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CHAPTER 3

SUPER STRUCTURE

Definition

- physical or conceptual structure extended or developed from a basic form.

- The part of a building or other structure above the foundation

structure extended or developed from a basic form. - The part of a building or other

SUPER STRUCTURE

3.1 Load Distribution

3.2 Building

3.2.1 Ground Floor

3.2.2 Column

3.2.3 Upper Floor

3.2.4 Staircase

3.2.5 Roof

3.2.6 Finishing

3.2.7 Mechanical & Electrical Services

3.2.8 External Works Attached to Building

SUPER STRUCTURE

3.3 Infrastructure

3.3.1 Road Works

3.3.2 Drainage System

3.3.3 Retaining Wall

3.3.4 Landscape

3.3.5 M&E Works

3.4 Specializes Construction

3.4.1 Bridges

3.4.2 Box Culvert

3.4.3 Dam

3.4.4 Air Port

3.4.5 High Rise Building

3.1 Load Distribution

3.1 Load Distribution must consider not only what loading conditions might effect a structure, but also how those loads are transferred from their point of origin through the structure to the ground. design decisions concerning the structural framing system will dictate this flow of forces Normally base on load from

-

-

-

 

-

Dead load

-

Wind load

 

Life load

-

- Flow of load distribution

 

-

Roof – truss – roof beam – column – foundation

-

Wall – beam – column – foundation

 
 

-

Slab – beam – column – foundation

Load distribution of frame structure:

Load distribution of frame structure:

Load of roof coverings plus any rain, wind and other loads transfered to roof slab. Then, load from slab accepted by beam and transfered to columns. • Load in infill panel transfered to edge beam a base. Then main and edge beam loads tramferred to columns. • Live and loads of floor transferred to secondary beam and then transferred to main beams. • All total column loads transferred to foundation.

Finally, subsoil.

total

foundation

load

transferred to

on

Frame Structure

Frame Structure

fajaruddin mustakim
fajaruddin mustakim

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Example of load distribution

Example of load distribution 8
Example of load distribution 8

3.1

Load Distribution

of the frame is illustrated as a large arrow pointing down. This load is split into two parts, with a proportional part going to each end of the beam. This in turn becomes a point load at the midspan of the smaller beams. They transfer the load to the earth. The load on each column in this case is only one quarter of the initial load. This is one method of distributing a load.

The load at the midspan of the joist

is only one quarter of the initial load. This is one method of distributing a load.
3.1 Load Distribution •   a wooden floor of thick planks that span between two

3.1 Load Distribution

a wooden floor of thick planks that

span between two beams. Each of the four squares of the flat surfaces is the tributary area of the beam below it. A tributary area of a structural element (such as a joist, beam, column, or wall) is the area that

The second drawing illustrates

contributes to the loading of that specific element. In this case, the plans transfer their loads and pass them on to the two beams. These beams can only transfer their loads equally to the two columns which support them. Thus, the tributary area can be drawn by determining the supporting characteristics of the horizontally spanning members.

3.1 Load Distribution

3.1 Load Distribution •   This is again illustrated below for a simple frame structure .

This is again illustrated below for a simple frame structure. The loads are gathered by each structural element and passed on to that element's supporting elements. These supports in turn pass their loads to the next supporting element until the original load has been transferred all the way to the earth.

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3.1 Load Distribution

3.1 Load Distribution •   The load distribution pattern and the explicit summation of the loads

The load distribution pattern and the explicit summation of the loads can have a direct effect upon the size of the elements. Load distribution often causes unequal loading of the vertical supporting members. This may or may not be indicated by the designed form of that element.

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Load distribution? How?

Load distribution ? How? 13

Load distribution? How?

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3.2

Building

3.2.1 Ground Floor (Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended Floor)

3.2.2 Column

3.2.3 Upper Floor

3.2.4 Staircase

3.2.5 Roof

3.2.6 Finishing

3.2.7 Mechanical & Electrical Services

3.2.8 External Works Attached to Building

This is typical step of building construction, it may have some

various when it came to real practices

Good luck J

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3.2.1 Ground Floor

(Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean

Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended Floor)

: Setting Out, Lean Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended

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3.2.1 Ground Floor

(Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean

Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended Floor)

: Setting Out, Lean Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended
: Setting Out, Lean Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended

3.2.1 Ground Floor

(Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean

Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended Floor)

: Setting Out, Lean Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended
: Setting Out, Lean Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended

Damp proof course (wall)

Damp proof course (wall) 20
Damp proof course (wall) 20

20

Damp proof membrane (slab)

Damp proof membrane (slab) 21
Damp proof membrane (slab) 21

Floor insulation

Floor insulation Insulation Material (wool) Insulation floor panel will be install above 22

Insulation

Material

(wool)

Floor insulation Insulation Material (wool) Insulation floor panel will be install above 22

Insulation floor panel will be install above

polythene sheet 23
polythene sheet 23

polythene sheet

3.2.1 Ground Floor

(Non Suspended Floor : Setting Out, Lean

Concrete, Ground Beam, Ground Slab, Starter bars, Water Proofing, Plastic Sheet, Suspended Floor)

- Provide a level surface that is capable of supporting all the live and dead loads imposed - Critical with moisture - need water proofing (chemical product, liquid or powder) - sometime, plastic sheet is just enough - depend with site condition normally mention in drawing or document contract - Lean concrete (less cement ratio than aggregate -for filling) - Construct base on setting out - shape, point, corner, drop, construction joint - Define structure level - check with all drawing, such as shop drawing (eg: lift / excavator), construction drawing of C&S and Architect) - Always refer with general detail drawing

3.2.1

Ground Floor (Non Suspended)

- Ground floor include - Ground beam - Backfill inside ground beam - Lean concrete - Anti-termite protection - Damp proof membrane - Install rebar (bb, bt, tb & tt) - Thickness normally around 150mm to 200mm (can be more) - Density depend on specification (25N/mm 2 , 30N/mm 2 or more) - Construct base on setting out - shape, point, corner, drop, gradient, construction joint - Define structure level - check with all drawing, such as shop drawing, construction drawing of C&S and Architect) - Always refer with general detail drawing - Always provide starter bars for next structure (slab or column)

3.2.1

Ground Floor (Non Suspended)

- only use side formwork to form shape of the ground floor - define M&E and services piping or ducting location and level before place concrete - Install chairs for spacer - Set up joint inspection, joint survey (architect, engineer, surveyor) - check with all drawing, such as shop drawing, construction drawing of C&S and Architect) - Set up machineries, manpower, tools, equipment, materials, logistic, weather forces before proceed with concreting - Always plan for back up (during concreting) - Pouring concrete can be done by using concrete bucket and crane or concrete pump - Side formwork can be removed after 1 days (depend on size of the structure)

3.2.1

Ground Floor (Non Suspended)

Function of floor

- The provision of a uniform, level surface

- Sufficient strength and stability

- Durability

- Sound Insulation

- Thermal insulation

- Fire Protection The load of floor is made up of:

- Dead Load – self weight

- Life Load – such as furniture, equipment or machinery, people and etc.

2.2.2 Column
2.2.2
Column
Suspended Floor
Suspended Floor

-Avoid settlement from the soft soil. -More stable and overcome the crack due the soft ground - The reinforced concrete floor slab is kept free of the perimeter walls. - The mesh reinforcement in the slab is placed in the top with 1" covers. The slab is constructed on well compacted granular fill, crushed stone or marl

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3.2.2

Column

3.2.2 Column 30
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3.2.2

Column

- starter bars, check on numbers, size, location, lap length - many shape, - square, round, diamond, triangle, combination of any shape - alignment and orientation of column - vertical or arch - height of column depend on structure and architect drawing (calculate or stated) - Set numbers of formwork (recycle concept, save time and cost) - Install vertical bars with sufficient number of link and check - Lap length (bottom and top) - Shape of link - Spacer block - Install M&E piping or ducting - Install formwork base from setting out and check verticality of the formwork

Lap length

Lap length Shape of link 33

Shape of link

Lap length Shape of link 33

Spacers and chairs for concreting provide support for both reinforcing mesh and bar, ensuring that the correct cover of concrete over the reinforcement is achieved.

cover of concrete over the reinforcement is achieved . • Slab-on-Ground Spacers • Plastic

Slab-on-Ground Spacers

Plastic slab-on-ground spacers are

suitable for supporting both reinforcing mesh and bar in slab-on-ground applications. Slab-on-ground spacers are made to

cover two heights These bar chairs are a dual-size

plastic reinforcing They have a flat base to minimise

penetration through the waterproof membrane The bar chairs are supplied stacked in the bag to minimise storage space

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• Wire Chairs • The steel-wire spacer's legs are protected • with a film of

Wire Chairs

The steel-wire spacer's legs are protected

with a film of plastic. Plastic-tipped bar chairs can be used in suspended slabs, beams, vertical walls and slab on ground applications. Range of heights from 20mm to 360mm

Ensures consistent placement of

reinforcement in slabs Requires no adjustment after pouring of

concrete Metal base

Metal bases are round metal plates that

support wire bar chairs on soft surfaces. Prevents the wire spacer sinking into the

ground Metal base sizes are available to suit bar chairs up to 200mm in height

3.2.2

Column

- process of concreting almost same with ground floor but vertical drop of concrete cannot be more than 1.5 meter high why??? - Require opening on one side of the vertical formwork which is not exceed 1.5 m high how??? - concrete chute is an alternative - How to support formwork - How to do plum on the formwork

how??? -   concrete chute is an alternative -   How to support formwork -  
how??? -   concrete chute is an alternative -   How to support formwork -  
how??? -   concrete chute is an alternative -   How to support formwork -  

3.2.2

Column

3.2.2 Column 37

3.2.2

Column

3.2.2 Column 38

3.2.2

Column

3.2.2 Column 39
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3.2.2

Column

3.2.2 Column 43

3.2.3

Upper Floor

3.2.3 Upper Floor 44

3.2. 3

Upper Floor

-

Normally suspended floor

-

- Beam and slab cast together - Continue from starter bars from column Construction process

-

- conventional or traditional method (cast in-situ) - modern or industrialized method (precast, system formwork) Typical method of construction from first floor up to roof

-

beam Provide a level surface that is capable of supporting all the

-

live and dead loads imposed Provide area under need for M&E services

-   Suspended concrete slab is referred to a cement slab that is not in

- Suspended concrete slab is referred to a cement slab that is not in contact with the ground. - This type of concrete slab construction requires different concrete slab design from the one we normally see that is cast on the ground.

3.2. 3

Upper Floor

- Conventional or traditional method - Setting out - Install soffit formwork for beam - Install side formwork for beam - Install formwork for slab - Install rebar for beam & slab

- Install any starter bars required - Install spacer block and chairs

Install ducting or conduit for M&E Construct any required opening - Make sure location of drop

Joint inspection (surveyor, engineer, architect, M&E) - concreting

-

-

-

drop Joint inspection (surveyor, engineer, architect, M&E) -   concreting - - -      

Re bar

47
47

Starter bar

-

-

3.2. 3

Upper Floor (conventional method)

Advantage of Conventional method - Well known - Economy for low cost project - Material, easy to get - Easy to modify base on drawing

Disadvantage of Conventional method - Time constrain

of Conventional method -   Time constrain -   no working area under the floor -

- no working area under the floor - for concrete to cure

- Required skill workers - Not so systematic (base on experience) - Do not allow for cold joint (A cold joint is a plane of weakness in concrete caused by an interruption or delay in the concreting operations. It occurs when the first batch of concrete has begun to set before the next batch is added, so that the two batches do not intermix) - Very congested

has begun to set before the next batch is added, so that the two batches do

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3.2. 3

Upper Floor (industrialized method)

- modern or industrialized method Setting out Normally using system formwork (beam & slab) Install
- modern or industrialized method
Setting out
Normally using system formwork (beam & slab)
Install rebar for beam & slab at fabrication yard
Cast slab or beam at fabrication yard (pre-stress structure)
Install beam or slab
Install ducting or conduit for M&E
Construct any required opening
Make sure location of drop
Joint inspection (surveyor, engineer, architect, M&E)
Concreting (topping up)
-  
-  
-  
-  
-  
-  
-  
-  
-  
-  

Fabrication yard is a demarcated area where metal construction which includes but not limited to cutting, grinding and welding and boring holes to different shapes and configuration. The are where all these and extended work are conducted can be

3.2. 3

Upper Floor (Pre-cast Floor)

-

-

Advantage of modern or industrialized method - Fast track project - Economy for high cost project Sectional slab and beam re-design by consultant or design by consultant at early stage - Easy to construct and maintain cleanliness - Systematic - Reduce +/- 50% of concrete volume (hollow section) - Reduce +/- 25% of reinforcement weight - Reduce +/- 10% of foundation size Disadvantage of modern or industrialized method - Required skill workers - Cannot simply cut for opening - Take time to study and plan for the system - Not every contractor can afford cost and ability to construct

-

3.2. 3

Upper Floor (Pre-cast Floor)

3.2. 3 Upper Floor (Pre-cast Floor) 51

3.2. 3

Upper Floor (Pre-cast Floor)

3.2. 3 Upper Floor (Pre-cast Floor) 52

3.2. 4

Staircase

3.2. 4 Staircase 53

Stairs

Terminology:

Stairwell: the space in which the stairs and landings are housed. Stairs: a set of steps inside the building going from one level to another. Tread: the upper surface of a step on which the foot is placed.

Handrail

Riser Tread Flight
Riser
Tread
Flight

Stairs

Nosing: the exposed edge of a tread, usually projecting with a square, rounded of splayed edge. Riser: the vertical member between two consecutive treads. Step: Riser plus tread. Flight: a series of steps without a landing.

Stairs

Newel: post forming the junction of flights of stairs with landings. Strings: the members receiving the ends of steps which are generally housed to the string; called wall or outer strings according to their position.

Stairs

Handrail: protecting member usually parallel to the string and spanning between newels. • Baluster: the vertical infill member between a string and handrail.

3.2. 4

Staircase

3.2. 4 Staircase 61

3.2. 4

Staircase

3.2. 4 Staircase 62

3.2. 4

Staircase

3.2. 4 Staircase 63

3.2. 4

Staircase

3.2. 4 Staircase 64

3.2. 4

Staircase

3.2. 4 Staircase 65

3.2. 4

Staircase

3.2. 4 Staircase 66

3.2. 4

Staircase

Purpose - Provide access between various level with in building - Also use for escape in case of fire (designer have to comply with regulation or act regarding materials, position, size and safety) - types of staircase - In-situ Single straight stairway (simply support, landing to landing) - in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular) - Inclined slab - String beam - Cranked or continuous - cantilever - Spiral staircase (in-situ or pre-cast) - Pre-cast concrete staircase - Single straight

-

Cranked

- - Open riser - Metal staircase

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3.2. 4

Staircase

- In-situ Single straight flight stairway - Simple design and construction - simply support - landing to landing - Space occupies

3.2. 4

Staircase

- in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular) - Inclined slab (fig: 12.1.3) - Landing usually at mid point of the rise - Equal flight span - Reduce effective span and bending moment - Tension lab is required at top and bottom of each flight to overcome the tension - Give better visual from the underside

3.2. 4

Staircase

- in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular) - string beam stairs (fig: 12.1.4) - An alternative design - A string or edge beam is used to span from landing to landing - A string results in a thinner waist dimension and overall saving in the concrete volume - Required extra formwork for string beam

3.2. 4

Staircase

- in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular) - cranked slab stairs (fig: 12.1.5) - Very often used, because the half space landing has no visible support - Design as cantilever slab (half space landing ) - Required more reinforcement at slab area - Create problem for concreting process (massy rebar)

3.2. 4

Staircase

- in-situ Staircase with landing between bottom and upper floor (popular) - cantilever stairs (fig: 12.1.6) - Sometime called spine wall stairs - Consist a vertical RC wall between flight to half space landing - Because of cantilever, rebar is place in the top of the flight slab and landing slab (for negative bending moment) - Can be single strait flight or two equal flight with intermediate half space landing

3.2. 4

Staircase (Pre-cast)

- Pre-cast concrete staircase - advantages -better quality control of the finish product -saving site space (no storage for fw and fabrication) -stairway enclosing shaft can be utilized as a space for hoisting or -lifting materials during the major construction period -can be positioned and fixed by semi skilled operative

Pre-cast concrete staircase have - Single flight stairs - Cranked slab stairs - Open riser stairs - Spiral stairs

3.2.5

Roof

- Include - RC roof beam - Roof truss (timber, aluminium, metal) - Roof tiles (clay, cement, PVC) - How to construct roof beam - Setting out - Install soffit beam and follow by side formwork - Install rebar - Inspection and concreting - Install services - Install trusses, heat insulation and roof tiles - Finally, install ceiling

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3.2.5

Roof

- Function of roof - To keep out rain, wind, snow and dust - To prevent excessive heat loss in winter - To keep the interior of the building cool in the summer - To accommodate all stress encountered - To accept movement due to changes in temperature and moisture content

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Rumah Negeri Sembilan

Rumah Melaka

Stability

Stability Roofs Exclusion of wind & r a i n Durability Maintenance Thermal Functional Requirements For

Roofs

Exclusion of wind & rain

Durability Stability Roofs Exclusion of wind & r a i n Maintenance Thermal Functional Requirements For Roof

Maintenance Thermal Functional Requirements For Roof Aesthetically Fire properties Resistance Provide Natural
Maintenance
Thermal
Functional
Requirements
For Roof
Aesthetically
Fire
properties
Resistance
Provide
Natural daylight
Strength
Degree of
Sound insulation

û

Functions :

Roofs

§

As barrier to the penetration of the elements

§

Provide resistance to heat loss to the internal environment

Ø Type of roofs :

§

Flat roofs

:

0 – 10 o

§

Pitched roofs

:

> 10 o

Ø Material of roofs :

§

Timber structure + tiling or sheet covering

§

Steel structure + tiling or sheet covering

§

Concrete structure

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-A flat roof is generally defined as having a pitch not greater than 15° to

-A flat roof is generally defined as having a pitch not greater than 15° to the horizontal. -A truly flat roof would not allow rainwater to drain away so most flat roofs have a fall on them so that the rainwater naturally flows to collection points. - Whilst you can have tiled roofs of 10-15° these are really flat roof construction with a cosmetic covering of tiles.

Below is a typical construction of a warm flat roof. It consists of six basic

Below is a typical construction of a warm flat roof. It consists of six basic elements

-A Waterproof layer which resists water. -Thermal insulation which retains heat within the building rather than allowing it to escape through the roof. -A vapour barrier to prevent moisture escaping -A timber deck, often of plywood sheeting, which allows the -roof to support a load such as someone walking on it -Wooden roof joists which are supported by the walls Plasterboard ceiling

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A pitched or sloping roof has a pitch of at least 15° but often much

A pitched or sloping roof has a pitch of at least 15° but often much more. A typical roof pitch in the UK for a traditional house will be 40°-50° but at the extreme can go up to 70° (above 70° would actually be called a wall!)

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RIDGE BOARDS COMMON RAFTERS VALLEY JACK RAFTERS VALLEY RAFTER HIP RAFTERS HIP JACK RAFTERS
RIDGE BOARDS
COMMON
RAFTERS
VALLEY JACK RAFTERS
VALLEY RAFTER
HIP RAFTERS
HIP JACK RAFTERS

Roofs Member

Ridge: the spine of the roof; the apex line of the sloping roof; the apex of the angle formed by the termination of the inclined surfaces at the top of a slope. • Common Rafters: the main load bearing members of a roof; the span is between a wall plate at eaves level and the ridge.

Roofs Member

Hip: it is the ridge formed by the intersection of two sloping surfaces. • Hipped End: it is the sloped triangular surface formed at the end of a roof

Roofs Member

Jack Rafters: these fulfil the same functions as common rafters but span from ridge to valley rafter or from hip rafter to wall plate. • Hip Rafters: similar to a ridge but forming the spine of an external angle and similar to a rafter spanning from ridge to wall plate.

Roofs Member

Valley Rafters: as hip rafter but forming an internal angle. • Wall Plate: these provide the bearing and fixing medium for the various roof members and distribute the loads evenly over the supporting walls; they are bedded in cement mortar on top of the walls.

Roofs Member

Ceiling Joists: these fulfill the dual function of acting as ties to the feet of pairs of the rafters and providing support for the ceiling boards on the underside and any cisterns housed within the roof void. • Purlins: these are horizontal wooden or steel members, used to support common rafters of a roof when span is large.

Roofs Member

Struts: these are compression members which transfer the load of a purlin to a suitable loadbearing support within the span of the roof. • Collars: these are extra ties to give additional strength and are placed at purlin level.

Roofs Member

Eaves: the lowest edge which overhangs the wall thus giving the wall a degree protection; also fixing medium for the rainwater gutter. • Two types:

Open eaves – Closed eaves

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104

104

Roofs Member

Verge: the edge of a gable, running between the eaves and ridge. • Eaves board or fascia board: wooden board fixed to the common rafters at the eaves. • Barge board: timber board used to hold common rafter forming verge.

Truss Construction

A truss is a framed or jointed structure.

Jointed together with the aid of galvanised mild steel nail plate connectors.

The truss comprises rafters, struts, ties and ceiling joist (often called a ceiling tie).

Truss Construction

Advantages:

Much faster and more economical to use prefabricated trusses in place of rafters and joists.

It takes significantly less labour than stick framing.

A truss will span a greater distance without a bearing wall.

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•   Natural slate tiles – these are primarily rectangular in shape although other flat

Natural slate tiles these are primarily rectangular in shape although other flat designs are possible •Fibre cement tiles are a manufactured and lighter weight alternative to natural slate •Concrete tiles these are available in a wide range of colours and shapes. Concrete tiles tend to be heavier than their slate or clay equivalents Clay tiles a variety of fired clay tiles, moulded to different designs, are available •Thatched this uses water reed, wheat straw, sedge or other organic materials as the main roof covering

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3.2.6

Finishing & Services

- Floor, Wall and ceiling - Doors, door frames - Windows, window frames - Partitions - Ironmongery - Painting and decorating - Interior design - Water supply - Sanitary fitting

3.4.5 HIGH RISE BUILDING

-

A high-rise is a tall building or structure. Normally, the function of the

-

building is added, for example high-rise apartment building or high-rise offices High rise = 491 feet (150 m) high (about 6 floor)

-

Skyscraper = taller than 492 feet (150 m)

-

the structural system of high-rise buildings are reinforced concrete and steel

-

design challenges for structural and geotechnical engineers

-

Needs : building systems like the building standpipe system, HVAC systems (Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning), fire sprinkler system and other things like stairwell and elevator evacuations pose significant problems

3.4.5 HIGH RISE BUILDING

-

Need a proper plan and study

-

Need a QA & QC to control the quality

-

Safety factor are important for pre-stage, during construction and after

-

completion Require specialties and equipment

-

Skill workers

-

Proper method of construction (plan and do trial mock up)

-

No mistake at all

-

High end engineering construction and technology

Name:

City:

Country:

Status:

Finished

:

Floors:

Use:

Antenna

:

Spire:

Roof:

Taipei 101

Petronas

Towers

Kuala Lumpur

Malaysia

Sears

Tower

Chicago

IL

United

Jin Mao

Tower

Shanghai

SH

China

Taipei

Taiwan

States built built built built 2004 1998 1974 1998 101 88 108 93 mixed use
States
built
built
built
built
2004
1998
1974
1998
101
88
108
93
mixed use
office
office
mixed use
527.3 m
508 m
452 m
420.5 m
448 m
442.3 m

2 International

CITIC Plaza

Finance Centre

 

Guangzhou

Hong Kong HK

GD

China

China

built

built

2003

1997

90

80

office

Shun Hing

Empire State

Central

Square

Building

Plaza

Shenzhen GD

New York

Hong

City NY

Kong HK

China

United States

China

built

built

built

1996

1931

1992

69

office

102 78 office office 448.7 m 374 m 381 m 309 m 118
102
78
office
office
448.7 m
374 m
381 m
309 m
118

Name:

City:

Countr

y:

Status:

Finishe

d:

Floors:

Use:

Antenn

a:

Spire:

Roof:

Singer

Building

New

York

City NY

Met Life

Woolworth

Trump

Tower

Building

Building

New York

New York

New York

City NY

City NY

City NY

Chrysler

Empire State

Building

Building

1 World Trade Center

New York

New York

New York

City NY

City NY

City NY

Sears

Tower

Chicago

IL

Petronas

Towers

Kuala

Lumpur

Taipei 101

Taipei

United United United United United United United States United States Malaysia Taiwan States States States
United
United
United
United
United
United
United States
United States
Malaysia
Taiwan
States
States
States
States
States
States
destroye
built
built
built
built
built
destroyed
built
built
built
d
1908
1909
1913
1930
1930
1931
1972
1974
1998
2004
47
50
57
71
77
102
110
108
88
101
office
office
office
office
office
office
office
office
office
mixed use
448.7 m
526.3 m
527.3 m
318.9 m
452 m
508 m
186.6 m
213.4 m
241.4 m
282.5 m
282 m
381 m
417 m
442.3 m
448 m
119

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