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GUIDE TO HACCP

IMPLEMENTATION

2006

ADP GUIDE TO HAZARD


ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL
CONTROL POINTS (HACCP)
PRINCIPLES
FOR THE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE
INDUSTRY IN MOLDOVA

Author: Andrei Cumpanici, PhD, Food safety specialist, USAID/ADP.

The electronic version of this Guide may be accessed on web: http://export.acsa.md


This publication was developed and printed with financial support of the U.S. Agency for
International Development (USAID) within the Agribusiness Development Program,
implemented by CNFA.
The opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the
views of the U.S. Agency for International Development.

2006
2

ADP GUIDE TO HACCP IMPLEMENTATION


INDEX
FOREWORD
DEFINITIONS
1.0
Introduction .........................................................................................................7
2.0
The Seven Principles of HACCP ........................................................................9
3.0
Developing a HACCP Plan................................................................................10
4.0
Step 1 Assemble a HACCP team ..................................................................11
5.0
Step 2 Description of the Product.................................................................12
6.0
Step 3 Identify Intended Use .........................................................................12
7.0
Step 4 Construct a Flow Diagram .................................................................13
8.0
Step 5 On-site Confirmation of the Flow Diagram.......................................14
9.0
Step 6 Conduct a Hazard Analyses (HACCP Principle 1) ...........................15
a.
Hazard Identification ..............................................................................15
i.
Biological Hazards .................................................................................15
ii.
Chemical Hazards...................................................................................16
iii.
Physical Hazards ....................................................................................16
b.
Hazard Analyses.....................................................................................17
10.0 Step 7 Determine Critical Control Points (HACCP Principle 2) ..................18
11.0 Step 8 Establish Critical Limits (HACCP Principle 3)..................................19
12.0 Step 9 Establish Monitoring Procedures (HACCP Principle 4) ..................19
13.0 Step 10 Establish Corrective Actions (HACCP Principle 5)........................20
14.0 Step 11 Establish Verification Procedures (HACCP Principle 6) ...............21
15.0 Step 12 Establish Documentation and Record Keeping (HACCP
Principle 7).........................................................................................................23
Records
Record 1/01 References for HACCP Teams Approved in the Company
Record 2/01 Product Description and Intended Use
Record 4/01 Process Flow Diagram (Storage Fresh Apples)
Record 5/01 On-Site Confirmation of the Flow Diagram
Record 6/01 Hazard Identification and Preventive Measures
Record 6/02 Hazard Analysis
Record 7/01 Determine Critical Control Points
Record 8/01 Monitoring Critical Control Points, Corrective Actions, Verification,
Record keeping
General Information
General information 6/03 - List of Questions for Hazard Analysis
General information 6/04 - Food Safety Hazards Associated with Fresh Produce

FOREWORD
This Guide has been developed according to HACCP (Hazard Assessment and Critical
Control Point) principles, in accordance with basic Codex Alimentarius Standards and
Guides, and basic European Guidance documents on the hygiene of foodstuffs.
The Guide is intended to be used by Fruit and Vegetable handlers and processors,
including farmer and exporter packhouses, and processors such as canneries, freezing
and drying companies.
The Guidelines are just that. Any company wishing to install a HACCP system will need
to tailor the plan to suit their own specific circumstances of production.
With HACCP based Food Safety Certification now a mandatory requirement for food
processors wishing to export to the European Union, the ADP Project, funded by USAID,
will be pleased to assist any fruit and vegetable processors in implementing a customized
HACCP system.

DEFINITIONS
Control (noun): The state wherein correct procedures are being followed and criteria are
being met.
Control (verb): To take all necessary actions to ensure and maintain compliance with
criteria established in the HACCP plan.
Control measure: Any action and activity that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food
safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Corrective action: Any action to be taken when the results of monitoring at the CCP
indicate a loss of control.
Critical Control Point (CCP): A step at which control can be applied and is essential to
prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Critical limit: A criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability.
Deviation: Failure to meet a critical limit.
Flow diagram: A systematic representation of the sequence of steps or operations used
in the production or manufacture of a particular food item.
HACCP: A system which identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards which are significant
for food safety.
HACCP plan: A document prepared in accordance with the principles of HACCP to
ensure control of hazards which are significant for food safety in the segment of the food
chain under consideration.
Hazard: A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential
to cause an adverse health effect.
Hazard analysis: The process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards and
conditions leading to their presence to decide which are significant for food safety and
therefore should be addressed in the HACCP plan.
Monitor: The act of conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements of
control parameters to assess whether a CCP is under control.
Step: A point, procedure, operation or stage in the food chain including raw materials,
from primary production to final consumption.
Validation: Obtaining evidence that the elements of the HACCP plan are effective.
Verification: The application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in
addition to monitoring to determine compliance with the HACCP plan.
Cleaning - the removal of soil, food residue, dirt, grease or other objectionable matter.

Contaminant - any biological or chemical agent, foreign matter, or other substances not
intentionally added to food which may compromise food safety or suitability.
Contamination - the introduction or occurrence of a contaminant in food or food
environment.
Disinfection - the reduction, by means of chemical agents and/or physical methods, of
the number of micro-organisms in the environment, to a level that does not compromise
food safety or suitability.
Establishment - any building or area in which food is handled and the surroundings
under the control of the same management
Food hygiene - all conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and
suitability of food at all stages of the food chain
Food handler - any person who directly handles packaged or unpackaged food, food
equipment and utensils, or food contact surfaces and is therefore expected to comply with
food hygiene requirements
Food safety - assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is
prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use.
Food suitability - assurance that food is acceptable for human consumption according to
its intended use.
Primary production - those steps in the food chain up to and including, for example,
harvesting, slaughter, milking, fishing.

HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP)


1.0

Introduction

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a science based and
systematic system used to identify:

Specific hazards to food safety,


Measures for the control of hazards to ensure the safety of food.

HACCP principles are used as a tool to assess hazards and establish control-systems
that focus on preventing the production of unsafe food, rather than relying on endproduct testing. The system can be applied throughout the food chain from primary
production to final consumption and implementation should be guided by scientific
evidence of risks to human health.
As well as enhancing food safety, implementation of HACCP can provide other
significant benefits, such as:

Promoting international trade by increasing confidence in food safety.


Aiding inspection by regulatory authorities

The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of
both executive-level management and the total work force. It also requires a
multidisciplinary approach; this multidisciplinary approach should include, (when
appropriate), expertise in agronomy, veterinary hygiene, fruit and vegetable
production, microbiology, medicine, public health, food technology, environmental
health, chemistry and engineering.
The intent of HACCP is to focus control at critical control points (CCPs). HACCP
should be:
applied to each specific production procedure separately.
flexible where appropriate
taking into account the nature and the size of the implementing
company/organization.
capable of accommodating change, such as advances in equipment design,
processing procedures or technological developments.
reviewed, and necessary changes made when any modification is made in
the product, process, or any step.
During hazard identification, evaluation, and subsequent operations in designing and
applying HACCP, consideration must be given to the impact of raw materials,
ingredients, food manufacturing practices, role of manufacturing processes to control
hazards, likely end-use of the product, categories of consumers of concern, and
epidemiological evidence relative to food safety.

HACCP systems must be built upon a firm foundation of existing compliance with
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), acceptable Sanitation Standard Operating
Procedures (SSOPs) and appropriate industry practices.
GMPs are the minimum sanitary and processing requirements necessary to ensure
the production of wholesome food. The areas addressed through GMPs are good
hygiene practices, personal hygiene, buildings and facilities, equipment and utensils,
and production and process controls.
SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures) are part of documented GMPs for
hygiene and sanitation, required to meet regulatory requirements for food control. The
written SSOP plan should explain the sanitation concerns, controls, in-plant
procedures and monitoring requirements. They are also required to monitor these
conditions and practices, correct unsanitary conditions and practices in a timely
manner, and maintain sanitation control records.
The SSOP should address at least the following conditions and practices: safety of
water and ice, condition and cleanliness of food contact surfaces, prevention of cross
contamination from unsanitary objects to food, maintenance of facilities for personal
hygiene, protection of food and food contact surfaces from adulteration, proper
labeling, storage and use of toxic compounds, control of employee health conditions,
exclusion of pests.
Without the application of GMP and SSOP principles, an effective HACCP program
cannot be conducted.

2.0

The Seven Principles of HACCP

HACCP systems are designed to identify and control food safety hazards associated
with food from the time a company receives raw material, through processing to
distribution to the consumer.
HACCP systems are based on the following seven principles:
Principle 1:

Conduct hazard analyses

Principle 2:

Determine critical control points

Principle 3:

Establish critical limits

Principle 4:

Establish monitoring procedures

Principle 5:

Establish corrective actions

Principle 6:

Establish verification procedures

Principle 7:

Establish documentation and record


keeping

3.0
Developing a HACCP Plan
In order to develop a HACCP system, the seven HACCP principles are applied in
twelve steps:
Step 1:

Assemble the HACCP team

Step 2:

Describe the Food and its Method of Production and


Distribution

Step 3:

Decides where the Products can be grouped using the


process categories

Step 4:

Develop the process flow-diagram(s)

Step 5:

On site confirmation of flow-diagram(s)

Step 6:

Conduct hazard analyses. Principle 1

Step 7:

Determine critical control points. Principle 2

Step 8:

Establish critical limits. Principle 3

Step 9:

Establish monitoring procedures. Principle 4

Step 10:

Establish corrective actions. Principle 5

Step 11:

Establish verification procedures. Principle 6

Step12:

Establish documentation and record keeping. Principle 7

10

4.0

Step 1 Assemble a HACCP team

A company wishing to implement a HACCP system should ensure that the appropriate
product specific knowledge and expertise is available for the development of an
effective HACCP plan.
The company should also understand that the implementation of a HACCP system
requires a whole-company, team approach. It is not possible for one person alone to
implement such a system. The HACCP team should be multidisciplinary, and include
a motivated executive-level management member, capable of ensuring the necessary
funding and overall company determination to ensure successful HACCP
implementation.
The HACCP team will also require a Team Leader. It may be possible that within an
organization, a well-trained individual, with access to HACCP literature and HACCP
guidance (including sector-specific HACCP guides), will be able to lead the HACCP
implementation team. However, in the absence of a suitably informed and capable inhouse individual, a HACCP implementation consultant should be employed, whose
role will be to:

train a HACCP team leader;

train the HACCP team;

guide the design and implementation of a


HACCP system.
The team should include experts covering all specific
knowledge appropriate to the product under
consideration, its production/ manufacture, storage,
distribution, and its consumption and associated
potential hazards. The team may include multidisciplinary specialists:

who understand the biological, chemical or physical hazards connected with


a particular product group;

who have responsibility for, or are closely involved with, the technical
process of producing/manufacturing the product under study,

who have a working knowledge of the hygiene and operation of the process
plant and equipment,

any other person with specialist knowledge of microbiology, hygiene or food


technology.
One person may fulfill several of these roles, provided all relevant information is
available to the team, and is used to ensure that the system developed is reliable.
Optimally, a multidisciplinary team will be assembled on-site. However, where the
required expertise is not available on site, the team should be assisted by specialists
who will help it solve difficulties, including assessment and control of critical points.
Sources of expertise will include: trade and industry associations, independent experts
and regulatory authorities.

11

The scope of the HACCP plan should be identified. The scope should describe which
segment of the food chain is involved and which process of the business and the
general classes of hazards are to be addressed (biological, chemical and physical).
5.0

Step 2 Description of the Product

A full description of the product should be drawn up, including relevant safety
information such as:

composition (e.g. raw materials, ingredients, additives, etc.);


physical/chemical structure (including Aw, pH, etc;
processing (e.g. heating, freezing, drying, etc. and to what extent),
any microbiological or chemical criteria applicable including microbial /static
treatments (cooling, freezing, brining, heat-treatment, etc;
packaging (e.g. carton, hermetic/canning, vacuum, modified atmosphere
storage and distribution conditions, methods of distribution;
required shelf life (e.g. use by date or best before date);
instructions for use.

Within businesses with multiple products, it may be effective to group products with
similar characteristics or processing steps, for the purpose of development of the
HACCP plan.
Suggested records include description of the product and identify intended (e.g.
Record 2/01). These records may be adapted for individual company use.
6.0

Step 3 Identify Intended Use

The HACCP team should also define the normal or expected use of the product by the
customer, and the consumer target groups for which the product is intended. In
specific cases, the suitability of the product for particular groups of consumers, such
as institutional caterers, travelers, etc. and for vulnerable groups of the population,
including babies, may have to be considered.
Describe the
normal expected
use of the food

Who are the


customers?

Who might misuse or abuse


the product?

Ensure Clear
instructions are
on the label

Suggested records include description of the product and intended end-consumers.


(e.g. Record 2/01).These records may be adapted for individual company use.

12

7.0

Step 4 Construct a Flow Diagram

A product flow diagram should be constructed by the HACCP team. The flow diagram
should cover all steps in the operation for a specific product. The same flow diagram
may be used for a number of products that are manufactured using similar processing
steps. When applying HACCP to a given operation, consideration should be given to
steps preceding and following the specified operation.
Receive potable
water

Receive containers

Receive raw material

Receive packaging
material

Pumping potable
water

Storage containers

Pre-cooling
raw material

Storage packaging
material

Washing containers

Storage raw material

Harvest
process

Washing
raw material

Grading and packing


raw material

Dispatch
raw material

The diagram shows a flow of steps that may occur during storage and packing of fresh
produce and the inputs for each step that could introduce a food safety hazard.
Whatever the format chosen all steps involved in the process, should be studied in
sequence and presented in a detailed flow diagram together with relevant technical
data. Steps in the process may include receiving the raw materials, preparation,
processing, packaging, storage and distribution, and placing the end product on the
market; delays during or between steps should also be recorded.
Types of technical data may include but are not limited to:

plan of working premises and ancillary premises;

equipment layout and characteristics;

sequence of all process steps (including the incorporation of raw materials;

ingredients or additives and delays during or between steps);

technical parameters of operations (in particular time and temperature,


including delays);

flow of products (including potential cross-contamination);

segregation of clean and dirty areas (or high/low risk areas).

13

The following GMP/SSOP requirements are prerequisites and can be integrated in the
HACCP system:

cleaning and disinfection procedures;


hygienic environment of the establishment;
personnel routes and hygiene practices;
product storage and distribution conditions.

Suggested records (e.g. Record 4/01). These records may be adapted for individual
company use, and depend on the type of products, technologies, and processes
employed.
8.0 Step 5 On-site Confirmation of the Flow Diagram
Steps must be taken to confirm the processing operation against the flow diagram
during all stages and hours of operation, and the flow diagram amended where
appropriate. The confirmation of the flow diagram should be performed by a person or
persons with sufficient knowledge of the processing operation, and/or the multidisciplinary team as appropriate.
Any observed deviation must result in an amendment of the original flow diagram to
make it accurate.
CAS DE AMBALARE
Lavoare, intrarile i ieirele
pentru angajai

Vestiare

Laboratorul de
control a
calitatii

Depozit pentru
pstrarea
ambalajului

Recepia i inspecia
Curarea, splarea, uscarea, sortarea,
calibrarea, ambalarea

Depozitarea
lzilor

Pstrarea
materialelor
pentru
tratarea
sanitar

Pre-rcirea, pstrarea la rece i livrarea.


Livrarea produselor

Legend:
Fluxul produsului
Ambalaj produs finit
Micarea personalului

Suggested records (e.g. Record 5/01).These records may be adapted for individual
company use.

14

9.0

Step 6 Conduct a Hazard Analyses (HACCP Principle 1)

The first principle of HACCP is to conduct a hazard analysis. Before beginning the
process, the HACCP team should review the definitions of food safety hazard.
Hazards are usually grouped into three categories: Biological, Chemical, and
Physical.
A useful approach to hazard analysis it to divide the analysis into two activities hazard identification and hazard analyses.
a.

Hazard Identification

This first step in identifying hazards which might be associated with a production
process might be considered a brainstorming session.
The HACCP team should use the flow diagram
and product description, which was created in the
preliminary steps, and systematically think about
what could occur at each step in the process.
Record 6/01 should be used in conjunction with
the checklist 6/03 and 6/04. Records 6/03 is a
checklist of questions which might help the team
to be as thorough as possible in considering the
hazards which might be associated with process.
Hazard identification should result in a list of potential hazards at each operations
step (use the HACCP plan flow diagram) in the process from the receipt of raw
materials to the release of the finished product.
During hazard identification, the team need not be confined by the hazards likelihood
of occurrence or its potential for causing disease. All potentially significant hazards
must be considered. To assist in this, the following list of hazards will be valuable.
i.

Biological Hazards

Riscuri bacteriene i virale


Biological hazards are living organisms that
can make food unsafe to eat. Biological Cl. botulinum A,B,E i F
Listeria monocytogenes
Salmonella sp.
hazards may be bacterial, parasitical, or viral. Shigella dysenteriae
Salmonella typhi,
Shigella Shigella sp.,
Identifying the biological hazards to which Salmonella paratyphi A, B Escherichia coli
enterovirulent
your production processes might be Virusul hepatitei A
Virusul hepatitei E
Streptococcus pyogenes
subjected is clearly a difficult and important Brucella abortis
Rotavirusul
Grupul virusurilor Norwalk
task - one that requires all the expertise that Brucella suis
Vibrio cholerae O1
Entamoeba histolyitica
your HACCP team can bring to it. Indeed, Vibrio vulniicus
Diphyllobothrium latum
outside expertise may be recommended for
this process. Currently, there is a great deal of emphasis on microbial hazards
associated with fresh fruit and vegetable products. Some of the major pathogens that
may be associated with fresh fruit and vegetable products are: Pathogenic bacteria

15

associated with fruits and vegetables include: Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli
(pathogenic),
Campylobacter
species,
Yersinia
enterocolitica,
Listeria
Monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium species, Bacillus cereus,
Vibrio species.
Riscuri parazitologice
Protozoare

Nematode

Giardia lamblia
Entamoeba histolytica
Cryptosporidium pravum
Toxoplasma gondii
Naegleria sp.
Acantamoeba sp.

Ascaris lumbricoides
Trichuris trichiura
Trichinella spiralis
Enterobius vermicularis
Anisakis sp.
Pseudoterranova sp.

Cestode

Trematode

Taenia saginata
Taenia solium
Diphyllobothrium latum

Fascicola hepatitic
Fascicola gigantica

A large number of bacterial pathogens have


been implicated in foodborne outbreaks
associated with the consumption of fresh
fruits and vegetables.
ii.

Chemical Hazards

Chemical hazards may be the result of


something naturally occurring in foods or
added during the processing of foods.
Harmful chemicals have been associated
with both acute cases of food borne illness
and chronic illness.

Naturally occurring chemical hazards are those that are natural constituents of foods
(e.g. apple, nuts) and not the result of environmental, industrial, or other
contamination. They include Patulin,and Aflatoxin.
Added chemical hazards are those
which are intentionally or sometimes
unintentionally added to food during
the growing, harvesting, storage,
processing, packaging, or distribution
phases of production. This group of
chemical hazards is very broad and
might include components of animal
feed or drinking water, pesticides,
food ingredients themselves, or
chemicals used in the processing
establishment such as lubricants,
cleaners, paints, and coatings.
iii.

Substane
chimice naturale

Substane chimice adugate

Micotoxine (ex.
Aflatoxine)
Scombrotoxina
(histamina)
Ciguatoxina
Toxine de ciuperci
Toxine de
crustacei
(paralitic,
diareic,
neurotoxic,
amnezic)
Alcoloizi
pirolizidinici
Fitohemaglutinine
Fenoli policlorurai

Substane
chimice
agricole:

Produse de uz fitosanitar,
fertilizani, fungicide, insecticide,
antibiotice, hormoni de cretere

Substane
interzise:

Metale toxice i combinaii ale


acestora Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Hg,
Cianuri

Aditivi
Direct conservani, potenatori
alimentari: de arom, aditivi nutriionali,
colorani
Indirect substane provenite de
la utilaje: lubrifiani, ageni de
curare i dezinfecie, substane
de acoperire, vopsele.

Physical Hazards

A physical hazard is a physical component of a food that is unexpected and may


cause illness or injury to the person consuming the food. Foreign materials such as
glass, metal, or plastic are familiar physical hazards in fresh fruit and vegetable
growing products, usually found because a process or a piece of equipment has not
been properly controlled while the food was being produced.

16

There are a number of situations that


can contribute to physical hazards in
foods; they include:
Contaminated raw materials;
Poorly designed or poorly
maintained facilities and equipment;
Contaminated packaging materials;
Inattention to details by employees
with key responsibilities.
b.

Riscuri fizice

Surse

Sticl

Ambalaje din sticl, corpuri de iluminat,


ustensile, ecrane ale aparatelor de msurat

Achii de lemn

Terenuri, palete, cutii, cldiri

Pietre

Terenuri, cldiri

Achii metalice

Utilaje tehnologice, terenuri, cabluri electrice

Insecte

Terenuri, mediul de lucru

Oase

Terenuri, prelucrarea neglijent

Plastic

Terenuri, ambalaje, palete

Hazard Analyses

The second step in performing a hazard analysis is to identify preventive measures


that could be used to control each hazard.
Preventive measures are the physical, chemical, or other means that can be used to
control a food safety hazard. Record 6/02 is a record form which you can use to go
through your process systematically, identify the hazards which might occur at each
step in the process and the preventive measures which might be used to prevent,
eliminate, or reduce each hazard to an acceptable level.
Consider and describe what control measures exist, if any, which can be applied for
each hazard. Control measures are those actions and activities that can be used to
prevent hazards, eliminate them or reduce their
impact or occurrence to acceptable levels.
More than one control measure may be required
to control an identified hazard and more than
one hazard may be controlled by one control
measure e.g. pasteurization or controlled heat
treatment may provide sufficient assurance of
reduction of the level of both Salmonella and
Listeria.
Control measures need to be supported by
detailed procedures and specifications to ensure
their effective implementation. Examples of procedures/specifications may include :
detailed cleaning schedules, precise heat treatment specifications, maximum
concentrations of preservatives etc. These should be in compliance with the
applicable hygiene regulations in Moldova, or standards required by clients, (when the
product will be exported) based upon which is the higher standard.
Deliberations of the HACCP team during the hazard analysis must be documented. A
useful way for documenting decisions during the hazard analysis is to use a hazard
analysis worksheet. There are several formats available for a hazard analysis
worksheet. Essentially all of them include processing/ingredient steps, identification of

17

potential hazards, evaluation of the significance of the hazard, a justification for the
decision, and proposed control measures, suggested records e.g. Record 6/02.
10.0

Step 7 Determine Critical Control Points (HACCP Principle 2)

The second HACCP principle is to identify the critical control points (CCPs) in the
process. A CCP is a point, step, or procedure in a food process at which control can
be applied and, as a result a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or
reduced to acceptable levels.
So far, in developing the HACCP plan, the HACCP team should have identified
biological, chemical, and physical hazards in the raw materials and the ingredients
used, as well as in the steps of the process. For each food safety hazard reasonably
likely to occur, a preventive measure must be identified. The next step is to find the
point or points in the process where these preventive measures should be applied.
The identification of a critical point for the control of a hazard requires a logical
approach. Such an approach can be facilitated by the use of a decision tree (other
methods can be used by the team, according to their knowledge and experience).
Example of Decision Tree to Identify CCPs
Q1. Do control preventive
measure(s) exist
Yes

Modify Stem
Process or
Product

Yes

Is control at this
step required for
safety?

No

Q2. Is this step specifically


designed to eliminate or reduce
the likely occurrence of a hazard
to an acceptable level?**
No

No

Not a CCP

CCP

Yes

Q3. Could contamination with


identified hazards occur in excess of
acceptable level(s), or could these
increase to unacceptable levels?

No

Not a CCP

Stop*

Yes
Critical
Control
Points
(CCP)

Q4. Will a subsequent step


eliminate identified hazard(s) or
reduce likely occurrence to an
acceptable level?
Yes

No

CCP

Not a CCP

Not a CCP

(*)
(**)

Proceed to the next identified hazard in the described processes.


Acceptable and unacceptable levels need to be defined within the overall
objectives in identifying the CCPs of HACCP.
18

For the application of the decision tree, each process step identified in the flow
diagram should be considered in sequence. At each step, the decision tree must be
applied to each hazard that may be reasonably expected to occur or be introduced
and each control measure identified. Application of the decision tree should be
flexible, and consideration given to the whole manufacturing process in order to avoid,
whenever possible, unnecessary critical points.
An example of a decision tree record is shown in Record 7/01, but may not be
applicable to all situations. Training in the application of the decision tree is
recommended. (eg Record 7/01).
11.0

Step 8 Establish Critical Limits (HACCP Principle 3)

Each control measure associated with a critical control point should give rise to the
specification of critical limits. Critical limits:

correspond to the extreme values acceptable with regard to product safety.

separate acceptability from unacceptability;

are set for observable or measurable parameters which can demonstrate


that the critical point is under control;

should be based on substantiated evidence that the chosen values will


result in process control.
Examples of parameters include temperature, time, pH, moisture content, additive,
preservative or salt level, sensory parameters such as visual appearance or texture,
etc. In some cases, to reduce the risk of exceeding a critical limit due to process
variations, it may be necessary to specify more stringent levels (i.e. target levels) to
ensure that critical limits are observed. Critical limits may be derived from a variety of
sources. When not taken from regulatory standards or from guides of good hygiene
practices, the team should ascertain their validity relative to the control of identified
hazards at CCPs, and include them in the relevant monitoring e.g. Record 8/01.
12.0

Step 9 Establish Monitoring Procedures (HACCP Principle 4)

An essential part of a HACCP system is a program of observations or measurements


performed at each critical point to ensure compliance with specified critical limits.
Observations or measurements must be able to detect loss of control at critical points
and provide information in time for corrective action to be taken. Where possible,
process adjustments should be made when monitoring results indicate a trend
towards loss of control at a CCP.
The adjustments should be taken before a deviation occurs. Data derived from
monitoring must be evaluated by a designated person with knowledge and authority to
carry out corrective actions when indicated. Observations or measurements can be
made continuously or intermittently. When observations or measurements are not
continuous, it is necessary to establish a frequency of observations or measurements
which provides reliable information.

19

In summary, for each CCP, the monitoring program should:

describe the methods of monitoring;


the frequency of observations or measurements;
the recording procedure;
who is to perform monitoring and checking;
when monitoring and checking is performed;
how monitoring and checking is performed;
parameters for hazards;
corrective actions if trends indicate a loss of control.

Records associated with monitoring CCPs must be signed by the person(s) doing the
monitoring and when records are verified by a responsible reviewing official(s) of the
company. Sample Record 8/01.
13.0

Step 10 Establish Corrective Actions (HACCP Principle 5)

For each critical control point corrective actions have to be planned in advance by the
HACCP team, so that they can be taken without hesitation when monitoring indicates
a deviation from the critical limit. Such corrective action should include:

proper identification of the person(s) responsible for the implementation of


the corrective action,

description of means and action required to correct the observed deviation,

action to be taken with regard to products that have been manufactured


during the period when the process was out of control,

written record of measures taken indicating all relevant information (for


example: date, time, type of action, actor and subsequent verification
check).
Take action appropriate to the magnitude of problem

Documented steps for corrective action:

Identify nonconformities/ unsafe products


Investigate and record root cause of

problems
Evaluate need to ensure nonconformities
do not recur
Determine and implement corrective action
Record results
Follow up to ensure corrective action is
effective

Documented steps for preventive action:

Determine necessary preventive action

steps appropriate to the impact of potential


problems
Implement preventive action
Record results
Review & follow-up to ensure it is effective

20

Monitoring (checking equipment, checking the person handling the food, checking the
efficacy of previous corrective measures, etc.) may indicate that preventive measures
need to be put in place, if corrective actions for the same procedure have to be
implemented repeatedly.
14.0

Step 11 Establish Verification Procedures (HACCP Principle 6)

The HACCP team should specify the methods and procedures to be used for
determining if the HACCP is working correctly.
Methods for verification may include random sampling and analysis, reinforced by
analysis or tests at selected critical points, intensified analysis of intermediate or final
products, surveys on actual condition during storage, distribution and sale, and on
actual use of the product. The frequency of verification should be sufficient to confirm
that HACCP is working effectively.
The frequency of verification shall depend on the
characteristics of the business (output, number of
employees, nature of the food handled), the monitoring
frequency, the accuracies of the employees, the number of
deviations detected over time and the hazards involved.
Verification procedures include:

audits of HACCP and its records;


inspection of operations;
confirmation that CCPs are kept under control;
validation of critical limits;
review of deviations and product dispositions; corrective actions taken with
regard to the product.

The frequency of verification will greatly influence the amount of recheck or recall
required should a deviation exceeding the critical limits be detected. Verification shall
comprise all of the following elements, but not necessarily all at the same time:

Check on the correctness of the records and analysis of deviations;


Check on the person monitoring processing, storage and/or transport
activities;
Physical check on the process being monitored;
Calibration of instruments used for monitoring.

Verification should be carried out by someone other than the person who is
responsible for performing the monitoring and corrective actions. Where certain
verification activities cannot be performed in house, verification should be performed
on behalf of the business by external experts or qualified third parties.

21

Where possible, validation activities should include actions to confirm the efficacy of
all elements of the HACCP plan. In case of change, it is necessary to review the
system, to ensure that it is (or will be) still valid. Examples of change include:

change in raw material or in product, processing conditions (factory layout


and environment, process equipment, cleaning and disinfection program);
change in packaging, storage or distribution conditions;
change in consumer use;
receipt of any information on a new hazard associated with the product.

Where necessary, such a review must result in the amendment of written procedures.
The changes should be fully incorporated into the documentation and recordkeeping
system, in order to ensure that accurate up-to-date information is available.
The HACCP team needs to decide on what procedures the plant will perform to verify
that the HACCP system is working effectively and how often these actions will be
performed. Verification uses methods, procedures, or tests in addition to those used
in monitoring to see whether the HACCP system is in compliance with the HACCP
plan or whether the HACCP plan needs modification. There are three types of
verification.
Validation is the initial phase in which the plan is tested and reviewed. The choices
made while working through the preliminary steps and HACCP principles must be
repeatedly tested and shown to prevent or control identified
hazards in the real world. In this phase, microbial or
residue testing can be used effectively to verify that the
process is under control and is producing acceptable
products. Such testing provides clear evidence that the
techniques and methods adopted by the plant to control
hazards are not just effective in theory but will work in this
specific plant.
Ongoing verification ensures that the HACCP plan is
working effectively on a day-to-day basis. This type of
verification includes such tasks as calibrating monitoring
instruments, observing monitoring activities and corrective
actions, and reviewing HACCP records to see that they are being made and kept
according to the plan.
Reassessment is an overall review of the plan that must be performed at least
annually, or whenever any changes occur, that could affect the hazard analysis or
alter the HACCP plan. Reassessment is similar to validation in that it considers
whether the plan is adequate in general rather than focusing on the plan's daily
operations. It is also similar to validation in that it must be done by a HACCP-trained
person.

22

15.0

Step 12 Establish Documentation and Record Keeping (HACCP


Principle 7)

Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the application of a HACCP


system. HACCP procedures should be documented.
Documentation and record keeping should be
appropriate to the nature and size of the operation
and sufficient to assist the business to verify that the
HACCP controls are in place and being maintained.
Documents and records should be kept for a sufficient
time to allow the competent authority to audit the
HACCP system.
Documents should be signed by a responsible
reviewing official of the company. Expertly developed
HACCP guidance materials (e.g. sector-specific HACCP guides) may be utilized as
part of the documentation, provided that those materials reflect the specific food
operations of the business.
Documentation examples include:

Hazard analysis;
CCP determination;
Critical limit determination.

Record examples are:

CCP monitoring activities;

Deviations and associated corrective actions;

Verification activities;

Modifications to the HACCP system.

23

Records in romanian

nregistrare 1/01

Desemnarea Echipei HACCP Privind Implementarea Sistemului


Siguranei Alimentului
N CONFORMITATE CU RECOMMENDED INTERNATIONAL CODE OF PRACTICE
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FOOD HYGIENE CAC/RCP 1-1969, REV. 4-2003
Pentru implementarea Sistemului Siguranei Alimentului cu succes n cadrul
organizaiei ABC i de neles adecvat procesele de producere i de determinat toate
pericolelor asociate produselor din domeniul de acreditare se desemneaz eful
Echipei HACCP numele funcia i Echipa HACCP n urmtoarea componen:
Funcia n cadrul companiei

Numele

Prenumele

Specialist n Sigurana Alimentului


Specialist n Asigurare i Controlul Calitii
Tehnologi
Microbiologi
Specialist n probleme de producie /
proces

25

nregistrare 2/01

Descrierea i Destinaia Produsului

Denumirea produsului

Descrierea deplin a produsului,


componena, parametrii structurii de
producere

Tipul de ambalaj

Condiii de pstrare

Unde se va comercializa produsul

Metoda de utilizare

Valabilitatea produsului
(temperatur, umiditate)

Instruciune pe etichet

Grupul de consumatori

26

nregistrare 4/01

4. Elaborarea Diagramelor Proceselor de Producere


4. DIAGRAMA PROCESULUI DE PSTRARE A MERELOR PROASPETE SOIURI TRZII DE MATURARE

27

nregistrare 5/01

Verificarea Diagramei Proceselor de Producere pe Teren


1. Scopul: Verificarea diagramelor proceselor de producere pe teren
Echipa HACCP a verificat Diagramele Procesului de Producere, cu scopul
determinrii corectitudinii i controlului includerii a tuturor proceselor tehnologice de
producere a produselor din domeniul de certificare.
2. Rezultatul activitii
n rezultatul activitilor de verificare Echipa HACCP a decis de aprobat Diagramele
de producere:
De exemplu, Diagrama procesului de pstrare a merelor proaspete de soiuri trzii de
maturitate conform nregistrare 5.01.
Echipa HACCP:

Funcia deinut

Numele i prenumele

Semntura

Specialist n Sigurana
Alimentului
Tehnolog
eful de laborator
Microbiolog
Mecanic
eful de producere
eful de asigurarea calitii

28

nregistrare 6/01

Identificarea Pericolelor i Aciunilor Preventive

Nr.
crt.

Etapele procesului /
ingredientul

Pericole identificate

Descrierea pericolului

Aciuni preventive

Biologice
Chimice
Fizice
Biologice
Chimice
Fizice
Biologice
Chimice
Fizice
Biologice
Chimice
Fizice

29

nregistrare 6.02

Analiza Riscurilor

Etapele procesului /
ingredientul

Identificai riscurile
poteniale care pot
aprea, care se pot
agrava sau sunt
controlate la etapa dat

Sunt aceste pericole


Justificai
poteniale
decizia pentru
semnificative pentru
coloana
sigurana produselor
precedent
(Da/Nu)

Ce msuri pot fi
aplicate pentru
controlul riscurilor
semnificative?

Este etapa
dat PCC?
(Da/Nu)

30

nregistrare 7/01

Determinarea Punctelor Critice de Control

Etapele
procesului /
Ingredientul

Riscurile /
(biologice,
chimice,
fizice)

NTREBAREA I
Exist modaliti de prevenire a
riscurilor identificate?
Dac DA continum analiza.
Dac NU este necesar pentru
inocuitate controlul n aceast
perioad?
Dac Da modificai etapa,
procesului sau a produsului
Dac NU etapa nu este PCC i
trecei la analiza urmtoarei
etape.
NTREBAREA II.

NTREBAREA II
Este etapa respectiv
prevzut special pentru
eliminarea riscului sau
reducerea probabilitii de
apariie a acestuia pn la
un nivel acceptabil?
Dac DA este PCC i
trecei la analiza
urmtoarei etape
Dac NU continum
analiza. NTREBAREA III

NTREBAREA III
Este posibil s
intervin o
contaminare excesiv
cu riscurile identificate,
care s depeasc
nivelul admis?
Dac NU PCC lipsete
i trecei la analiza
urmtoarei etape.
Dac DA, continum
analiza. NTREBAREA
IV

NTREBAREA IV
Exis o etap ulterioar n
care riscul s fie eliminat
sau s fie redus
probabilitatea de apariie a
acestuia pn la un nivel
acceptabil?
Dac DA nu este PCC i
trecei la analiza
urmtoarei etape.
Dac NU este PCC i
trecei la analiza
urmtoarei etape

PCC

31

nregistrare 8/01

Monitorizarea Punctelor Critice de Control, Aciuni Corective, Verificarea, nregistrri


Nr. crt.
Limitele
Etapele
Pericole
Critice
procesului
/ PCC

Monitorizarea
Ce

Cum

Frecvena

Cine

Aciuni
corective

Verificarea

nregistrri

32

Informaii Generale
Informaii Generale 6/03

Lista de ntrebri Privind Analiza Riscurilor


Analiza riscurilor const n punerea o serie de ntrebri pentru fiecare etap a
procesului de producere conform diagramei procesului de producie. Analiza
riscurilor conine ntrebri din diferite arii sau domenii care ar putea influena
sigurana alimentului.
1. Ingrediente
Produsele alimentare i/sau ingredientele din care sun produse pot conin pericole
biologice (de exemplu, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes,
Staphylococcus aureus), pericole chimice (de exemplu, aflatoxin sau reziduuri de
produse de uz fitosanitar ) sau pericole fizice (pietricele, cioburi de sticl, smburi, sau
achii de metal)?
2. Parametrii intrinseci a produsului alimentar

Caracteristicile fizico-chimice i compoziia produsului alimentar (de exemplu, pH,


tipul acizilor organici prezeni, fermentarea hidrailor de carbon, activitatea apei,
conservani) pe parcursul procesrii i dup proces pot cauza sau preveni
pericolului?
Care sunt parametrii intrinseci a produsului alimentar care trebuie controlai n
scopul asigurrii inofensivitii alimentului?
Produsul alimentar permite supravieuirea sau multiplicarea microorganismelor
patogene sau/ori formarea toxinelor nainte sau n procesul de producere?
Produsul alimentar va permite supravieuirea sau multiplicarea microorganismelor
patogene sau/ori formarea toxinelor la etape urmtoare de producere, depozitare,
sau la consumatori?

3. Procedurile utilizate pentru preparare/ procesare produsele

Procedurile de preparare ori procesare includ etape de control care elimin sau
reduc microorganismele patogene sau toxinele lor la un nivel acceptabil? Se ia n
consideraie att celule vegetale ct i sporii?
Produsul poate fi recontaminat la etapele de producere (de exemplu., tratare
termic) i ambalare?

4. Coninutul de microorganisme n produsele alimentare

Produsele alimentare sunt comercializate sterile, (de exemplu, aciditate sczut n


alimente)?
Este probabilitatea c n produs s conin spori viabili ori microorganisme patogene
sporogene?
Care este limita maxim admisibil de microorganisme n produsul alimentar?
Coninutul de microorganisme se schimb n perioada de pstrare a produsele
alimentare nainte de consum?
33

Se va schimba coninutul de microorganisme dup tratarea termin a produsului


alimentar?

5. Infrastructura

Organizaia asigur cu faciliti adecvate, adic prevd spaii separate pentru


pstrarea materiilor prime i produsele gata pentru consum?
Este benefic de pstrat produsele ambalate sub presiune n depozitele de pstrare?
Este necesar aceasta pentru a pstra sigurana produsului?
Sunt stabilite cile pentru angajai i echipamentul mobil pentru a preveni
contaminarea, ca o sur potenial de contaminarea?

6. Designul echipamentului

Echipamentul va asigura controlul temperaturii/ durata, unde este necesar de


msurat pentru a respecta limitele critice?
Echipamentul este ajustat conform mrimii sau volumului care va fi prelucrat?
Echipamentul poate fi controlat, deci variaia n performan va fi n limitele toleranei
specificate pentru a produce un produs sigur de consum?
Echipamentul este n stare bun sau predispus la stopri frecvente?
Echipamentul este proiectat adecvat, poate fi uor splat i tratat sanitar?
Produsul poate fi contaminat cu substane periculoase, cioburi de sticl,
probabilitatea de apariie este mare?
Ce fel de echipamente de control i msur sunt utilizate pentru a asigura
securitatea produsului?

7. Ambalajul

Metoda de ambalare va influena la multiplicarea microorganismelor sau/ formarea


de toxine?
Materialele de ambalare sunt rezistente la distrugere, deci previn contaminarea
microbiologic?
Ambalajul este etichetat adecvat Pstrai n stare refrigerat pentru sigurana
alimentului?
Ambalajul conine o instruciune pentru consumator privind manipularea sigur i
prepararea produsului
Ambalajul conine atribute specifice, care ne confirm c produsul ambalat poate fi
utilizat cu siguran ?
Fiecare ambalaj este codificat adecvat, indic lotul de fabricaie? Fiecare ambalaj
este etichetat?

8. Sanitria

Practicile de igien, angajaii au un impact asupra securitii alimentului n tipul


producerii?
ncperile sunt splate, curate i tratate sanitar pentru a permite manipularea
produselor alimentare n siguran?
Este posibil de a asigura condiii adecvate i ntru-un mod consistent pentru a
asigura sigurana produselor alimentare?

34

9. Starea de sntate a angajailor, igiena i studiile

Starea sntii a angajailor sau practicile de igien personal pot avea un impact
asupra sigurana alimentului n procesul de producere?
Angajaii organizaiei neleg procesele de producere i parametrii care trebuie
verificai i monitorizai pentru a asigura inofensivitatea produsului alimentar?
Angajaii aduc la cunotin managementului problemele care poate avea un impact
asupra siguranei alimentului?

10. Condiiile de pstrare dup ambalare i la consumator

Care este probabilitatea c produsele vor fi depozitate n condiii i la temperaturi


necorespunztoare?
Stocarea la temperaturi necorespunztoare vor contribui la contaminarea
produsului?

11. Utilizarea intenionat

Produsul trebuie nclzit de consumator nainte de consum?


Produsul rmas poate fi consumat?

12. Consumatorii

Acest produs alimentar este destinat pentru consum n mas, de exemplu, populaia
nu va fi expus riscului de mbolnvire?
Acest produs alimentar este destinat pentru populaie predispus la mbolnviri (de
exemplu, copii, persoane n vrst, invalizi sau cu deficiene imunitare).

35

Informaii Generale 6/04

Riscurile Siguranei Alimentare Asociate Fructelor i Legumelor Proaspete


Fiecare gospodrie trebuie s efectueze i s documente analiza riscurilor asociate fructelor i legumelor n conformitate cu procesele din cadru
propriei gospodrie. Este important de identificat i de evaluat toate riscurile siguranei alimentare posibile n cadrul unei organizaiei, indiferent de
ct de nalt este nivelul proceselor, chiar dac nu exist percepia vreunui risc potenial. Pericolele sunt mprite n trei categorii: microbiologice,
chimice i fizice. Prezentul tabel listeaz riscurile poteniale pe fiecare categorie, cauzele poteniale de contaminare i msurile preventive. n
acest tabel sunt prezentate exemple de riscuri, dar nu sunt prezentate toate riscurile posibile asociate fructelor i legumelor. Contaminarea
fructelor i legumelor poate avea loc n mod direct prin ne respectarea Bunelor Practicile Agricole, sau indirect de la echipamente care conin
suprafee contaminate.

Tipul pericolelor

MICROBIOLOGICE
Nota: n mediu exist multe
microorganisme unele sunt
total inofensive, unele sunt
benefice, aa cum ar fi cele
utilizate n fabricarea iaurturilor
i a cacavalului, i altele
reprezint
cauza
alterrii
produselor alimentare, fructelor
i legumelor. Doar un numr
foarte mic de microorganisme
sunt duntoare pentru oameni.
Acestea sunt microorganisme
patogene
i
sunt
cauza
mbolnvirilor la oameni. Printre
exemple pot fi incluse specii de
bacterii, cum ar fi Salmonele i
Listeria i virui cum ar fi
Hepatita A.

Pericole

Surse de contaminare

Masuri preventive

Bacteriile patogene, de
exemplu: Escherichia
coli, Salmonela spp.,
asociate de obicei cu
contaminrile fecale de
la animalele sau altele,
de exemplu:
Listeria
monocytogenes,
ntlnita de obicei n sol
i ap.

Masele fecale sau resturile de la animalele


slbatice sau domestice, sau apele menajere
care contamineaz apa utilizat pentru irigare,
aplicarea produselor de uz fitosanitar, la
colectare, descrcare, splare, la rcirea cu
gheata sau ap la proceduri de tratare
sanitar.
Produsele organice de origine animaliera ne
tratate utilizate pentru fertilizarea i
mbuntirea solului, n contact direct cu
produsul sau indirect prin sol.
Colectarea produselor care au contact sau cad
pe solul contaminat.
Splarea inadecvat a containerelor pentru
colectare sau cules, contaminarea
echipamentului de sortare i ambalarea cu sol,
produse alterate i mase fecale de la
roztoare, pasri i insecte.
Stivuirea paletelor, lzilor i courilor murdare
de sol i mase fecale deasupra produsului
expus i ne protejat.
Ambalajele i materialele de ambalare
contaminate cu mase fecale de la roztoare,
pasri i insecte, manipularea produselor de
ctre lucrtori bolnavi cu maladii infecioase.
Utilizarea toaletelor i lavoarelor inadecvate,

Utilizarea terenurilor agricole i apei pentru irigare


care nu prezint pericole microbiologice.
Interzicerea utilizrii noroiului provenit din
sedimentarea apelor menajere sau a fertilizailor
organici de origine animaliera ne-tratate.
Implementarea procedurilor de igien i instruirea
tuturor lucrtorilor cel puin o data pe an nainte de a
ncepe sezonul de recoltare.
Monitorizarea respectrii procedurilor de igien de
ctre toi angajaii.
Asigurarea tuturor angajailor cu toalete i lavoare
igienice.
Implementarea procedurilor de tratare sanitar i
inspectare /monitorizare a tuturor containerelor si
instrumentelor pentru colectare, a echipamentelor,
transportului, toaletelor, lavoarelor, vestiarelor; ariilor
de depozitare a deeurilor i containerelor pentru
deeuri, etc.
Asigurarea ariilor de depozitare nchise pentru
pstrarea ambalajelor i altor materiale pentru a
evita infestarea acestora cu roztoare i insecte,
contaminarea cu mase fecale i resturi de la
roztoare, pasri i insecte.
Implementarea unui program de deratizare.
Interzicerea accesului animalelor pe teritoriul
organizaiei.

Toxine vegetale care


apar n mod natural, de
exemplu: alcaloizi,
cianogen, glicozide.
Ciuperci, de exemplu:
ergot, micotoxine (de
exemplu: aflatoxin,
patulin, etc.).
Parazii, de exemplu:
Cyclospora,
Entamoeba, Giardia,
Cryptosporidium

Tipul pericolelor

Pericole
parvum.
Virui, de exemplu:
hepatita A, virusul
Norwalk, Rotavirus.

CHIMICE

Reziduuri de produse
de uz fitosanitar n
fructe i legume ce
depete Limitele
Maxime Admisibile
(LMA).
Nota: produsele de uz
fitosanitar care nu sunt
nregistrate sau
aprobate pentru a fi
utilizate a trata unele
culturi specifice (cu
permis) are LMA zero.

Reziduu de metale
grele n produse
depind Limita
Maxim Admisibil
(LMA)
zinc, cupru, arsen,
plumb, cadmiu, etc.

Surse de contaminare

Masuri preventive

practicilor de igiena ineficiente, (de exemplu:


bolilor transmisibile cum ar fi hepatita A);
Scurgeri ale apei contaminate din sistemele de
rcire cu recirculaie n camerele reci.
Contaminarea de la hainele ne igienice.
Nu sunt implementate cerinele, nu se citesc /
nu se neleg instruciunile de pe etichet a
produselor de uz fitosanitar sau recomandri
incorecte.
Amestecarea incorecta concentraia mai
nalt dect proporia de pe etichet.
Ne respectarea intervalelor de timp privind
aplicarea produselor de uz fitosanitar i
perioada de recoltare.
Echipament ne calibrat sau calibrat incorect.
Produse de uz fitosanitar aduse de vnt in
timpul stropirii culturilor vecine.
Produse de uz fitosanitar n sol din utilizrile
precedente.
Reziduuri de produse de uz fitosanitar n lzile
i courile pentru cules.
Echipamentul ne splat dup utilizare.
Utilizarea echipamentului n mai multe scopuri,
spre exemplu pentru splare i stropit.
Rsturnare, scurgere accidental sau
infiltrarea produselor de uz fitosanitar n sol
sau sursele de ap.
Utilizarea continu a fertilizanilor ne
argumentat ;
Coninut sporit de metale grele prezente in sol,
n mod natural sau din cauza aplicrilor
anterioare.
Dezvoltarea condiiilor n sol care duc la
acumularea metalelor grele de ctre culturi, de
exemplu: aciditate, salinitate, deficienta de
zinc.

Interzicerea accesului persoanelor bolnave cu boli


infecioase n cadru organizaiei, inclusiv ariile unde
se manipuleaz produsele, ambalajele i materialele.
Depozitarea i manipularea produselor n condiii i
ncperi/arii igienice.
Interzicerea pstrrii produselor proaspete mpreun
cu chimicalele.
Acces limitat la chimicale, inclusiv depozitare, mixare
i aplicare, numai persoanelor corespunztor
instruite.
Meninerea tuturor nregistrrilor privind
achiziionarea, depozitarea i aplicarea chimicalelor
n conformitate cu cerinele locale.
Testarea produselor proaspete privind reziduurile de
produse de uz fitosanitar.
Interzicerea aplicrii stropiturilor pe timp cu vnt.
Cltirea minuioasa cu apa potabila a tuturor;
echipamentelor, containerelor, ncperilor,
instrumentelor, etc dup tratarea sanitar acestora
cu detergeni chimici.
Implementarea procedurilor n situaii de urgen
pentru cazurile de scurgere a chimicalelor.

Interzicerea depozitarii produselor proaspete


mpreuna cu chimicalele.
Utilizarea terenurilor ce nu sunt contaminate cu
metale grele.
Utilizarea apei ce nu este contaminata chimic in
scopuri de irigare sau stropire.
Acordarea accesului la chimicale, inclusiv
depozitarea, amestecarea i aplicarea, numai
persoanelor corespunztor instruite.
Meninerea tuturor nregistrrilor privind
achiziionarea, depozitarea i aplicarea chimicalelor

Tipul pericolelor

Pericole

Toxine naturale

CHIMICE

FIZICE

Contaminarea cu
chimicale altele dect
produsele de uz
fitosanitar, de exemplu:
uleiuri minerale, de
exemplu: motorin,
lubrifiani, ulei hidraulic

Surse de contaminare

Condiii de pstrare necorespunztoare spre


exemplu, pstrarea cartofilor la lumin,
arahide, nuci i toate produsele acestora
contaminate cu fungi otrvitori, de exemplu
aflatoxine.
Scurgeri de chimicale i fertilizani;
Scurgeri de ulei sau lubrifiani pe echipamente
ce intra n contact cu fructele i legumele;
Scurgeri de chimicale (de exemplu: chimicale
pentru controlul duntorilor) n apropierea
produselor sau materialelor de ambalare.
Utilizarea chimicalelor de tratare sanitar
nepotrivite.
Reziduuri n lzile pentru colectare utilizate
pentru pstrarea chimicalelor, fertilizani,
uleiuri, etc.

Ageni alergici urme


ale substanelor care
pot cauza reacii severe
la unii consumatori
sensibili (de exemplu:
astmatici, cu imunitatea
suprimata)

Dioxidul de sulf (de exemplu: pernuele


deshidratante utilizate la struguri)

Corpuri strine din


mediu (de exemplu: sol,
pietre, beioare,
semine de ierburi)

Colectarea culturilor din cmp pe timp umed.


Echipament de colectare i ambalaj murdar.
Containere i materiale de ambalare murdare.
Stivuirea paletelor, lzilor i courilor murdare
deasupra produsului expus i ne protejat.

Masuri preventive
n conformitate cu cerinele legale.
Testarea produselor proaspete pentru reziduurile de
metale grele i produse de uz fitosanitar.
Evitarea pstrrii produselor sub razele directe ale
soarelui.
Depozitarea temporar a produselor (n condiii
ambiante pe teritoriul gospodriei) trebuie efectuata
la umbr, n arii sau ncperi curate.
Interzicerea utilizrii paletelor contaminate cu
chimicale pentru pstrarea sau transportarea
produselor alimentare.
Interzicerea transportrii, pstrrii i manipulrii
chimicalelor, uleiurilor, lubrifianilor, materialelor de
tratare sanitar, etc. mpreun sau lng produsele
alimentare.
Utilizarea numai agenilor de tratare sanitar
aprobai.
Cltirea minuioasa a tuturor containerelor,
echipamentelor, instrumentelor dup procedurile de
tratare sanitar i igienizri.
Interzicerea utilizrii lzilor pentru colectarea
produselor in alte scopuri (de exemplu: pstrarea
chimicalelor, lubrifianilor).
Utilizarea produselor de uz fitosanitar aprobate
pentru tratarea produselor dup recoltare
Admiterea personalului bine instruit pentru a
manipula i a aplica produselor de uz fitosanitar.

Implementarea cerinelor igienice privind colectare i


instruirea tuturor lucrtorilor.
Evitarea colectrii produselor pe timp umed.
Tratarea sanitar containerelor nainte de colectare.
Interzicerea stivuirii palelor sau lzilor murdare
deasupra produsului ne protejat.

Tipul pericolelor

Pericole

Surse de contaminare

Masuri preventive

Sticl

Becuri sparte deasupra echipamentelor de


ambalare sau n ariilor unde produsul este ne
protejat.
Sticle sparte de ctre lucrtori sau de
echipamentele utilizate la recoltarea fructelor i
legumelor

Obiecte strine de la
echipamente si
containere (de exemplu:
achii din lemn i metal,
obiecte din plastic, fulgi
de vopsea)

Utilizarea containerelor i echipamentelor


pentru colectare deteriorate.
Tratare sanitar inadecvata dup reparaii i
ntreinere.
Ateliere situate prea aproape de ariile de
ambalare i depozitare.

Implementarea unei proceduri de manipulare a


sticlelor i plasticului dur transparent, i instruirea
tuturor lucrtorilor.
Identificarea tuturor obiectelor din sticla sau plastic
dur transparent, i eliminarea acestora de pe teritoriu
nainte de a ncepe colectarea.
Interzicerea de a aduce pe teritoriul gospodriei
vesel i containere din sticla de ctre lucrtori.
Implementarea unui program de monitorizare care s
includ inspectarea tuturor containerelor,
echipamentelor i instrumentelor pentru nivelul de
curenie, lipsa corpurilor strine, etc. dup tratare
sanitar i ntreinere.
Respingerea tuturor containerelor, echipamentelor,
instrumentelor ne conforme nainte de a ajunge n
cmp.

Obiecte strine n urma


manipulrii umane (de
exemplu: bijuterii,
bandaj adeziv, mnui)

Lucrtori ne ateni i ne instruii.


mbrcminte necorespunztoare.
Ne utilizarea sau ne acoperirea complet a
parului sub apc sau bonet.
Bandaj pentru rni (de exemplu leucoplast).
Nasturi, bolduri sau alte obiecte caznd din
buzunare.
Cuite, pixuri, etc.

FIZICE

Instruirea tuturor lucrtorilor privind regulile de igien


personal.
Acoperirea completa a parului sub apca sau
bonet.
Asigurarea hainelor de protecie fr buzunare sau
cu buzunarele nchise, ncheiate cu fermoare.
Implementarea unei proceduri de manipulare a
obiectelor tioase (de exemplu: cuite, secatore).