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CHAIRPERSON OFFICE

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
GCWU, Medina Town
Dept.Phy GCWU/14/15

Email:physicsgcwu1@gmail.com

Dated:

24/11/2014

Minutes of meeting of Board of Studies (BOS) held on held on 16/10/14 (Thursday) at


10:30am
A meeting of BOS in Department of Physics was held on 16/10/14 (Thursday) at 10:30am in the
office of the Chairperson, Department of Physics, GCWUF.
Following members of BOS attended the meeting
1. Prof. Kausar Raffique, Chairperson, Department of Physics, GCWUF.
2. Prof. Dr. Nasir Amin, Chairman, Department of Physics, GCUF.
3. Dr. Yasir Jamil, Chairman, Department of Physics, University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad.
4. Prof. Akram Tahir, Chairman Department of Physics, Govt. Post Graduate College,
Samanabad, Faisalabad.
5. Mrs. Salma Ahmad, Assistant Prof. Department of Physics, GCWUF.
6. Mrs. Sarwat Naheed, Assistant Prof. Department of Physics, GCWUF.
7. Mrs. Zarina Ghani. Lecturer, Department of Physics, GCWUF.
The meeting started with the recitation of the Holy Quran byMrs. Zarina Ghani
According to the agenda of meeting following points were discussed
Prof. Dr. Nasir Amin, Chairman, Department of Physics, GCUF drew attention Course
codes allotted to BS (Hons)as per HEC criteria and an English compulsory course of
(Communications skills) must be offered to fulfill HEC criteriafor BS (Hons.
Dr. Yasir Jamil, Chairman, Department of Physics,University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad suggested that codes allotted to BS (Hons) and M.Phil for Physics must
specify as PY instead PHY.He suggested that department should not offer more than one
course of statistics and Chemistry for BS(Hons).
Prof. Akram Tahir, Chairman Department of Physics Govt. Post Graduate College,
Samanabad, Faisalabad pointed out problem that with new admissions there will be space
problems which should be taken under consideration.
Dr. Nasir Amin, Dr. Yasir Jamil and Prof. Akram Tahir jointly suggested that a
compulsory course should be offered instead of project for BS (Hons) because of large
number of students.
Proposed curriculums for BS(Hons)and M.phil were discussed in detail and following
decisions were taken
It was decided that an English course of Communication Skills (ENG- 401) will be
offered for BS(Hons) in 7th semester
Compulsorycourse ofStatistical Mechanics(PY-608)will be offered for BS(Hons) in 8th
semester instead of project for BS (Hons) and another course Waves & Oscillations (PY303) will be offered BS(Hons) in 1st semester instead of statistics.
Mathematical Techniques in Physics (PHY- 701) and Experimental Techniques in Physics
(PHY- 702) were selected as core courses for M.Phil in order to meet HEC criteria. it was
also decided that Advanced Quantum Mechanics(PHY-706) and Electromagnetic Theory
(PHY- 710) should preferred over other courses offered by department of Physics because
of international importance of these subjects.
The meeting was held in a pleasant atmosphere andDr. Nasir Amin, Dr. Yasir
Jamil and Prof. Akram Tahir highly appreciated the efforts of the chairperson and
curriculum committee of the department of Physics, GCWUF for good home work for
designing comprehensive curricula for various degree programs of the department
approval.
Any objection should be conveyed within 10 days of issuance of the
minutes.Suggestions/comments will be highly appreciated.
3

Prof. Kausar Raffique


Convener
Board of Studies

Cc:
1. PA to Vice Chancellor, GCWUF.
2. Director Advanced Studies, GCWUF.

BS SCHEME OF STUDIES
PHYSICS
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

GCWUF
2015

Govt. College Women University, Faisalabad


Department of Physics Scheme of Studies BS Home Physics Four Years Degree
Programme

2015
Semester I
Course Code

Title of the Course

Credit
Hours

Page #

Major Course
PHY-301

Mechanics-I

3(3-0)

09

PHY-303

Waves & Oscillations

3(3-0)

10

Minor Course
ENG-321
English-I EAP(English for
Academic Purposes)

3(3-0)

PST-321

Pakistan Studies

2(2-0)

MTH -301

Calculus-I

4(4-0)

ICT-321

Introduction to Computing

3(3-0)

Total
Semester II
Course Code

18(18-0)
Title of the Course

Credit
Hours

Page #

Major Course
PHY-302

Optics

3(3-0)

11

PHY-304

Mechanics-II

3(3-0)

12

PHY- 306

Lab- IV, (Optics + Mechanics)

2(0-2)

13

English-II(Reading and Study

3(3-0)

Minor Course
ENG-302

Skills)
ISL-408

Islamic Studies

2(2-0)

MTH-302

Calculus-II

4(4-0)

ICT-301

Programming Fundamentals

3(2-1)

Total
Semester III
Course Code

20(17-3)
Title of the Course

Credit
Hours

Page #

Major Course
PHY-401

Heat &Thermodynamics

3(3-0)

14

PHY- 403

Lab-III (Heat, Waves, Sound)

1(0-1)

15

PHY - 405

Basic Electronics

3(3-0)

16

Minor Course
ENG-421

English-III

3(3-0)

CHM- 401

Physical Chemistry I

4(3-1)

MTH- 401

Calculus III

4(4-0)

Total
Semester IV
Course Code

18(16-2)
Title of the Course

Credit
Hours

Page #

Major Course
PHY-402

Electricity & Magnetism

4(4-0)

17

PHY-404

Modern Physics

3(3-0)

19

PHY- 406

Lab-II (Electricity and Magnetism)

1(0-1)

20

MTH-404

Linear Algebra

4(4-0)

MTH- 406

Differential Equations

3(3-0)

STA-320

Introduction to Statistical Theory

3(3-0)

Minor Course

Total
Semester V
Course Code

18(17-1)
Title of the Course

Credit
Hours

Page #

Major Course
PHY-501

Mathematical Methods of Physics-I

3(3-0)

21

PHY-503

Quantum Mechanics-I

3(3-0)

22

PHY-505

Solid state Physics-I

3(3-0)

23

PHY-507

Electronics-I

3(3-0)

24

PHY-509

Classical Mechanics

3(3-0)

26

PHY-511

Lab-VI

2(0-2)

27

(Modern
6

Physics,

Advanced optics, Atomic physics


& spectroscopy)
Total
Semester VI
Course Code

17(15-2)
Title of the Course

Credit
Hours

Page #

Major Course
PHY-502

Mathematical Methods of PhysicsII

3(3-0)

28

PHY- 504

Quantum Mechanics-II

3(3-0)

29

PHY- 506

Solid State Physics-II

3(3-0)

30

PHY- 508

Electronics-II

3(3-0)

31

PHY- 510

Electrodynamics-I

3(3-0)

33

PHY- 512

Lab-VII (Miscellaneous advanced


experiments in Modern Physics,
Atomic physics, Solid state
physics, Electronics)

2(0-2)

34

Total
Semester VII
Course Code

17(15-2)
Title of the Course

Credit
Hours

Page #

Major Course
PHY- 601

Statistical Mechanics

3(3-0)

35

PHY-603

Atomic & Molecular Physics

3(3-0)

36

PHY- 605

Electrodynamics-II

3(3-0)

37

PHY- 607

Nuclear Physics

3(3-0)

38

PHY- 609

Lab-V (Electronics)

2(0-2)

40

PHY611/PHY- 613

Method of experimental Physics/


Introduction to material science

3(3-0)

41

Total
Semester VIII
Course Code

17(15-2)
Title of the Course

Credit
Hours

Page #

Major Course
PHY-

Elective-I

3(3-0)

PHY-

Elective-II

3(3-0)

PHY-

Elective-III

3(3-0)

PHY- 631

Research Project

6(0-6)

Total

15(9-6)

Elective subjects being currently offered are: Plasma Physics (PHY-602), Environmental
Physics (PHY-604), Lasers (PHY-606),, Introduction to nanoscience and technology
7

(PHY-608),, Particle Physics (PHY-610),, Electronic materials and devices (PHY-612),,


Introduction to Relativity (PHY-614), and Digital Electronics (PHY-616),.
*Courses will be offered according to availability of Faculty.

Programme
Bachelor of
Sciences

Award

Duration

Semester

BS Physics

4Years

8 Semesters

Credit Hours
140

SEMESTER I
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Mechanics I
PHY-301
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give concept of vector and their various properties, understanding of laws of motion and their
applications is daily life and to give mathematical concept and expressions of various
parameters used in mechanics.
Theory:
Vector Analysis:
Review of Vector in 3 dimensions and fundamental Operations, Direction, Cosines, Spherical
polar coordinates, Cylindrical Coordinates. Vector and scalar triple products, gradient of a scalar,
Divergence and curl of a vector, Physical significance of each type, Divergence of a vector, flux,
curl and line integral (mutual relation). Vector identities, Divergence Theorem, Stokes Theorem
and their derivation.
Particle Dynamics:
Dynamics of uniform, circular motion, the banked curve, Equations of motion, Deriving kinetic
equations for x(t), v(t) via integration, Constant and variable forces, normal forces and contact
forces, special examples, Time dependent forces, Obtaining x(t), v(t) for this case using
integration method, Effect of drag forces on motion, Applying Newtons Laws to obtain v(t) for
the case of motion with time dependent (Integration approach) drag (viscous) forces, terminal
velocity, Projectile motion with and without air resistance, Non inertial frames and Pseudo
forces,
Work, Power and Energy:
Work done by a constant force, work done by a variable force (1-2 dimension), (Essentially a
review of grade-XII concepts via integration technique to calculate work done (e.g. in vibration
of a spring obeying Hookes Law), Obtaining general expression for work done (2-dimensional
8

case) and applying to simple cases e.g. pulling a mass at the end of a fixed string against gravity,
Work energy theorem, General
proof of work energy theorem: Qualitative review of work energy theorem, Derivation using
integral calculus, Basic formulae and applications, Power, Energy changes with respect to
observers in different inertial frames, Conservation of Energy in 1, 2, and 3 dimensional
conservative systems, Conservative and non conservative forces: Conservation of energy in a
system of particles, Law of conservation of total energy of an isolated system.
Systems of Particles:
Two particle systems and generalization to many particle systems, Centre of mass, Position,
velocity and equation of motion, Centre of mass of solid objects, Calculation of Centre of Mass
of solid objects using integral calculus, Calculating C.M. of Uniform Rod, Cylinder and Sphere,
Momentum Changes in a system of variable mass, Derivation of basic equation, application to
motion of a rocket (determination of its mass as a function of time).
Collisions:
Elastic Collisions, Conservation of momentum during collision in one and two dimensions,
Inelastic collision, Collisions in centre of Mass reference frame (One and two dimensions),
Simple applications, obtaining velocities in C.M. frame.
Recommended Books:
1. D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics, McGraw Hill,
Latest edition
2. Halliday, D. Resnick, Krane, Physics, Vol. I & II, John Wiley, 5 thed. Latest
edition.
3.

M. R. Speigel, Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis, McGraw Hill, Latest edition

SEMESTER I
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Waves and Oscillation


PHY-303
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To understand the basics of waves, mechanism of wave production, propagation and interaction
with other waves and use of basic concept of waves in their application in daily life.
Theory:
Harmonic Oscillations:
Simple harmonic motion (SHM), Obtaining and solving the basic equations of motion x(t), v(t),
a(t), Longitudinal and transverse Oscillations, Energy considerations in SHM. Application of
SHM, Torsional oscillator, Physical pendulum, simple pendulum, SHM and uniform circular
motion, Combinations of harmonic motions, Lissajous patterns, Damped harmonic motion,
Equation of damped harmonic motion, Quality factor, discussion of its solution, Forced
oscillations and resonances, Equation of forced oscillation, Discussion of its solution, Natural
frequency, Resonance, Examples of resonance.
Waves in Physical Media:
Mechanical waves, Travelling waves, Phase velocity of travelling waves, Sinusoidal waves,
Group speed and dispersion, Waves speed, Mechanical analysis, Wave equation, Discussion of
solution, Power and intensity in wave motion, Derivation & discussion, Principle of
superposition (basic ideas), Interference of waves, Standing waves. Phase changes on reflection.
Sound:
Beats Phenomenon, Analytical treatment.
Coupled Oscillators and Normal modes:
9

Two coupled pendulums, General methods of finding normal modes, Beats in coupled
oscillations, Two coupled masses, Two coupled LC circuits, Energy relations in coupled
oscillations, Forced oscillations of two coupled oscillators, Many coupled oscillator.
Normal Modes of Continuous systems:
Transverse vibration of a string, Longitudinal vibrations of a rod, Vibrations of air columns,
Normal modes, Fourier methods of analyzing general motion of a continuous system, Atomic
vibrations.
Recommended Books:
1.Bajaj, N.K. 1986. The Physics of Waves & Oscillations, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing
company Limited.
2. Halliday, D. Resnick, Krane. 1999. Physics, Vol. I & II, John Wiley, 5thed. 1999.
3. Pain, H. J. 1999. The Physics of Vibrations and Waves, 5thEdition.

SEMESTER II
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Optics
PHY-302
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To understand the optical phenomena and their uses in physical systems.
Theory:
Propagation of Light & Image Formation
Huygens Principle, Laws of Reflection and Refraction, Refraction at a Spherical Surface, Thin
Lenses, Newtonian Equation for a Thin Lens.
Matrix Methods in Paraxial Optics
Thick Lens, Cardinal Points of an Optical System with examples, Optical Instruments including
Simple Magnifiers, Telescopes and Microscopes, Chromatic and Monochromatic Aberrations,
Spherical Aberrations, Coma, Distortion, Stops, Pupils, Windows.
Superposition & Interference
Standing Waves, Beats, Phase and Group Velocities, Two-Beam and Multiple-Beam Interference,
Thin Dielectric Films, Michelson and Fabry-Perot Interferometers, Resolving Power, FreeSpectral Range.
Polarization
Production of Polarized Light, Dichroism, Brewsters Law, Birefringence, Double Refraction.
10

Fraunhofer Diffraction
from a Single Slit, Rectangular and Circular Apertures, Double Slit, Many Slits, Diffraction
Grating, Dispersion, Resolving Power of grating, Blazed Gratings.
Coherence & Holography
Temporal Coherence, Spatial Coherence, Holography of a Point object and an Extended Object
Laser Basics
Stimulated Emission, Population Inversion, Resonators, Threshold and Gain.
Recommended Books:
1. Bennett, C. A.2008.Principles of Physical Optics. John Wiley.
2. Hecht, E., and A. Ganesan. 2008.Optics. Dorling Kindersley. 4th ed.
3. Klein, M. V., and T. E. Furtak.1986.Optics. John Wiley, 2nd ed.
4. Pedrotti, F., L. S. Pedrotti and L. M. Pedrotti. 2007.Introduction to Optics.Pearson Prentice
Hall, 3rd ed.
5. Sharam,K. K.2006.Optics: Principles and Applications. Academic Press.

SEMESTER II
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Mechanics II
PHY-304
2(2-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the basic concept of rotational motion, law of gravitation, physical properties of matter
and relativistic mechanics and make students able to use these concepts in daily life in a
scientific way.
Theory:
Rotational Dynamics:
Relationships between linear & angular variables, scalar and vector form. Kinetic energy of
rotation, Moment of Inertia, Parallel axis and Perpendicular axis theorems, Proof and Illustration,
application to simple cases, Determination of moment of inertia of various shapes i.e. for disc,
bar and solid sphere, Rotational dynamics of rigid bodies, Equations of rotational motion and
effects of application of torques, Combined rotational and translational motion, Rolling without
slipping.
Angular Momentum:
Angular Velocity, Conservation of angular momentum, effects of Torque and its relation with
angular momentum, Stability of spinning objects, Discussion with examples, The spinning Top,
Effects of torque on the angular momentum, precessional motion.
Gravitation:
Gravitational effect of a spherical mass distribution, Its mathematical treatment, Gravitational
Potential Energy (develop using integration techniques), calculation of escape velocity,
Gravitational field & Potential, Universal Gravitational Law. Radial and transversal velocity and
11

acceleration, Motion of Planets and Keplers' Laws (Derivation & explanation) Motion of
Satellites, Energy considerations in planetary and satellite motion, Qualitative discussion on
application of gravitational law to the Galaxy.
Bulk Properties of Matters.
Elastic Properties of Matter, Physical basis of elasticity, Tension, Compression & shearing,
Elastic Modulus, Elastic limit. Poissons ratio, Relation between three types of elasticity, Fluid
Statics, Variation of Pressure in fluid at rest and with height in the atmosphere, Surface Tension,
Physical basis; role in formation of drops and bubbles, Viscosity, Physical basis, obtaining the
Coefficient of viscosity, practical
example of viscosity; fluid flow through a cylindrical pipe (Poiseulle's law).
Special Theory of Relativity:
Inertial and non inertial frame, Postulates of Relativity, The Lorentz Transformation, Derivation,
Assumptions on which inverse transformation is derived, Consequences of Lorentz
transformation, Relativity of time, Relativity of length, Relativity of mass, Transformation of
velocity, variation of mass with velocity, mass energy relation and its importance, relativistic
momentum and Relativistic energy, (Lorentz invariants) E2=c2 p2+m2oc 4
Recommended Books:
1. Halliday, D. Resnick, Krane, Physics, Vol. I & II, John Wiley, 5thed. 1999.
2. D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics, McGraw Hill, 1978.
3. M. R. Speigel, Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis, Mc-Graw Hill, 1959.

SEMESTER II
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Lab I + IV (Mechanics, Optics)


PHY-306
2(0-2)

Practical:
Mechanics and Fluids
Experiments with pendulums, stop watches, one- dimensional motion and verification of
Newton's laws of motion, measurement of forces, speed, acceleration and linear momentum,
collisions and conservation of momentum, impacts, free fall and acceleration due to gravity,
gyroscopes, rotational motion, conservation of angular momentum, friction, static and dynamic
equilibrium, compound pendulum, rolling motion along inclined planes, simple harmonic
motion, masses attached to springs and Hooke's law, damped motion and the regimes of damping
(overdamped, underdamped and critically damped), pressure in fluids, experiments
demonstrating continuity, Bernoulli's principle, buoyancy and Archimedes's principle, Atwood
machine, fluid viscosity, surface tension.
Optics (basic and advanced) and Spectroscopy
Sources of light including bulbs, light emitting diodes, laser diodes and gas lasers, experiments
demonstrating optical phenomena such as interference, diffraction, linear motion, reflection,
refraction, dispersion, Michelson interferometry, measurement of refractive index using
interferometry, measurement of the speed of light, diffraction gratings and multiple-slit
interference, thin film interference and Newton's rings, use of digital cameras for optics
experiments, mode structure of lasers, use of spectrometers and monochromators, wavelength
tuning of laser diodes, rainbows, emission spectroscopy of low-pressure gases (hydrogen), alkali
spectra and fine structure, hyperfine structure of rubidium, vibrational spectrum of nitrogen,
Lambert-Beer's law, optical polarization, magneto-optical Faraday rotation.

12

Recommended Books:
1. Kirkup, L. and R. B. Frenkel. 2006. An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Moore, J. H., C. C. Davis, M. A. Coplan, and S. C. Greer. 2009. Building Scientific Apparatus.
Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
3. Napolitano, A. C. Melissino. 2003. Experiments in Modern Physics. Academic Press, 2nd ed.
4. Squires. . G. L. 2001. Practical Physics. Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
5. Taylor, J. R. 1996. An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical
Measurements. University of Science Books, 2nd ed.

SEMESTER III
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Heat and Thermodynamics


PHY-401
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To understand the fundamentals of heat and thermodynamics.
Theory:
Basic Concepts and Definitions in Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic system, Surrounding and Boundaries. Type of systems. Macroscopic and
microscopic description of system. Properties and state of the substance: Extensive and Intensive
properties, Equilibrium, Mechanical and Thermal Equilibrium. Processes and Cycles: Isothermal,
Isobaric and Isochoric.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Consequence of Zeroth law of Thermodynamics. The state of
the system at Equilibrium.
Heat and Temperature
Temperature, Kinetic theory of ideal gas, Work done on an ideal gas, Review of previous
concepts. Internal energy of an ideal gas: Equipartition of Energy, Intermolecular forces,
Qualitative discussion, The Virial expansion, The Van der Waals equation of state.
Thermodynamics

13

First law of thermodynamics and its applications toadiabatic, isothermal, cyclic and free
expansion. Reversible and irreversible processes. Second law of thermodynamics, Carnot
theorem and Carnot engine. Heat engine, Refrigerators. Calculation of efficiency of heat engines.
Thermodynamic temperature scale: Absolute zero, Entropy, Entropy in reversible process,
Entropy in irreversible process. Entropy and Second law of thermodynamics, Entropy and
Probability. Thermodynamic Functions: Thermodynamic functions (Internal energy, Enthalpy,
Gibbs functions, Entropy, Helmholtz functions), Maxwells relations, TdS equations, Energy
equations and their applications. Low Temperature Physics, Joule-Thomson effect and its
equations. Thermoelectricity: Thermocouple, Seabecks effect, Peltiers effect, Thomson effect.
Introduction to Statistical Mechanics
Statistical distribution and mean values, Mean free path and microscopic calculations of mean
free path. Distribution of Molecular Speeds, Distribution of Energies, Maxwell distribution,
Maxwell Boltzmann energy distribution, Internal energy of an ideal gas, Brownian Motion
Legvaian equation, Qualitative description.
Recommended Books:
1. Halliday, D., R. Resnick and K. Krane. 2002. Physics. John Wiley, 5th ed.
2. Halliday, D., R. Resnick and J. Walker. 2010. Fundamentals of Physics. John
Wiley, 9th ed.
3. Roy, B. N. 1995.Principle of Modern Thermodynamics. Institute of Physics,
London
4. Sprackling, M. 1991.Thermal Physics. McMillan.
5. Zemansky, M. W. 1997. Heat and Thermodynamics. Mc Graw Hill, 7th ed.

SEMESTER III
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Lab III (Heat, Waves, Sound)


PHY-403
1(0-1)

Practical:
Heat
Calorimetry, heat transfer, Newton's cooling under ambient and forced convection and radiation,
measurement of temperature using Si diodes, thermistors, thermocouples and RTD's,
blackbodies, heat pumps and heat engines, investigation of gas laws and laws of
thermodynamics, thermal conductivity by pulsed heating of a metal rod, measurement of latent
heats and specific heat capacities, temperature control using PID (proportional- integralderivative) schemes, thermal expansivity and its measurement using strain gauges.
Waves and Oscillations, Sound
Resonance in a stretched string, normal modes of oscillation, dispersion relations for mono and
diatomic lattice, coupled oscillators, nonlinear oscillations exemplified by resistanceinductance-diode circuits, magnetic pendulums, accelerometers, measurement of the speed of
sound under conditions of varying temperature, solitons, Lorentz pendulum, waves in water,
beats, super-positions of harmonic motion (Lissajous patterns), sonometer.
Recommended Books:
1. Kirkup, L. and R. B. Frenkel. 2006. An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Moore, J. H., C. C. Davis, M. A. Coplan, and S. C. Greer. 2009. Building Scientific Apparatus.
Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
14

3. Napolitano, A. C. Melissino. 2003. Experiments in Modern Physics. Academic Press, 2nd ed.
4. Squires. . G. L. 2001. Practical Physics. Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
5. Taylor, J. R. 1996. An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical
Measurements. University of Science Books, 2nd ed.

Semester III
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Basic Electronics
PHY-405
3(3-0)

Theory:
Basic crystal structure, free electron model, energy band in solid and energy gaps, p-type, n-type
semiconductor materials, p-n junction diode, its structure. Characteristics and application as
rectifiers. Types of diodes, Transistor, its basic structure and operation, transistor biasing for
amplifiers, characteristics of common base, common emitter, common collector, load line,
operating point, Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter ,common base, common collector
modes), Positive & negative feedback, R.C. Oscillators, Logic gates OR, AND, NOT, NAND,
NOR and their basic applications.

Recommended Books:
1. Bar-lev, A. 1993. Semiconductor and Electronics Devices. Prentice Hall, 3rd ed.
2. Floyd, T. L. 2009. Electronics Fundamentals: Circuits, Devices and Applications. Prentice
Hall, 8th ed.
3. Grob, . B. 1997. Basic Electronics. McGraw-Hill, Tched.
4. Malvino,A. P. 2006. Electronic Principles. McGraw-Hill, 7th ed.
5. Navon, D. H. and B. Hilbert. 1986. Semiconductor Micro-devices and Materials.
CBS College Publishing.
6. Streetman, B. and S. Banerjee. 2005. Solid State Electronics Devices. Prentice
15

Hall, 6th ed.


7. Paynter, R. T. 1998. Introductory Electric Circuits. Prentice Hall.

SEMESTER IV
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Electricity and Magnetism


PHY-402
4(4-0)

Aims and Objectives:


The main objective of this course is to understand the Physics of Electromagnetism and to
develop simple mathematical formalisms to analyze the electromagnetic fields and interactions.
This is a calculus-based introductory course with maximum emphasis on applying the acquired
knowledge to solving problems.
Theory:
Electrostatics
Electric Charge, Conductors and Insulators, Coulombs Law, Electric Fields due to a Point
Charge and an Electric Dipole, Electric Field due to a Charge Distribution, Electric Dipole in an
Electric Field, Electric Flux, Gauss Law and its Applications in Planar, Spherical and
Cylindrical Symmetry.
Electric Potential
Equipotential Surfaces, Potential due to a Point Charge and a Group of Point Charges, Potential
due to an Electric Dipole, Potential due to a Charge Distribution, Relation between Electric Field
and , Electric Potential Energy.
Capacitors and Capacitance
16

Parallel Plate, Cylindrical and Spherical capacitors, Capacitors in Series and Parallel, Energy
Stored in an Electric Field, Dielectrics and Gauss Law.
DC Circuits
Electric Current and Current Density, Resistance and Resistivity, Ohms Law, Power in Electric
Circuits, Semiconductors and Superconductors, Work, Energy, and EMF, Resistances in Series
and Parallel, Single and Multi-loop Circuits, Kirchhoffs Rules, RC Circuits, Charging and
Discharging of a Capacitor.
Magnetic Field and Magnetic Force
Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields and their Applications, Hall Effect, Magnetic Force on a
Current Carrying Wire, Torque on a Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole Moment, Magnetic Field
Due to a Current, Force between two Parallel Currents, Amperes Law, Biot- Savart Law:
Magnetic Field due to a Current, Long Straight Wire carrying Current, Solenoids and Toroids, A
current-carrying Coil as a Magnetic Dipole, Inductance, Faradays Law of Induction, Lenzs
Law, Induction and Energy Transfers, Induced Electric Fields, Inductors and Inductances, Self
Inductance, RL Circuits, Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field, Energy Density, Mutual Induction.
Alternating Fields and Currents
LC Oscillations, Damped Oscillations in an RLC circuit, Alternating Currents, Forced
Oscillations, Resistive, Capacitive, and Inductive Loads, RLC series Circuit, Power in AC
Circuits, Transformers, Gauss Law for Magnetism, Induced Magnetic Fields, Displacement
Current, Spin &Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism,
Ferromagnetism, Hysteresis.

Recommended Books:
1. Freedman, R. A., H. D. Young, and A. L. Ford (Sears and Zeemansky). 2010. University
Physics with Modern Physics, Addison-Wesley-Longman, 13th International ed.
2. Giancoli, D. C. 2008. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, with Modern Physics. AddisonWesley, 4th ed.
3. Halliday, D., R. Resnick and J. Walker. 2010. Fundamentals of Physics. John
Wiley & Sons, 9th ed.
4. Keller, F. J., W. E. Gettys and M. J. Skove. 1992. Physics: Classical and
Modern, McGraw Hill. 2nd ed.
5.Serway, R. A., and J. W. Jewett. 2010. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Golden Sunburst
Series, 8th ed.

17

SEMESTER IV
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Modern Physics
PHY-404
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the concept of modern physics, nuclear structure, radioactivity, some nuclear reactions
and production of nuclear energy and to give some basic understanding of Plasma and LASER.
Theory:
Origin of Quantum Theory:
Black body radiation, Stefan Boltzmann-, Wiens- and Plancks law, consequences. The
quantization of energy, Photoelectric and Compton Effect, Line spectra, Explanation using
quantum theory.
Wave Nature of Matter:
Wave behaviour of particle (wave function etc.) its definition and relation to probability of
particle, dBroglie hypothesis and its testing, Davisson-Germer Experiment and J.P. Thomson
Experiment, Wave packets and particles, localizing a wave in space and time.
Atomic Physics:
18

Bohrs theory (review), Frank-Hertz experiment, energy levels of electron, Atomic spectrum,
Angular momentum of electrons, Vector atom model, Orbital angular momentum. Spin
quantization, Bohrs Magnetron. X-ray spectrum (continuous and discrete) Moseleys law,
Paulis exclusion principle and its use in developing the periodic table.
Recommended Books:
1. Beiser, A. 1995. Concepts of Modern Physics (fifth edition) McGraw-Hill.
2. Eisberg, R. M. 1961. Fundamentals of Modern Physics, John Wiley & Sons
3. EisbergR. M. and Robert Resnick. 2002. Quantum Physics of Atoms, molecules, Solids,
Nuclei and Particles. 2ndedition, John Wiley & Sons.
4. Halliday, D., R. Resnick, K. S. Krane, 1992. Physics,John Willey & sons, Inc.
5. Puri, S. 2004. Modern Physics, Narosa Publishing House.
6. Tippler P. A. and Ralph A. Llewellyn. 2000. Modern Physics 3 rdedition, W H Freeman and
Company.

SEMESTER IV
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Lab II (Electricity and Magnetism)


PHY-406
1(0-1)

Practical:
Static charge and electric fields, direct and alternating currents, electrical measurement
instrumentation (voltmeters, ammeters, power supplies, variable transformers, cathode ray
oscilloscope, electrometer), passive electronic components (resistors, capacitors, inductors),
measurement of resistance, capacitance and inductance, electromagnetic induction, inductors and
transformers, motors, magnetic fields due to currents and permanent magnets, ferromagnetism
and ferroelectricity, determination of hysteresis curves, determination of Curie point, magnetic
susceptibility and its temperature dependence, dielectric properties measurement, mapping of
magnetic fields using Hall sensors, experiments on noise, properties of the light bulb.
Recommended Books:
1. Kirkup, L. and R. B. Frenkel. 2006. An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Moore, J. H., C. C. Davis, M. A. Coplan, and S. C. Greer. 2009. Building Scientific Apparatus.
Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
3. Napolitano, A. C. Melissino. 2003. Experiments in Modern Physics. Academic Press, 2nd ed.
4. Squires. . G. L. 2001. Practical Physics. Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
5. Taylor, J. R. 1996. An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical
Measurements. University of Science Books, 2nd ed.

19

SEMESTER V
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Mathematical Method of Physics I


PHY-501
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To develop the mathematical background of student in vectors, tensors, matrices and some of
their uses in the world of physics and to give them basic understanding of group theory and
complex variables used in physics
Theory:
Vector Analysis:
Review of vectors Algebra, Vector differentiation and gradient, Divergence and Gausss theorem,
Vector integration, Greens theorem in the plane, Curl and Stoke's theorem.
Curvilinear Coordinates and Tensors:
Curvilinear coordinate system, Gradient, Divergence and Curl in the curvilinear coordinates
system, Cartesian, Spherical and Cylindrical coordinate system, Laplacian, Covariant and contra
variant tensors, Tensor algebra, Quotient rule. Metric tensor, Christoffel symbol, equation of
geodesic, Reimann tensor.

20

Matrices:
Linear vector spaces, Determinants, Matrices, Eigen values and eigenvectors of matrices,
Orthogonal matrices, Hermitian matrices, Similarity transformations, Diagonalization of
matrices.
Complex Variables:
Functions of a complex variable, Eulers formula, De moivres theorem, Cauchy Riemann
conditions and analytic functions, harmonic functions Cauchy integral theorem and integral
formula, Taylor and Laurent series, Calculus of residue, Complex integration. Singularities and
residues, residue theorem.
Recommended Books:
1. Arfken, G. 1970. Mathematical Physics. 2nded, Academic Press.
2. Butkov, E. 1968. Mathematical Physics. Addison-Wesley.
3. Hsu, H. P. 1967. Fourier Analysis. Simon Schuster Series.
4. Pipes and Harvill.1971. Applied Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists. McGraw Hill.
5. Speigel, M. R. 1979. Complex Variables Schaums Outline Series. McGraw Hill.

SEMESTER V
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Quantum Mechanics I
PHY-503
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


Understanding the behaviour of quantum mechanical particle and development of Schrodinger
equation in one and three dimensions and introduction to Quantum mechanical operators and
determination of angular momentum of a Quantum mechanical particle
Theory:
Quantum Mechanics of One Dimensional Problem
Review of concepts of classical mechanics, State of a system, Properties of one dimensional
potential functions, Functions and expectation values, Dirac notation, Hermitian operators,
Solutions of Schrodinger equation for free particles, The potential barrier problems, The linear
harmonic oscillator, Particle in a box.
Formalism of Quantum Mechanics
The state of a system, Dynamical variables and operators, Commuting and non commuting
operators, Heisenberg uncertainty relations, Time evolution of a system, Schrodinger and
Heisenberg pictures, Symmetry principles and conservation laws.
21

Angular Momentum
Orbital angular momentum, Spin, The eigenvalues and Eigen functions of L 2 and Lz, Matrix
representation of angular momentum operators, Addition of angular momenta.
Schrodinger Equation in Three Dimensions
Separation of Schrodinger equation in Cartesian coordinates, Central potentials, The free
particle, Three dimensional square well potential, The hydrogenic atom, Three dimensional
square well potential, The hydrogenic atom, Three dimensional isotopic oscillator.
Recommended Books:
1. Bialynicki-Birula, M. Cieplak& J. Kaminski. 1992. Theory of Quantua. Oxford University
Press, New York
2. Bransden, B.H. and C.J. Joachain. 1990. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Longman
Scientific & Technical London.
3. Greiner, W. 1980. Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction.
Company, Reading Mass.

Addison Wesley Publishing

4. Greiner, W. 1990. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. Springer Verlag, Berlin.


5. Griffiths, D. J. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, Prentice Hall Inc.
6. Liboff. R.L. 1980. Introductory Quantum mechanics. Addison Wesley Publishing Company,
Reading Mass.
7. Schwable, F. 1992. Quantum Mechanics.Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
8. Townsend, J.S. 1992. A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics. McGraw Hill Book
Company, Singapore.

SEMESTER V
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Solid State Physics I


PHY-505
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the basic concepts of crystal structure and lattice and make students understand the
thermal and electrical properties of solid.
Theory:
Crystal Structure
Lattices and basis, Symmetry operations, Fundamental Types of Lattice, Position and Orientation
of Planes in Crystals, Simple crystal structures.
Crystal Diffraction and Reciprocal Lattice
Diffraction of X-rays, Neutrons and electrons from crystals; Braggs law; Reciprocal lattice,
Ewald construction and Brillouin zone, Fourier Analysis of the Basis.
Phonons and Lattice

22

Quantization of Lattice Vibrations, Phonon momentum, inelastic scattering by phonons, Lattice


Vibrations for Monoatomic and diatomic basis, Optical Properties in the Infrared Region.
Thermal Properties of Solids
Lattice heat Capacity, Classical model, Einstein Model, Enumeration of normal modes, Density
of state in one, two or three dimensions, Debye model of heat capacity, Comparison with
experimental results, thermal conductivity and resistivity, Umklapp processes.
Electrical Properties of Metals
Classical free electron theory of metals, energy levels and density of orbitals in one dimension,
effect of temperature on the FermiDirac distribution function, properties of the free electron
gas, electrical conductivity and Ohms Law, thermal and electrical conductivities of metals and
their ratio, motion of free electrons in magnetic fields, cyclotron frequency, static magneto
conductivity and Hall Effect along with applications.
Recommended Books:
1. Ashcroft , N. W., and N. D. Mermin. 1976. Solid State Physics. Rinehart &
Winston.
2. Elliott, S. R. 1998. The Physics and Chemistry of Solids. John Wiley.
3. Kittle, C. 2005. Introduction to Solid State Physics, John Wiley, 8th ed.
4. Omar, M. A. 2000. Elementary and Solid State Physics. Pearson Education.
5. Rosenberg,H. M. 1988. The Solid State. Oxford Science Publication, 3rd ed.
6. Wahab, M. A. 1999. Solid State Physics. Narosa Publishing House.

SEMESTER V
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Electronics I
PHY-507
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the basic understanding of diode and its uses, circuit theory and different types of
transistors.
Theory:
The Semiconductor Diode
Metals, insulators and semiconductors, Conduction in Silicon and Germanium, The forbidden
energy gap, n and p type semiconductors, the junction diode, diode voltage-current equation,
Zener diodes, light emitting diodes, photodiodes, capacitance effects in the pn junction.
The Diode as Rectifier and Switch
The ideal diode model, the half wave rectifier, the full wave rectifier, the bridge rectifier,
measurement of ripple factor in the rectifier circuit, the capacitor filter, the filter, the -R
filter, the voltage doubling rectifier circuit, rectifying AC voltmeters, diode wave clippers, diode
clampers.
23

Circuit Theory and Analysis


Superposition theorem, Thevenins Theorem, Nortons Theorem, Model for circuit, one port and
two-port network, Hybrid parameter equivalent circuit, Power in decibels.
The Junction Transistor as an Amplifier
Transistor voltage and current
designations, the junction transistors, the volt-ampere curve of a transistor, the current
amplification factors, the load line and Q point, the basic transistor amplifiers, the common
emitter amplifier, the trans-conductance gm, performance of a CE amplifier, relation between Ai
and Av, the CB amplifier, the CC amplifier, comparison of amplifier performance.
DC Bias for the Transistor
Choice of Q point, variation of Q point, fixed transistor bias, the four resistor bias circuit, design
of a voltage feedback bias circuit, Common emitter, common collector, common base biasing.
Field Effect Transistor
What is /field effect transistor, JFET: Static characteristics of JFET, Metal oxide semiconductor
Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET of IGFET): enhancement and depletion mode, FET biasing
techniques, Common drain, common source and common gate, fixed biasand self-bias
configurations, Universal JFET bias curve, Darlington pair.
Operational Amplifiers
The integrated amplifier, the differential amplifier, common mode rejection ratio, the operational
amplifier, summing operation, integration operation, comparator, milli-voltmeter.
Recommended Books:
1. Bar-lev, A. 1993. Semiconductor and Electronics Devices. Prentice Hall, 3rd ed.
2. Floyd, T. L. 2009. Electronics Fundamentals: Circuits, Devices and Applications. Prentice
Hall, 8th ed.
3. Grob, . B. 1997. Basic Electronics. McGraw-Hill, Tched.
4. Malvino,A. P. 2006. Electronic Principles. McGraw-Hill, 7th ed.
5. Navon, D. H. and B. Hilbert. 1986. Semiconductor Micro-devices and Materials.
CBS College Publishing.
6. Streetman, B. and S. Banerjee. 2005. Solid State Electronics Devices. Prentice
Hall, 6th ed.
7. Paynter, R. T. 1998. Introductory Electric Circuits. Prentice Hall.

24

SEMESTER V
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Classical Mechanics I
PHY-509
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To develop the basic knowledge of classical world using the laws of Physics, to develop the
understanding of two bodies central force problems, to give understanding of kinematics and
dynamics of rigid and Development of Hamiltonian equation and use of canonical transformation
in classical physics.
Theory:
Elementary Principles:
Brief Survey of Newtonian mechanics of a system of particles, constraints, Alembert's principle,
Lagrange's equation and its applications. Virtual work.
Variational Principles:
Calculus of variation and Hamilton's principle, Derivation of Lagrange's equation from
Hamilton's principle.
Two Body Central Force Problems:
25

Low and least action, two body problem and its reduction to one body problem. Equation of
motion and solution for one body problem, Kepler's Laws Laboratory and centre of mass
systems, Rutherford scattering.
Kinematics of Rigid Body Motion:
Orthogonal transformations, Eulerian angles, Euler's theorem, Thecoriolis force.
Rigid Body Equation of Motion:
Angular momentum, Tensors and dyadics, Moment of inertia, Rigid body problems and Euler's
equations.
Hamilton Equation of Motion:
Legendre transformation and Hamilton equations of motion, Conservation theorems.
Canonical Transformations:
Examples of canoical transformations, Lagrange and Poison brackets, Liouville's theorem.
Recommended Books:
1. Arnold, V.I. 1980. Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics. Springer Verlag, New
York.
2. Goldstein, H. 1980. Classical Mechanics. 2nd. Edn., Addison Wesley, Reading,
Massachusetts.
3.Matzner, R.A. and L.C. Shepley. 1991. Classical Mechanics. Prentice Hall Inc., London.
4. Rasband, S.N. Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, New York
5. Woodhouse, N.M.J. 1987. Introduction to Analytical Dynamics.Oxford Science Publications,
Oxford.

SEMESTER V
Course Title:
spectroscopy)
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Lab VI ((Modern Physics, Advanced optics, Atomic physics &


PHY-511
2(0-2)

Practical:
Modern Physics
Photoelectric effect, Frank-Hertz's quantization of energy levels, determination of Planck's
constant (e.g. using a light bulb), verification of Moseley's law using X-ray fluorescence,
Compton effect, Millikan's experiment for determination of charge of electron, properties of
nuclear radiation (absorption in different media and response to external magnetic fields),
statistical nature of radioactivity, determination of the half-life of radio- isotopes, Geiger-Muller
tubes, cloud chambers, energy spectroscopy of gamma rays, experiments on medical physics.
Advanced Optic and Spectrsoscopy
Sources of light including bulbs, light emitting diodes, laser diodes and gas lasers, experiments
demonstrating optical phenomena such as interference, diffraction, linear motion, reflection,
refraction, dispersion, Michelson interferometry, measurement of refractive index using
interferometry, measurement of the speed of light, diffraction gratings and multiple-slit
interference, thin film interference and Newton's rings, use of digital cameras for optics
26

experiments, mode structure of lasers, use of spectrometers and monochromators, wavelength


tuning of laser diodes, rainbows, emission spectroscopy of low-pressure gases (hydrogen), alkali
spectra and fine structure, hyperfine structure of rubidium, vibrational spectrum of nitrogen,
Lambert-Beer's law, optical polarization, magneto-optical Faraday rotation.
Recommended Books:
1. Kirkup, L. and R. B. Frenkel. 2006. An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Moore, J. H., C. C. Davis, M. A. Coplan, and S. C. Greer. 2009. Building Scientific Apparatus.
Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
3. Napolitano, A. C. Melissino. 2003. Experiments in Modern Physics. Academic Press, 2nd ed.
4. Squires. . G. L. 2001. Practical Physics. Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
5. Taylor, J. R. 1996. An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical
Measurements. University of Science Books, 2nd ed.

SEMESTER VI
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Mathematical Method of Physics II


PHY-502
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the understanding of Differential equations and their uses in Physics, special functions,
Fourier series, Fourier Transforms and solution of Boundary value problems and their uses .
Theory:
Differential Equations in Physics:
First and second order linear differential equations, Partial differential equations of theoretical
physics, Separation of variables, Homogeneous differential equations, Frobenius series solution
of differential equations, Second solution, Nonhomogenous Differential
Special Functions:
Gamma function, Bessel functions and Hankel functions, Spherical Bessel functions, Modified
Bessel Function Legendre polynomials, Associated Legendre polynomials, Spherical harmonics
Laguerre polynomials, Hermite polynomials.
Fourier series:
27

Definition and general properties, Fourier series of various physical functions, Uses and
application of Fourier series.
Integral Transforms:
Integral transform, Fourier transform, Convolution theorem, Elementary Laplace transform and
its application. Laplace transform of derivatives
Boundary Value Problems and Green's Functions:
Boundary value problems in Physics, the SL problem, Non-homogeneous boundary value
problems and Green's functions, Green's functions for one dimensional problem, Eigenfunction
expansion of Green's function, Construction of Green's functions in higher dimensions.
Recommended Books:
1. Arfken, G. 1970. Mathematical Physics. 2ndEd, Academic Press.
2. Bronson, R. Differential Equations. Schaums Outline Series. McGraw Hill, New York.
3. Butkov, E. Mathematical Physics Addison-Weseley London.
4. Boas, M.L. 1989. Mathematical Methods in Physical Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
5. Chattopadhyay, 1990. Mathematical Physics. Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi.
6. Cohen,H. 1992. Mathematics for Scientists & Engineers. Prentice Hall International Inc., New
Jersey.
7. Hassani. 1991. Foundations of Mathematical Physics. Prentice Hall International Inc.,
Singapore.
8. Wong,C.W. 1991. Introduction to Mathematical Physics. Oxford University, Press, New York.

SEMESTER VI
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Quantum Mechanics II
PHY-504
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To understand the use of approximation in Quantum mechanics, the theory of scattering and
interaction of quantum systems with radiation and the basics of relativistic quantum mechanics
Theory:
Approximate Methods:
Time independent perturbation theory for non degenerate and degenerate levels, the variational
method, The WKB approximation, Time dependent perturbation theory.
Identical Particles and Second Quantization:
Indistinguishability of identical particles, Systems of identical particles, Quantum dynamics of
identical particle systems, statistics, Symmetry of states, Fermions, Bosons.

28

Theory of Scattering:
Scattering experiments and cross sections, Potential scattering, The method of partial waves, The
Borns approximation.
The Interaction of Quantum Systems with Radiation:
Electromagnetic field and its interaction with one electron system, Transition rates, Spontaneous
emission, Selection rules for electric dipole transitions, The spin of photon and its helicity.
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics:
Schrodinger relativistic equation, Probability and current densities, Klein-Gordon equation and
hydrogen atom, Dirac relativistic equation.
Books Recommended:
1. Bialynicki-Birula, M. Cieplak& J. Kaminski, 1992. Theory of Quantua. Oxford
University Press, New York.
2. Bransden, B.H. and C.J. Joachain. 1990. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Longman
Scientific & Technical London.
3. Greiner, W. 1980. Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction. Addison Wesley Publishing
Company, Reading Mass.
4.

Greiner, W. 1990. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

5. Liboff, R. L. 1980. Introductory Quantum mechanics. Addison Wesley Publishing


Company, Reading Mass.
6. Townsend,J.S. 1992. A Modern Approach to Quantum Mechanics', McGraw Hill Book
Company, Singapore.

SEMESTER VI
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Solid State Physics II


PHY-506
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the basic concepts of superconductivity and make students understand the dielectric
magnetic and optical properties of solid.
Theory:
Dielectric Properties of Solids
Polarization, Depolarization, Local and Maxwell field, Lorentz field, Clausius-Mossotti relation,
Dielectric Constant and Polarizability, Masurement of dielectric constant, ferro electricity and
ferroelectric crystals, Phase Transitions, First and 2nd order phase transitions, Applications
Semiconductors
General properties of semiconductors, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, their band
structure, carrier statistics in thermal equilibrium, band level treatment of conduction in
29

semiconductors and junction diodes, diffusion and drift currents, collisions and recombination
times
Optical Properties
Interaction of light with solids, Optical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals, KramersKronnig
Relation, Excitons, Raman Effect in crystals, optical spectroscopy of solids.
Magnetic Properties of Materials
Magnetic dipole moment and susceptibility, different kinds of magnetic materials, Langevin
diamagnetic equation, Paramagnetic equation and Curie law, Classical and quantum approaches
to paramagnetic materials. Ferro-magnetic and anti ferromagnetic order, Curie point and
exchange integral, Effect of temperature on different kinds of magnetic materials and
applications.
Superconductivity
Introduction to superconductivity, Zero-Resistance and Meissner Effect , Type I and Type II
superconductors, Thermodynamic fields, Tow fluid model, London equations , BCS and
Ginzburg Landau Theory, Vortex Behaviour, Critical Current Density, Josephson effect and
applications.
Recommended Books:
1. Ashcroft, N. W., and N. D. Mermin. 1976.Solid State Physics. Rinehart &
Winston.
2. Burns, G. 1992. High Temperature Superconductivity: An Introduction.
Academic Press.
3. Fox, M. 2010. Optical Properties of Solids, Oxford University Press, 2nd ed.
4. Kittle, C. 2005. Introduction to Solid State Physics. John Wiley, 8th ed.
5. Spaldin, N. A. 2010. Magnetic Materials: Fundamentals and Device Applications. Cambridge
University Press, 2nd ed.

SEMESTER VI
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Electronics II
PHY-508
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the basic understanding of amplifier and frequency response, and advanced electronic
circuits.
Theory:
Amplifiers and their Frequency Response
Cascade amplifier, The Amplifier pass band, The frequency plot, Low frequency plot, Low
frequency limit, The un-bypassed emitter resistor, high frequency equivalent circuit, The
Miller Effect, high frequency limit of transistor, bandwidth of a cascade amplifier.
Feedback

30

Positive and Negative feedback, Principle of feedback amplifier, stabilization of gain by negative
feedback, Bandwidth improvement with negative feedback, Reduction of nonlinear distortion,
control of amplifier output and input resistance, current series feedback circuit, voltage shunt
feedback circuit.
Oscillators
Introduction, Classification of oscillators, Damped and undamped oscillators, the oscillatory
circuit, frequency stability of an oscillator, essentials of a feedback LC oscillator, tuned base
oscillator,Hartley oscillator, Colpitis oscillator, crystal oscillator.
Power Amplifiers
Introduction, Power relation in class-A amplifiers, effect of thermal environment, determination
of the output distortion, class-B amplifier, efficiency of class-A and class-B amplifiers.
Modulation and Demodulation
Introduction, carrier wave modulation, Need for modulation, radio Broadcasting, Methods of
modulation, amplitude modulation, Forms of amplitude modulation, single side band system of
modulation, Diode for linear detector for amplitude modulation, High power level amplitude
modulation, automatic volume control, Frequency modulation.
Multivibrators
Multivibrators, Basic types of Multivibrators, uses of Multivibrators, AstableMultivibrators,
Mono-stable Multivibrators, Bi-stable Multivibrators, Schmitt Trigger Circuit.
Integrated Circuits
Introduction, Integrated circuit advantages and drawbacks, scale of integration, classification of
integrated circuit by structure, Classification of integrated circuit by function, comparison
between different integrated circuit. Integrated circuit terminology, Integrated circuit fabrication,
Basic processing steps. Silicon device processes Silicon wafer preparation, diffusion, Oxidation
photolithography, Chemical vapourdeposition, Metallization, Circuit probing, Scribing and
separating into chips, Mounting and packing applications of integrated circuit.
Digital Circuits
Decimal, Binary, Octal, hexadecimal number systems, conversion of decimal numbers to any
other number system and vice-versa, Binary codes, OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR logic gates,
Boolean Algebra. Boolean expressions, simplification of Boolean expression using Boolean
Algebra.
Recommended Books:
1. Bar-lev, A. 1993. Semiconductor and Electronics Devices. Prentice Hall, 3rd ed.
2. Floyd, T. L. 2009. Electronics Fundamentals: Circuits, Devices and Applications. Prentice
Hall, 8th ed.
3. Grob, B. 1997. Basic Electronics. McGraw-Hill, Tched.
4. Malvino, A. P. 2006. Electronic Principles. McGraw-Hill, 7th ed.
5. Navon, D. H. and B. Hilbert.1986. Semiconductor Micro-devices and Materials. CBS College
Publishing.
6. Paynter, R. T. 1998. Introductory Electric Circuits. Prentice Hall.
7. Streetman, B. and S. Banerjee. 2005. Solid State Electronics Devices. Prentice
Hall, 6th ed.

31

SEMESTER VI
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Electrodynamics I
PHY-510
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To develop the basic knowledge of differential and integral calculus, to give knowledge of
electric field, energy in electrostatics and some advanced topics in electrodynamics.
Theory:
VetorAnalysis;VectorAlgebra,DifferntialCalculus,IntegralCalculus,CurvilinearCoordinates, The
Dirac Delta Function. Electrostatics; The Electric Field, Divergence& curl of Electrostatic
Fields, Electricpotential,Work& Energy in Electrostatics, Conductors. Potentials; Laplaces
Equation,The Method of Images, Separation of Variables, Multipole Expansion. Electric Fields
in Matter; Polarization, The Field Of a Polarized Object,The Electric Displacement, Linear
Dielectrics. Magnetostatics; The Lorentz Force Law, TheBiot-SavartLaw, The Divergence &
Curl of B, Magnetic Vector Potential. Electrodynamics; ElectromotiveForce, Electromagnetic
Induction, MaxwellsEquations.
32

Recommanded Books:
1. Duffin. 1990. Electricity & magnetism. McGraw-Hill.
2. Grant, I.S. and W.R.Phillips. 1990. Electro Magnetism.Willey.
3. Griffiths, D. Introduction to Electrodynamics. Prentice Hill.
4. Jakson. 1975. Electrodynamics. Willey.

SEMESTER VI
Course Title:
Lab VII (Miscellaneous advanced experiments in Modern
Physics, Atomic physics, Solid state physics, Electronics)
Course Code:
PHY-512
Credit Hours:
2(0-2)
Practical:
Measurement of electrical conductivity by two-probe and four-probe methods, band gap
estimation of intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, carrier lifetimes and mobilities, Hall effect
and its application in measuring magnetic fields, thermoelectric effects. Advanced Experiments:
nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, Zeeman effect, optical pumping, lifetime of
muons, surface plasmon resonance, Brownian motion, experiments with vacuum, low
temperature physics, superconductivity, synthesis of nanomaterials and their characterization,
electromagnetically induced transparency, Mossbaeur spectroscopy.
Recommended Books:
1. Kirkup, L. and R. B. Frenkel. 2006. An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Moore, J. H., C. C. Davis, M. A. Coplan, and S. C. Greer. 2009. Building Scientific Apparatus.
Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
33

3. Napolitano, A. C. Melissino. 2003. Experiments in Modern Physics. Academic Press, 2nd ed.
4. Squires. . G. L. 2001. Practical Physics. Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
5. Taylor, J. R. 1996. An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical
Measurements. University of Science Books, 2nd ed.

SEMESTER VII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Statistical Mechanics
PHY-601
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To understand the use of approximation in Quantum mechanics, the theory of scattering and
interaction of quantum systems with radiation and the basics of relativistic quantum mechanics
Theory:
Review of Classical Thermodynamics
States, macroscopic vs. microscopic, "heat" and "work", energy, entropy, equilibrium, laws of
thermodynamics, Equations of state, thermodynamic potentials, temperature, pressure, chemical
potential, thermodynamic processes (engines, refrigerators), Maxwell relations, phase equilibria.
Foundation of Statistical Mechanics
Phase Space, Trajectories in Phase Space, Conserved Quantities and Accessible Phase Space,
Macroscopic Measurements and Time Averages, Ensembles and Averages over Phase Space,
Liouville's Theorem, The Ergodic Hypothesis, Equal a priori Probabilities. Specification of the

34

state of a system, concept of ensembles, elementary probability calculations, distribution


functions, statistical interpretation of entropy (Boltzmann theorem).
Statistical Ensembles
Microcanonical ensemble, canonical ensemble and examples (e.g., paramagnet), calculation of
mean values, calculation ofpartition function and its relation with thermodynamic quantities, the
grand canonical ensemble and examples (e.g. adsorption), calculation of partition function and
thermodynamic quantities.
Simple Applications of Ensemble Theory
Monoatomic ideal gas in classical and quantum limit, Gibbs paradox and quantum mechanical
enumeration of states, equipartition theorem and examples (ideal gas, harmonic oscillator),
specific heat of solids, quantum mechanical calculation of para-magnetism.
Quantum Statistics
Indistinguishability and symmetry requirements, Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, Bose-Einstein
and photon statistics, Fermi- Dirac statistics (distribution functions, partition functions).
Examples: polyatomic ideal gas (MB), black body radiation (photon statistics), conduction
electrons in metals (FD), Bose condensation (BE).
Systems of Interacting Particles
Lattice vibrations in solids, van der Waals gas, mean field calculation, ferromagnets in mean
field approximation.
Recommended Books:
1. Brewer,W., F. Schwabl. 2006. Statistical Mechanics. Springer, 2nd ed.
2. Hill. T. L. 2004. Statistical Mechanics. World Scientific Publishing Company.
3. Huang, K. 1987. Statistical Mechanics. John Wiley, 2nd ed.
4. Reif, F. 2008. Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics. Waveland Pr Inc.

SEMESTER VII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Atomic and Molecular Physics


PHY-603
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To provide an introduction to the structure and spectra of atoms and molecules. To prepare
students for more advanced courses on Physics of Atoms, Molecules and Photons.
Theory:
One Electron Atoms
Review of Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom, Reduced Mass, Atomic Units and Wavenumbers,
Energy Levels and Spectra,Schrodinger Equation for One-Electron Atoms, Quantum Angular
Momentum and Spherical Harmonics, Electron Spin, Spin-Orbit interaction. Levels and
Spectroscopic Notation, Lamb Shift, Hyperfine Structure and Isotopic Shifts. Rydberg Atoms.
Interaction of One-Electron Atoms with Electromagnetic Radiation
Radiative Transition Rates, Dipole Approximation, Einstein Coefficients, Selection Rules, Dipole
Allowed and Forbidden Transitions. Metastable Levels, Line Intensities and Lifetimes of Excited

35

States, Shape and Width of Spectral Lines, Scattering of Radiation by Atomic Systems, Zeeman
Effect, Linear and Quadratic Stark Effect.
Many-Electron Atoms
Schrodinger Equation for Two-Electron Atoms, Para and Ortho States, Paulis Principle and
Periodic Table, Coupling of Angular Momenta, L-S and J-J Coupling. Ground State and Excited
States of Multi-Electron Atoms, Configurations and Terms.
Molecular Structure and Spectra
Structure of Molecules, Covalent and Ionic Bonds, Electronic Structure of Diatomic Molecules,
Rotation and Vibration of Diatomic Molecules, Born-Oppenheimer Approximation. Electronic
Spectra, Transition Probabilities and Selection Rules, Frank- Condon Principle, H 2+ and H2.
Effects of Symmetry and Exchange. Bonding and Anti-bonding Orbitals. Electronic Spin and
Hunds Cases, Nuclear Motion: Rotation and Vibrational Spectra (Rigid Rotation, Harmonic
Vibrations). Selection Rules. Spectra of Triatomic and Polyatomic Molecules, Raman
Spectroscopy, Mossbauer Spectroscopy.
Recommended Books:
1.Banwell, C. N. and E. M. McCash. 1994. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy. McGrawHill, 4th ed.
2. Bransden, B. H. and C. J. Joachain. 2008. Physics of Atoms and Molecules.Pearson Education,
2nd ed.
3. Demtroder, W. 2010. Atoms, Molecules and Photons. Springer, 2nd ed.
4. Foot, C. J. 2005. Atomic Physics. Oxford University Press.
5. Hollas, J. M. 2002. Basic Atomic & Molecular Spectroscopy. John Wiley.

SEMESTER VII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Electrodynamics II
PHY-605
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To study some advance topics of electrodynamics andrelativistic mechanics and to give a brief
introduction of relativistic electrodynamics
Theory:
Magnetic Fields in Matter Magnetization; The Field of Magnetized Object,The Auxiliary Field
H, Linear& Nonlinear Media. Conservation Laws; Charge & Energy,Momentum, Magnetic
Forces Do No Work. Electromagnetic Waves; Waves in One Dimension, Electromagnetic Waves
In Vacume, Electromagnetic Waves in Matter,Absorption & Dispersion, Guided Waves.
Potentials
and
Fields;
The
Potential
Formulation,ContinuousDistributions,PointCharges.Radiation;DipoleRadiation,PointCharges.Ele
ctrodynamics and Relativity; The Special Theory of Relativity, Relativistic Mechanics,
Relativistic Electrodynamics.
Recommended Books:
36

1. Duffin, W.J. 1990. Electricity and magnetism. McGraw-Hill.


2. Grant, I.S. and W.R.Phillips, 1990. Electromagnetism. Wiley.
3. Griffiths, D. 1989. Introduction to electrodynamics. Prentice Hall.
4. Jakson.1975. Electrodynamics.Wiley.
5. Riejz, J. Foundation of electromagnetic theory.

SEMESTER VII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Nuclear Physics
PHY-607
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To understand the nuclear structure using different nuclear models. To understand the nature of
nuclear forces. To give understanding of radioactivity and nuclear reactions.
History
Starting from Bacqurels discovery of radioactivity to Chedwicksneutron.
Basic Properties of Nucleus
Nuclear size, mass, binding energy, nuclearspin, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole
moment, parity and statistics.

37

Nuclear Forces
Yukawa's theory of nuclear forces. Nucleon scattering, charge independence and spin
dependence of nuclear force, isotopic spin.
Nuclear Models
Liquid drop model, Fermi gas model, Shell model, Collective model.
Theories of Radioactive Decay
Theory of Alpha decay and explanation of observed phenomena, measurement of Beta ray
energies, the magnetic lens spectrometer, Fermi theory of Beta decay, Neutrino hypothesis,
theory of Gamma decay, multipolarity of Gamma rays, Nuclear isomerism.
Nuclear Reactions
Conservation laws of nuclear reactions, Q-value and threshold energy of nuclear reaction, energy
level and level width, cross sections for nuclear reactions, compound nucleolus theory of nuclear
reaction and its limitations, direct reaction, resonance reactions, Breit-Wigner one level formula
including the effect of angular momentum.
Recommended Books:
1. Green. 1995. Nuclear Physics. McGraw-Hill.
2. Segre, E. 1977. Nuclei and Particles.Bejamin-Cummings, 2nd ed.
3. Kaplan. 1980. Nuclear Physics. Addison-Wisely.
4. Krane, K. S. 1988. Introducing Nuclear Physics. John Wiley, 3rd ed.
5. Povh, B., K.Rith, C. Scholtz, F. Zetsche, 1999. Particle and Nuclei.

SEMESTER VII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Introduction to Relativity
PHY-607
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To learn about the Special theory of relativity and to learn the basics of relativistic mechanics
and develop understanding about the General theory.
Theory:
Special Relativity
Galilean relativity, concept of ether, Michelson-Morley experiment, Einsteins postulates of
special relativity, Lorentz transformations, structure of space-time, Minkowski space time
tensors, the light-cone, line element, four-vectors, relativity of simultaneity, time dilation, proper
time, length contraction, time paradox, velocity transformation and velocity addition.
Relativistic Mechanics
Force equation in relativity, rest mass, kinetic and total energy, conservation of energy and
momentum.

38

Elements of Tensor Calculus


Manifolds and coordinates, curves and surfaces, tensor fields, Lie derivative, geodesics, Riemann
tensor, metric tensor.
General Relativity
Principles of general relativity, equation of geodesics deviation, Einsteins field equations.
Cosmology
Newtonian cosmology, cosmological red-shift, Hubbles law, microwave background, the Big
Bang expansion rate, matter and radiation domination, history of the universe.
Recommended Books:
1.DInverno,R.D. 1992. Introducing Einsteins Relativity. Oxford University Press.
2. McComb, W.D. 1999. Dynamics and Relativity. Oxford University Press.
3. Narlikar, J.V. 1989. Introduction to Cosmology. Cambridge University Press

SEMESTER VII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Lab V (Electronics)
PHY-609
3(3-0)

Practical:
The characteristics of GM counter, the absorption coefficient of lead for Gamma rays using GM
counter, the maximum energy of Beta particles, measure the half life of a radioactive element,
the random process and fluctuations in Random process (Gaussian distribution curve), the range
of an Alpha particle, radioactive equilibrium, demonstration of Rutherford scattering experiment,
demonstration of interaction of radiation with matter using absorber kit, verification of inverse
square law, the stopping power of various substances for Gamma rays, the Zeeman Effect for a
line in the spectrum of Helium, the wave characteristics of an electron. (electron diffraction
experiment), the magnetic moment of an electron using magnetic resonance method, familiarity
with a scintillation counter and PMTs.
Recommended Books:
39

1. Kirkup, L. and R. B. Frenkel. 2006. An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement.


Cambridge University Press.
2. Moore, J. H., C. C. Davis, M. A. Coplan, and S. C. Greer. 2009. Building Scientific Apparatus.
Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
3. Napolitano, A. C. Melissino. 2003. Experiments in Modern Physics. Academic Press, 2nd ed.
4. Squires. . G. L. 2001. Practical Physics. Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
5. Taylor, J. R. 1996. An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical
Measurements. University of Science Books, 2nd ed.

SEMESTER VII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Methods of Experimental Physics


PHY-611
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To learn about the vacuum techniques. To learn the detection techniques about radiation,
temperature. To learn about the measuring techniques along with data analysis.
Theory:
Vacuum Techniques
Gas Transport: Throughout, Pumping Speed, Pump down Time Ultimate pressure. Fore-Vacuum
Pumps: Rotary Oil pumps,sorption pumps. Diffusion pumps, sorption pumps (High Vacuum).
Production of ultrahigh vacuum, Fundamental concepts, guttering pumps, Ion pumps,
Cryogenic pumps, Turbo molecular pumps. Measurement of total pressure in Vacuums Systems,
Units pressure ranges, Manometers, Perini gauges, The McLoad gauges, Mass spectrometer for
partial measurement of pressure. Design of high Vacuum system, Surface to Volume ratio, Pump
Choice, pumping system design. Vacuum Components, Vacuum valves, vacuum Flanges, Liquid
40

Nitrogen trap, Mechanical feed throughs& Electrical feed throughs Leak detection: Basic
consideration, leak detection equipment, Special Techniques and problems, Repair Techniques.
Radiation Detection and Measurement
GM tubes, scintillation detector, channeltron, photo multipliers, neutron detectors, alpha/beta
detectors, xrays/gamma detectors, cosmic rays detectors, Spectrographs and
Interferometers.
Sensor Technology
Sensors for temperature, pressure displacement, rotation, flow, level, speed, rotation position,
phase, current voltage, power magnetic field, tilt, metal, explosive and heat.
Electronics and Electronic Instruments
Operational amplifiers, summing amplifiers, difference amplifiers, Differentiators, Integrators,
Logarithmic amplifiers, current to voltage converter, Spectroscopy amplifiers, charge sensitive
pre-amplifiers, Coincidence circuits, Isolators, Ramp Generators, and single channel analyzer.
Power supplies, Signal Generators, Counters, Multichannel analyzer, Lock in Amplifiers, Boxcar
averages.
Computer Introduction
Introduction to computers, GPIB Interface, RS 232.Interfacing, DA/AD conversion, Visual
c/visual Basic.
Data Analysis
Evaluation of measurement: Systematic Errors, Accuracy, Accidental Errors, Precision,
Statistical Methods, Mean Value and Variance, Statistical Control of Measurements, Errors of
Direct measurements, Rejection of data, Significance of results, Propagation of errors,
preliminary Estimation, Errors of Computation. Least squares fit to a polynomial. Nonlinear
functions. Data manipulation, smoothing, interpolation andextrapolation, linear and parabolic
interpolation.
Recommended Books:
1. Bevington, P. and D. K. Robinson. 2002. Data Reduction and Error Analysis for Physical
Science. McGraw-Hill, 3rd ed.
2. Hablanian, 1997. M. H. High-Vacuum Technology. Marcel Dekker, 2nd ed.
3. James,F. 2006. Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics. World Scientific Company, 2nded.
4. Tavernier, S. 2010. Experimental Techniques in Nuclear and Particle Physics. Springer.
5. Topping, J. B. 1972. Errors of Observations and Their Treatment. Springer, 4thed.

41

SEMESTER VII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Introduction to Material Sciences


PHY- 613
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To understand the important aspects of materials. Moving towards microstructures.
Theory:
Atomic Structure of Materials
The packing of atoms in 2-D and 3-D, unit cells of the hexagonal close packing (hcp) and cubic
closed packing (ccp) structures, interstitial structures, density computation, lattices and
symmetry elements, indexing lattice directions and lattice planes, interplanar spacing, lattices
and crystal systems in 3-D, symmetry, crystallographic point groups and space groups, Braggs
law and the intensities of Bragg reflections.
Imperfections in Solids
Vacancies, impurities, dislocations, interfacial defects, bulk or volume defects, atomic vibrations.

42

Microstructure
Microstructure and microscopy, pressure vs. temperature phase diagrams, temperature vs.
composition phase diagrams, equilibrium, thermodynamic functions, variation of Gibbs energy
with temperature and composition, general features of equilibrium phase diagrams,
solidification, diffusion mechanisms, nucleation of a new phase, phase diagrams of Fe-C system
and other important alloys, materials fabrication.
Mechanical Behavior of Materials
Normal stress and normal strain, shear stress and shear strain, elastic deformation, plastic
deformation, Youngs modulus, shear modulus, Poissons ratio, elastic strain energy, thermal
expansion, estimate of the yield stress, dislocations and motion of dislocations, slip systems,
dislocations and strengthening mechanisms, fracture mechanics, ductile fracture, brittle fracture,
Griffith criterion, ductile fracture, toughness of engineering materials, the ductile-brittle
transition temperature, cyclic stresses and fatigue, creep.
Polymers
Polymer basics, polymer identification, polymer molecules, additional polymerization, step
growth polymerization, measurement ofmolecular weight, thermosetting polymers and gels,
rubbers and rubber elasticity, configuration and conformation of polymers, the glassy state and
glass transition, determination of Tg, effect of temperature and time, mechanical properties of
polymers, case studies in polymer selection and processing.
Biomaterials
Introduction to biomaterials, materials selection, biopolymers, structural polysaccharides, hard
materials, biomedical materials.
Recommended Books:
1. Callister, W. D. 2006. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction. Wiley, 7th ed.
2. Callister, W. D., and D. G. Rethwisch. 2012. Fundamentals of Materials Science and
Engineering: An Integrated Approach. Wiley, 4th ed.
3. Shackelford. J. F. 2008. Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers. Prentice Hall, 7th ed.
4. http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/teaching/index.php,
5. http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk

SEMESTER VIII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Plasma Physics
PHY-602
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To learn about the importance of the plasma along with the basic concept of plasma. To know
fluid description of the plasma.
Theory:
Introduction
Occurrence of plasma, Concept of temperature, Debye shielding, the plasma parameter, Criteria
for plasma.
Applications of Plasma Physics
Single-particle motion in electromagnetic field, Uniform and non-uniform E and B fields, Timevariant E and B fields, Fluid description of plasma, Wave propagation in plasma, Derivation of
dispersion relations for simple electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, Introduction to
Controlled Fusion, Basic nuclear fusion reactions, Reaction rates and power density, radiation
losses from plasma, operational conditions.
43

Recommended Books:
1. Boyd, T. J. M., and J. J. Sanderson. 2003. The Physics of Plasmas. Cambridge
University Press.
2. Chen,F. F. 1995. Introduction to Plasma Physics. 2nd ed. Plenum.
3. Gurnett, D. A., and A. Bhattacharjee. 2005. Introduction to Plasma Physics: with
space and laboratory application.Cambridge University Press.

SEMESTER VIII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Environmental Physics
PHY-604
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To become familiar with the essentials of environment and Global climate and to.learn to use
spectroscopy for environments.
Theory:
Introduction to the Essentials of Environmental Physics
The economic system, living in green house, enjoying the sun, Transport of matter, Energy and
momentum, the social and political context.
Basic Environmental Spectroscopy
Black body radiation, The emission spectrum of sun, The transition electric dipole moment, The
Einstein Coefficients, Lambert Beers law, The spectroscopy of bi-molecules, Solar UV and
life, The ozone filter.
The Global Climate
44

The energy Balance, (Zero-dimensional Greenhouse Model), elements of weather and climate,
climate variations and modeling.
Transport of Pollutants
Diffusion, flow in reverse, ground water. Flow equations of fluid Dynamics, Turbulence,
Turbulence Diffusion, Gaussian plumes in air, Turbulent jets and planes.
Noise
Basic Acoustics, Human Perceptions and noise criteria, reducing the transmission of sound,
active control of sound.
Radiation
General laws of Radiation, Natural radiation, interaction of electromagnetic radiation and plants,
utilization of photo synthetically active radiation.
Atmosphere and Climate
Structure of the atmosphere, vertical profiles in the lower layers of the atmosphere, Lateral
movement in the atmosphere, Atmospheric Circulation, cloud and Precipitation, The atmospheric
greenhouse effect.
Topo Climates and Micro Climates
Effects of surface elements in flat and widely unduling areas, Dynamic action of seliq. Thermal
action of selief.
Climatology and Measurements of Climate Factor
Data collection and organization, statistical analysis of climatic data, climatic indices, General
characteristics of measuring equipment. Measurement of temperature, air humidity, surface wind
velocity, Radiation balance, precipitation, Atmospheric Pressure, automatic weather stations.

Recommended Books:
1. Booker, E.T., and R. Van Grondelle. 2011. Environmental Physics. John Wiley, 3rd ed.
2. Guyot, G. 1998. Physics of Environment and Climate, John Wiley.

45

SEMESTER VIII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Lasers
PHY-606
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


Develop fundamental concepts about lasers. Learn the principles of spectroscopy of molecules
and semi-conductors. Understand the optical resonators and laser system. Applications of lasers.
Introductory Concepts
Spontaneous Emission, Absorption, StimulatedEmission, Pumping Schemes, Absorption and
Stimulated Emission Rates, Absorption and Gain Coefficients, Resonance Energy Transfers.
Properties of Laser Beam: Monochromaticity, Coherence, Directionality, Brightness
Spectroscopy of Molecule and Semiconductors
Electronic Energy Levels, Molecular Energy Levels, Level Occupation at Thermal Equilibrium,
Stimulated Transition, Selection Rules, Radiative and Nonradiative Decay, Semiconductor
Optical Resonators
46

Plane Parallel (Fabry-Perot) Resonator, Concentric (Spherical) Resonator, Confocal, Resonator,


Generalized Spherical Resonator, Ring Resonator, Stable Resonators, Unstable Resonators. ,
Matrix Formulation of Geometrical Optics, Wave Reflection and Transmission at a Dielectric
Interface, Stability Condition Standing and Traveling Waves in a two Mirror Resonator,
Longitudinal and Transverse Modes in a Cavity, Multilayer Dielectric Coatings, Fabry-Perot
Interferometer. Small Signal Gain and Loop Gain
Pumping Processes
Optical pumping: Flash lamp and Laser, Threshold Pump Power, pumping efficiency, Electrical
Pumping: Longitudinal Configuration and Transverse Configuration, Gas Dynamics Pumping,
Chemical Pumping.
Continuous Wave (CW) and Pulsed Lasers
Rate Equations, Threshold Condition and Output Power, Optimum Output Coupling, Laser
Tuning, Oscillation and Pulsations in Lasers, Q-Switching and Mode-Locking Methods, Phase
Velocity, Group Velocity, and Group-Delay Dispersion, Line broadening.
Lasers Systems
Solid State Lasers: Ruby Laser, Nd: YAG &Nd: Glass Lasers and Semiconductor Lasers:
Homojunction Lasers Double- Heterostructure lasers, Gas lasers: Helium Neon laser, CO2laser,
Nitrogen Laser and Excimer Lasers, Free-Electron and X-Ray Lasers.
Laser Applications
Material Processing: Surface Hardening, Cutting, Drilling, Welding etc. Holography, Laser
Communication, Medicine, Defense Industry, Atmospheric Physics.
Recommended Books:
1. Eberly, J. and P. Milonni. 2010. Lasers Physics. John Wiley, 2nd ed.
2. Scully, M. O., and M. S. Zubairy. 1997. Quantum Optics. Cambridge University Press.
3. Silfvast. W. T. 2008. Laser Fundamentals. Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed.
4. Steen, W. M., J. Mazumder and K. G. Watkins. 2010. Laser Material Processing. Springer, 4th
ed.
5. Svelto, O. 2009. Principles of Lasers. Springer, 5th ed.

47

SEMESTER VIII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Introduction to nano science and nano technology


PHY- 608
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


Introduce the concept and applications of nano sciences and nanotechnologies. Nano structures
and nano technologies.
Theory:
Introduction
Feynman talks on small structures, Nano scale dimension, Course goals and objectives.
Quantum Effects
Wave particle duality, Energy quanta, Uncertainty principle, De Broglie relation, Quantum Dots,
Moore's law, tunneling.
Surfaces and Interfaces

48

Interfaces, Surface chemistry and physics, Surface modification and characterization, Thin
Films, Sputtering, Selfassembledfilms.
Material Properties
Subatomic physics to chemical systems, types of chemical bonds, solid state physics / Material
properties.
Tools and Instrumentation
STM, AFM, Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence methods, Synchrotron Radiation.
Fabricating Nano Structures
Lithography (photo and electron beam), MBE, Self-assembled masked, FIB, Stamp technology,
Nano junctions.
Electrons in Nano Structures
Variation in electronic properties, free electron model, Bloch's theorem, Band structure, Single
electron transistor, Resonant tunneling.
Molecular Electronics
Lewis structures, Approach to calculate Molecular orbitals, Donor Acceptor properties, Electron
transfer between molecules, Charge transport in weakly interacting molecular solids, Single
molecule electronics.
Nano Materials
Quantum dots, nano wires, nano photonics, magnetic nanostructures, nano thermal devices, Nano
fluidic devices, biomimetic materials.
Nano Biotechnology
DNA micro-arrays, Protein and DNA Assembly, Digital cells, genetic circuits, DNA computing.
Nanotechnology the Road Ahead
Nanostructure innovation, Quantum Informatics, Energy solutions.
Recommended Books:
1. Binns, C. 2010. Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Wiley Survival Guides in
Engineering and Science), Wiley.
2. Lindsay, S. 2009. Introduction to Nanoscience, Oxford University Press.

49

SEMESTER VIII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Particle Physics
PHY- 610
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the basic knowledge of elementary particles, symmetries and relativistic kinematics and
to give the basic concept of neutrino oscillations and guage field theories.
Theory:
Introduction to Elementary Particles
Fundamental building blocks and their interactions. Quantum Electrodynamics. Quantum
Chromodynamics. Weak interactions. Decays and conservation laws.
Relativistic Kinematics
Lorentz transformations. Four-Vectors. Energy and momentum. Particle collisions. Mandelstam
variables.
Symmetries
50

Symmetries and conservation laws, Spin and orbital angular momentum. Flavour symmetries.
Parity. Charge conjugation. CP Violation. Time reversal and TCP Theorem.
Quantum Electrodynamics
Klein-Gordon equation. Dirac equation. Solution of Dirac equation. Bilinear covariants.
Feynman rules for QED. Casimirs trick. Cross sections & lifetimes.
Neutrino Oscillations
Solar neutrino problem. Oscillations, Neutrino masses. PMNS mixing matrix.
Gauge Field Theories
Lagrangian in Relativistic Field Theory. Gauge Invariance. Yang-Mills Theory. The mass term.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking. Higgs mechanism. Higgs boson. Grand Unification.
Supersymmetry. Extra dimensions. String theory. Dark energy. Dark Matter.
Recommended Books:
1. Barger, V. D. and R. J. N. Phillips, Collider Physics, Addison-Wesley, 1996.
2. Griffiths, D. 2008. Introduction to Elementary Particles. Wiley-VCH, 2nd ed.
3. Halzen, F., and A.D. Martin. 1984. Quarks and Leptons: An introductory course in modern
Particle Physics. John Wiley.
4. Perkins, D. H. 2000. Introduction to High-Energy Physics, Cambridge University Press, 4th
ed.

SEMESTER VIII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Electronic Material and Sciences


PHY- 612
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To understand the relation between electrical, optical and magnetic devices.
Theory:
Semiconductor Fundamentals
Composition, purity and structure of semiconductors, energy band model, band gap and materials
classification,charge, effective mass and carrier numbers, density of states, the Fermifunction and
equilibrium distribution of carriers, doping, n and p-type semiconductors and calculations
involving carrier concentrations, EF etc., temperature dependence of carrier concentrations, drift
current, mobility, resistivity and band bending, diffusion and total currents, diffusion coefficients,
recombination-generation, minority carrier life times and continuity equations with problem
solving examples.
Device Fabrication Processes
51

Oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, lithography, thin-film deposition techniques like


evaporation, sputtering, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), epitaxy etc.
PN Junction and Bipolar Junction Transistor
Junction terminology, Poissons equation, qualitative solution, the depletion approximation,
quantitative electrostatic relationships, ideal diode equation, non-idealities, BJT fundamentals,
Junction field effect transistor, MOS fundamentals, the essentials of MOSFETs.
Dielectric Materials
Polarization mechanisms, dielectric constant and dielectric loss, capacitor dielectric materials,
piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity and pyroelectricity.
Optoelectronic Devices
Photoconductors, photovoltaics and photodetectors, photodiodes and photovoltaics, solar cell
basics, LEDs, Lasers, displays, LCDs.
Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
Basics of magnetism, hysteresis loops, magnetic domains and anisotropy, hard and soft magnetic
materials, transformers, DC motors and data storage.
Recommended Books:
1. Braithwaite, N., and G. Weaver. 1990. Electronic Materials. MA: Butterworth,
2nd ed.
2. Jiles, D. 1998. Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Chapman &Hall, 2nd ed.
3. Kasap, S. O. 2005. Electronic Materials and Devices. McGraw-Hill, 3rd ed.
4. O'Handley, R. C. 1999. Modern Magnetic Materials: Principles and Applications, Wiley InterScience.
5. Pierret, R. F. 1996. Semiconductor Device Fundamentals. Addison Wesley, 2nd
ed.

SEMESTER VIII
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Digital Electronics
PHY- 614
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To learn the basics of digital electronics such as Boolean Algebra. To develop logic circuit using
the Boolean Algebra. To understand the computer interface and micro-controller along with the
embedded systems.
Theory:
Review of Number Systems
Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal number system, their inter-conversion, concepts of logic, truth
table, basic logic gates.
Boolean Algebra
De Morgans theorem, simplification of Boolean expression by Boolean Postulates and theorem,
K-maps and their uses. Dont care condition, Different codes. (BCD, ASCII, Gray etc.). Parity
inCodes.
52

IC Logic Families
Basic characteristics of a logic family. (Fan in/out, Propagation delay time, dissipation, noise
margins etc. Different logic based IC families (DTL, RTL, ECL, TTL, CMOS).
Combinational Logic Circuit
Logic circuits based on AND OR, OR-AND, NAND, NOR Logic, gate design, addition,
subtraction (2s compliments, half adder, full adder, half subtractor, full subtractor encoder,
decoder, PLA. Exclusive OR gate.
Sequential Logic Circuit
Flip-flops clocked RS-FF, D-FF, T-FF, JK-FF, Shift Register, Counters (Ring, Ripple, up-down,
Synchronous) A/D and D/A Converters.
Memory Devices
ROM, PROM, EAPROM, EE PROM, RAM, (Static and dynamic) Memory mapping techniques
Micro Computers
Computers and its types, all generation of computers, basic architecture of computer, micro
processor (ALU, UP Registers, Control and Time Section). Addressing modes, Instruction set
and their types, Discussion on 8085/8088, 8086 processor family, Intel Microprocessor
Hierarchy
Micro-controller/ Embedded System
Introduction to Embedded and microcontroller based systems, The Microprocessor and
microcontroller applications and environment, microcontroller characteristics, features of a
general purpose microcontroller, Microchip Inc and PIC microcontroller, Typical Microcontroller
examples:, Philips 80C51 & 80C552 and Motorola 68Hc05/08, Interfacing with peripherals.
Recommended Books:
1. Brey, B. B. 1991. The Intel Microprocessors: Architecture, Programming and
Interfacing.Merril, 2nd ed.
2. Floyd, T. L. Electronics Fundamentals: Circuits, Devices andApplications. Prentice Hall, 8th
ed. 2009.
3. Mono, M. M. 1995. Digital Logic and Computer Design, Prentice Hall.
4. Tokheim, R. 2007. Digital Electronics. McGraw Hill, 7th ed.
5. Wilmshurst, T. 2001. The Design of Small-Scale Embedded Systems. Palgrave.

53

Chemistry
Semester I
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Mechanics I
PHY-301
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give concept of vector and their various properties, understanding of laws of motion and their
applications is daily life and to give mathematical concept and expressions of various
parameters used in mechanics.
Theory:
Vector Analysis:
Review of Vector in 3 dimensions and fundamental Operations, Direction, Cosines, Spherical
polar coordinates, Cylindrical Coordinates. Vector and scalar triple products, gradient of a scalar,
Divergence and curl of a vector, Physical significance of each type, Divergence of a vector, flux,
curl and line integral (mutual relation). Vector identities, Divergence Theorem, Stokes Theorem
and their derivation.
Particle Dynamics:
Dynamics of uniform, circular motion, the banked curve, Equations of motion, Deriving kinetic
equations for x(t), v(t) via integration, Constant and variable forces, normal forces and contact
54

forces, special examples, Time dependent forces, Obtaining x(t), v(t) for this case using
integration method, Effect of drag forces on motion, Applying Newtons Laws to obtain v(t) for
the case of motion with time dependent (Integration approach) drag (viscous) forces, terminal
velocity, Projectile motion with and without air resistance, Non inertial frames and Pseudo
forces,
Work, Power and Energy:
Work done by a constant force, work done by a variable force (1-2 dimension), (Essentially a
review of grade-XII concepts via integration technique to calculate work done (e.g. in vibration
of a spring obeying Hookes Law), Obtaining general expression for work done (2-dimensional
case) and applying to simple cases e.g. pulling a mass at the end of a fixed string against gravity,
Work energy theorem, General
proof of work energy theorem: Qualitative review of work energy theorem, Derivation using
integral calculus, Basic formulae and applications, Power, Energy changes with respect to
observers in different inertial frames, Conservation of Energy in 1, 2, and 3 dimensional
conservative systems, Conservative and non conservative forces: Conservation of energy in a
system of particles, Law of conservation of total energy of an isolated system.
Systems of Particles:
Two particle systems and generalization to many particle systems, Centre of mass, Position,
velocity and equation of motion, Centre of mass of solid objects, Calculation of Centre of Mass
of solid objects using integral calculus, Calculating C.M. of Uniform Rod, Cylinder and Sphere,
Momentum Changes in a system of variable mass, Derivation of basic equation, application to
motion of a rocket (determination of its mass as a function of time).
Collisions:
Elastic Collisions, Conservation of momentum during collision in one and two dimensions,
Inelastic collision, Collisions in centre of Mass reference frame (One and two dimensions),
Simple applications, obtaining velocities in C.M. frame.
Recommended Books:
1. D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics, McGraw
Hill, Latest edition
2. Halliday, D. Resnick, Krane, Physics, Vol. I & II, John Wiley, 5 thed.
Latest edition.
3. M. R. Speigel, Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis,
Mc-Graw Hill, Latest edition
Chemistry
Semester II
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Mechanics II
PHY-304
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the basic concept of rotational motion, law of gravitation, physical properties of matter
and relativistic mechanics and make students able to use these concepts in daily life in a
scientific way.
Theory:
Rotational Dynamics:
Relationships between linear & angular variables, scalar and vector form. Kinetic energy of
rotation, Moment of Inertia, Parallel axis and Perpendicular axis theorems, Proof and Illustration,
application to simple cases, Determination of moment of inertia of various shapes i.e. for disc,
bar and solid sphere, Rotational dynamics of rigid bodies, Equations of rotational motion and
55

effects of application of torques, Combined rotational and translational motion, Rolling without
slipping.
Angular Momentum:
Angular Velocity, Conservation of angular momentum, effects of Torque and its relation with
angular momentum, Stability of spinning objects, Discussion with examples, The spinning Top,
Effects of torque on the angular momentum, precessional motion.
Gravitation:
Gravitational effect of a spherical mass distribution, Its mathematical treatment, Gravitational
Potential Energy (develop using integration techniques), calculation of escape velocity,
Gravitational field & Potential, Universal Gravitational Law. Radial and transversal velocity and
acceleration, Motion of Planets and Keplers' Laws (Derivation & explanation) Motion of
Satellites, Energy considerations in planetary and satellite motion, Qualitative discussion on
application of gravitational law to the Galaxy.
Bulk Properties of Matters.
Elastic Properties of Matter, Physical basis of elasticity, Tension, Compression & shearing,
Elastic Modulus, Elastic limit. Poissons ratio, Relation between three types of elasticity, Fluid
Statics, Variation of Pressure in fluid at rest and with height in the atmosphere, Surface Tension,
Physical basis; role in formation of drops and bubbles, Viscosity, Physical basis, obtaining the
Coefficient of viscosity, practical
example of viscosity; fluid flow through a cylindrical pipe (Poiseulle's law).
Special Theory of Relativity:
Inertial and non inertial frame, Postulates of Relativity, The Lorentz Transformation, Derivation,
Assumptions on which inverse transformation is derived, Consequences of Lorentz
transformation, Relativity of time, Relativity of length, Relativity of mass, Transformation of
velocity, variation of mass with velocity, mass energy relation and its importance, relativistic
momentum and Relativistic energy, (Lorentz invariants) E2=c2 p2+m2oc 4
. Recommended Books:
1. Halliday, D. Resnick, Krane, Physics, Vol. I & II, John Wiley, 5thed. 1999.
2. D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics, McGraw Hill, 1978.
3. M. R. Speigel, Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis, Mc-Graw Hill, 1959.

Chemistry
Semester II
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Lab I + IV
PHY-306
2(0-2)

Practical:
Experiments with pendulums, stop watches, one- dimensional motion and verification of
Newton's laws of motion, measurement of forces, speed, acceleration and linear momentum,
collisions and conservation of momentum, impacts, free fall and acceleration due to gravity,
gyroscopes, rotational motion, conservation of angular momentum, friction, static and dynamic
equilibrium, compound pendulum, rolling motion along inclined planes, simple harmonic
motion, masses attached to springs and Hooke's law, damped motion and the regimes of damping
(overdamped, underdamped and critically damped), pressure in fluids, experiments
demonstrating continuity, Bernoulli's principle, buoyancy and Archimedes's principle, Atwood
machine, fluid viscosity, surface tension

56

Optics (basic and advanced) and Spectroscopy


Sources of light including bulbs, light emitting diodes, laser diodes and gas lasers, experiments
demonstrating optical phenomena such as interference, diffraction, linear motion, reflection,
refraction, dispersion, Michelson interferometry, measurement of refractive index using
interferometry, measurement of the speed of light, diffraction gratings and multiple-slit
interference, thin film interference and Newton's rings, use of digital cameras for optics
experiments, mode structure of lasers, use of spectrometers and monochromators, wavelength
tuning of laser diodes, rainbows, emission spectroscopy of low-pressure gases (hydrogen), alkali
spectra and fine structure, hyperfine structure of rubidium, vibrational spectrum of nitrogen,
Lambert-Beer's law, optical polarization, magneto-optical Faraday rotation.
Recommended Books:
1. Kirkup, L. and R. B. Frenkel. 2006. An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Moore, J. H., C. C. Davis, M. A. Coplan, and S. C. Greer. 2009. Building Scientific Apparatus.
Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
3. Napolitano, A. C. Melissino. 2003. Experiments in Modern Physics. Academic Press, 2nd ed.
4. Squires. . G. L. 2001. Practical Physics. Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
5. Taylor, J. R. 1996. An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical
Measurements. University of Science Books, 2nd ed.

Chemistry

SEMESTER III
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Heat and Thermodynamics


PHY-401
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To understand the fundamentals of heat and thermodynamics.
Theory:
Basic Concepts and Definitions in Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic system, Surrounding and Boundaries. Type of systems. Macroscopic and
microscopic description of system. Properties and state of the substance: Extensive and Intensive
properties, Equilibrium, Mechanical and Thermal Equilibrium. Processes and Cycles: Isothermal,
Isobaric and Isochoric.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Consequence of Zeroth law of Thermodynamics. The state of
the system at Equilibrium.
57

Heat and Temperature


Temperature, Kinetic theory of ideal gas, Work done on an ideal gas, Review of previous
concepts. Internal energy of an ideal gas: Equipartition of Energy, Intermolecular forces,
Qualitative discussion, The Virial expansion, The Van der Waals equation of state.
Thermodynamics
First law of thermodynamics and its applications toadiabatic, isothermal, cyclic and free
expansion. Reversible and irreversible processes. Second law of thermodynamics, Carnot
theorem and Carnot engine. Heat engine, Refrigerators. Calculation of efficiency of heat engines.
Thermodynamic temperature scale: Absolute zero, Entropy, Entropy in reversible process,
Entropy in irreversible process. Entropy and Second law of thermodynamics, Entropy and
Probability. Thermodynamic Functions: Thermodynamic functions (Internal energy, Enthalpy,
Gibbs functions, Entropy, Helmholtz functions), Maxwells relations, TdS equations, Energy
equations and their applications. Low Temperature Physics, Joule-Thomson effect and its
equations. Thermoelectricity: Thermocouple, Seabecks effect, Peltiers effect, Thomson effect.
Introduction to Statistical Mechanics
Statistical distribution and mean values, Mean free path and microscopic calculations of mean
free path. Distribution of Molecular Speeds, Distribution of Energies, Maxwell distribution,
Maxwell Boltzmann energy distribution, Internal energy of an ideal gas, Brownian Motion
Legvaian equation, Qualitative description.
Recommended Books:
1. Halliday, D., R. Resnick and K. Krane. 2002. Physics. John Wiley, 5th ed.
2. Halliday, D., R. Resnick and J. Walker. 2010. Fundamentals of Physics. John
Wiley, 9th ed.
3. Roy, B. N. 1995.Principle of Modern Thermodynamics. Institute of Physics,
London
4. Sprackling, M. 1991.Thermal Physics. McMillan.
5. Zemansky, M. W. 1997. Heat and Thermodynamics. Mc Graw Hill, 7th ed.

Chemistry

SEMESTER III
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Lab III (Heat, Waves, Sound)


PHY-403
1(0-1)

Practical:
Heat
Calorimetry, heat transfer, Newton's cooling under ambient and forced convection and radiation,
measurement of temperature using Si diodes, thermistors, thermocouples and RTD's,
blackbodies, heat pumps and heat engines, investigation of gas laws and laws of
thermodynamics, thermal conductivity by pulsed heating of a metal rod, measurement of latent
heats and specific heat capacities, temperature control using PID (proportional- integralderivative) schemes, thermal expansivity and its measurement using strain gauges.
Waves and Oscillations, Sound
Resonance in a stretched string, normal modes of oscillation, dispersion relations for mono and
diatomic lattice, coupled oscillators, nonlinear oscillations exemplified by resistanceinductance-diode circuits, magnetic pendulums, accelerometers, measurement of the speed of
58

sound under conditions of varying temperature, solitons, Lorentz pendulum, waves in water,
beats, super-positions of harmonic motion (Lissajous patterns), sonometer.
Recommended Books:
1. Kirkup, L. and R. B. Frenkel. 2006. An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement.
Cambridge University Press.
2. Moore, J. H., C. C. Davis, M. A. Coplan, and S. C. Greer. 2009. Building Scientific Apparatus.
Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
3. Napolitano, A. C. Melissino. 2003. Experiments in Modern Physics. Academic Press, 2nd ed.
4. Squires. . G. L. 2001. Practical Physics. Cambridge University Press, 4th ed.
5. Taylor, J. R. 1996. An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical
Measurements. University of Science Books, 2nd ed.

Mathematics
Semester I
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Mechanics I
PHY-301
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give concept of vector and their various properties, understanding of laws of motion and their
applications is daily life and to give mathematical concept and expressions of various
parameters used in mechanics.
Theory:
Vector Analysis:
Review of Vector in 3 dimensions and fundamental Operations, Direction, Cosines, Spherical
polar coordinates, Cylindrical Coordinates. Vector and scalar triple products, gradient of a scalar,
Divergence and curl of a vector, Physical significance of each type, Divergence of a vector, flux,
curl and line integral (mutual relation). Vector identities, Divergence Theorem, Stokes Theorem
and their derivation.
Particle Dynamics:
59

Dynamics of uniform, circular motion, the banked curve, Equations of motion, Deriving kinetic
equations for x(t), v(t) via integration, Constant and variable forces, normal forces and contact
forces, special examples, Time dependent forces, Obtaining x(t), v(t) for this case using
integration method, Effect of drag forces on motion, Applying Newtons Laws to obtain v(t) for
the case of motion with time dependent (Integration approach) drag (viscous) forces, terminal
velocity, Projectile motion with and without air resistance, Non inertial frames and Pseudo
forces,
Work, Power and Energy:
Work done by a constant force, work done by a variable force (1-2 dimension), (Essentially a
review of grade-XII concepts via integration technique to calculate work done (e.g. in vibration
of a spring obeying Hookes Law), Obtaining general expression for work done (2-dimensional
case) and applying to simple cases e.g. pulling a mass at the end of a fixed string against gravity,
Work energy theorem, General
proof of work energy theorem: Qualitative review of work energy theorem, Derivation using
integral calculus, Basic formulae and applications, Power, Energy changes with respect to
observers in different inertial frames, Conservation of Energy in 1, 2, and 3 dimensional
conservative systems, Conservative and non conservative forces: Conservation of energy in a
system of particles, Law of conservation of total energy of an isolated system.
Systems of Particles:
Two particle systems and generalization to many particle systems, Centre of mass, Position,
velocity and equation of motion, Centre of mass of solid objects, Calculation of Centre of Mass
of solid objects using integral calculus, Calculating C.M. of Uniform Rod, Cylinder and Sphere,
Momentum Changes in a system of variable mass, Derivation of basic equation, application to
motion of a rocket (determination of its mass as a function of time).
Collisions:
Elastic Collisions, Conservation of momentum during collision in one and two dimensions,
Inelastic collision, Collisions in centre of Mass reference frame (One and two dimensions),
Simple applications, obtaining velocities in C.M. frame.
Recommended Books:
1. D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics, McGraw
Hill, Latest edition
2. Halliday, D. Resnick, Krane, Physics, Vol. I & II, John Wiley, 5 thed.
Latest edition.
3. M. R. Speigel, Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis,
Mc-Graw Hill, Latest edition

Mathematics
Semester II
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Mechanics II
PHY-304
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To give the basic concept of rotational motion, law of gravitation, physical properties of matter
and relativistic mechanics and make students able to use these concepts in daily life in a
scientific way.
Theory:
Rotational Dynamics:
Relationships between linear & angular variables, scalar and vector form. Kinetic energy of
rotation, Moment of Inertia, Parallel axis and Perpendicular axis theorems, Proof and Illustration,
60

application to simple cases, Determination of moment of inertia of various shapes i.e. for disc,
bar and solid sphere, Rotational dynamics of rigid bodies, Equations of rotational motion and
effects of application of torques, Combined rotational and translational motion, Rolling without
slipping.
Angular Momentum:
Angular Velocity, Conservation of angular momentum, effects of Torque and its relation with
angular momentum, Stability of spinning objects, Discussion with examples, The spinning Top,
Effects of torque on the angular momentum, precessional motion.
Gravitation:
Gravitational effect of a spherical mass distribution, Its mathematical treatment, Gravitational
Potential Energy (develop using integration techniques), calculation of escape velocity,
Gravitational field & Potential, Universal Gravitational Law. Radial and transversal velocity and
acceleration, Motion of Planets and Keplers' Laws (Derivation & explanation) Motion of
Satellites, Energy considerations in planetary and satellite motion, Qualitative discussion on
application of gravitational law to the Galaxy.
Bulk Properties of Matters.
Elastic Properties of Matter, Physical basis of elasticity, Tension, Compression & shearing,
Elastic Modulus, Elastic limit. Poissons ratio, Relation between three types of elasticity, Fluid
Statics, Variation of Pressure in fluid at rest and with height in the atmosphere, Surface Tension,
Physical basis; role in formation of drops and bubbles, Viscosity, Physical basis, obtaining the
Coefficient of viscosity, practical
example of viscosity; fluid flow through a cylindrical pipe (Poiseulle's law).
Special Theory of Relativity:
Inertial and non inertial frame, Postulates of Relativity, The Lorentz Transformation, Derivation,
Assumptions on which inverse transformation is derived, Consequences of Lorentz
transformation, Relativity of time, Relativity of length, Relativity of mass, Transformation of
velocity, variation of mass with velocity, mass energy relation and its importance, relativistic
momentum and Relativistic energy, (Lorentz invariants) E2=c2 p2+m2oc 4
Practical:
Experiments with pendulums, stop watches, one- dimensional motion and verification of
Newton's laws of motion, measurement of forces, speed, acceleration and linear momentum,
collisions and conservation of momentum, impacts, free fall and acceleration due to gravity,
gyroscopes, rotational motion, conservation of angular momentum, friction, static and dynamic
equilibrium, compound pendulum, rolling motion along inclined planes, simple harmonic
motion, masses attached to springs and Hooke's law, damped motion and the regimes of damping
(overdamped, underdamped and critically damped), pressure in fluids, experiments
demonstrating continuity, Bernoulli's principle, buoyancy and Archimedes's principle, Atwood
machine, fluid viscosity, surface tension.
Recommended Books:
1. Halliday, D. Resnick, Krane, Physics, Vol. I & II, John Wiley, 5thed. 1999.
2. D. Kleppner and R. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics, McGraw Hill, 1978.
3. M. R. Speigel, Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis, Mc-Graw Hill, 1959.

61

Computer Science/IT
Semester III
Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Basic Electronics
PHY-405
3(3-0)

Theory:
Basic crystal structure, free electron model, energy band in solid and energy gaps, p-type, n-type
semiconductor materials, p-n junction diode, its structure. Characteristics and application as
rectifiers. Types of diodes, Transistor, its basic structure and operation, transistor biasing for
amplifiers, characteristics of common base, common emitter, common collector, load line,
operating point, Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter ,common base, common collector
modes), Positive & negative feedback, R.C. Oscillators, Logic gates OR, AND, NOT, NAND,
NOR and their basic applications.
Recommended Books:
62

1. Bar-lev, A. 1993. Semiconductor and Electronics Devices. Prentice Hall, 3rd ed.
2. Floyd, T. L. 2009. Electronics Fundamentals: Circuits, Devices and Applications. Prentice
Hall, 8th ed.
3. Grob, . B. 1997. Basic Electronics. McGraw-Hill, Tched.
4. Malvino,A. P. 2006. Electronic Principles. McGraw-Hill, 7th ed.
5. Navon, D. H. and B. Hilbert. 1986. Semiconductor Micro-devices and Materials.
CBS College Publishing.
6. Streetman, B. and S. Banerjee. 2005. Solid State Electronics Devices. Prentice
Hall, 6th ed.
7. Paynter, R. T. 1998. Introductory Electric Circuits. Prentice Hall.

63

MS PHYSICS SCHEME OF STUDIES


DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
GCWUF
2015

Govt. College Women University, Faisalabad


Department of Physics Scheme of Studies MS Physics Two Years Degree
Programme

2015
Course Code

Title of the Course

Credit
Hours

Page #

Major Course
PHY- 701

Mathematical Techniques in
Physics/ Mathematical methods in
Physics

PHY- 702

Experimental Techniques in
Physics/ Methods and techniques
of experimental Physics

66
3(3-0)
67
3(3-0)

PHY-703

Quantum Mechanics-I

3(3-0)

68

PHY- 704

Electrodynamics-I

3(3-0)

70

PHY- 705

Classical Mechanics

3(3-0)

72

64

PHY- 706

Statistical Physics

3(3-0)

73

PHY- 707

Low Temperature Plasmas

3(3-0)

74

PHY- 708

Atomic Physics

3(3-0)

75

PHY- 709

Experimental Plasma Physics

3(3-0)

76

PHY- 710

Laser Physics

3(3-0)

77

PHY- 711

Atomic Spectroscopy

3(3-0)

78

PHY-712

Advanced Solid State Physics

3(3-0)

PHY- 713

Magnetic Materials

3(3-0)

79
80

PHY- 714

Health and Medical Physics

3(3-0)

81

PHY-715

Materials Science

3(3-0)

83

PHY-716

Atmospheric and Environmental


Physics

3(3-0)

PHY-719

Special Problem

PHY- 720

Seminar I

PHY- 721

Seminar II

85

Research and thesis

Programme
MS

Award
MS PHYSICS

Course Title:
Physics
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Duration
2Years

Semester
4 Semesters

Credit Hours
30

Mathematical Techniques in Physics/ Mathematical methods in


PHY- 701
3(3-0)

Aims and objectives:


To understand the advanced mathematical methods and techniques in physics.
Theory:
Fourier series: introduction and general properties, convergence oftrigonometric series, Gibbs
phenomenon, Parsevals theorem, applications tovariousphenomena.Integral transform,
development of the Fourier integral, Fourier transform,inversion theorems, Fourier transform of
derivatives, convolution theorem,momentum representation, transfer functions.Complex
arguments in Fourier transforms. Laplace transform, Laplacetransform of derivatives,
convolution products and Faltungs theorem, inverseLaplacetransform.Partial differential
equations. Separation of variables in three dimensions,method of characteristics. Boundary value
problems.Integral transforms, generating functions, Neumann series, separable(degenerate)
kernels, HilbertSchmidt theory, integral equations.Calculus of variations: dependent and
65

independent variables, Euler-Lagrangeequation and applications, several independent and


dependent variables,Lagrange multipliers, variational principle with constraints, RayleighRitz
variational technique, application to discrete mesh.Nonlinear methods and chaos, the logistic
map, sensitivity to initial conditionsand parameters, nonlinear differential equations.Probability:
definitions and simple properties, random variables, binomialdistribution, Poisson distribution,
Gauss's normal distributions, statistics.
Recommended Books
1. Arfken , G.B and H. J. Weber. 2013. Mathematical Methods for Physicists. Press, New
York. 7th edition.
2. Kreyszig, E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics.10th edition.
3. Stephenson and P. M. Radmore.200 3. Advanced Mathematical Methods for Engineering
and Science Students. Cambridge University Press.

Course Title:
of experimental Physics

Experimental Techniques in Physics/ Methods and techniques

Course Code:
Credit Hours:

PHY- 702
3(3-0)

Aims and objectives:


To understand the advanced experimental techniques in physics.
Theory:
Numerical methods. Solutions of equations by the method of iteration(Newton-Rapson method).
Solution of differential equations of higher order.Gaussian quadrature.Random numbers.MonteCarlo methods. Resume oftheory of errors and experimental statistics. Least-squares fit to a
polynomial.Nonlinear functions. Data manipulation, smoothing, interpolation and extrapolation,
linear and parabolic interpolation.High vacuum techniques.

66

Physical principles of diffusion and rotary pumps.Ultra high vacuum by ionization.Sorption and
cryogenics.Measurement of pressure.Leak detection.X-ray.Electron and neutron diffraction
techniques.Methods
of
recording
diffraction
patterns.Examples
of
structure
determination.Analysisof results
Recommended Books
1. Amelincex,S., D.V.Dyck, J.V.Landuyt and G. V. Tendeloo.Electron Microscopy.J.Wiley&
Sons, Inc USA. Latest edition.
2. Beck, J.A. Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis of Crystelline Materials. Applied
Science Publishers Ltd., London, England . Latest edition.
3. Cullity, B.D. Elements of X-ray Diffraction. Latest edition.
4. Horovitz, R. L. and V. A. Johnson.2000. Methods of Experimental Physics, Academic
Press, Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
5. Schroder, D.K. 2006. Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization.IEEE press.
6. Sze, S. M. Physics of Semiconductor Devices. Pub. John Wiley & Sons. Latest edition.
7. Vial, J. C and J. Derrian.Porous Silicon Science &Technology.SpringerVerlag, Holland.
Latest edition.
8. Wrolfson, R and J. M. Pasachoff.2009. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Pearson.
9. Zhang, Z. M., B. K. Tsai and G. Machin. 2010. Experimental Methods in Physical
Sciences Vol. 2, Academic Press, New Gersy, USA.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Quantum Mechanics I
PHY- 703
3(3-0)

Theory:
Waves and particles: Introduction to fundamental idea of Quantum mechanics.Electromagnetic
waves and photons; Light quanta and the plank-Einstein relations, wave particle duality, Analysis
of young double slit experiment,Quantum unification of two aspect of light, The Principle of
spectral decomposition, Material particle and matter waves; The de Broglie relations, Wave
functions: the Schrodinger equation, Quantum description of a particleWave packets; Free
particle, Form of the wave packet at given time, Heisenberg uncertainty relation, Time evolution
of free wave packet, Particle in a time independent Scalar potential; Separation of variables.
Stationary states, one dimensional square potential.Order of magnitude of the wave length
associated with the material particle,Constraints imposed by the uncertainty relation, the
uncertainty relation and the atomic parameters, An experiment illustrating the uncertainty
relation, A simple treatment of a two dimensional wave packet, the relation between oneand three
dimensional problem, One dimensional Gaussian wave packet: spreading of wave packet,
67

Stationary state of a particle in one dimensional square well, behaviour of wave packet at a
potential step.
The mathematical tool of quantum mechanics:
One particle wave function space; Structure of the wave function space,Discrete orthonormal
basis in wave function space, Introduction of basis notbelonging to wavefunction space, State
Space: Dirac notation; introduction,ket vectors and bra vectors, Linear operators,
HermitianconjugationRepresentation in the state space; Relation characteristic of an orthonormal
basis, Representation of kets and bras, Representation of operators, Eigenvalue equation:
Observables; Eigen values and Eigen vectors of anoperators, Observables, Sets of commuting
observables, Two important example of representation and observables; {lr>} and {lp>}
repsentations, The R and P representation.The Schwartz inequality, Review of some useful
properties of linear operator,Unitary operators, A more detail study of {lr>} and {lp>}
repsentations, Somegeneral properties of two observables, Q and P, The parity operator.
The postulates of quantum mechanics:
Introduction, Statement of the postulates; Description of the state of the system, Description of a
physical quantaties, the measurement of a physical quantaties, time evolution of a system,
Quantization rule, The physical interpretation of the postulates, Postulates concerning
observables and theirmeasurements, Quantization of certain physical quantaties, The
measurement process, mean value of an observable, The root mean square deviation,
Compatibility of observables, The physical implication of the Schrodinger equation; General
properties of Schrodinger equation, The case of conservative system, The superposition principle
and Physical prediction;Probability amplitudes and interference effects, Case in which several
states can be associated with the same measurement result. Practical in infinite potential well,
Study of the probabity current in some special cases, Root mean square deviation of two
conjugate observables, measurements bearing on only one part of a physical system, The density
operator, The evolution operator, The Schrodinger and Heisenberg picture,The Gauge invariance,
Propagator for the Schrdinger equation. Application of the postulate to the simple cases:
Spin1/2 and two level system.
Spin1/2 particle:
Experimental demonstration, Quantization of the angular momentum, theoretical description,
Illustration of the postulate in the case of a spin1/2;Actual preparation of a various spin states,
spin measurements, Evolution ofspin in a uniform magnetic field, General study of two level
system; Outline of the problem, Static aspect, Dynamical aspect: oscillation of the system
between two unperturbed state. Pauli matrices, Diagnalization of 2cross2 matrices, Fictitious
spin1/2 associated with two level system, system of two spin particles, spin density matrix,
spin particles in a static magnetic field and a rotating field,A simple model of ammonia
molecule, coupling between a stable and unstable state.
The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator:
Introduction; Importance of harmonic oscillator in physics, the harmonicoscillator in classical
mechanics, General properties of quantum mechanical Hamiltonian, Eigen values of the
Hamiltonian; Notation, Determination of the spectrum, Degeneracy of the eigen values, Eigen
State of the Hamiltonian; The {ln>} representation, Wave function associated with the
stationary state, Discussion; Mean value and root mean square deviation of X and P in a state
{ln>}, Properties of the ground state,Time evolution of mean values.Some example of
harmonic oscillator, Study of the stationary state in the {lr>} representation, Solving the eigen
value equation of the harmonic oscillator by the polynomial method, Study of the stationary state
in the {lp>} representation, The isotropic three dimensional harmonic oscillator, A charged
harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field, Coherent quasi classicalstate of harmonic oscillator.
General properties of angular momentum in Quantum mechanics:
Introduction; The importance of angular momentum, Commutation relation; Orbital angular
momentum, Generalization.definition of angular momentum, Statement of the problem, General
theory of angular momentum;. Definition and notation, Eigen values of J2 and Jz, Standard {lk,
j, m>} representation, Application to the orbital angular momentum; Eigen values and eigen
68

function of L2 and Lz, physical consideration.Spherical harmonics, Angular momentum and


rotation, Rotation of diatomic molecules, Study of the stationary state in the {lp>}
representation, Angular momentum of stationary state two dimensional harmonic oscillator, A
charged particle in magnetic field: Landau levels.
Particle in a central potential: the hydrogen atom:
Stationary state in a central potential; Outline of the problem, Separation of variable, Stationary
state of the particle in a central, Motion of the centre of mass and Relative motion for a system of
two Interacting particle; Motion of the centre of mass and Relative motion in Classical
mathematics, Separation of variable in Quantum mechanics, The hydrogen atom; Introduction,
The Bohr model, Quantum mechanical theory of the hydrogen atom, Discussion
of the result. Hydrogen like system, a soluble example of the central potential, Probability
current associated with the stationary state of the hydrogen atom, the hydrogen atom placed in a
uniform magnetic field, Study of some atomic orbitals. Hybrid orbitals, Vibrational rotational
levels of diatomic molecules.
Recommended book:
1.Dirac,P.Q.M. Quantum Mechanics .(Oxford University Press). Latest edition.
2. Sakurai, J. J and Napolitano.2010.Modern Quantum Mechanics (2nd Edition). AddisonWesley.
3. Shankar,R. Principles of Quantum Mechanics (2nd Edition). Plenum Press. Latest edition.
4.Tannoudji, C.C., B, Diu and F. Laloe.Quantum Mechanics (Vol. 1). Frank Laloe, Wiley-VCH.
Latest edition.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Electrodynamics- I
PHY- 704
3(3-0)

Theory:
Introduction to Electrostatics:
Coulomb's Law , Electric Field , Gauss's Law , Differential Form of Gauss's Law , Another
Equation of Electrostatics and the Scalar Potential ,Surface Distributions of Charges and Dipoles
and Discontinuities in the Electric FieldandPotential , Poisson and Laplace Equations, Green's
Theorem,Uniqueness of the Solution with Dirichlet or Neumann Boundary Conditions Formal
Solution of Electrostatic Boundary-Value Problem with Green
Function, Electrostatic Potential Energy and Energy Density; Capacitance,Variational Approach
to the Solution of the Laplace and Poisson Equations, Relaxation Method for Two-Dimensional
Electrostatic Problems
Boundary- Value Problems in Electrostatics I:

69

Method of Images, Point Charge in the Presence of a Grounded Conducting Sphere, Point
Charge in the Presence of a Charged, Insulated, Conducting Sphere, Point Charge Near
Conducting Sphere at Fixed Potential,Conducting Sphere in a Uniform Electric Field by Method
of Images, Green Function for the Sphere; General Solution for the Potential, Conducting Sphere
with Hemispheres at Different Potentials, Orthogonal Functions andExpansions, Separation of
Variables; Laplace Equation in Rectangular Coordinates, A Two-Dimensional Potential Problem;
Summation of FourierSeries, Fields and Charge Densities in Two-Dimensional Corners and
Along Edges, Introduction to Finite Element Analysis for Electrostatics.
Boundary- Value Problems in Electrostatics II:
Laplace Equation in Spherical Coordinates, Legendre Equation and Legendre Polynomials,
Boundary-Value Problems with Azimuthal Symmetry, Behaviour of Fields in a Conical Hole or
Near a Sharp Point, Associated Legendre Functions and the Spherical Harmonics, Addition
Theorem for Spherical Harmonics, Laplace Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates; Bessel
Functions, Boundary-Value Problems in Cylindrical Coordinates, Expansion of Green Functions
in Spherical Coordinates, Solution of Potential Problems with the Spherical Green Function.
Expansion, Expansion of Green Functions in Cylindrical Coordinates, Eigenfunction Expansions
for Green Functions, Mixed Boundary Conditions, Conducting Plane with a Circular Hole,
Multi-poles, Electrostatics of Macroscopic Media, Dielectrics:
Multi-pole Expansion, Multi-pole Expansion of the Energy of a Charge Distribution in an
External Field, Elementary Treatment of Electrostatics with Ponderable Media, Boundary-Value
Problems with Dielectrics, Molecular Polarizability and Electric Susceptibility, Models
for Electric Polarizability, Electrostatic Energy in Dielectric Media. Magnetostatics, Faraday's
Law, Quasi-Static Fields:Introduction and Definitions, Biot and Savart Law, Differential
Equations of Magnetostatics and Ampere's Lawn Vector Potential, Vector Potential and Magnetic
Induction for a Circular Current Loop,Magnetic Fields of Localized Current Distribution,
Magnetic Moment, Force and Torque on and Energy of a Localized Current Distribution in an
External Magnetic Induction , Macroscopic Equations, Boundary
Conditions on and H,
Methods of Solving Boundary-Value Problems in Magnetostatics, Uniformly Magnetized
Sphere, Magnetized Sphere in an External Field; Permanent Magnets, Magnetic
Shielding,Spherical Shell of Permeable Material in a Uniform Field, Effect of a Circular Hole in
a Perfectly Conducting Plane with an AsymptoticallyUniform Tangential Magnetic Field on One
Side, Numerical Methodsfor Two-Dimensional Magnetic Fields, Faraday's Law of Induction ,
Energy in the Magnetic Field, Energy and Self- and MutualInductances.
Quasi-Static Magnetic Fields in Conductors; EddyCurrents; Magnetic Diffusion, Maxwell
Equations, Macroscopic Electromagnetism, Conservation Laws:Maxwell's Displacement
Current; Maxwell Equations, Vector and Scalar Potentials, Gauge Transformations, Lorenz
Gauge, CoulombGauge, Green Functions for the Wave Equation , Retarded Solutionsfor the
Fields: Jefimenko's Generalizations of the Coulomb and Biot- Savart Laws; Heaviside-Feynman
Expressions for Fields of Point Charge, Derivation of the Equations of Macroscopic
Electromagnetism, Poynting's Theorem and Conservation of Energy and Momentum for a
System of Charged Particles and Electromagnetic Fields.
Poynting'sTheorem in Linear Dissipative Media with Losses, Poynting's Theorem for Harmonic
Fields; Field Definitions of Impedance and Admittance,Transformation Properties of
Electromagnetic Fields and Sources Under Rotations, Spatial Reflections, and Time Reversal, On
theQuestion of Magnetic Monopoles, Discussion of the Dirac QuantizationCondition ,
Polarization Potentials (Hertz Vectors).
Recommended book:
1. Jackson, J.D. Classical eletrodynamics. (3rd Edition), Wiley. Latest edition.

70

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Classical Mechanics
PHY- 705
3(3-0)

Theory:
Survey of the elementary principles, Variational principles and Lagrangessequations,
Oscillations, The classical mechanics of the special theory of relativity, Hamiltonian equations of
motion, canonical transformations, Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Action angle variable, Classical
Chaos, Canonical perturbation theory, Introduction to the Lagrangian and
Hamiltonian formulations for continuous systems and fields, Classicalmechanics of liquids and
deformable solids; stress, deformation and strain flow.
Recommended book:
1. Goldstein, H., C. P. Poole-Jr and John L. Safko.2001. Classical Mechanics (3rd Edition)
.Pearson International Edition.

71

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Statistical Physics
PHY- 706
3(3-0)

Theory:
Intensive and extensive quantities, thermodynamic variables, thermodynamic limit,
thermodynamic transformations. Classical ideal gas, first law of thermodynamics, application to
magnetic systems, heat and entropy, Carnot cycle.Second law of thermodynamics, absolute
temperature, temperature as integrating factor, entropy of ideal gas.Conditions for equilibrium,
Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs potential, Maxwell relations, chemical potential.First-order phase
transition, condition for phase coexistence.The statistical approach: phase space, distribution
function, microcanonicalensemble, the most probable distribution, Lagrange multipliers.
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution: pressure of an ideal gas, equipartitionofenergy, entropy,
relation to thermodynamics, fluctuations, Boltzmann factor. Transport phenomena: collisionless
and hydrodynamic regimes, Maxwells demon, non-viscous hydrodynamics, sound waves,
diffusion, conduction, viscosity.

72

Quantum statistics: thermal wavelength, identical particles, Fermi and Bose statistics, pressure,
entropy, free energy, equation of state, Fermi gas at low temperatures, application to electrons in
solids and white dwarfs. The Bose gas: photons, phonons, Debye specific heat, BoseEinsteincondensation, equation of state, liquid helium. Canonical and grand canonical
ensembles, partition function, connection with thermodynamics, fluctuations. minimization of
free energy, photonfluctuations, pair creation. The order parameter, Broken symmetry, Ising spin
model, Ginsburg Landau theory, mean-field theory, critical exponents, fluctuation-dissipation
theorem,correlation length, universality.
Recommended books:
1. Huang,. K. 2001. Introduction to Statistical Physics.Taylor and Francis.
2.Pathria, R. K. Statistical Mechanics.2nd edition .India. Latest edition.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Low Temperature Plasmas


PHY- 707
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To impart latest knowledge about Plasma.
Theory:
Plasma, Plasmas in Nature, Plasmas in Technology, Orders of Magnitude, Introduction to low
temperature plasmas, Nonequilibrium nonthermal plasma, Degree of ionization, Concept of a
Distribution Function, Forms of the Distribution Function, Boltzmann Equilibrium, Electron
temperature, Electron energy distribution function (EEDF), Interactions between Charged
Particles, Coulombs law, Debye Length, Quasineutrality, Plasma Parameter, Plasma Frequency,
Defining Characteristics of a Plasma, Collisions, Elastic collisions, Inelastic collisions, Collision
processes, Collision cross section, Mean free path, Creating a low temperature plasma, Low
pressure plasmas, High pressure plasmas, Fluid Approach, Fluid equations, Continuity,
Momentum conservation, Equations of state, Particle Transport and Loss, Diffusion, Mobility,
73

Ambipolar Diffusion, Electrical breakdown, Secondary electron emission and avalanches,


Townsends theory, Paschens law, Minimum breakdown voltage, Self sustaining glow discharge,
Discharge structure, DC discharges, Sheath formation in a dc discharge, Sheath potential at a
floating wall, DC magnetron discharges, Pulsed DC discharges, Plasma Sources, Why AC / RF?,
Capacitively coupled plasmas (CCP), Circuit models, RF sheaths, Ion energy distribution
functions, Plasma sustaining mechanisms, Dual frequency capacitive coupled plasmas, Plasma
Sources, Inductively coupled plasmas (ICP), Inductive power coupling, E to H transition, Wave
driven discharges, Electrical Breakdown at Atmospheric Pressure, Streamer Production,
Sparking, Arc Sources, Linear Arcs, Plasma Torches and Arc Jets, Transferred Arc, Corona
Discharges, Non-thermal plasmas at high pressure, The Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD),
Filamentary discharges, Uniform discharges, Atmospheric pressure plasma jets, Microplasmas,
Diagnostics/Probes,Applications of low temperature plasmas
Recommended Books:
1. Chambert, P and N. Braithwaite. 2011. Physics of Radio-Frequency Plasmas. Cambridge
University Press.
2. Chapman, B. Glow Discharge Processes, John Wiley and Sons. Latest edition.
3. Chen, F. F and J. P. Chang. 2003. Lecture notes on Principles of Plasma Processing,
Kluwer Academics/Plenum Publishers. Latest edition.
4. Grill, A.1993. Cold Plasma in Materials Fabrication. IEEE press. Latest edition.
5. Lieberman, M and A.J. Lichtenberg. 2005. Principles of Plasma Discharges and
Materials Processing. Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons.
6. Roth, J. R. 2001. Industrial plasma engineering. Vol 2. IOP.
7. Raizer, Y.P . Gas Discharge Physics, Springer Verlag. Latest edition.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Atomic Physics
PHY- 708
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To impart the latest knowledge about atomic Physics.
Theory:
One-electron atoms: Energy levels and wavefunctions of hydrogen atom. Fine and Hyperfine
Structure. Extension to other single valence electronAtoms Two-electron atoms.Helium
atom.Independent particle model. Energy level structure, Configuration interaction, Doubly
excited states and inner-shell excitations. Many electron atoms.
Autoionization.Fanosdescription for an isolated autoionizing resonance.Multi-channel Quantum
Defect Theory.Multi-channel Quantum Defect Theory (Cooke and Cromer approach).Interaction
between two closed channels, one open and one closed channels.Photoionization cross
sections.Angular Momentum. Angular Momentum Coupling Schemes (LS, LK, jK and jj),
74

Spherical Tensor Operators. Angular Momentum Algebra (3j, 6j and 9j symbols), Wigner Eckart
Theorem.
Atoms in External fields:
Hydrogen Atom in electric field (spherical and parabolic states, energy levels, field
ionization).Nonhydrogenic atoms (Quantum defects and energy levels, avoided crossings and
classical ionization. Landau Zener Effect and pulsed field ionization).
Magnetic Fields (Classical Methods of Coherent Spectroscopy
RF resonance spectroscopy, level crossing spectroscopy, Anti-crossing spectroscopy, Quantum
Beats and wave packets).
Atoms in Intense radiation fields.
Multiphoton Absorption, Above threshold Ionization; High Harmonic Generation. Laser Cooling
and Trapping.Doppler Cooling; Optical molasses and traps; Sub Doppler Cooling
Recommended books:
1. Foot, C. J.2005. Atomic Physics.1st Edition.Oxford University Press.
2.Svanberg,S. 2004.Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy. 4th Ed. Springer
3. Bernath, P. F. 2005. Spectra of Atoms and Molecules.2nd Ed. Oxford.
4. Bransden and Joachain. Physics of Atoms and Molecules. Longman.
5. Heckmann and Traber.Atomic Spectroscopy.Springer. Latest edition.
6. Demtroeder, W.2004. Laser Spectroscopy.Springer.
7. Gallagher,T. F. Rydberg Atoms.Cambridge Uni. Press. Latest edition.
8. Connerade,J.P. Highly Excited Atoms.Cambridge Uni. Press. Latest edition.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Experimental Plasma Physics


PHY- 709
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


Theory:
Pinch, and plasma focus devices. Cold plasma generation, characteristics of DC glow discharge,
RF discharges and cold plasma reactors.Plasmageneration: Energy storage and transfer for high
temperature plasma generation and current drive techniques. Z-pinch,Probes for plasma
diagnostics: Rogowski coil, high voltage probe, magnetic probe, Langmuir probe, voltage loops
and Mirnov coils. Charged particle and neutron diagnostics: Faraday cups and solid state nuclear
track detectors for detection and analysis of charged particles, Time resolved and time-integrated
neutron measurement. Laser as a diagnostic tool Propagation of (optical frequency)
electromagneticwave through plasma both in the absence and presence of magnetic field,
shadowgraphy and schlieren imaging, interferometry and determination ofplasma density,
measurement of magnetic field by Faraday rotation,Thomson and Rayleigh scattering. X-ray
diagnostics of plasmas: X-ray emission from plasmas, absorption filters and their selection, time75

resolved x-ray detectors, pinhole imaging camera,estimateof plasma electron temperature.


Plasma Spectroscopy: Radiative processes in plasmas, Collisional processes in plasmas,
statistical plasma models, plasma optical spectroscopy, and evaluation of plasma parameters.
Recommended Books:
1. Auciello,O and D. L. Flamm.Plasma Diagnostics. Academic Press Boston. Latest edition.
2. Bittencourt, J. A. Fundamentals of Plasma Physics.Pergamon Press Oxford. Latest edition.
3. Chen,F.F and J. P. Chang.2003.Principles of Plasma Processing. KluwerAcademic/Plenum
Publishers New York (2003).
4. Griem,H.R. Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy.Cambridge University Press. Latest edition.
5. Hutchinson, I. H. Principles of Plasma Diagnostics.Cambridge University Press New York.
Latest edition.
6. Roth, J. R. 2000. Industrial Plasma Engineering. Institute of Physics Publishing Bristol.
7. Siedle, A. H and L. Adams.2002.Handbook of Radiation Effects. Oxford University Press.
8. Wesson, J.2004. Tokamaks.Clarendon Press Oxford.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Laser Physics
PHY- 710
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To impart advanced knowledge about the field of Laser Physics and to enable the students to
apply this knowledge in various problems of Laser Physics.
Theory:
Laser, interaction of matter and atomic/molecular transitions, Pumping Schemes, Absorption and Gain
Coefficients, Resonance Energy Transfers, Properties of Laser Beam, Energy Levels, Level Occupation at
Thermal Equilibrium, Selection Rules, Semiconductor Quantum Wells, Strained Quantum Wells Quantum Wires
and Quantum Dots, Fabry-Perot Resonator, Stable Resonators and Unstable Resonators, ray Matrix Formulation,
Wave Reflection and Transmission at a Dielectric Interface, Cavity modes, Fabry-Perot Interferometer, Small
Signal Gain and Loop Gain, optical pumping: Flash lamp and Laser, Threshold Pump Power, pumping efficiency,
Electrical Pumping: Longitudinal Configuration and Transverse Configuration, Gas Dynamics Pumping,
76

Chemical Pumping, Continuous Wave (CW) and pulsed lasers, Rate Equations, Laser Tuning, Oscillation and
Pulsations in Lasers, Q-Switching and Mode-Locking Methods, Phase and Group Velocity, Line broadening,
Types of laser, Solid State Lasers: Ruby Laser, Nd : YAG laser Semiconductor Lasers, Gas lasers, Helium Neon
laser, Diode laser, quantum cascade laser, Applications of laser: Material Processing, Medical Sciences,
Engineering, Surface Hardening, Cutting, Drilling, Welding, Holography, Medicine, Defense Industry, Imaging
techniques etc.
Recommended Books:
1. Callen, S and Rhodes. Introduction to Lasers and their Applications. Latest Edition.
2. Duglos ,W.Pulsed Laser Deposition, Latest edition.
3. Finlayson, D. M.2000 .Advances in Lasers and applications, Sinclair.
4. Hooker, S. and C. Webb. 2010. Laser Physics. Oxford University Press, Inc. New York.
USA.
5.

Phipps, C. R. 2007. Laser Ablation and its Applications. Springer, New York. USA.

6. Silfvast , W. T. 2012. Lasers Fundamentals.


7. Svelto, O.2010. Principles of Lasers , Plenum Press New York & London.
8. Wilson, J and J. F .B . Hankes. Lasers Principles & Applications, Latestedition.
9. William, M. S. Laser material processing, Latest edition.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Atomic Spectroscopy
PHY- 711
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives


To impart advanced knowledge in the field of atomic spectra and to enable the students to
understand the silent features of atomic spectroscopy.
Theory:
One-elctron atoms: Atomic spectra and energy levels of Hydrogen atom, Schrdinger equation
for one electron system, wave functions of hydrogen atom, spatial distribution and expectation
77

values of electron in different quantum states. Energy corrections: relativistic correction, spin
orbit correction and Darwin correction. Extension to other single valance electron atoms. Two
electron system: electrostatic interaction, ground and excited state of Helium atom, Pauli
Exclusion Principle and Hunds Rules. Electron configuration and coupling of angular momenta,
Different coupling schemes like L S coupling, J J coupling and intermediate coupling
schemes.Einstein coefficients, transition probabilities and electric dipole approximation selection
rules. Single photon absorption and emission, two photon and multi-photon absorption, Fine
structure and hyperfine structure,Interaction of atoms with static external fields; Normal and
anomalous, Zeeman effect; Paschen back effect, quadratic stark effect, linear stark effect;
Hyperfine structure, Rydberg atom and its properties, life times and line profiles of spectral
lines, interaction of atoms with static external fields. Experimental techniques in spectroscopy:
laser absorption spectroscopy, optogalvonic spectroscopy, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy
and Doppler free spectroscopy, laser cooling.
Recommended Books:
1. Arkin, W. T. 2006. Trends in Lasers and Electro Optics Research, Nova
York. USA.

Science, New

2. Bransden, B.H and C. J. Joachain. Physics of atoms and molecules. Addison Wesley
Longman Ltd.USA. Latest edition.
3. Demtroeder, W. Laser Spectroscopy. John Wiley and Sons.USA, Latest edition.
4. Gallagher, T. F. Rydberg atoms. Cambridge University Press. UK , Latest edition.
5. Heckmann, E. T.Introduction to the Spectroscopy of Atoms. Elsevier. Latest edition.
6. Pradhan, A. K and S.N.Nahar.2010. Atomic Astrophysics and Spectroscopy, Cambridge
University Press,UK.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Advanced Solid State Physics


PHY- 712
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives


To impart latest knowledge in the field of advanced solid state physics and enable the students to
apply this ktonowledge in crystalline structure of atoms.
Theory:
Bloch's theorem and Brillouin zones, electronic states, electron-electron interaction, screening;
Kohn effect; Dielectric constant; plasma oscillations; Dynamics of electrons and holes;
excitons.zener breakdown, scattering of electrons by impurities; Electron-phonon interaction;
Dynamics of electrons, optical properties, multi-phonon processes, inter-band transitions;
78

Interaction with conduction electrons, anomalous skin effect; Ultrasonic attenuation, Magnetism
including paramagnetism, diamagnetism, ferro-magnetism, antiferromagnetism and magnons;
Superconductivity including the electron-electron inter-action; BCS theory,Functional, KohnSham Theorem, Kohn-Sham Equation. LDA, GGA, Low dimensional structures, The two
dimensional electron gas, Quantum wells, Multiquantum wells structures and super lattices,
Doping super lattices, Band structure engineering of semiconductor super lattices, Quantum well
lasers, Use of quantum wells in enhancement of the efficiency of solar cells, MBE, its role in
forming low dimensional structures, Classical Hall Effect, Quantum Hall Effect, In 2-DEG, SiMOSFET at low temperature and high magnetic field, In 2-DEG, Al Ga As / Ga As system,
Landow Energy levels with effect of low temperature and high magnetic field.
Recommended Books:
1. Cullity, B.D and C. D. Graham. 2008. Introduction to Magnetic Materials. John Wiley
and Sons. Inc., New Jersey.
2. Grasso, G.P.G. 2000. Solid State Physics.
3.

Pillai, S.O. 2005. Solid State Physics. .New age International publishers, New Dehli
India.

4.

Kittel, C. 2007. Introduction to Solid State Physics. 7th Ed. John Wiley & sons,
Inc.,New York, USA

5. Ziman, J.M. 1972.Principles of the Theory of Solids.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Magnetic Materials
PHY- 713
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives:


To impart advanced knowledge about magnetic materials
Theory:
Introductory magnetism; Review of diamagnetism and paramagnetism.Magnetic moments,
magnetic dipoles, Magnetic parameters and their relation.Pauli paramagnetism.Wave functions
79

of magnetic ions (3d, 4f); spin-orbit coupling; crystal field effects, Jahn-Teller
theorem.Thermodynamics
of
agnetism.Adiabatic
demagnetization.Ferromagnetism;
Thermodynamics of ferromagnetic systems.Quantum mechanical treatment, Exchange
interactions, Heisenberg and Ising model.Indirect exchange (superexchange and RKKY). Spin
excitations, spin waves, magnons, application to the temperature dependences of magnetization
and specific heat. Band ferromagnetism.Criteria for band ferromagnetism; examples of metallic
ferromagnets.Anti-Ferromagnetism; Type I, Type II Antiferromagnets, Ferrimagnetism, Ferrites,
Applications of ferrites. Domain Structures and related properties of ferromagnets; Magnetic
Anisotropy, basic phenomenology. Uniaxial, Cubic and surface Anistropies; Effects in bulk
materials and thin films. Domain Formation, Domain wall width.Relation to magnetic
anisotropy.900, 1800 domain walls.Observation of domains, Domain wall motion, pinning of
domain walls; Magnetization in low and high fields.Magnetization in soft and hard magnets,
Magnetization reversal mechanisms.Finite size effects in magnetic materials, Thin films and
surface effects
Recommended Books:
1. Aharon, A. Introduction to the theory of Ferromagnetism. Oxford Press. Latest edition.
2. Blundell, S.2001.Magnetism in Condensed Matter. Oxford Press.
3. Cullity, B. D. Introduction to magnetic materials. Addison-Wesky publishing USA. Latest
edition.
4. Morrish, A. H. The Physical Principles of Magnetism. John Wiley. Latest edition.
5. Skomski, R andJ. M. D. Coey. Permanent Magnetism.IOP Publishing. Latest edition.
6. Kittel, C. Introduction to Solid State Physics. John Wiley. Latest edition.

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Health and Medical Physics


PHY- 714
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives


To impart advanced knowledge about different techniques in medical physics and to apply this
knowledge in field of health and medical physics

80

Theory:
Interactions of lionizing Radiation with Matter: Introduction; Beta-rays, range-energy
relationship, mechanism of energy loss, Ionization and excitation, Bremsstrahlung, Alpha, rays,
Rang-energy relationship, Energy transfer, Gamma-rays, exponential absorption, interaction
mechanism, Pair production. Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption, photodisintegration,
Combined effect, Neutrons, Production classification, interaction, Scattering, Absorption.
Radiotherapy: Introduction, The development of radiotherapy, Radio therapeutic aims, External
beam therapy, Brach therapy, unsealed source therapy, Requirements for accuracy and precision,
Quality assurance, The role of medical physics. Medical Imaging: Diagnostic X-rays, Production
of X-rays, Absorption of x-ray to other planes, Partial volume effect, Artifacts, Contrast agent in
conventional radiography and CT, Diagnostic Ultrasound, Doppler effect, radionuclide imagine,
positron emission tomography (PET), Magnetic resonance imagining (MRI), Contrast agents for
MRI. Radiation Dosimetry: History of Absorbed Dose, Stochastic and Non-stochastic quantities,
units for absorbed Dose, Absorbed Dose Calorimeters, Exposure and its measurements. The freeair chamber, Exposure measurement with calibrated cavity chamber. The concept of Kerma,
absorbed Dose in air, Absorbed dose in other Materials, Factors converting Exposure to
Absorbed Dose to wake, High energy calibrations. The Bragg-Gray Cavity theory. Methods of
Dosimetry: Calorimeters, Ionization chambers, chemical Dosimetry, Thermo luminescence
Dosimetry (TLD), Photographic Dosimeter, Scintillation Detectors, other Dosimetric Systems.
Health Physics: Cardinal principles of radiation protection, minimize time, Maximize distance,
Maximize shielding, Time, Distance and shielding, Maximum permissible dose, whole-body
occupational exposure, whole-body non-occupational exposure, partial body occupational
exposure, X-ray and pregnancy, Basic radiation safety criteria, effective dose-equivalent,
allowable limit on intake (ALI), inhaled radioactivity, derived air concentration, Gastrointestinal
tract, Basis of radiation safety regulations.
Attachment with some hospital OR Nuclear Institution where Nuclear medicine and
Radiotherapy is available. They are required to study the construction and operation of different
instruments used in said institutions along with data analysis obtained from various machines
used in nuclear medicine and medical physics and at the end student has to submit a technical
report.
Recommended Books:
1. Dathren. Health Physics.Pergamon Press. Latest edition.
2. Edwin, G. A. A. Physics of medical imaging, Heinemann. Latest edition.
3. Greening, J. R. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry, Adam Hilger Ltd., Bristol. Latest
edition.
4. Herman, C. Introduction to Health Physics. McGraw Hill, New York. Latest edition.
5. Knol, G. F. Radiation Detection and Measurement, Willey, New York.
6. Mosby and S. C. Bushon.2008. Radiologic Science of Technologists.
7. Mayles, P., P. Maylas, A. Lahum, A. E. Nahum andJ.C. Rosenwald.2007.Hand Book of
Radio Therapy Physics, Theory and Practice. Taylor and Francis.
8. Peter, A and L. Martin. Diagnostic Imaging.Blackwell Science Ltd. Latest edition.
9. Williams, Dand I. Thwaits. Radiotherapy Physics. Oxford University Press, New York.
Latest edition.
10. Reitz, J., F. J. Milfold and R. W. Chirsty. 2008. Foundation of electromagnetic Theory.
11. Griffiths,D. Introduction to Electrodynamics. Latest edition.

81

Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Materials Science
PHY- 715
3(3-0)

Aims and Objectives


To impart advanced knowledge in the field of material science and to enable the students to
apply this knowledge in material synthesis.
82

Theory:
Interatomic Bonding in Materials:
Bonding in Elemental Materials (Covalent, Metallic and van der Waals Bonding), Bonding in
Multielement Materials (Ionic, Mixed Ionic-Covalent Bonding, Hydrogen Bonding), Effects of
Nature of Bonding on Materials Properties.
Structure of Crystalline Solids:
Basic Structural and Symmetry Concepts, Concept of Diffraction in a PeriodicLattice, Structural
Information from X-ray Diffraction and other DiffractionTechniques.Crystal Structures of Metals
and Ceramic Materials.
Defects and Imperfections in Crystalline Solids:
Point Defects (vacancies, interstitials, impurities, F-centres) and their stability Line and Extended
Defects (Dislocations, Grain Boundaries, Stacking Faults,Interfacial, Surface and Volumetric
Defects).Effect of Defects on the Properties of Materials.
Non Crystalline Solids:
Amorphous Materials/Glasses (Glass formation, Glass Transition and Crystallization of Glasses,
Various Glass Forming Systems). Random Closed Packing in Metallic Glasses, Continuous
Random Network in Covalent Glasses.
Phase Diagrams and Phase Transformations:
Basic Concepts, Equilibrium Phase Diagrams, Phase Transformations Basic Concepts, Kinetics,
Metastable versus Stable Transformations, Microstructure Development, Precipitation and
Dispersion Hardening, Multi Component and Multi Phase Systems, Alloys, Equilibrium
Structures, Phase Separation.
Surfaces and Interfaces:
Geometry of Interfaces, Coherent and Commensurate Interfaces, Stacking Period and Interplanar
Spacing, Defects on Surfaces, Experimental Determination and Creation of Surfaces, Surface
Characterization Techniques (LEED, RHEED, MBE, STM and AFM) and Their Principles.
Soft Condensed Matter:
Introduction to Soft Matter, Colloidal Dispersions, Gels and Gelation, Liquid Crystals; Structures
and Textures in Liquid Crystals.Polymers; Molecular Weight, Molecular Structure, Stereo and
Geometric Isomerism, Thermoplastics, Thermosets and Elastomers, Crystallinity of Polymers,
Copolymers, Biological Molecules, Concept of Self Assembly in Block Copolymers and
Biomolecules.
Recommended Books:
1. Barsoum, M.W. 2003. Fundamentals of Ceramics.IOP Publishing Ltd.
2. Bower, D. I.2002. An Introduction to Polymer Physics. Cambridge University Press.
3. Blakemore, J. S. Solid State Physics. Cambridge University Press. Latest edition.
4. Callister, W. D. 2007. Materials Science and Engineering an Introduction, Jr., publisher
John Wiley & Sons Inc.
5. Gersten, J. I and F.W. Smith. 2001. The Physics and Chemistry of Materials,pulisher
John Wiley & Sons Inc.
6. Jones, R. A. L. 2002. Soft Condensed Matter. Oxford University Press.
7. Ohring, M. 2002. Materials Science of Thin Films. 2nd edition. Academic Press.
8. Richard, Z. The Physics of Amorphous Solids, by publisher John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Latest edition.
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Course Title:
Course Code:
Credit Hours:

Atmospheric and Environmental Physics


PHY- 716
3(3-0)

Learning objectives
To impart advanced knowledge in the field of environmentalscience. And to enable the students
to apply this knowledge to study their environment.
Theory:
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The economic system, living in green house, enjoying the sun, Transport of matter, Energy and
momentum, the social and political context. Black body radiation, The emission spectrum of
sun, The transition electric dipole moment, The Einstein Coefficients, Lambert Beers law, The
spectroscopy of bio-molecules, Solar UV and life, The ozone filter. The energy Balance, (Zerodimensional Greenhouse Model), elements of weather and climate, climate variations and
modeling. Diffusion, flow in rivers, ground water. Flow equations of fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence, Turbulence Diffusion, Gaussian plumes in air, Turbulent jets and planes the concept
of sound, sound pressure level, frequency & propagation, sound level, measuring transient noise,
the acoustic environment, Hazardous effects of noise, noise control., Radioactive decay law,
sources of radiation, Interaction of Radiation with matter, Measuring Radiation, Nuclear Fuel
Cycle, Sources of Radioactive waste, Health Hazards, Radioactive waste management.
Measuring Radiation, Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Sources of Radioactive waste, Health Hazards,
Radioactive waste management..Data collection and organization, statistical analysis of climatic
data, climatic indices, General characteristics of measuring equipments. Measurement of
temperature, air humidity, surface wind velocity, Radiation balance, precipitation, Atmospheric
Pressure, automatic weather stations. Composition & Structure of atmosphere, Air mass
classification, Thermodynamic characteristics, General Circulation. First law of thermodynamics
and enthalpy; adiabatic processes and potential temperature. The second law of thermodynamics;
entropy; thermodynamics of water vapour and moist air; thermodynamic properties of the water
substance; phase transition of water; water vapour and moist air; Clausius-Clapeyrons equation.
Recommended Books:
1. Booker, E and R. V. G. Belle. Environmental Physics. John Wiley and Sons. Latest
edition.
2. John, M. W. Atmospheric Science.Academic Press. Latest edition.
3. Thompson, R. D. Applied Climatology. Routledge. Latest edition.
4. Vonstroch, H. 2001. Statistical Analysis in Climate Research Oxford University Press.

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