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1. Carrying out an organized inquiry is called Research

Logical reasoning process used in research is important to - Draw
3. Research really begins when the researcher experiences Confusion
4. Observable experience in research is also called as _ Empirical evidence
5. The assignment of numbers to represent properties is a definition related
to - Measurement
6. Stability means - Consistency
Construct validity will be developed by the researcher based on _
Theoretical reasoning
When ranks are assigned to objects based on their properties or
characteristics then the level of measurement is described as Ordinal
9. Delhis temperature in the last 2 days was less than 10 degrees compared to
Chandigarhs which was 12 degrees. This kind of study uses which level of
measurement? Interval
10. Testing of hypothesis means to tell whether or not the hypothesis seems
to be valid.
11.From which of these a research problem could be identified?
12. When the respondent is given enough time and opportunity to answer
questions given in a questionnaire, then such type of questionnaire is called
as - Unstructured
13. LS design This is used in agricultural research.
14. F tests and t tests are used in which level of measurement? Interval
15. Collecting sample units in a hit and miss style is applicable in which of the
following sampling methods? Convenience sampling
16. Formularize research is also called as Exploratory research
17. In ANOVA, V stands for - Variance
18. A distribution of respondents based on their age group is represented in
what type of frequency distribution table? One-way table
19. Length, weight and height are considered as - Physical characteristics
20. The most commonly used statistical average is - Arithmetic average
21. When petrol price is increased, inflation rate is expected to rise - this could
be an example depicting Cause and effect relationship
22. Coefficient of correlation is indicated by the letter - r
23. These are the examples of secondary data - Statistical survey reports,
Government publications, trade journals
24. When there is correlation between any 2 variable then it is Simple
25. To calculate ---- data should be arranged according to ascending order.
26. Since Mail surveys are more impersonal they provide more anonymity
27. Who introduced standard deviation in statistics? Karl Pearson
28. __ Data is readily available. Secondary
29.When the characteristic of a measurement level is having no order or
distance or origin, then it is ____________ level of measurement. Nominal
30. How many quartiles are there? 3
31. A value which is most repeated in a distribution is Mode


32. The mid-point of a particular class interval say 25-35 is - 30
33. Null Hypothesis is denoted by - H0
34. A good measurement scale should follow Straight line model.
35. Scatter plots and Stock plots are examples for - Graphs
36) Ethics in a research context refers to the appropriateness of your behavior in
relation to the rights of those who become the subject of your work, or are affected
by it. This is applicable to you when you are Researcher
37) In this type of level of measurement, there is no quantitative value as it
doesnt have the characteristics of order, distance and origin. This level of
measurement is - Nominal
38) In Hypothesis testing, the level of significance is usually chosen at
39) Which of the following is an example for continuous variable? Temperature
of a city
40) Which of these statements is true
a measuring instrument that is valid
is always reliable?
41. Following are the bases upon which measurement can be classified Distance and Origin
42) Identify from the following, the class interval which is considered appropriate in
a frequency distribution - 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, and 31-40
43) Which of these could be an example for pure research? Newtons law and
Einsteins theory of relativity
44) The two type of Content Validity are
Face validity and Sampling
45) Name the two type statistical techniques that are applicable in Ordinal
measurement. Median and Coefficient of rank order correlation
46) identify the true and false statements a. Mail surveys are less expensive than personal interviews. T
b. Mail surveys are subject to interviews bias. F
47) Type II error occurs when - H0 is false and is accepted
48) If As savings is `5000, Bs savings is `10000 and Cs savings is `30000, then
their average savings is `15000
49) A person having a Critical and imaginative mind and who is also sensitive to
practical problems could easily identify a research problem for study.
50) Co-efficient of range is obtained by the following formula - (H L) / (H + L)
51) Non-parametric tests usually assume __________ data. Original
52) Identify the correct statement from the following Research design has to
be kept within manageable limits.
53) The scientific method involving a systematic step-by-step procedure following
logical processes of reasoning is called Research
54) What are the internal criteria for a female researcher in order to formulate a
1. Her interest
2. Her competence
3. Her expectations
4. Her importance
5. Her feasibility
6. Her resources
B. 1, 2, 6
55) Which are the two most important parametric tests? T-test and z-test


56) While defining a problem, the next steps in the process after developing a title
A. Building a conceptual model and defining the study objectives
57) Mention the two rights of respondents with respect to privacy Right not to
participate in any research study and Right to participate beyond a certain
58) When a null hypothesis stating that Average test score of Gautham Gambhir is
88.25 runs is accepted, then it is - True
59) A conjectural statement of the relationship between the two or more variables
is defined as
60) Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs out of
which 2 are Principle of replication and Principle of randomization
61) identify the characteristics of research
1. Systematic 2. Controlled 3. Rigid 4. Empirical 5. Elastic
C. 1, 2, 4
62) Which type of data is described here? Primary
1. It is expensive to obtain
2. It is time consuming
3. It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled
4. It is difficult to administer
63) match the following types of research with its example or meaning
1. Applied research - Finds solutions to real-life problems or situations
2. Action research - Type of evaluation study
3. Descriptive research - Provides factual information for investigation
4. Diagnostic research - Tests the relationship between variables
64) match the types of sampling methods with its feature
1. Simple random sampling - Each element has an equal chance of being
2. Stratified random sampling - Increases samples statistical efficiency
3. Cluster sampling - Useful in socio-economic surveys
4. Multi-stage sampling - Estimating sampling error is complicate
65) identify the characteristics of a good hypothesis 1. Simplicity 2. Acceptability 3. Objectivity 4. Clarity 5. Durability 6. Flexibility
C. 1, 3, 4
66) Identify and arrange the steps to be followed in research design 1. Designing the methods of data collection 2. Selecting the sample 3. Collecting
the data
4. Formulating the objective of the study 5. Reporting the findings 6. Processing
and analyzing the data
B. 4, 1, 2, 3, 6, 5
67) match the types of reports with its guidelines
1. Popular report - More headlines and graphs can be used
2. Interim report -Provides what was done so far and its outcome
3. Summary report- Written in non-technical and simple language
4. Technical report - Contains all details as it is comprehensive


68) Mr. Mukesh had analysed and processed some statistical data which now he
wants to put in a tabular format. What should he include in the Heading while
preparing this table? Designation of units
69) Which type of sampling is discussed here?
1. It is used when it is not important to study the sampling units overall
representativeness to the population
2. It is less costly and more convenient as it guarantees inclusion of relevant
elements in the sample
3. It requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using
inferential statistics.
4. It is also called as purposive sampling
B. Judgment sampling
70) match the following research designs with its perspective or through which the
study is viewed
1. Descriptive Nature -of relationship between variables
2. Exploratory Degree- of formulation of the problem
3. Observational Mode -of data collection
4. Case method -Scope of the topic and depth of the study

71) Identify the true and false statements regarding Observation method
1. Observation method poses difficulties in understanding events.
2. It is slow and expensive process that needs constant technological inputs.
3. Observer has to be present at the scene of the event when it takes place.
4. Observer has to wait for the event to happen and be able to tell where and when
exactly it takes place. B. 1 is true and 2, 3, 4 is false
72) identify the correct and incorrect rules for graphical representation of data from
the following 1. Title of the chart should be placed below it.
2. Each curve or bar should be numbered.
3. Only grey shades to be used in case of more curves or bars
4. They should precede the textual content
5. Measurements should be indicated from left to right in a horizontal line
6. For vertical lines, measurements should be from top to bottom.
A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 is incorrect
73) In a research study, it was revealed that 40% of students did not use the
learning resources provided to them while another 28% complained that they didnt
get adequate resources. Based on these results, the researcher cannot assume that
remaining 32% dont care to use the resources or its availability. What would be the
responsibility of the researcher in this situation?
D. Find out the actual opinions and views of the 32% of students
74) What are the requisites of a good and successful presentation?
1. Communicate to a specific audience
2. Communicate to all respondents
2. Structure the presentation
3. Advertise research expertise
4 Be elaborate on the research complexities
5 Address validity and reliability issues


6. Involve other researchers to carry out the presentation
B. 1, 2, 5
75) From the below, identify the criteria for constructing hypothesis
1. It should be specific and precise
2. It should describe at least 2 issues
3. It must be empirically testable
4. It must have contradictory statements
5. It must indicate the relationship between variables
A. 1, 2
Unit: 1
1. Arbitrary (or unscientific) Method: Its a method of seeking answers to
question consists of imagination, opinion, blind belief or impression.
2. Young defines Research as a scientific undertaking which, by means of logical
and systematic techniques.
3. Kerlinger defines research as a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical
investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among
natural phenomena.
4. Research is a scientific Endeavour.
5. The scientific method is based on certain articles of faith.
6. Ethical Neutrality: Science never imposes anything, science states. Science
aims at nothing but making true and adequate statements about its object.
7. Pure Research: It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention
to apply it in practice, e.g., Einsteins theory of relativity, Newtons contributions,
Galileos contribution, etc
8. Applied Research: It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem
requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and actiondirected. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research
carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchase
experience of customers.
9. Exploratory Research: It is also known as formularize research.
10. Descriptive Study: It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation.
It is the simples type of research.
11.Diagnostic Study: It is similar to descriptive study but with a different
focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is
happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes
of a problem and the possible solutions for it.
12.Evaluation Studies: It is a type of applied research.
13.Action Research: It is a type of evaluation study.
14.It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of diagnostic information,
planning, developing change programme, initiation of organizational change,
implementation of participation and communication process, and post
experimental evaluation.
15.According to a famous Hudson Maxim, All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is
often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to
16.Research is a repetitive search. T
17.Applied research gives a solution to problem. T
18.Scientific method is systematic. T
19.Objectivity is not required for all types of research. F


20. Pure research is not fundamental research. F
21. The scientific method is based on certain articles of faith. These are:
1. Reliance on empirical evidence:
2. Use of relevant concepts
3. Commitment of objectivity
4. Ethical neutrality
5. Generalization
6. Verifiability
7. Logical reasoning process
1. According to Stevens, measurement is the assignment of numerals to objects
or events according to rules.
2. Campbell defines measurement as the assignment of numbers to represent
3. In the words of Torgerson, measurement is the assignment of numbers to
objects to represent amounts or degrees of a property possessed by the entire
4. Measurement may be classified into four different levels, based on the
characteristics of order, distance and origin.
Nominal measurement
Ordinal measurement
Interval measurement
Ratio measurement


5. There are two dimensions of reliability stability and equivalence or nonvariability.

6. Reliability can be improved in three ways
7. 1) By reducing the external sources of variation. This in turn can be achieved
by standardizing the conditions under which measurement is carried out, by
employing trained investigators and by providing standard instructions.
2) By making the measuring instrument more consistent internally, through an
analysis of the different items
3) By adding more number of items to the measuring instrument, in order
to increase the probability of more accurate measurement.
8. Research is concerned with the measurement of objects. F
9. A persons emotions may be directly observed. F
10. Linearity means that the measuring scale should not measure more than one
characteristic at a time. F


11. The problem of extraneous variables arises in the case of construct
validity. F
12. Validity is determined mainly by predictive validity. F
13. the most powerful level of measurement is ratio measurement. T
14. Validity and reliability do not always go together. T
15. Different research situations require different levels of reliability. T
1. R. L. Ackoffs analysis affords considerable guidance in identifying problem for
2. five components of a problem:
Research-consumers Objectives
Alternative Means to Meet the Objectives
Doubt in Regard to Selection of Alternatives
There must be One or More Environments to which the Difficulty or
Problem Pertains.
3. Formulating the Problem:
a. internal criteria:
researchers interest
researchers competence
researchers own resource
b. external criteria:
research ability of problem
importance and urgency
novelty of the problem
usefulness and social relevance
research personnel
4. The process of defining a problem includes:
Developing title
Building a conceptual model
Define the Objective of the Study
5. Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific
a. Verifiable evidence
b. Accuracy
c. Precision
d. Systematization
e. Objectivity
f. Recording
g. Controlling conditions
6. Selection of problems is the first step in research.
7. Journals are sources of problems of research problems.
8. Internal criteria of research problem consist of researcher's interest and


1. According to Theodor son and Theodor son, a hypothesis is a tentative
statement asserting relationship between certain facts. Kerlinger describes it
as a conjectural statement of the relationship between two or more
2. Black and Champion have described it as a tentative statement about
something, the validity of which is usually unknown.
3. Characteristics of Good Hypothesis :
a. Conceptual Clarity
b. Specificity
c. Testability
d. Availability of Techniques
e. Theoretical relevance
f. Consistency
g. Objectivity
4. Null hypothesis = H0 and Alternative hypothesis = Ha

6. In case we take the significance level at 5%, then this implies that H0 will
be rejected when the sampling result (i.e., observed evidence) has a less
than 0.05 probability of occurring if H0 is true.

8. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if, say, the sample mean
is significantly higher or lower than the hypnotized value of the mean
of the population.
9. A one-tailed test would be used when we are to
10.test, say, whether the population mean in either lower than or higher
than some hypothesized value.
11. The factors that affect the level of significance are:
a. The magnitude of the difference between sample ;
b. The size of the sample;
c. The variability of measurements within samples;


d. Whether the hypothesis is directional or non directional (A directional
hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between,
say, means). In brief, the level of significance must be adequate in the
context of the purpose and nature of enquiry.
12.Z-test is based on the normal probability distribution and is used for judging
the significance of several statistical measures.
13.T-test is based on t-distribution and is considered an appropriate test
for judging the significance of sample mean or for judging significance
of difference between the two means of the two samples in case of
samples when population variance is not known (in which case we use
variance of the sample as an estimate the population variance).
14.X2-test is based on chi-square distribution and as a parametric test is used
for comparing a sample variance to a theoretical population variance is
15.F-test is based on f-distribution and is used to compare the variance of the
two-independent samples. This test is also used in the context of
variance (ANOVA) for judging the significance of more than two sample
means at one and the same time.
16.Null is a positive statement.
17. Type II error is accepting a statement that is false.
18. Hypothesis is tentative statement.

Unit: 5
1. Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe, A research design is the
arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that
aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in
2. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly
related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are
known as extraneous variables.
3. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and
independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous
variable, when the dependent variable is not free from its effects.
4. Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to
which the experimental and control groups are subject to. In the
example considered, the two treatments are the parents with regular
earnings and those with no regular earnings.
5. There are a number of crucial research choices, various writers
advance different classification schemes, some of which are:
1. Experimental, historical and inferential designs (American Marketing
2. Exploratory, descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz, Jahoda, Deutsch and
3. Experimental and expost fact (Kerlinger)
4. Historical method, and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates)
5. Sample surveys, field studies, experiments in field settings, and laboratory
experiments (Festinger and Katz)
6. Exploratory, descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall)


7. Exploratory, descriptive and casual (Green and Tull)
8. Experimental, quasi-experimental designs (Nachmias and Nachmias)
9. True experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs
10. Experimental, pre-experimental, quasi-experimental designs and Survey
Research (Kidder and Judd). hose different categorizations exist, because
research design is a complex concept. In fact, there are different
perspectives from which any ven study can be viewed. They are:
1. The degree of formulation of the problem (the study may be exploratory or
2. The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study (a case or a statistical
3. The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey, laboratory
4. The time dimension (one-time or longitudinal)
5. The mode of data collection (observational or survey)
6. The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost
7. The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or causal)
6. Three methods in the context of research design for such studies are
talked about:
a. The survey of concerning literature
b. Experience survey
c. Analyses of insight-stimulating examples are
7. Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies:
1. Formulating the objective of the study
2. Designing the methods of data collection
3. Selecting the sample
4. Collecting the data
5. Processing and analyzing the data
6. Reporting the findings.
8. Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs:
1. The principle of replication
2. The principle of randomization
3. Principle of local control
9. Formal Experimental Designs:
1. Completely randomized design (CR design): It involves only two
principle viz., the principle of replication and randomization.
2. Randomized block design (RB design): It is an improvement over the C
Research design. In the RB design the principle of local control can be applied along
with the other two principles.
3. Latin square design (LS design): It is used in agricultural research. The
treatments in a LS design are so allocated among the plots that no treatment occurs
more than once in any row or column.
4. Factorial design: It is used in experiments where the effects of varying more
than one factor are to be determined. They are especially important in several
economic and social phenomena where usually a large number of factors affect
a particular problem.
10. A research design is a logical and systematic plan. T
11. Exploratory research studies are also called formularize research studies. T


12. Descriptive research is concerned with describing the features of a particular
individual or group. T
13. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a
research study.
Unit: 6
1. Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit or
entity, be it a person, a family, an institution or a community. The aim
of case study method is to locate or identify the factors that account
for the behavior patterns of a given unit, and its relationship with the
2. The major credit for introducing case study method into social investigation
goes to Frederick Leplay. Herbert Spencer was the first social
philosopher who used case study in comparative studies of different
William Healey used case study in his study of juvenile
delinquency. Anthropologists and ethnologists have liberally utilized
cast study in the systematic description of primitive cultures.
3. Case study of particular value when a complex set of variables may
be at work in generating observed results and intensive study is
needed to unravel the complexities.
4. Blummer points out that independently, the case documents hardly fill the
criteria of reliability, adequacy and representativeness,
5. John
has proposed seven criteria for evaluating such
adequacy as follows:
a. The subject must be viewed as a specimen in a cultural series
b. The organic motto of action must be socially relevant.
c. The strategic role of the family group in transmitting the culture
must be recognized.
d. The specific method of elaboration of organic material onto social
behavior must be clearly shown
e. The continuous related character of experience for childhood through
adulthood must be stressed
f. Social situation must be carefully and continuously specified as a
g. The life history material itself must be organized according to some
conceptual framework, this in turn would facilitate generalizations at a
higher level.
6. The exploratory investigator is best served by the active curiosity
and willingness to deviate from the initial plan, when the finding
suggests new courses of enquiry, might prove more productive.
7. Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social
unit. T
8. Case study of not particular value when a complex set of variables may be
at work. F
9. In-depth analysis of selected cases is not of particular value to business
research. F



1. Simple random sampling technique( homogeneous) gives each
element an equal and independent chance of being selected. An
equal chance means equal probability of selection.
2. Stratified random sampling is an improved type of random or
probability sampling. In this method, the population is sub-divided
into homogenous groups or strata, and from each stratum, random
sample is drawn.
3. Proportionate stratified sampling involves drawing a sample from
each stratum in proportion to the latters share in the total population.
4. Disproportionate stratified random sampling does not give proportionate
representation to strata.
5. Systematic random sampling method is an alternative to random
selection. It consists of taking k th item in the population after a random
start with an item from 1 to k. It is also known as fixed interval method.
6. Cluster sampling means random selection of sampling units
consisting of population elements.
7. In Area sampling larger field surveys cluster consisting of specific
geographical areas like districts, taluks, villages or blocks in a city
are randomly drawn.
8. Multi-stage sampling is carried out in two or more stages. The
population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage
units and so forth. That is, at each stage, a sampling unit is a
cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage.
9. Double sampling and multiphase sampling refers to the subsection of
the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided
information for improving the final selection.
10.Replicated or interpenetrating sampling involves selection of a
certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a
11.Non-probability or non random sampling is not based on the
theory of probability. This sampling does not provide a chance of
selection to each population element.
12.Purposive (or judgment) sampling method means deliberate
selection of sample units that conform to some pre-determined
criteria. This is also known as judgment sampling.
13.Quota sampling is a form of convenient sampling involving
selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as
sex, age, social class, etc. it is a method of stratified sampling in which the
selection within strata is non-random.
14.Snow-ball sampling is the colorful name for a technique of Building up a
list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its
members as informants.
15.Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. It is also
known as random sampling. It provides a known non-zero chance
of selection for each population element.
16.A sample must be representative of the population.
17. Probability sampling technique yield representative sample.
18. accuracy is defined as the degree to which bias is absent from
the sample. An accurate sample is the one which exactly represents
the population.


19.Precision is measured by standard error.
A good sample must be adequate in size in order to be
reliable. A part of the population is known as sample. The method
consisting of the selecting for study, a portion of the universe with
a view to draw conclusions about the universe or population is known
as sampling.
21.Sampling helps in time and cost saving.
Sampling has the following advantages:
a. The size of the population
b. Amount of funds budgeted for the study
c. Facilities
d. Time
The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling
a. Purpose of the Survey
b. Measurability
c. Degree of Precision
d. Information about Population
e. The Nature of the Population
f. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population
g. Financial resources
h. Time Limitation
i. Economy
The characteristics of a good sample
a. Representativeness
b. population
c. Accuracy a
d. Precision
e. Size
Sampling techniques or methods may be classified into two
generic types:
a. Probability or Random Sampling: Probability sampling is based on the
theory of probability. It is also known as random sampling. It provides
a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element.
b. The following are the types of probability sampling:
i) Simple Random Sampling
ii) Stratified Random Sampling: a. Proportionate stratified sampling, b.
Disproportionate stratified random sampling
iii) Systematic Random Sampling
26.probability Proportional to size (PPS)
Unit: 8
1. The search for answers to research questions is called collection of
data. Data are facts, and other relevant materials, past and present,
serving as bases for study and analyses.
2. The data needed for a social science research may be broadly
classified into


(a) Data pertaining to human beings,
(b) Data relating to organization and
(c) Data pertaining to territorial areas.
3. Personal data or data related to human beings consist of:
a. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age,
sex, race, social class, religion, marital status, education, occupation
income, family size, location of the household life style etc.
b. Behavioral variables: Attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge,
practice, intentions, etc.
c. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations
origin, ownership, objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth.
d. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics, resource
endowment, population, occupational pattern infrastructure degree of
development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, talluks, districts,
state and the nation.
3. The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary
sources and (b) secondary sources.
4. knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies.
5. a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods
(a) observation, (b) interviewing, (c) mail survey, (d)
experimentation, (e) simulation and (f) projective technique.
6. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and
reports, but also unpublished records.
7. Evaluation of Secondary Data
a. Data Pertinence
b. Data Quality
c. Data Completeness
8. The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary sources and
(b) secondary sources. T
9. Primary data are first hand information collected through various
methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc. T
10.The secondary sources consist of readily compendia and already
complied statistical statements and reports. T
11.The important methods are observation, (b) interviewing, (c) mail survey,
(d) experimentation, (e) simulation and projective technique. T
1. Observation means viewing or seeing. Observation may be
defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its
proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a
particular study. Observation is classical method of scientific study.
2. Observation as a method of data collection has certain
a. It is both a physical and a mental activity
b. Observation is selective
c. Observation is purposive and not casual
d. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools


3. process of observations:
a. First, the researcher should carefully examine the relevance of
observation method to the data needs of the selected study.
b. Second, he must identify the specific investigative
questions which call for use of observation method
c. Third, he must decide the observation content, viz., specific
conditions, events and activities that have to be observed for the
required data. The observation content should include the relevant
d. Fourth, for each variable chosen, the operational definition
should be specified.
e. Fifth, the observation setting, the subjects to be
observed, the timing and mode of observation, recording,
procedure, recording instruments to be used, and other details of the
task should be determined.
f. Last, observers should be selected and trained .
4. Observations may be classified in different ways. With reference
to investigators role, it may be classified into (a) participant
observation and (b) non-participant observation. In terms of mode of
observation, it may be classified into (c) direct observation. With
reference to the rigor of the system adopted. Observation is
classified into (e) controlled observation, and (f) uncontrolled
5. Observations may be classified into (a) participant observation and
(b) non-participant observation. T
6. In terms of mode of observation, it may be classified into (c)
direct observation. T
7. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. Observation is
classified into (e) controlled observation, and (f) uncontrolled
observation. T
8. Observation involves standardization of observational techniques and
exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. T
UNIT: 10
1. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can
easily understand the questions and answer them. It should preferably
contain mostly closed-end and multiple choice questions so that it
could be completed within a few minutes.
2. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is
3. It does not involve face-to-face conversation between the investigator
and the respondent.
4. Questionnaires may be classified as:
a. Structured/ Standardized Questionnaire
b. Unstructured Questionnaire



5. A covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. Exhibit
7.1 is a copy of a covering letter used by the author in a research
study on corporate planning.
6. some alternative methods of distributing questionnaires to
the respondents. They are: (1) personal delivery, (2) attaching
questionnaire to a product (3) advertising questionnaire in a
newspaper of magazine, and (4) news stand insets.
7. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the
response rate. They are:
a. Quality Printing
b. Covering Letter
c. Advance Information
d. Incentives
e. Follow-up-contacts
f. Larger sample size:
8. The disadvantages of mail surveys are:
a. The scope for mail surveys is very limited in a country like India where
the percentage of literacy is very low.
b. The response rate of mail surveys is low. Hence, the resulting
sample will not be a representative one.
9. Mail survey can cover extensive geographical areas.
10.Mail surveys, being more impersonal, provide more anonymity than
personal interviews.
11.Mail surveys are totally free from the interviewers bias as there is
no personal contact between the respondents and the investigator.



Unit: 11
Greatest drawback of interview method is that it is costly both in money and time.
Greatest value of the interview method is the depth and detail of information that
can be secured. T
3. The interviewer cannot do more to improve the percentage of responses and the
quality information received than other method. F
4. One limitation of interview method is that it is not possible for interviewer to use
special scoring devices, visual materials and the like in order to improve the
quality of interviewing. F
5. Match the following
a. Advantages of group interview: Respondents comment freely and in
b. Disadvantages of group interview: Group can be interviewed in the time
required for one personal interview.
c. Difficult to get representative sample : Possibility of a group being
dominated by one individual
The interview does not require preparation and preplanning. F
7. The interviewer should find out the general daily routine of the respondents in
order to determine the suitable timings for interview. T







8. Before starting the research interview, it is not necessary for the interviewer to
establish a friendly relationship with the respondent. F
It is essential to record responses as they take place. T
Choices when personal interview is feasible?
a. When the area covered for survey is compact or when number of
interviewee is very large
b. When sufficient number of interviewers are available or when the
number of interviewee is very large
c. When the area covered for survey is compact or when
sufficient number of interviewers is available.
Interview results are adversely affected by interviewer's mode of asking questions
and interaction. T
Like that of a chemical technician, it is rather a flexible psychological process. f
13. The extent of his success as an interviewer is very largely dependent upon his
insight and skill in dealing with varying socio-physiological situations. f
14.Interview is a conversation with specific purpose, i.e., obtaining information
relevant to a study. T
15.The interaction between the interviewer and the respondent need not
necessarily be on a face-to-face basis, because interview can be conducted over
the telephone also. T
16. What is the limitation of Non-directive interview?
a. It can closely approximate the spontaneity of natural conversation
b. More prone to interviewer's bias
c. Provide less opportunity to explore the problem in an unrestricted manner
d. Data obtained from one interview is not comparable to the data from
the next.
Choices Interview calls for Interviewing skills
18. The semi-structured interview where the investigator attempts to focus the
discussion on the actual effects of a given experience to which the respondents
have been exposed is termed as Focused interview
What do you understand by Depth interview?
a. This is an intensive and searching interview aiming at studying the
respondent's opinion, emotions or convictions on the basis of an
interview guide
20. What is Non-directive interview?
a. This is the least structured one where the interviewer encourages
the respondent to talk freely about a give topic with a minimum of
prompting or guidance
Which of the following is not a requirement for a successful interview?
Vastness of knowledge of the interviewer
Which type of interview is similar to focused interview but with a subtle
difference? Clinical interview
________ is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate
or less educated respondents. Interviewing.
24.Interviewing is the one of the prominent methods of data collection.
25.Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from
illiterate or less educated respondents.
26.Interview can add flesh to statistical information.
27.Types of interview: Structured or directive interview, Unstructured or nondirective interview, Focused interview, Clinical interview, Depth interview.


28. Types of approaches:
The participants
The relationship the participants is a transitory one
Interview is not a mere casual conversational exchange
Interview is a mode of obtaining verbal answers to questions put
Interview is an inter-actionable process
Interviewing is not a standardized process
28. quality of interviews:
a. data availability
b. role perceptions
c. the interviewer should also know his role
d. respondent motivation


29. interviewing techniques:

a. Preparation
b. Introduction
c. Developing Rapport
d. Carrying the Interview Forward
e. Recording the Interview
f. Closing the Interview
g. Editing
establishing friendly relationship with respondent: rapport
interviews problems:
a. inadequate response: kahn and cannel five principles
b. interviewers bias
c. non- response
d. non-availability
e. refusal
f. inaccessibility
g. Methods and aims of controlling non- response: kish suggested.
This is an interview made with a details standardized schedule. T
33. The focus interview is concerned with the effect of specific experience; clinical
interview is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the
course of the individual life experiences. T
Unit: 12
1. Which of the following are the important characteristics of a
statistical data?
a. Central tendency
b. Dispersion
c. Color
e. Skewness
f. Kurtosis
2. Median is the most repeating value of a distribution. F
3. Mode is the most typical and frequented value of the distribution. T
4. Mode cannot be determined for series with open-ended classes. F
5. Mode can be graphically determined. T


6. When open ended responses have been received, classification is necessary
to code the responses. T
7. Classification should be linked to the theory and the aim of the particular
study .T
8. The main aim of transition is to minimize the shuffling proceeds between
several responses and several observations. T
9. When the sample size is manageable, the researcher must use any
computerization process to analyze the data. F
10.Coding need not necessarily be numeric. T
11.A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical representation of the
variable may be given an alphabetic coding. T
12.A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a variable. T
13. What is the main requisite for a transcription process?
A. Preparation of the data sheets where observations are the row of
the database and the responses/variables are the columns of the
data sheet
14. How the transcription of data can be used?
a. It can be used to summarize and arrange the data in compact
form for further analysis
15.What is SPSS? It is an integrated set if programs suitable for analysis
of social science data
16.Social science reach conclusion using -Secondary data
17.Which of the following is not involved in the data preparation
a. Identification of the data structures
b. Coding of data
c. Grouping of data for preliminary research interpretation
d. Identification of investigators
18. Data processing is an intermediary stage of work between data collections
and data interpretation.
The various steps in processing of data may be stated as:
a. Identifying the data structures
b. Editing the data
c. Coding and classifying the data
d. Transcription of data
e. Tabulation of data.
20.The editing step checks for the completeness, accuracy and
uniformity of the data as created by the researcher.
21.Coding process assigns numerals or other symbols to the several responses
of the data set.
22.Numeric Coding: Coding need not necessarily be numeric. It can also
be alphabetic. Coding has to be compulsorily numeric, when the variable
is subject to further parametric analysis.
23.Alphabetic Coding: A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical
representation of the variable may be given in an alphabetic coding.
24.Zero Coding: A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a variable. In
many instances, when manual analysis is done, a code of 0 would imply a no
response from the respondents.
25.An illustration of the coding process of some of the demographic
variables is given in the following table:



Question number

Variable observation


Owner of Vehicle


Vehicle performs





Response category
Private Pt
Public Pb
Yes 2
No 1
Excellent 5
Good 4
Adequate 3
Bad 2
Worst 1
Up to 20 years
21-40 years 2
40-60 years 3
Salaried S
Professional P


long worksheet:

27.The transcription of data can be used to summarize and arrange the data in
compact form for further analysis. The process is called tabulation.

Manual Tabulation

29.Computerized tabulation is easy with the help of software packages.

30.Frequency tables provide a shorthand summary of data.



Central tendency of the data is measured by statistical
averages. Averages are classified into two groups.
1. Mathematical averages
2. Positional averages
30. Merits of Median
1. Median is easy to calculate and simple to understand.
2. When the data is very large median is the most convenient measure of
central tendency.
3. Median is useful finding average for data with open-ended classes.
4. The median distributes the values of the data equally to either side of
the median.
5. Median is not influenced by the extreme values present in the data.
6. Value of the median can be graphically determined.
Demerits of Median
To calculate median, data should be arranged according to
ascending order. This is tedious when the number of items in a series is
Since the value of median is determined by observation, it is not a true
representative of all the values.

Median is not amenable to further algebraic treatment.

The value of median is affected by sampling fluctuation.

Mode is the most repeating value of a distribution. When one item repeats
more number of times than other or when two items repeat equal number of
times, mode is ill defined. Under such case, mode is calculated by the
formula (3 median 2 mean). Mode is a widely used measure of central
tendency in business. We speak of model wage which is the wage earned
by most of the workers. Model shoe size is the mostly demanded shoe.
Merits of Mode


Mode is the most typical and frequented value of the distribution.

It is not affected by extreme values.
Mode can be determined even for series with open-ended classes.
Mode can be graphically determined.

Demerits of Mode
1. It is difficult to calculate mode when one item repeats more
number of times than others.
2. Mode is not capable of further algebraic treatment.
3. Mode is not based on all the items of the series.
4. Mode is not rigidly defined. There are several formulae for
calculating mode.
33. Dispersion is the tendency of the individual values in a distribution to spread
away from the average.
34. Dispersion is a statistical measure, which understands the degree of variation
of items from the average.
35. Properties of a Good Measure of Dispersion
A good measure of dispersion should be simple to understand.
1. It should be easy to calculate
2. It should be rigidly defined
3. It should be based on all the values of a distribution
4. It should be amenable to further statistical and algebraic treatment.
5. It should have sampling stability
6. It should not be unduly affected by extreme values.
36. Measures of Dispersion
1. Range
2. Quartile deviation
3. Mean deviation
4. Standard deviation
5. Lorenz curve
36.Lorenz curve is a graphical measure of dispersion.
Quartile deviation is defined as inter quartile range

Merits of Quartile Deviation
1. Quartile Deviation is superior to range as a rough measure of
2. It has a special merit in measuring dispersion in open-ended series.
3. Quartile Deviation is not affected by extreme values.
Demerits of Quartile Deviation
1. Quartile Deviation ignores the first 25% of the distribution below Q1 and
25% of the distribution above the Q3


2. Quartile Deviation is not amenable to further mathematical treatment.
3. Quartile Deviation is very much affected by sampling fluctuations.
41. Range and quartile deviation do not show any scatter ness from
the average.
42. Steps for mean deviation:
1. Calculate mean, median or mode of the series
2. Find the deviation of items from the mean, median or mode
3. Sum the deviations and obtain D
4. Take the average of the deviations D/N, which is the mean deviation.
43. Standard deviation is the most important measure of dispersion. It satisfies
most of the properties of a good measure of dispersion. It was introduced by
Karl Pearson in 1893. Standard deviation is defined as the mean of the
squared deviations from the arithmetic mean. Standard deviation is denoted by
the Greek letter.
44. Standard deviation can be computed in two methods
1. Taking deviation from actual mean
2. Taking deviation from assumed mean.

46. According to L.R. Connor, if two or more quantities vary in sympathy so

that movements in the one tend to be accompanied by corresponding
movements in the other(s) they are said to be correlated.
W.I. King defined Correlation means that between two series or groups of
data, there exists some casual connection.
47. Types of Correlation Analysis
Correlation can be:
Positive or negative
Linear or non-linear
Simple, multiple or partial
48. Non-linear is called curvilinear correlation because graph
correlation results in a curve.
49. scatter diagram: This is a graphical method of studying correlation between
two variables. If the trend is downward sloping, correlation is negative.

50. PROBABLE ERROR: If the coefficient of correlation is less than Probable

Error it will not be significant. If the coefficient of correlation r is more than
six times the Probable Error, correlation is definitely significant. If Probable Error is
0.5 or more, it is generally considered as significant. Probable Error is estimated
by the following formula.


51. Spearmans Rank Correlation Method
Charles Edward Spearman, a British psychologist devised a method for
measuring correlation between two variables based on ranks given
to the observations. This method is adopted when the variables are not
capable of quantitative measurements like intelligence, beauty etc. in such
cases, it is impossible to assign numerical values for change taking place in
such variables. It is in such cases rank correlation is useful. Spearman's rank
correlation coefficient is given by
52. Concurrent Deviation Method
In this method, correlation is calculated between direction of deviations and not
their magnitudes.
Steps in the Calculation of Concurrent Deviation
Find out the direction of change of x-variable. When a successive figure in
the series increase direction is marked as + and when a successive
figure in the series decrease direction of change is marked as -. It is
denoted as dx.
Find out the change in direction of y-variable. It is denoted as dy.
Multiply dx and dy and determine the value of C. C is the number of
positive products of dxdy (- X - or + X +).

53. The value of Co-Efficient of Correlation always lies between +1

and 1. It can be interpreted in the following ways.
If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 1 it is interpreted as
perfect positive correlation.
If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 1, it is interpreted as perfect
negative correlation.
If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0 < r < 0.5, it is interpreted as
poor positive correlation.
If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0.5 < r < 1, it is interpreted as
good positive correlation.
If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0 > r > -0.5, it is interpreted as
poor negative correlation.
If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0.5 > r > -1, it is interpreted as
good negative correlation.
If the value of Co-Efficient of Correlation r is 0, it is interpreted as
zero correlation.



The following are the important characteristics of a statistical
data: a. Central tendency
b. Dispersion
c. Skew ness
d. Kurtosis
Unit: 13
1. An interim report narrates what has been done so far and what was its outcome. T
2. Introduction should provide audience interest. T
3. Along with the related skill of working with and motivating people, the ability to
communicate effectively is not a must attribute a manager should have. F
4. It is important to generate a research report that will be interesting to read. T
5. Mention which of the following items will be included under which category.
a. Prefatory Items : List of tables
b. Body of the report : Limitations of the study , Theoretical background of
the topic , Method of data collection
c. Reference Materials : Bibliography, Appendix
6. Under which of the following categories, research report can be classified
a. Technical reports
b. Popular reports
c. Summary reports
d. Technical abstracts
e. Research article
f. Technical article
7. When there is a time lag between data collection and presentation of the result,
then also there is no chance of loss of significance and usefulness of the study. f
8. Summary report is meant for general public. t
9. _______ is a short summary of technical report. Research abstract
10._________ is designed for publication in a professional journal. Research article
11.In a research report, each piece of presentation should fit into the whole, just as
individual pieces into a jigsaw puzzle. T
12. It is better to keep the body of the presentation intact without breaking into parts
to keep the constancy in the report. F
13.In a technical report, a comprehensive full report of the research process and its
outcome are included. T
14.In popular report the reader is less interested in the methodological details, but
more interested in the findings of the study. T
15.Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. T


16.Research report provides highly specific information for a clearly designated
audience. T
17.The purpose of the research report is to communicate to interested persons
the methodology and the results of the study. T
18.Research report is a narrative and authoritative document. T
19.A research report requires clear _______. ORGANIZATION
20.Choices Research report is a means for _________. COMMUNICATING
21. In a research report, the audience should feel that there is __________. A natural
flow from one section to another
22. The presentation should help the audience to avoid _______. Misinterpreting
the results
23. When the content refers genders, ______ nouns and pronouns should not be
used. masculine
24. Which of the following is not a function of research report?
a. It is a means for judging the quality of research project
b. It is a means for evaluating researcher
c. It provides a systematic knowledge on problems and issues analyzed
d. It provides steps to undertake research.
25.Which of the followings should be used to communicate the content of the
materials discussed?
a. Underlined text
b. Headings and subheadings
c. Bold text
d. Marked text
Unit: 14
1. Match the following
a. Confidentiality: Not revealing information of a sensitive nature
b. Objectivity
: Recording respondents
c. Honesty: Admitting that the research can be done at a lower cost
d. Anonymity: Conducting research under a fictitious name
2. Identify the ethical issues in the data collection stage
a. Informed consent of participants
b. Time of contacting participants
c. Manner of observation of participants
d. Use of the internet for online surveys
e. Manner of recording responses
f. Confidentiality and anonymity
3. Identify the responsibilities of suppliers of research from the following
a. Refraining from stealing information from competitors
b. Projecting a positive image of the research profession to
c. Proving truthful answers to questions
d. Hiding the real purpose of the study
e. Respecting the rights of respondents
f. Providing truthful estimates of the cost and time needed for
4. Informed consent means: Revealing information about important
aspects of the study to participants


5. Which of the following is an example of objectivity in data collection?
a. Filling in incomplete answers in a questionnaire
b. Leading the respondent into giving a particular response
c. Wording questions in a neutral manner
d. Leaving out certain information provided by respondents which you
think may be irrelevant
6. Which of the following is not an example of honesty in research?
a. Refusing to answer questions of a personal nature
b. Overestimating the cost of research to the client
c. Encouraging the researcher to be objective in data collection
d. Revealing the true purpose of a study to respondents
7. Which of the following questions could be perceived by respondents to be
of a sensitive nature?
a. Reading habits
b. Occupation
c. Lifestyle
d. Relationship with family members
8. Objectivity is a key issue in which of the following stages of the research
process? Data collection
9. Participants need to be informed about all the following, except:
a. Purpose of study
b. Method of collecting data
c. Use of information gathered
d. Personal details of other participants
10.The bulk of the responsibility for ethical research lies with : Suppliers of
11.Which of the following is not an ethically questionable research situation?
a. Doing a sales pitch in the name of a survey
b. Undertaking research dictated by top management
c. Using jargon in a technical report
d. Doing research under a fictitious name to obtain data that would be
difficult to get otherwise
12.Which of the following is not part of respondent rights?
a. Right to refuse to answer questions of a personal nature
b. Right to refuse to take part in a survey
c. Right to be untruthful
d. Right to want to keep information confidential
13.Which of the following methods of data collection can lead to greater
invasion of privacy?
a. Face to face interviews
b. Depth interviews
c. Telephone interviews
d. Mail surveys
One of the rights of respondents is to refuse to be
contacted over the telephone. F
15. Participants of a study should be informed about the sampling procedure
before getting their consent. F
16. Filling in incomplete answers in a questionnaire is an example of lack of
objectivity. T
17. Observation is not an ethical method of data collection. F


18. Confidentiality implies that you may have to change the name of
the organization that was researched when reporting the findings. F
19.Using cameras to observe respondents reactions to advertisements is
unethical. F
20. The bulk of responsibility for ethical research lies with clients or
managers. F
21. It is ethical for top management to modify the findings of a study
to highlight the strengths of the organization. F

Answer: 80

Answer: 29.46
Answer: 99.967



Answer: 11.235

Answer: 21.834
Answer: 378689
Answer: Q1=15, Q3= 40

ANSWER: Q1 = 120, Q3 =
QD: 20; CQD: .0714
ANSWER: Q1= 33.33; Q3=
QD= 18;
ANSWER: Mean=20;


ANSWER: AM=28.8;
Answer for median for same question are: ME=17; MD= 7.38; CMD= .
434; MDMode= 18.33
MDM= 7.13; CMD= .3912
ANSWER: 7.836


ANSWER: 13.747


ANSWER: 0.714