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Phyllotaxy is the mode of arrangement of leaves on the stem.

The foliage leaves


are usually arranged on stem in two ways:
I.
Radical Leaves the leaves arises as a cluster or a rosette from the very
short stem just on the top of the root. e.g. Raphanus
II.
Cauline Leaves leaves are generally spread about on the stem with long
or short internodes between them. There may be one, two, three or more
leaves at each node.
A. Alternate or Spiral a single leaf is present at each node

LANZONES
Lansium domesticum

SUNFLOWER
Helianthus annuus

MARIJUANA / FIVE FINGERS


Cannabis sativa

SANTOL
Sandoricum koetjape

MANGO
Mangifera indica
B. Opposite two leaves arises from each node opposite each other, may be at
right angles to the upper or lower pair

GUAVA
Psidium guajava

JAPANESE BAMBOO
Bambusa spinosa

MALAY APPLE
Syzygium malaccense

C. Whorled more than two leaves at each node in a circle or whorled

YELLOW BELL
Allamanda cathartica

DITA
Alstonia scholaris

A. Cyclic Phyllotaxy each node


bears two or more leaves.
B.
1. Opposite the two leaves at
each node are always opposite
to one another.
C.
a. Opposite Superposed
two successive pairs of
leaves are found to lie in
single plain. e.g. Psidium,
Hyptage
D.
E.

H.

I.
2. Whorled or Verticillate
more than two leaves forming a
whorl at each node. e.g.
Nerium, Alstonia
J.
K.

F.
b. Opposite Decussate two
successive pairs of leaves
are arranged at right angles
to
one
another.
e.g.
Calotropis, Ixora
G.
L.
M. Acyclic, Spiral or Alternate
Phyllotaxy there is only one leaf
at each node.
N.
1. Acyclic
a. Distichous / Two-ranked /

1
2 Phyllotaxy the leaf

on the second node is just


opposite the leaf of the first
node, the third leaf is above
the first leaf, the fourth

above the second and so on.


e.g. Cynodon
O.

c. Pentastichous
ranked /

2
5

Five-

Phyllotaxy

the sixth leaf is above the


first leaf, seventh above the
second and so on. e.g.
Hibiscus rosa sinensis
V.

P.
Q.
R.
S.
b. Tristichous
ranked /

1
3

Three-

Phyllotaxy

the fourth leaf is above the


first leaf, fifth above the
second, sixth above the third
and so on. e.g. Cyperus
T.

W.
d. Parastichous Phyllotaxy
when leaves are arranged in
very close spirals and it is
not possible to count the
orthostichies. e.g. Phoenix,
Cocos
X.
2. Spiral each leaf is located
slightly to the side of the ones
immediately above and below
it, and leaves form a spiral up
the stem.
Y.
Z.

U.

AA.

3. Alternate

the
leaves
interchanging every other leaf
above the stem.
AB.
AC.

AD.
AE.
AF.
AG.
AH.
AI.
AJ.
AK.
AL.
AM.
AN.
AO.
AP.
AQ.
AR.
AS.
Leaf Margin the
leafs edges
AT.
AU. Types of Leaf Margin
AV.
1. Crenate
AW.

AX.

AY.AMERICAN ELM
AZ.
Ulmus
Americana
BA.
2. Incised
BB.
BC.

BD.

YELLOW FALSE
FOXGLOVE
BE.
Aureolaria
pectinata
BF.
BG.
BH.

BI.
BJ.
3. Undulate
BK.
BL.

BM.
BN.

SACRED FIG
Ficus religiosa
BO.

4. Lobed
BP.
BQ.

BR.
BS.

LESSER SWINECRESS
Coronopus
didymus

BT.
5. Entire
BU.
BV.

BW.
BX.

HAWAIIANS
Chamaesyce
celastroides
BY.
6. Serrate
BZ.
CA.

CB.
CC.

MISTFLOWER
Ageratina riparia

CD.
CE.
CF.
7. Doubly serrate
CG.
CH.

CI. ARIZONA ALDER


CJ. Alnus oblongifolia
CK.
8. Dentate
CL.
CM.

CN.
WHITE
SHOOTING STAR
CO.
Dodecatheon
dentatum
CP.
CQ.
CR.
9. Sinuate
CS.
CT.

CU. BLACK NIGHTSHADE


CV.
Solanum nigrum
CW.
CX.
CY.
CZ.
DA.
DB.
DC.
DD.
DE.
DF.
DG.
DH.
DI.
DJ.
DK.
DL.
DM.
DN.
DO.

10.
DV.

DP.
DQ.
DR.
DS.
DT.
DU.
Serrulate

DW.

DX.
DY.

RED CHOKEBERRY
Photinia pyrifolia