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# 1.

Bedrock
A relatively hard, solid rock that commonly underlies soil or other
unconsolidated materials.
2. Seismic Bedrock
Basically seismic bedrock is a buried interface in that we can
approximate the up-going waves vertical, laterally homogeneous in practically
useful extent & give amplification influence.
The following two conditions are required for the interface, "Seismic
Bedrock".
1) The interface has a practically useful lateral extent and the physical
properties of the underlying stratum are not varied along this interface.
2) The strata deeper than this interface is much more homogeneous in
comparison with the layers shallower than the interface.
As the shear wave velocity of upper earth crust is as homogeneous
as from 3000 to 3500 m/sec, the upper interface of the upper earth crust
having 3000 m/sec of the shear wave velocity is called "Seismic Bedrock".
2.1 Ground Motion on Seismic Bedrock
The ground motion on seismic bedrock is predicted for a hypothetical
source. The method of this process is classified into two groups.
(a) The method that considers rupture pattern of fault
(b) The attenuation formula for ground motion

In the group (a) hypothetical seismogenic fault is divided into subfaults, and
rupture pattern can be considered. Therefore, the method of this group
explains the phenomenon that the observed waveform at the same distance
from source are different each other according to rupture pattern. However,
there is a problem that it has uncertainty on setting rupture direction for
hypothetical earthquake that have never occurred.
In the group (b) the empirical relationship is derived from regression analysis
for the observed data. This is an easy method to calculate ground motion and
there are many attenuation formulas for each ground motion index such as
peak acceleration, peak velocity, response spectrum and so on . Recently the
observed data near source is used for regression analysis and attenuation
formula can be adapted to calculation of ground motion near source region.
There are attenuation formulas that can consider rupture direction also.
However the attenuation formula cant fully explain the distribution of strong
motion because the actual earthquake has complex rupture process.

## Fig.1: Seismic Bedrock & Engineering Bedrock

3. Engineering Bedrock

## The shallower interface of which underlying stratum has from 300 to

700 m/sec of the shear wave velocity. This interface is called "Engineering
Bedrock".
The definition of the engineering bedrock can depend on the purpose of the
study, but usually it is Tertiary rock or hard Pleistocene commonly found
in the studied region with some constraints on its geotechnical and
geophysical properties.
Satoh et al. (1995a) defined their engineering bedrock as the layer of
sedimentary rock of Pliocene or earlier age with an S-wave velocity of 500
m/sec or larger and a SPT (Standard Penetration Test) blow count of 50 or
more. From an engineering point of view, it is desirable to predict ground
motions directly on the engineering bedrock on which foundation systems of
important buildings and civil engineering structures will be constructed. The
ground motion is firstly defined at the engineering bedrock corresponding to
the seismicity of the area.
3.1 Ground Motion on Bedrock
Initially the ground motion on engineering bedrock is calculated for a
hypothetical source. The method of this process is classified into two groups.
(a) The method that considers rupture pattern of fault (e.g. Midorikawa and
Kobayashi, 1979, 1980)
(b) The attenuation formula for ground motion (e.g. Fukushima and Tanaka,
1990, 1991)
In the group (a) hypothetical seismogenic fault is divided into subfaults,
and rupture pattern is considered. Therefore, the method of this group
explains the phenomenon that the observed waveform at the same distance

from source are different each other according to rupture pattern. However,
there is a problem that it has uncertainty on assumption of rupture direction
for hypothetical earthquake that have never occurred.
In the group (b) the empirical relationship is derived from regression
analysis for the observed data. This is an easy method to calculate ground
motion and there are many attenuation formulas for each ground motion index
such as peak acceleration, peak velocity, response spectrum and so on (e.g.
Fukushima and Tanaka, 1990, 1991). Recently the observed data near source
is used for regression analysis and the attenuation formula is revised to be
adapted to calculation of ground motion near source region. There are some
attenuation formulas that can consider rupture direction also. However the
attenuation formula cannot fully explain the distribution of strong motion
because the actual earthquake has complex rupture process.

Fig.2: Schematic illustration of wave propagation through engineering bedrock and soil
surface

## 4. Consideration in Earthquake Engineering

In the viewpoint of Earthquake Engineering, it has been proposed,
based on the followings, to use.
4

1)

## The most important problem for earthquake engineering is not whether

the long period components are dominant in the ground or the short period
components, but whether the pre-dominant period of the ground is close to
the proper period of the structures constructed or planned on the
mentioned ground. Therefore, "bedrock" can not be absolutely defined, but
have to be defined in different ways even in the same site depending on
the structure.

2)

"Seismic Bedrock" of the cities in Japan is buried at the depth where very
few strong motion records have been obtained. In contrast, there are much
more strong motion records obtained at "Engineering Bedrock". Therefore,
it is the practically useful way to consider "bedrock" at this depth.

3) Except of the plains around the Tokyo metropolitan area, Osaka City and
Nagoya City, there is not any information about such deep structure as
"Seismic Bedrock". Even these exceptional examples, the information
available is not sufficient. Therefore, it is quite difficult to estimate
amplification characteristics of the ground shallower than "Seismic
Bedrock".
The both definitions of "bedrock" are widely used in the field of quantitative
strong motion estimation. In the textbook of Earthquake Engineering,
"Bedrock" and sometimes "Seismic Bedrock" is used in the context where
"Engineering Bedrock" should be used. In contrast, the textbook of
Seismology uses "Bedrock" where it should be called "Seismic Bedrock". It is
important to distinguish the definition of the terms where they are used, by the
context or the glossary.

The solid rock at the surface or underlying other surface materials. Rock of
relatively great thickness and extent in its native location. A general term for
any solid rock, not exhibiting soil-like properties, that underlies soil or other
unconsolidated surficial materials. As distinguished from boulders. The
consolidated body of natural solid mineral matter which underlies the
overburden soils. The solid rock that underlies all soil, sand, clay, gravel, and
other loose materials on the earth's surface. Any sedimentary, igneous, or
metamorphic material represented as a unit in geology; being a sound and
solid mass, layer, or ledge of mineral matter; and with shear wave velocities
greater than 2500 feet per second.

Reference:
International handbook of Earthquake & Engineering Seismology volume
81A , Academic Press, Florida , USA, 2002.
http://seismo.geology.upatras.gr/MICROZON-THEORY1.htm
http://iisee.kenken.go.jp/net/yokoi/methodology/StrongMotion.htm