coiunnbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

...

071

279
663
1,254

Utah
Washington
Wyomine

...Data not available.

20 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 7926-86

Table 7. Sentenced prisoners admitted to Stateand Federal Instltutlons, by race,


1937
Jurisdiction

Total

White

Black

Other
races

U.S. total
Federal
States

59,073
10,342
46,412

42,940
8, 277
33,244

15,384
1,811
12,696

749
254
472

Race not
reported

...

...
...

Note: Detall by State not available.


Data not available.

...

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmittedto Stateand Federal lnstltutlons, by race,


1938
Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
States

Total

White

Black

Other
races

64,265
11,664
50,169

46,655
9,081
36,059

16,875
2,306
13,671

735
277
439

Race not
reported

...
...
...

Note: Detail by State not available.


Data not available.

...

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmlttedto Stateand Federal instltutlons, by race,


1939
Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
States

Total

White

Black

Other
races

62,000
11,108
48,324

44,990
8,432
34,985

16,309
2,390
12,950

701
286
389

Race not
reported

...
...

...

Note: Detail by State not available.


Data not available.

...

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmlttedto Stateand FederalInstltutlons, by race,


1940
Other
races

Race not

re~orted

17,677

757

...

2.878
13,828

303
422

Jurlsdlction

Total

White

Black

U.S. total
Federal
States

62,692

44,258

12,621
47,462

9,440
33,212

...

...

Note: Detail by State not available.


Data not available.

...

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmittedto Stateand Federal lnstltutlons, by race,


1941
Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
States

Other
races

Total

White

Black

56,023

38,927

16,355

741

12,586
41.202

9,356
28,307

2,938
12,479

292
416

Race not

reported

...
...

...

Note: Detali by State not available.

...Data not available.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 21

Tabie7. Sentenced prlsonersadmitted to State and FederalInstltutlons,by race,


1942
Jurisdiction
US. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut

Maine

Massachusetts

New Hemphire

New Jersey

New York

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

Vermont

North Central
Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Michigan

Minnesota

Missouri

Nebraska

North Dakota

Ohio

South Dakota

Wisconsin

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Misslsslppi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska

Arizona

California

Colorado

Hawaii

Idaho

Montana

Nevada

New Mexico

Oregon

Utah

Washington

Wyoming

Total

White

Other
races

47,761
12,112
35,649

32,482
9,221
23,261

619
227
392

Race not
reported

...Data not available.

22 Race of Prisoners Admitted to Stare and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmltted to State and Federal Instltutlons, by race,


1943
Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black

1.015
559
52
516
790

320
253
15
122
301

695
306
36
394
489

878
698
1,507

601
220
519

277
478
988

840

374
545
197
385
1,005
448
294

463
219
125
286
574
881
98

...

...

796
322
671
1,579
1,329
392

...

...
...

...

...

...

...

Other
races

..,

...
...

3
32

...

300
1,578
541

229
1,309
497

49
227
36

22
42
8

73
160
121
220
316
130
548
102

71
143
101
185
303
117
488
89

1
3
18
24
10
11
47
13

1
14
2
11
3
2
13

...

...

...

Race not
reported

...

...
...
...
...
...
...
......
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,..
...
...
...
...
...
...

...Data not available.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 7926-86 23

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadmltted to Stateand Federal Instltutlons, by race,

1944
Jurisdiction

us. total
Federal
states
Norlhea.1
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Camiina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyornlng

Total

White

41,058
12,417
28,641

28,280

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

613
391
222

...Data not available.

24 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prlsoneraadmlttedto State and Federal instltutlons, by race,


1945
Jurisdiction

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsyhranla
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
weet
Alaska
Arizona
Caliirnia
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon

Utah
Washington
Wyoming

...Data not available.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 25

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadmltted to State and Federalinstltutlons,by race,


1946
Jurisdiction

US. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut

Maine

Massachusetts

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

Vermont

North Central
Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Michigan

Minnesota

Missouri

Nebraska

North Dakota

Ohio

South Dakota

Wisconsin

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
west
Alaska

Arizona

California

Colorado

Hawaii

Idaho

Montana

Nevada

New Mexico

Oregon

Utah

Washington

Wyoming

Total

White

Black

37,146
9,279
27,867

18,655
3,237
15,418

Other
races

Race not
reported

...Data not available.

26 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmltted to State and Federal Instltutlons, by race,


1947
Other
races

Jurisdiction

Total

White

Black

U.S. total
Federal
States

51,016

35,265

15,139

612

10,415
40,601

7,812
27,453

2,401
12,738

202
410

Race not
reported

...
...
...

Note: Detail by State not available.


Data not available.

...

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmitted to Stateand Federal institutions, by raw,


1948
Jurisdiction

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

U.S. total
Federal
States

Note: Detailby State not available.

...Data not available.

Table 7. Sentenced prisonersadmitted to Stateand Federal Inatltutions, by race,


1949
Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
States

Total

White

Black

Other
races

54,370
10,429
43,941

38,155
7,764
30,391

15,640
2,465
13,175

575
200
375

Racenot
reported

...
...

...

Note: Detail by State not available.


Data not available.

...

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 27

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmltted to Stateand FederalInstitutions, by race,


1950
Jurisdiclon
U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeaot
Connecticut

Maine

Massachusetts

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

Pennsylvania

Rhode island

Vermont

North Central
Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Michigan

Minnesota

Missouri

Nebraska

North Dakota

Ohio

South Dakota

Wisconsin

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
Weat
Alaska

Arizona

Caiifomia

Colorado

Hawaii

Idaho

Montana

Nevada

New Mexico

Oregon

Utah

Washington

Wyoming

Total

White

57,988
11,492
46,496

40,057
8,090
31,967

381
441
727
72
1,367
2,896
1,427
128
195

287
427
667
72
888
1,818
933
111
194

1,867
1,134
626
810

1,225
944
586
671

679
1,546
611
124
2,652
302
995

600

...

1,509
688
98

580
1,515

...

1,365
1,157
2,477
753
1,259
1,176
603
1,026
2,996
1,743
702

...

Race not
reported

1,133
553
114
1,729
232
799
719
403
52
136
895

...

1,088
515
993
222
631
892
420
691
2,127
800

609

...

372
2,472
866

290
409

271
357
153
387
682
224
811
196

172
434
684
239
933
212

Other
race*

...

451
3,122
923

...

Black*

...

...

Data not available.


'Counts for "other races" were included In total
reported for black prisoners.

28 Race of Pdsoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 7926-86

Table7. Sentencedprisonersadmittedto Stateand Federal institutions, by race,


1960
Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carollna
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
Californla
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black'

Other
races*

84,068

55,253

27,089

1,726

Racenot
reported

...

...

Data not available.


'For individual States, counts for "other races" were
Included in total reported for black prisoners.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 29

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadmltted to Stateand FederalInstltutlons, byrace,


1964
Jurisdiction

Total

White

81,099
13,220
67.679

52,458
9,680
42,778

836

429
754
90

583
423
595
89

4,l 52
1,404
128
179

2,226
703
105
179

2,601
1,213
820
1,070
3,741
548
1,653
746
137
3,268
367
1,269

1,260
936
766
863
2,094
462
1,135
596
102
2,082
234
968

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia

1,996
994
166
562
3,069
3,130
1,591
1,702
3.472
793
2,344
1,732
1,020
1,300
5,703
1,603
368

1,062
663
70
63
1,793
1,388
1,268
748
1,209
317
1,163
1,251
673
879
3,960
815
317

West

Alaska

Arizona

California

Colorado

Hawaii

Idaho

Montana

Nevada

New Mexico

Oregon

Utah

Washington

Wyomlng

740
5,296
1,189
81
238
372
226
350
875
247
1,102
213

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

...

...

Black'

Other
races'

Racenot
reported

...

...
592
3,998
1,054
14
212
300
183
296
794
232
862

200

...Data not available.


'For individual States, counts for "other races" were
included in total reported for black prisoners.

30 Race of Prisoners AdmiW to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentencedprisonsrsadmlttedto Stateand Federal institutions, by race,


1970
Jurisdiction

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut

Maine

Massachusetts

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

Vermont

NorthCentral
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

...

White

...

Black'

...

556
4,665
840
72
212
225
264
320

421
3,217
676
8
201
163
202
265

135
1,448
164
64
11
62
62
55

202
993
120

181
778
114

21
215
6

...

...

...

Other
races'

...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

Race not
reported

...
...
...
...
...

...
...

...
...
...

...
...

...

...

Data not available.

'Counts for "other races" were included in total

reported for black prisoners.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 31

Table7. Sentencedprlsonersadmltbdto State and Federal lnstltutlons, by race,


1974
Jurisdiction
US. total
Federal
states

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

52,245

30,045

19,188

1,759

1,243

Northrat

Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode island
Vermont
North Central

Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South

Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippl
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
west

Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oreeon

utah

Washinaton
wyornlrig

...

1.154
114

...
866
88

...

Data not available.


'Count for "other races" was included in total
reported for black prisoners.

32 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmitted to Stateand Federal lnstltutlons, by race,

1975
Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
states
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
west
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

42,351

26,375

14,380

413

1.183

...

...Data not available.

'Count for "other races" was included In total


reported for black prisoners.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 33

Table7. Sentenced priaonersadmlttedto StateandFederalinstitutions, by race,


1976
-Jurisdiction
US. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
NewJersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Cmtrnl
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Districtof Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
~ouisiaia
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
Weat
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Other
races

Race not
reported

2,601

1.138
1,138

Total

White

Black

69,746
18,711
51,035

41,841
12,460
29,381

24,166
5,113.
19,053

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

154

...

...
...

538

...
...
...
686
...
...

...
...6

...
...
...

163

2,601

...
...
...
...

...
...

1,811

1,060

367

...

...
...
...

2,658
9,659

1,480
5,765

1,177
3,863

1
31

422

62

...

...

2,355

...
...
...
...

...

...
...
...
...

...

486

...

1,400
6,910

...

583

1,412
234
1,384
165

...

...

...

1,044
4,591

216
2,183

140
136

25
426

1
6
1
107
61
144
21
239
7

54
55
82
41
25
92
12
117
21

...

...

80

487
313
461

...

...

no

313
497
1,176
201
1,028
137

...

...

...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...

Data not available.


'Count for "other races" was includedin total
reported for black prisoners.

34 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentencedprlsonersadmitted to Stateand FederalInstitutions, by race,


1977
Jurisdiction
UJ.total
Federal

States

Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusens
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Michigan

Minnesota

Missouri

Nebraska

North Dakota

Ohio

South Dakota

Wisconsin

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska

Arizona

California

Colorado

Hawaii

Idaho

Montana

Nevada

New Mexico

Oregon

Utah

Washington

Wyoming

Total

White

Black

Other
races

Racenot
reported

72,183

42,955

26,184

755

2.289

...

...

...

332
1,134

244
663

4
409

...

...

...

1,467
7,558

...

83
62

1
0

...
1,221
5,060

...

110
501

32

441

499

302

1,486
325
1,563
178

1,190
296
1,241
140

...

...

...

...

...Data not available.

'Count for "other races" was included in btai


reported for black prisoners.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 35

Table7. Sentenced prlaonersadmltted t o Stateand Federal Institutions, by race,


1978

Jurisdiction

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
Went
Alaska
Arizona
Ca'fornia
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Other
races

Total

White

Black

95,502
18,485
77,017

52,548
10,430
42,118

37,698
4,610'
33,088

...

...
...

...

...
...

862
189
2,434
6,541
2,599
193

529
179
1,154
3,339
1,403
156

284
6
1,243
3,166
1,193
37

4,629

...
...
...
4,636
...

1,892

2,737

...

...

...

2,271

...

...
...
...
1,623
...
1,332

123
5,648
278
1,216

101
3,354
207
756

...
...
358
...
...

...
...
175
...
...

4,996
1,911

...

202

2,354
1,424

...
184

...

...

...
...
2,217
...
937
...
...
2,293
2
386

...

...
183
...
...

2,639
486

...
7

786
786

...

...

...
1

...

36
1

...
...
...
...
...

...

Race not
reported
4,470
3,445
1,025

...
...
49
3
37

...
2
...

...
...
...
...
...

20

...

776

...

...

22

...

69
40

...
I

...
I
...

34

...
...
...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

...

...
...

11

3
I

...

Data not available.

'Count for "other races" was included in total

reported for black prisoners.

36 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmlttedto StateandFederalInstltutlons, by race,


1979
Jurisdiction
U.S. total
Federal
States
Nolthmst
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
NorthCentral
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
NorthCarolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Other
races

Race not
reported

Total

White

Black

94,828
15,293
79,5!35

55,807
10,136
45,671

36,004
3.727'
32,277

930

2,087
1.430
657

...
...

...
...

...
...

...
...

...
...

930

...
...
...

913
175
2,407
6,978
2,616
220

603
170
1,090
3,626
1,521
160

255
2
1,314
3,320
1,093
60

4,421

...

1,878

2,543

3,970
906
2,128
441
126
6,679
283
1,234

1,662
679
1,290
312
109
3,884
211
792

1,879
153
833
105
2
2,769
5
395

22
51
3
21
15
2
64
41

...

...
...
...

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

5,110
1,890

2,389
1,452

2,718
438

...
...
...
...
...

1,795
6,155

730
2,922

1,061
3,063

1
149

1,455

1,614

...

...
...

...
...

...
...

...

...

...
...

...

...
...

...
...
...
...

...

...
...

...

...
...
7,100
.,.
417

73

...

...

...

3,076

11,541

491

...

...

9,874

6,390

156
462
271
691
561
1,667
906
1,392

43
444
215
519
492
1,367
679
1,070

...

...

...

...

...

...
...

4,441

...
3,339
...
8
8
4
158
57
175
153
239

...

32
1

...
...
...
...
...
...

...

...
...
...

...

...
...

...

...
133
...
101
10
52
14
12

55
3
3

...

......1

...

...
...
...

407
23
2
3

...

24
3
6

...

...
...
...
...
1
...
...
...

3
21

...
3
...
......
...
...
...
12
...
4
...
...
...
...

77

48

51
71

23
12

...

...

...Data not available.

'Count for "other races"was includedin total


reported for black prisoners.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Instltudions, 1926-86 37

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmlttedto StateandFederalInstitutions,byrace,


1980
JurisdicCon

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northwrt
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
NorthCentral
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Districtof Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginla
West Virginia
Weat
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black

134,634
17,383
117,251

76,382
10,483
65,899

53,063
3,919'
49,144

...

1,591
9,349

204

392
1,048

58
560
300
716

555
2,453

491
1,877

...

1,402

3,787
2,981
806

1,402

...

588

...
...

Race not
reported

...

2,145
14,487

...

Other
races

...
...
...

...

Data not available.


'Count for "other raceswwas includedin total
reported for black prisoners.

38 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table 7. Sentenced prisonersadmitted to StateandFederalinstitutions, by race,


1981
Jurisdiction

U.S. total
Federal
States

Total

White

Black

135611
14,400
121.211

75.836
9,182
66.654

56.025
3,298.
52.727

Other
races

Race not
reported

1,830

1,920
1,920

1.830

...

...

Data not available.


'Count for "other races"was includedin total
reportedfor black prisoners.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutr'ons, 1926-86 39

Table7. Sentenced prisonersadrnltbd to Stateand Federal instltutlons,

by race,

1982
JurlsdicUon
U.S. total
Federal
States
Northmet
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
NewJersey
New York
Pennsylvanla
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Control
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Districtof Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
Wart
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black

131,617
17,226
114,391

70,638
10,552

56,169
3,535'
52,634

...

1,499

60,086

...

1,284

...

195

Other
races

Race not
reported

991
991

3,819
3,139
680

...

...

20

...

...Data not available.


'Count for "other races" was includedin total
reported for black prisoners.

40 Race of PrisonersAdmitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table 7. Sentenced prisoners admltted to StateandFederal Instltutlons, by race,


1983
Jurisdiction

Total

US. total
Federal
States

White

Black

69,381
13,054
56,327

48,982
4,187'
44,795

...
...

...

Other
races

Race not
reported

824

3,388
1,746
1,642

824

Northeaet
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
NewJersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont

North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin

South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
Districtof Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginta
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

...
...

18,187
1,694

11,323
1,359

...
307
...

229

1,685

1,978
282

...

6,128
295

...
...

45
22

691
18

...

......9

...

1,406

157

41

81

1,369
262

35i
13

64
7

191
0

...
...
...

...
...

...

...

...
...
64
...

...
...

.+.

...

...

...

...

...
...
...

...

Data not available.


'Count for "other races"was included In total
reportedfor black prisoners.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 41

Table7. Sentenced prisonereadmitted to Stateand Federal Instltutlons, by race,


1984
Jurisdiction
US. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georaia
~enGck~
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

mtal

White

Black

Other
races

Race not
reported

137,583

76,936

54,477

825

5,345

...

...

...

8.749
1,530

4,096
1.140

4,653
387

...

0
2

...

0
1

...

3,592
1,905
8,139

1,179
629
3,665

2,358
1,241
4,234

2
4
I99

53
31
41

4,747
2,113
16,534

2,078
1,198
11,002

2,659
907
5,532

...

3
0
0

...

7
8
0

726

651

75

...

...
...

...
...

...

...

79
23

809
84

...

...

...

...
...

...

17,402
1,375

...
...
280
...
...
1,561
...
...
302

...

...
...

11,096
1,045

...
...

224

...
...
1,296
...
...
281

...

5,418
223

...
...
3
...
...

136

...
...
9

...

...
...
...
46
...

...
...
0

...

...

...
7
...
...

47

...
...

82

...

...

12

...

...Data not available.


'Count for "other racesawasincluded in total
reported for black prisoners.

42 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Table7. Sentenced prlsonersadmltted t o Stateand Federal lnstltutlons, by race,


1985

Jurisdiction

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
West
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

166,743
19,881
146,862

86,494
14,029
72,465

...

190
1,182
228
1,741
2,755
2,296
282

7,126

2,512

5,055
1,241
3,032

2,311
889
1,873

227
6.763
502
1,942

189
3,869
389
1.195

3,102

1,439

672
2,015
14,675

319
71
7,701

1,649

1,252

3,622
1,863
8.844
3,872
4,061
1,849
19,335
4,191
750

1,144
670
4,162
2,547
1,734
1,072
8,324
1,946
633

...

...

20,278
1,828
346

12,718
1,019
98

...
...
...
...

...
...
...

...

...
...
...
...

1,929
670
1,792
326

Other
races

Race not
reported

...

201
1,961
242
4,144
11,631
4,743
383

...

Black

...
...
...

...
...

...
...

...

...
...
...
...

...

1,565
501
1,351
268

...

Data not available.


'Count for "other races" was included in total
reported for black prisoners.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 43

Tablo7. Sentenced prlsonorsadmittedto Stateand Federalinstitutions, by race,


1986
Jurisdiction

U.S. total
Federal
States
Northeart
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Vermont
North Central
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota
Ohio
South Dakota
Wisconsin
South
Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
Wart
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Hawaii
Idaho
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

Total

White

Black

3,132

1,969

1,159

241
7,425
550
2,082

206
4,233
416
1,255

3
3,189
14
773

2,947

1,295

1,647

614
1,811
18,941

273
52
8,497

341
1,747
9,421

1,781

1,32i

459

4,009
1,931
9,723
4,405
4,549
3,668
23,152
4,274
514

1,239
710
4,469
2,777
1,898
1,672
9,610
2,001
446

2,745
1,170
4,970
1,225
2.639
1,252
7,429
2,240
66

...
...

...
...

...
...

...

...
...
...

...
...

...

...
...

Other
races

Race not
reported

...

...

32

119
53
1

0
3
1
1
4

...

...

7
20

0
5
1,003

...

...

...

...
1

85
6
0

25
49
53
116
6
744
6,028
27
2

...
...

...
...

2
231
287
6

23,197
2,038
442

14,521
1,133
138

7,421
400
25

91
21
228

1,164
484
51

1,692

l,li2

407

43

130

...

...
...
...

1,916
636
1,621
301

1,513
454
1,135
251

242
56
302
9

58
11
53
13

103
115
131
28

...

......

......

...

......

...
...

...Data not available.

44 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Appendix A
National Prisoner Statistics data collection forms, 1926

Race of Prisoners Adm~%ted


to State and Federal institutions, 1926-86 45

46 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

DEPARTMENT OF CObfBfERCE
BUREAU
OF T E E CENSUS

Schedule 11.- DISCHARGES: 1926

PRISONS AND REFORMATORIES

Sheet No. ...

WASKINGTON

NAME OF INST~TUTION
.........................................

Sentenced prisoners lewing iwtitutions during the year.

ADDRESS .......................... ......... .......


(Ineludes departuree by death, escape, or transfer)

... . ... ...... . ... .......

.......

-r--.,"n..%o-

SENTENCE

d
$

NAME OR
SERIAL NUMBER

DAEfsPF
METHOD OF
CHARGE DISCRARGE

DATE OF
ADMISSION

DATE
SENTENCE
COMMENCED

OFFENSE

INDETERIIINATE
Minimum

(Y-W

Maximum

b-6)

IUPBBB OF PREVIOUS
COJIMITMEYTB TODefinite

bars)

Parso~s
OT~EE
OaRrn~oall- INSTWATU-B
TIONB

Appendix A
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUREAUO F THE CENSUS
WASHINDTON

Schedule 111.- MOVEMENT OF PRISON POPULATION: 1924


PRISONS AND REFORMATORIES
ADD RE^^ .......................................................................................................................................... ....
........--.....
.......

- ...
....

...
.

-.

. . .. . .

.........

............

. - .

. . . . . . . .

I[

~otai

--

. . . .-.

Male

-- .....

-.

Female

...........

PRISONERS ON BOOKS JANUARY 1


1. I n institution ..............................................................................................................................................

2. I n custody outside institution ..............................................................

.........................................................

Total prisoners, January 1 (sum of Items 1 and 2) ..........................................................................................

3.

ADMISSIONS DURING YEAR

4. From courts ................................................................................................................................................

5. Transferred from other institutions.................................................................................................................

6. Parole violators returned

7. Escapes recaptured ................................................................................. ..................

8. Other .....................................................................................................................
Total admissions (sum of Items 4 t o 8, inclusive)

9.
10. .

............--...................

I. . . .

..................

.............................
.
.
..

....--....
..............................................--....................
Sum of
Items 3 and 9 ..................
................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .- .
.
-

.-.-..

....
.............-:.
_....._.
--

DISCHARGES DURING YEAR


11. Discharged on expiration of sentence ........................................................................................................

12. Paroled

......................................................................................................................................................

13. Pardoned .............................................................................................. .................. ....................................

14. Commuted ..................................................................................................................................................

15. Esca.ped from institution ...............................................................................................................................

16. Escaped while outside of institution ................................................................................................................

17. Died .........................................................................................................................................................

18. Transferred to other institutions .....................................................................................................................

19. Other
20.

Total discharges (sum of Items 11 to 19, inclusive) ..........................................................................................

PRISONERS ON BOOKS DECEMBER 31

21. I n institution ..............................................................................................................................................

22. I n custody outside institution ...................................................................................................... ................,

23.

Tot,al prisoners December 31 (sum of Items 21 and 22) ......1

.......

Sum of Items 20 and 23.; should equal ........


Item 10.................................
... ..
........................
......-......-.. -......-.. ..-.
...
.-...
..
.-.
......

24-.

. . ... .
. .- . . . . . . . . . - . .
.
-..........

-.. -. .
. . . . . . . . . . . - . . . .
. . . . . -.....
.....-.
.-.. . . . . . -.
...........
.....
25. Average daily resident prison population during year .........................................................................................

26. Normal capacity ...................................................................................................... ................................

Report furnished by:


Signature ........................................................................ Title ........................................
~(-56a~ GPO

48 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUREAU
O F THE CENSUS
W AIEINQTON

Schedule 1V.- ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF: 1926


PRISONS AND REFORMATORIES
....................................................
.................................
...........
.............
.............................................................

ADDRESS
.......................
..
.....
...--I-..
..
..

...-.......-...

............

OFFICERSA ND EMPLOYEES
ACTUALLY
I N SERVICE
O N DECEMBER
31
.-

-.

Male

Total
-

..

p
p

- ...

Female

--

1. Superintendent or warden..............................................................................................................................

2. Assistant superintendents or wardens ..............................................................................................................

3. Stewards or business managers........................................................................................................................

4.

Physicians:
Full time ..............................................................................................................................................

Part time..............................................................................................................................................

Psychiatrists:

6.
Full time ..............................................................................................................................................

5.

Part time..............................................................................................................................................

7.

Psychologists:

8.
Full time ..............................................................................................................................................

Part time..............................................................................................................................................
Dentists:
10.
Full time ..............................................................................................................................................

9.

Part time..............................................................................................................................................

11.

12. Graduate nurses

13.

..........................................................................................................................................

Chaplains:
Full time ..............................................................................................................................................

Part time..............................................................................................................................................
Teachers:
15.
Full time .............................................................................................................................................

14.

16.

Part time..............................................................................................................................................

Parole officers:
17.
Full time ..............................................................................................................................................

18.

Part time..............................................................................................................................................

19. Keepers, guards, and other disciplinary officers ..................................................................................................

20. Matrons .....................................................................................................................................................

21. ................................................................................................................................................................

22. ................................................................................................................................................................

23. ................................................................................................................................................................

24. All other officers and employees ......................................................................................................................

25.

Total ................................................................................
.................................................................

Report furnished by:

8-5588

GPO

Signature ........................................................................ Title ................................

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 49

Appendix A
DEPARTMEKT OF CObIMERCE
BUREAUOF THE CENSUS
WASHINGTON

Schedule V.- FINANCIAL STATEMENT: 1926


PRISONS AND REFORMATORIES

.................................................................................... ................................, 192

FORTHE FISCALYEARENDIXG
(Give exact date)

....- -. ..........

--
.... .......- .. -

...........

- -....

.....

..- .........

...

..

...
-. ... .
-

--

RECEIPTS
1. Balance on hand from previous fiscal yenr ..............................................................$ ......................................
Include balanea lor mnintenance and all other purposes.

2. Received from appropriations ....................................................................................................................

3. Received from all other sources ..................................................................................................................

4.

Total receipts (sum of Items 1,2,and 3) ................................................................................................

DISBURSEMENTS
Expenditures for maintenance:
Under this heading should be included all expenditures for maintenance or prisoners and of plant, including ordi.
nary repairs. Expenditures for additions and permanent improvements should not he included.

.................. $....................................

5. Salaries and wages

6. Provisions (food) ...........................................................................................

7. Fuel, light, and water .....................................................................................

8. All other expenditures for maintenance ..............................................................

9.

Total expenditures for maintenance (sum of ltems 5,6,7, and 8).................................................................

10. Expenditures for improvements, including new buildings, additions, permanent better-

ments, etc. ..........................................................................................................................................


Under this heading sl~ouldbe included all expenditures for items. such as additional land, new buildings, new
equxpment, etc., ahich represent not restorations or replacements, but additions to plant.

11. Expenditures for other purposes, if any ........................................................................................................

12.

Total expenditures (sum of Items 9, 10,and 11)........................................................................................

13. Amount returned to State treasurer or other officials......................................................................................

14. Balance on hand a t close of year .................................................................................................................


Includes bnlance for maintenance and for all other purposes.

(sum of Items12,
13, and 14; also equal to Item 4) ..........................................-........-..-.................
............
15.
...

.....
.
.

. . . . . . . . Tot,al
---....- ....... --....A.
-
-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report furnished by:
Signature ........................................................................

50 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Instirurions, 1926-86

Title ................................

Appendix B

The various sources of prisoner statistics


that form the basis of the historical compilation contained in this report give no indication that many individual prisoner
records collected in the admission series
were missing a designation of race. The
earliest publications of National Prisoner
Statistics, covering the years 1926 to
1930, included statistical tables that spec-

ified the number of admltted prisoners

whose race was not reported. In 1926,

only 82 out of the total 38,818 State pris-

oner records received, and only 4 out of

the total 5,010 Federal prisoner records

received lacked a race designation (ap-

pendix table 1). In 1930 only 10 records

were missing a designation of race, out of

the total 56,213 State records, and only 1

out of 9,800 Federal records. Apparently

because so few prisoner records lacked

a designation of race, the practice of identifying the number of missing cases was
dropped after the 1930 publication of National Prisoner Statistics. Subsequent
publications typically combined missing
cases with "other race" prisoners, the iatter category primarily consisting of American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, and
Pacific Islanders.
In 1977 the Federal agency responsible
for administering National Prisoner Statistics, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, reinstituted the practice of tabulating
separately the number of admitted State
prisoners whose race was unknown. Of
54,023 State prisoner records compiled
that year, 65 lacked a designation of race.
The number of incomplete records has
grown considerably since then, largely
because the number of States participating in the admission series has grown. In
1986, 15,637 State records lacked a designation of race, the largest number ever
recorded. Nevertheless, the 15,637 represent only 9% of the 167,474 State
records received. More generally, in no
year d o cases lacking a designation of
race represent more than about 10% of
State records received (appendix table 2).

Appendix table 1. Number of prison admission records


missing a designation of race

Year
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931-70

1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986

Admission records with

nodesignationof race

Total
State
Federal

86
177
11

10
11

82
22

155

10
10

2,289
4,470
2,087
3,787

65
1,025
657
806

3.819
3,388
5,345
13,178
15,637

680
1.642
4,651
11,720
15.637

1,243

1,183

1,138

2,224

3,445

1,430

2,981

1,920

3,139

1,746

694

1,458

-Not reported.

Appendix table 2. Number of prison admission

records with a deslgnation of race as a percentage

of records received

Admission records
Designationof race
Not
Percentnot
Missing
missing
missing

Year

Total

1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931-76

1977
1978
1979
1980
1981

1982
1983
1984
1985
1986

43,328
44,062
48,212
58,906
66,013

86
177
11
10
11

43,242
43,885
48,201
58.896
66,002

72,183
95,502
94,828
134,634

2,289
4,470
2,087
3,787

69,894
91,032
92,741
130,847

96

95

97

97

131,617
122,575
137,583
166,743
183,769

3,819
3,388
5,345
13,178
15,637

127,798
119,187
132,238
153,565
168,132

97

97

96

92

91

99%

99

99

99

99

-Not reported.

Regarding Federal prisoners, the conciusion is much the same. According to annual reports of the Bureau of Prisons,
detailed informationsuch as race is typically missing on no more than about 10%
to 15% of admissions to Federal prisons.

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 51

Appendix C

Sources on table 1

Sources for total admlsslonsfrom courts


(column b)
1926-30 Prlsoners In Stateand Federal

Prlsons and Reformatorles1929

and 1930, Bureau of the Census,

U.S. Departmentof Commerce, 1932,

pp. 8-9, table 5

1931 PrisonersIn State and Federal

Prlsons and Reformatorles 1931

and 1932, Bureauof the Census,

U.S. Departmentof Commerce, 1934,

p.4, table 4

1932 PrlsonersIn State and Federal

Prlsons and Reformatorles 1933,

Bureau of the Census, U.S. Depart-

mentof Commerce, 1935, p. 2, table 1

1933 Prlsoners In State and Federal

Prlson Reformatorles1934, Bureau

of the Census, U.S.Deparlment of

Commerce, 1936, p. 2, table 1

1934 Prlsoners in State and Federal

Prlson Reformatorles1935, Bureau

of the Census, U.S. Deparbnentof

Commerce, 1937, p. 2, table 1

1935-36 Prlsonersin state and Federal

Prlson Reformatorles1936. Bureau

of the Census, U.S. ~epartmentof

Commerce, 1938, p. 3, table 1

1937-39 PrisonersIn Stateand Federal

Prison Reformatorles1941, Bureau

of the Census, U.S. Departmentof

Commerce, 1944, p. 6, table 3

1940-70 Prlsoners In State and Federal

hstltutlons for Adult Felons

1968,1969,1970, National Prisoner

Statistics Bulletin, number 47, Bureau

of Prisons, U.S. Departmentof

Justice, 1972, p. 3, table 2

1974 Prlsoners in State and Federal

hstltutlons on December 31,1974,

National Prisoner Sfatistics Bulletin,

SD-NPS-PSF-2, Law Enforcement

Assistance Administration, U.S.

Departmentof Justice, 1976, p. 22,

table 5

1975 Prlsoners In State and Federal

hstltutlons on December 31,1975,

National Prisoner Statistics Bulletin,

SD-NPS-PSF-3, Law Enforcement

Assistance Administration, U.S.

Deparlmentof Jusfce, 1977, p. 22,

table 4

1976 Prlsoners In State and Federal

hstltutions on December31.1976.

National Prisoner Statistics ~dletin,.

SD-NPS-PSF-4, Law Enforcement

Assistance Administration, U.S.

Deparlmentof Justice, 1978, p. 22,

table 4

1977 Prlsoners In State and Federal

hstltutlons on December 31,1977,

National Prisoner Statistics ~dletin,

SD-NPS-PSF-5, Law Enforcement

Assistance Administration, U.S.

Departmentof Jusiice, 4 979, p. 46,

table 7

1978 Prlsoners In State and Federal

lnstltutlons on December 31,1978,

National Prisoner Statistics Biletin, .

NCJ-64671, Bureau of Justice Statis-

tics, U.S. DepartmentofJustice, 1980,

p. 22, table 10

1979 Prlsoners In State and Federal

lnstltutlons on December 31,1979,

National Prisoner Statistics Bulletin,

NCJ-73719, Bureau of Justice Statis-

tics, U.S. DepartmentofJusfce, 1981,

p. 20, table 10

1980 PrlsonersIn State and Federal

lnstltutlons on December 31,1980,

National Prisoner Statistics Bulletin,

NCJ-80520, Bureau of Justice Statis-

tics, U.S. DepartmentofJustice, 1982,

p.24, table 12

1981 Prlsoners In State and Federal

lnstltutlons on December 31,1981,

National Prisoner Statistics Bulletin.

NCJ-86485, Bureau of Justice Statis-

tics, U.S. DepartmentofJustice, 1983,

p. 24, table 12

1982 PrlsonersIn State and Federal

lnstltutlons on December 31,1982,

National Prisoner Statistics Report,

NCJ-93311, Bureau of Justice Statis-

tics, U.S. DepartmentofJustice, 1984,

p. 26, table 12

1983 ~rlsonersIn State and Federal

lnstltutlons on December 31.1983.

National Prisoner Statistics ~ b r t .,

NCJ-99861, Bureau of Justice Statis-

tics, U.S. Departmentof Jusfce, 1986,

p. 22, table 10

1984 Prlsoners In State and Federal

lnstltutlons on December31,1984,

National Prisoner Statistics Report,

NCJ-103768, Bureau of Justice

Statistics, U.S. Departmentof Justice,

1987, p. 22, table 10

1985 Correctional PopulationsIn the

United States,1985, National Pris-

oner Statistics Report, NCJ-103957,

Bureau of Justice Statistic, U.S.

Departmentof Justice, 1987, p. 61,

table 5.10a

1986 Correctional Populationsin the

Unlted States, 1986, National Pris-

oner Statistics Report, NCJ-111611,

Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S.

De-nt
of Justice, 1989, p. 53,

table 5.10a

52 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

Sources for State and Federal prison


admlssions(column e)
1926 Prisoners in State and Federal
Prisonsand Reformatories 1926,

Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1929, p. 31, taMe


26; pp. 80-81, table 57
1927 Prlsoners in State and Federal
Prisonsand Reformatories 1Q27,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1931, pp. 68-69,
table 48
1928 Prisonersin State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatorles 1928,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Departmentof Commerce, 1931, p. 13, table
7; p. 23, table 14
1929 Prisoners in State and Federal
Prisonsand Reformatorles 1929
and 1930, Bureau of the Census,
U.S. Deparbnentof Commerce, 1932,
pp. 66-67, table 42b
1930 Prisoners in State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1929
and 1930, Bureauof the Census,
U.S. Deparbnentof Commerce, 1932,
pp. 64-65, table 42a
1931 Prisonersin State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1931
and 1932, Bureau of the Census,
U.S. Deparbnentof Cornmerce, 1934,
p. 60, table 55
1932 Prisoners in State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1931
and 1932, Bureauof the Census,
U.S. Deparbnentof Cornmerce, 1934,
p. 60, table 55
1933 Prisonersin State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1933,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. ~epartl
rnent of Commerce.. 1935..D
. . 24..
table 22
1934 Prlsonersin State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatorles1934.
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Departmentof Comrnerce, 1936, p. 29,
table 27
1935 Prisonersin State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatorlee1935,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Departmentof Commerce, 1937, p. 34,
table 27
1936 Prisonersin State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories1936,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Departmentof Commerce, 1938, p. 34,
table 25
1937 Prisoners in State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1937,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Departmentof Commerce, 1939, p. 12,
table 9; p.28,table 22
1938 Prisonersin State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatorles 1938,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Departmentof Commerce, 1941, p. 12,
table 9; p. 27, table 21

1939 Prlsonersin State and Federal


Prlsons and Reformatories 1939,

Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1941, p. 11,


table 9; p. 28, table 23
1940 ~ r i s o n i r isn State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatorles 1940.
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Departmentof Commerce, 1943,p. 18,
tabie 11; p. 33, table 22
1941 Prisoners In State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1941,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1944, p. 16,
table 11;p. 41, table 27
1942 Prisoners in State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1942,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1945, p. 23,
table 18; p. 26, table 21
1943 Prisonersin State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1943,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Departmentof Commerce, 1946, p. 23,
table 13; p. 25, table 15
1944 Prisoners in State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1944,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Cornmerce, 1946, p. 24,
table 13;p. 26, table 15
1945 Prisoners in State and Federal
Prisons and Reformatories 1945,
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Comrnerce, 1947, p. 24,
table 13;P. 26. table 15
1946 prisoners in state and Federal
Prisons and Reformatorles 1946.
Bureauof the Census, U.S. ~ e p a i
ment of Commerce, 1948, p. 27,
table 15;p. 30, table 17
1947 Prisoners in State and Federal
Institutions 1950, Bureau of Prisons,
U.S. Departmentof Justice, 1954,
p. 34, table 3
1948 Prisoners in State and Federal
Institutions 1950, Bureau of Prisons,
U.S. Departmentof Justice, 1954,
p. 34, table 3
1949 Prisoners in State and Federal
Institutions 1950, Bureau of Prisons,
U.S. Departmentof Justice, 1954,
p. 34, table 3
1950 Prisoners in State and Federal
Institutions 1950, Bureau of Prisons,
U.S. Departmentof Justice, 1954,
p. 54, table 20; p. 55, table 21
1960 Source of State figures: Characteristics of State Prisoners 1960, National Prisoner Statistics Bulletin,
Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Department
of Justice, 1961, footnote 6 on p. 5;
p. 40, table A1
Source of Federalfigures: Federal
Prisons 1960, Bureauof Prisons,
U.S. Departmentof Justice, 1961,
p. 50, table 17

1964 Source of State figures: State

Prisoners: Admissions and


Releases, 1964, National Prisoner
Statistics Bulletin, Bureauof Prisons,
U.S. Departmentof Justice, 1965,
footnote 3 on p. 5; and p. 16, table A-l
Source of Federalfigures: Statistlcal
Tables Fiscal Year 1964, Bureauof
Prisons, U.S. Departmentof Justice,
April 1965, p. 43, table D-3
1970 Source of State figures: State
Prisoners: Admissions and
Releases, 1970, National Prisoner
Statistics Bulletin, Bureau of Prisons,
U.S. Deparbnentof Justice, p. 5,
table A-1
Source of Federalfigures: Statistical
Report Fiscal Years 1969and 1970,
Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Deparbnentof
Justice, April 1972, p. 52, table B-1
1974 Source of State figures: Admissions
and Releases: Persons Enterlng
and Leaving State Corredonal Institutions 1974-1976, unpublished report of Census Bureau, April 15,1980,
table 3; Bureau of the Census, U.S.
Departmentof Commerce. Admissions and Releases, 1974. Bureau
of the Census memorandum, 1980,
tables 6 and 7 (State data for white
and black)
Source of Federal figures: Statistical
ReportsFiscal Year 1974, Bureau of
Prisons, U.S. Departmentof Justice,
June 1976, table B-1
1975 Source of State figures: Admissions
and Releases: ~GrsonsEntering
and Leavina State CorrectionalIn.
stltutlons 1574-1976,unpublishedreport of Bureau of the Census, U.S.
DepartmentofCommerce, April 15,
1980, table 3; Admissionsand R e
leases, 1975, Bureauof the Census
memorandum, 1980, tables 6 and 7
(State data for white and Mack)
Source of Federal figures: Statistical
ReportsFiscal Year 1975, Bureauof
Prisons, U.S. Departmentof Justice,
February 1977,table B-1
1976 Source of State figures: Admissions
and Releases: Persons Entering
and Leaving State Correctional Institutions 19744976,unpublishsdreport of Bureau of the census, U.S.
Departmentof Comrnerce. April 15,
1980, table 3; Admissions and R e
leases, 1975, Bureauof the Census
memorandum, 1980,tables 6 and 7
(State data for white and black)
Source of Federal figures: Statlstlcal
Report Fiscal Years 1976-1977,
Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Department
of Justice, February 1979,table 5 1

Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86 53

1977 Source of State figures: Admissions


and Measm: persons Entering
and Leavlna State Correctional
hstltution<l977, unpublished
report of Bureau of the Census, July
30,1982, table 2
Source of Federal figures: Statistical
Report Fiscal Years 1976-1977, Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Departmentof
Justice, February 1979, table 8 1
1978 Source of State figures: Unpublished B u m u ofthe ~en&s,tabubtbn dated Se~tember9.1982.
Bureau of ust tick statistics; U.S. Deparlmentof Justice, table 6
Source of Federalfigures: Statistical
Report Fiscal Years 1978-1980, Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Departmentof
Justice, undated, table B-2
1979 Source of State figures Unpublished Bureau of the Census, tabulation dated August 5,1982, Bureau
of Justice Statistics, U.S. Deparbnent
of Justice
Source of Federalfigures: Statistkal
Report Fiscal Years 197G1980, Bureau of Prisons, U.S. D e m e n t of
Justice, undated, table B-1
1980 Source of State figures: Unpublished Bureau of the Census,
tabulation dated December 31,
1982, Bureauof Justice Statistics,
U.S. DewrbTlentof Justice. tabie 1
Source b Federalfigures: 'Statistical
Rewrt Fiscal Years 197M980.
Buieau of Prisons, U.S. ~eparimint
of Justice, undated, table B-2
1981 Source of State figures: Prlson
Admisalons and Releases 1981,
Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. D e
parlmentofJustice, 1984. The number of State prison admissions
(108,901) was taken from note 1 of
table 2 of the d b d source.
Source of Federalfigures: Statistical
Report Fiscal Years 1981-1983,
Bureau of Prisons, US. Department
of Justice, March 1983, table B-1
1982 Source of State figures: Unputt
lished Bureau of the Census, tabubtion dated February 12,1985,
Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S.
Deparlmentof Justice, table 1
Source of Federalfigures: Statistical
Report Fiscal Years 1981-1983,
Bureauof Prisons, U.S. Department
of Justice, undated, table B-1

1983 Source of State figures: Tabulation


prepared from ICPSR data set #8363:
Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Dep m n t of Justice,. NatlonalCorrections Reportlng Program, 1983
(United States) (computer file), conducted by Bureau of the Census, U.S.
Deparlmentof Commerce, second
ICPSR ed., Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and
Social Research (producer and disHbutor)
Source of Federalfigures: Statistical
Report Fiscal Years 1981-1983, Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Departmentof
Justice, undated, tabie B-1
1984 Source of State figures: Tabulation
prepared from ICPSR data set #8497:
Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Departmentof Justice, National Corrections Reporting Program, 1984,
(United States) (computer file), conducted by Bureau of the Census, U.S.
Departmentof Commerce, second
ICPSR ed., Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for~oliticaland
Social Research (Droducerand distributor)
SourGof Federalfigures: Statistical
Remrt Fiscal Year 1984. Bureau of
prisons, U.S. ~eparbnentof~ustice,
undated, table B-1
1985 Source of State fiaures: Tabulation
prepared from ICFSRdata set #8918:
Bureau of Justice Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice,. ~atio'nalCor'rections Fieporting Program, 1985
lUnited Statssl (comwuter file), conkuctctd by ~ureau
of &e census, U.S.
Departmentof Commerce, second
ICPSR ed., Ann Arbor, Mi: Inter-university Consortium for Political and
Social Research (producer and distributor)
Source of Federalfigures: Statistical
Report Fiscal Year 1985, Bureau of
Prisons, U.S. Departmentof Justice,
undated, table B-1
1986 Tabulation prepared from ICPSR data
set #9276: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. DeparbnentofJustice. National CorrectionsReporting
Program, 1986: (United States)
(computer file), conducted by Bureau
of the Census, U.S. Deparbnentof
Commerce, ICPSR ed., Ann Arbor,
Mi: lnter-universityConsortium for
Political and Social Research (wroducer and distributor)

54 Race of Prisoners Admitted to State and Federal Institutions, 1926-86

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Call toll-free 800.732.3277 (local 301251-5500) to order BJS reports, to be


added to one of the BJS mailing lists,
or to speak to a reference specialist in
statistics at the Justice Statistics
Clearinghouse, National Criminal
Justice Reference Service, Box 6000,
Rockville, MD 20850.
BJS maintains the following mailing
lists:
Law enforcement reports (new)
Drugs and crime data (new)
Justice spending & employment
White-collar crime
National Crime Survey (annual)
Corrections (annual)
Courts (annual)
Privacy and security of criminal
history information and
information policy
Federal statistics (annual)
BJS bulletins and special reports
(approximately twice a month)
Sourcebook of Criminal Justice
Statistics (annual)
Single copies of reports are free; use
NCJ number to order. Postage and
handling are charged for bulk orders
of single reports. For single copies of
multiple titles, up to 10 titles are free;
11-40 titles $10; more than 40, $20;
libraries call for special rates.
Public-use tapes of BJS data sets
and other criminal justice data are
available from the National Archive of
Criminal Justice Data (formerly
CJAIN), P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI
48106 (toll-free 1-800.999-0960).

National Crime Survey


The Nation's two crime measures: Uniform
Crime Reports and the National Crime
Survey, NCJ-122705, 4190
Criminal victimization in the U.S.:
1988 (final), NCJ-122024, 10190
1987 (final report), NCJ-115524,6189

BJS special reports


Handgun crime victims, NCJ-123559, 7190
Black victims, NCJ-122562,4/90
Hispanic victims, NCJ-120507, 1190
The redesigned National Crime Survey:
Selected new data, NCJ-114746, 1189
Motor vehicle theft, NCJ-109978,3188
Elderly victims, NCJ-107676, 11/87
Violent crime trends, NCJ-107217, 11187
Robbery victims NCJ-104638,4187
Violent crime by strangers and nonstrangers, NCJ-103702, 1/87
Preventing domestic violence against
women, NCJ-102037, 8/86
Crime prevention measures, NCJ-100438,
3186
The use of weapons in committing crimes,
NCJ-99643, 1/86
Reporting crimes to the police, NCJ-99432,
12185
Locating city, suburban, and rural crime,
NCJ-99535, 12/85
The economic cost of crime to victims,
NCJ-93450, 4/84
Family violence, NCJ-93449, 4184

BJS bulletins:
Criminal victimization 1989, NCJ-125615,
10190
Crime and the Nation's households, 1989,
NCJ-124544,9190
The crime o f rape, NCJ-98777, 3185
Household burglary, NCJ-96021, 1185
Measuring crime, NCJ-75710, 2/81

B J S technical reports
New directions for the NCS, NCJ-115571,
3189
Series crimes: Report of a field test,
NCJ-104615. 4187

Female victims of violent crime,


NCJ.127187, 1191
Redesign of the National Crime Survey,
NCJ-111457,3189
The seasonality of crime victimization,
NCJ-111033,6188
Crime and older Americans information
package, NCJ-104569,$10, 5/87
Teenage victims, NCJ-103138, 12/86
Victimization and fear of crime: World
perspectives, NCJ-93872, 1185, $9.15
The National Crime Survey: Working papers,
voi. I: Current and historical perspectives,
NCJ-75374, 8182
vol. il: Methodology studies, NCJ-90307

Corrections
BJS bulletins and special reports:
Capital punishment 1989, NCJ-124545, 10190
Violent State prison inmates and their
victims, NCJ-124133, 7/90
Prisoners in 1989, NCJ-122716, 5190
Prison rule violators, NCJ-120344, 12189
Capital punishment 1988, NCJ-118313, 7/89
Recidivism of prisoners released in 1983,
NCJ-116261, 4189
Drug use and crime: State prison inmate
survey, 1986, NCJ-111940, 7188
Time served in prison and on parole 1984,
NCJ-108544, 12/87
Profile of State prison inmates, 1986,
NCJ-109926, 1188
Imprisonment in four countries,
NCJ-103967, 2/87
Population density in State prisons,
NCJ-103204, 12/86
State and Federal prisoners, 1925.85,
NCJ-102494, 11/86
Prison admissions and releases, 1983,
NCJ-100582, 3186
The prevalence of imprisonment,
NCJ-93657, 7185
National corrections reporting program,
1985, NCJ-123522, 12/90
Prisoners at midyear 1990 (press release),
10190
Correctional populations in the US.:
1988, NCJ-124280,3191
1987, NCJ-118762, 12/89
1986, NCJ-111611, 2/89
Historical statistics on prisoners in State and
Federal institutions, yearend 1925.86,
NCJ-111098,6188
1984 census of State adult correctional
facilities, NCJ-105585, 7187
Census of jails and survey of jail inmates:
BJS bulletins and special reports:
Jail inmates, 1989, NCJ-123264,6190
Population densitv in local .iails.. 1988..
NCJ-122299, 3/90
Census of local jails, 1988 (BJS bulletin),
NCJ-121101,2/90
Jail inmates, 1987, NCJ-114319, 12/88
Dmnk driving, NCJ-109945,2/88
Jail inmates, 1986, NCJ-107123, 10187
Census of local jails 1988, vol. I, Summary,
NCJ-127992,4191
Census of local jails, 1983: Data for
individual jails, vols. I-IV, Northeast,
Midwest, South, West, NCJ-112796-9;
vol. V. Selected findings, methodology,
summary tabies, NCJ-112795, 11188
Our crowded jails: A national plight,
NCJ-111848, 8/88

Parole and probation


BJS bulletins
Probation and parole:
1989, NCJ-125833, 11190
1988, NCJ-119970, 11189
Setting prison terms, NCJ.76218, 8183

BJS special reports


Recidivism of young parolees, NCJ-104916,
5187

Children in custody
Census of public and private juvenile
detention, correctional, and shelter
facilities, 1975.85, NCJ-114085,6189
Survey of youth in custody, 1987
(special report), NCJ-113365,9/88

Law enforcement management

Drugs & crime data:

BJS bulletins and special reports:

State drug resources: A national directory,


NCJ-122582, 5190
Federal drug data for national policy, NCJ122715, 4190
Drugs and crime facts, 1989, NCJ-121022,
1/90

Police departments in large cities, 1987,


NCJ-119220, 8/89
Profile of state and local law enforcement
agencies, NCJ-113949,3/89

Expenditure and employment


BJS bulletlns:
Justice expenditure and employment:
1988, NCJ-123132, 7190
Anti.dntg abuse formula grants: Justice
variable pass.through data, 1988 (BJS
Technical Report), NCJ-120070, 3190
Justice expenditure and employment:
1985 (full report), NCJ-106356, 8189
Extracts, 1984, 1985, 1986, NCJ-125619,4191
Extracts, 1982 and 1983, NCJ-106829, 8188

Computer crime
BJS speclal reports:
Electronic fund transfer fraud, NCJ-96666,
3185
Electronic fund transfer and crime, NCJ92650, 2/64
Electronic fund transfer systems fraud, NCJ100461, 4/86
Expert witness manual, NCJ-77927, 9/81,
$11.50

Courts

Federal justice statistics

BJS bulletins:

Federal criminal case processing, 1980.87,


Addendum for 1988 and preliminary 1989,
NCJ-125616, 11190
Compendium of Federal iustice statistics

Pretrial release of felony defendants, 1988,


NCJ-127202. 2/91
Felony sentences in State courts, 1988,
NCJ-126923, 12/90
Criminal defense for the poor, 1986,
NCJ-112919, 9188
State felony courts and felony laws,
NCJ-106273. 8/87
The growth o f appeals: 1973.83 trends,
NCJ-96381, 2/85
Case filings in State courts 1983,
NCJ-95111, 10184

BJS speclal reports:


Felony case processing in State courts,
1986, NCJ-121753, 2190
Felony case-processingtime, NCJ-101985,
8/86
Felony sentencing in 18 local jurisdictions,
NCJ-97681, 6185
Felons sentenced to probation in State
courts, 1986, NCJ-124944, 11190
Felony defendants in large urban counties,
1988, NCJ-122385,4/90
Profile of felons convicted in State courts,
1986, NCJ-120021, 1190
Sentencing outcomes in 28 felony courts,
NCJ-105743,8/87
National criminal defense systems study,
NCJ-94702, 10186
The prosecution of felony arrests:
1987, NCJ-124140, 9/90
1986, NCJ-113248, 6/89
Felony laws of the 50 States and the District
of Columbia, 1986, NCJ-105066, 2/88, $14.60
State court model statistical dictionary,
Supplement, NCJ-98326,9185
1st edition, NCJ-62320, 9180

Privacy and security


Compendium of State privacy and security
legislation:
1989 overview, NCJ-121157, 5190
1987 overview, NCJ-111097, 9188
1989 full report (1, 500 pages,
microfiche $2, hard copy $145),
NCJ-121158,9190
Criminal justice information policy:
Survey of criminal history information
systems, NCJ-125820, 3191
Original records of entry, NCJ-125626,
12/90
BJSISEARCH conference proceedings:
Criminal justice in the 1990's: The future
of information management,
NCJ-121697, 5/90
Juvenile and adult records: One system,
one record?, NCJ-114947, 1190
Open vs. confidential records,
NCJ-113560, 1188
Strategies for improving data quality,
NCJ-115339, 5189
Public access to criminal history record
information, NCJ-111458, 11/88
Juvenile records and rewrdkeeping
systems, NCJ-112815, 11188
Automated fingerprint identification
systems: Technology and policy issues,
NCJ-104342,4187
Criminal justice "hot" files, NCJ-101850,
12186
Crime control and criminal records (BJS
special report), NCJ-99176, 10185

1984 NCJ-112816; 9189


The Federal civil justice system (BJS
bulletin), NCJ-104769,8187
Federal offenses and offenders
BJS special reports:
Immigration offenses, NCJ-124546, 8/90
Federal criminal cases, 1980-87,
NCJ-118311, 7189
Dmg law violators, 1980.86, NCJ 111763,
6188
Pretrial release and detention:
The Bail Reform Act of 1984,
NCJ-109929, 2188
White.collar crime NCJ-106876,9187

General
BJS bulletins and special reports:
BJS telephone contacts, '91, NCJ-124547,
4191
Tracking offenders, 1987, NCJ-125315,
10190
Criminal cases in five states, 1983.86,
NCJ-118798, 9189
International crime rates, NCJ-110776, 5/88
Tracking offenders, 1984, NCJ-109686,1188
Tracking offenders: Whiie.collar crime,
NCJ-102867, 11186
Police employment and expenditure,
NCJ-100117, 2/86
Violent crime in the United States,
NCJ-127855,3191
Attorney General's program for improving the
Nation's criminal history records and
identifying felons who attempt to purchase
firearms, NCJ-128131, 3/91
BJS data report, 1989, NCJ-121514, 1/91
Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics,
1989, NCJ-124224,9190
Publications of BJS, 1985.89:
Microfiche library, PR030014, 5190, $190
Bibliography, TB0030013, $17.50
Publications of BJS, 1971.84:
Microfiche library, PR030012, $203
Bibliography, TB030012, $17 50
1990 directory of automated criminal.justice
information systems, Vol. 1, Corrections; 2,
Courts; 3, Law enforcement; 4, Probation
and parole; 5, Prosecution; NCJ-122226.30,
5190
BJS annual report, fiscal 1988, NCJ-115749,
4189
Report to the Nation on crime and justice:
Second edition, NCJ-105506,6/88
Technical appendix, NCJ-112011, 8188
Criminal justice microcomputer guide and
software catalog, NCJ-112178, 8188
National survey of crime severity, NCJ-96017,
10185

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Privacy and security of criminal
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Justice expenditure and employment
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