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LECTURE NOTES ON

Rehabilitation & Retrofitting of structure

Department of Civil Engineering

INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL
ENGINEERING
(AUTONOMOUS)

Dundigal 500 043, Hyderabad

UNIT-1
INTRODUCTION
Cracks in the building are of common occurrence in a building

It is due to exceeding stress in a building components


Causes of the cracks are mainly by increase in live load and dead load,
seismic load etc.,

Classification of cracks
Cracks can be classified into two categories viz.,
Structural cracks
Non-structural cracks
Structural cracks
It arises due to incorrect designs, overloading of structural components
Expenses cracking of foundation walls, beams and columns or slab etc.,
PHOTO OF STRUCTURAL CRACKS
Non structural cracks
They are due to internal forces developed in materials due to moisture variations,
temperature variation, crazing, effects of gases ,liquids etc.,
They can be broadly classified into vertical, horizontal, diagonal, smoothened cracks
PHOTO OF NON STRUCTURAL CRACKS
DIRECTION OF THE CRACKS
Vertical
Horizontal
Diagonal
Straight
Toothed

Variable and irregular


WIDTH OF CRACKS
It can be measured through instrument and tell-tale signs.
The changes in the length of the cracks should be noted.
Cracks measuring devices
CAUSES OF CRACKS
Major causes of cracks
Movements of the ground
Over loading
Effect of gases, liquids and solids
Effect of changes of temperature
General causes such as vibrations
Movements of grounds
Due to mining subsidence, land slips, earthquakes, moisture changes due to
shrinkable soils.
Overloading
Overloading of the building
Overloading of the building parts results in cracks
Overloading forced may be due to
External ( excessive wind/snow loads)
Internal ( from heavy machinery etc.,)
Effects of gases, liquids and solids
Gases
Only gases like Co2 (carbon dioxide) is likely to produce cracks.
It causes Carbonation of porous cement products
Leads into an overall shrinkage crazing cracks

Liquids
Water is the most commonly used liquid when not taken care it can be
hazardous
Construction water i.e., that in the utilization of water during the construction
process
Effects of water
Physical(i.e. due to change in water content)
Chemical ( directly or indirectly affecting other materials)
General vibrations
Vibrations can cause cracks in buildings only when their amplitude of vibrations are
high.
Apart from vibrations caused due to earthquakes, the vibrations caused due to
heavy machinery, traffic, sonic booms are also responsible for the occurrence of
cracks in buildings.
THERMAL MOVEMENT
All materials expand on heat and contract on cool.
Thermal movement in components of structure creates cracks due to tensile of
shear stresses
One of the most potent causes of cracking in buildings and need attention
GENERAL PRECAUTION TO AVOIDING CRACKS
Before laying up foundation, the type of foundation to be used should be
decided based on the safe bearing capacity of soil.
Providing R.C deep beam or an involved T-beam with adequate
reinforcements to withstand the stress due to differential ground movements.
This method is expensive
Construction operations such as cutting for roads drainages etc., close to the
structures should be avoided this will results in reduction of soil moisture with
consequent shrinkage of soil beneath the foundation of the structure.
In buildings close to the water courses are noticed in many places
PLACING OF CONCRETE

Concrete should not be placed in heavy rains unless suitable shelter is provided.
To avoid segregation, concrete should not be dropped from a height of more than
1m.
Working on freshly laid concrete should be avoided
While placing the concrete in R.C.C members the alignment of formwork
should not be disturbed.
Concrete should be laid continuously to avoid irregular and unsightly lines.
Internal surface of the forms either steel or wood should have even surfaces
and should be oiled so that the concrete may not stick to it
MATERIAL QUALITY
Aggregate should be hard, sound, durable, non-absorbent and capable of of
developing good bond with mortar.
Water shall be clean and free from alkaline and acid materials and suitable for
drinking purposes.
TEST TO BE CARRIED OUT
Slump test to be carried out for the control of addition of water and workability.
Consistency of concrete should also be tested.
A slump of 7.5 to 10cm may be allowed for building work
LAYING TECHNIQUE AND CURING METHOD
Concrete should be laid in layers and should be compacted while laying with
wooden tamping rods or with mechanical vibrators until a dense concrete is
obtained
After two hours of laying concrete, when the concrete has begun to harden, it shall
be kept damp by covering with wet gunny bags or wet sand for 24 hours
Evaluation of cracks
To determine the effects of cracks in the building.
First the cracks location and extent should be noted down for the adopting suitable
methods of repair and the future problems due to that cracks.
Crack widths should be measured to the accuracy of 0.001 in (0.025mm) using a
crack comparator.

Movements should be recorded with movement sensors.


Based on the reports from the location and width the suitable methods is adopted
Crack as narrow as 0.002 in can be bonded by the injection of epoxy.
Epoxy injection can alone be used to restore the flexural stiffness.
For water retaining structure cracks it can be repaired by the autogenous healing.
Repairing of cracks
Routing and sealing.
Stitching.
Additional reinforcement.
Gravity filling
Grouting
Dry packing
Polymer impregnation
Routing and sealing
Routing and sealing of cracks can be used in conditions requiring remedial repair
and where structural repair is not necessary.
Routing and sealing is used to treat both fill pattern cracks and larger, isolated
cracks.
The sealants may be any of several materials, including epoxies, urethanes,
silicones, polysulfide, asphaltic materials, or polymer mortars
Process of routing and sealing
stitching
Stitching involves drilling holes on both sides of the crack and grouting in U-shaped
metal units with short legs (staples or stitching dogs) that span the crack.
Stitching a crack tends to stiffen the structure, and the stiffening may increase the
overall structural restraint.
The stitching procedure consists of drilling holes on both sides of the crack, cleaning
the holes, and anchoring the legs of the staples in the holes, with either a non
shrink grout or an epoxy resin-based bonding system

Figure showing stitching


Additional reinforcements
Conventional reinforcement-Cracked reinforced concrete bridge girders have
been successfully repaired by inserting reinforcing bars and bonding them in
place with epoxy .
This technique consists of sealing the crack, drilling holes that intersect the
crack plane at approximately 90 ,filling the hole and crack with injected
epoxy and placing a reinforcing bar into the drilled hole
Prestressing steel-Post-tensioning is often the desirable solution when a major
portion of a member must be strengthened or when the cracks that have formed
must be closed.
Adequate anchorage must be provided for the prestressing steel, and care is
needed so that the problem will not merely migrate to another part of the structure
Fig showing additional reinforcements
grouting
Portland cement grouting-Wide cracks, particularly in gravity dams and thick
concrete walls, may be repaired by filling with portland cement grout.
This method is effective in stopping water leaks, but it will not structurally bond
cracked sections.
Gravity filling
Low viscosity monomers and resins can be used to seal cracks with surface widths
of 0.001 to 0.08 in. (0.03 to 2 mm) by gravity filling.
High-molecular-weight methacrylates, urethanes, and some low viscosity epoxies
have been used successfully.
The lower the viscosity, the finer the cracks that can be filled.
Dry packing
Drypacking is the hand placement of a low water content mortar followed by
tamping or ramming of the mortar into place, producing intimate contact between
the mortar and the existing concrete.
Polymer impregnation
Monomer systems can be used for effective repair of some cracks. A monomer
system is a liquid consisting of monomers which will polymerize into a solid.

The most common monomer used for this purpose is methyl methacrylate.
The procedure consists of drying the fracture, temporarily encasing it in a watertight
(monomer proof) band of sheet metal, soaking the fractures with monomer, and
polymerizing the monomer
conclusion
The discussion on our project mainly focused on the cracks deals with failure due to
improper settlement of foundation and poor construction.
By the following discussed remedies and instruction what we have concentrated
helps to reducing the cracks and move on to the next level in the construction.
Content
1. Introduction
2. Rehabilitation
A. Why Rehabilitation
B. What Is Rehabilitation
3. Inspection
4. Common Defects And Possible Causes
5. Common Remedies
6. Composite Wraps For Durability
7. Conclusion
Introduction
Deterioration of reinforced concrete structure due to corrosion of steel is a cause of
global concern.
The losses due to corrosion every year run in to millions of rupees and any solution
to this universal problem of corrosion has a direct bearing economy of the country.
It is estimated that about 30 to 40% of steel produce each year is used to replace
corroded material.
Main objective of rehabilitation in the construction industry to reinstate rejuvenate
strengthen and upgrade existing concrete structure.
Various causes which needs rehabilitation of a building are such as environment
degradation, design inadequacies, poor construction practices, lack of maintenance,

increase in load, unexpected seismic loading condition in addition to corrosion


induced distress.
Why rehabilitation
The chief aim of rehabilitation is to restore a prematurely distressed building back
to its original standard and to improve the facilities depending upon the needs and
the technological advances.
In the field of building construction, after rehabilitation the building is expected to
give a trouble free service up-to its expected life.
What is rehabilitation
There is basic difference between the words repair and rehabilitation. The word
repair normally indicates small and petty repairs more or less cosmetic, which are
not of structural significance.
A building is said to require rehabilitation, when structural stability and safety of
building and occupant is in danger.
Basic advantage of rehabilitation on repair1. Repair building required frequent repair again because these are up to small
extent and less durable so the expenditure spent on repair required more.
The life of rehabilitated building is comparatively more than that of a repair
building and economical too.
2. In repair what we apply is plaster only that does not last long hence leads
leakage in pipe line, terrace, therefore there is corrosion in reinforcement of
RCC structure but in rehabilitation we can approach the problem by the
identification of main culprits responsible for deterioration. Plastering is
nothing but the waste of money only. So rehabilitation is effective than
repair.
Causes of distress
1. Design deficiency:
1. underestimation of loads, deflection, shear forces and moments
2. environmental condition for durability neglected wrongly specifying
concrete grade, maximum water to cement ratio and minimum cement
content
3. Poor detailing especially at beam and column junction
4. fault analysis and earth quake & wind forces not considered at all

2. Material deficiency:
a. Poor quality cement
b. Poor quality steel
c. Contaminated water
d. Contaminated aggregates
3. Construction deficiency:
a. inadequate cover of concrete to steel reinforcement
b. use of poor quality cover blocks
c. poor formwork and staging
d. poor preparation of construction joints
4. chemical/environmental attacks:
a. moisture and chloride attack
b. carbonation
c. sulphate attacks
d. thermal variation, hot and cold cycles
e. erosion
f. biological(insects and fungus) attacks
5. Natural causes:
a. earth quakes
b. floods
c. fires
6. Mechanical causesa. over loading
b. fatigue
c. impact
7. Foundation problem-

a. failure of load bearing strata


b. soil consolidation
c. soil shrinkage and swelling
d. ground movement
8. Manmade causesa. blasting
b. poor and no maintenance
Cracks in buildings and its components
Cracks in column
Cracks in slabs
Cracks in beam
Philosophy of rehabilitation
Inspection
Systematic detailed inspection is the key to success of any rehabilitation scheme
and is done to achieve the following objectives.
1. Preparation of complete defect catalogue
2. Evaluate the existing (safety and serviceability) condition of the building and
assess the possible rate of future
3. Decide further course of action
Items needed during inspection1. Completion drawing for detailing
2. Masons tool kit- plumb bob, hammer, chisel, punch etc.
3. Measuring instrument- steel tap, scale, ladder, torch, safety belt etc.
4. Labour
5. Details of repairs
Common remedies
1. Jacketing of column-

Jacketing (provision of additional cross section) is done to strengthen column by


removing loose concrete and treating the reinforcement with protection treatment
like providing shear anchor of 10mm12mm diameter with a spacing 2030cm c/c
and then concreting is done (M25).
Polymer modified concrete which have good bonding quality and flexural strength,
can be used.
2. Patch repairing by polymer mortarPatching is done by removing loose concrete and rust of reinforced. Sometimes
extra reinforcement is also provided. after removal of rust a bond coat is applied
evenly in order to attain sufficient strength between old concrete and new polymer
mortar then polymer mortar is applied which is prepared by weight (one part of
polymer latex liquid, 5 part of cement and 15 part of quartz sand). Mortar is applied
by hand by pressing it to the damaged or cracked surface.
Column jacketing
3. Repairing of toilet block and GI pipe lineTo avoid leakage problem from toilet, they should be made water proof. for this the
seats are broke and cleaned then the surface is applied with suitable polymer
coating. After this a coating of 20 mm thick plaster in cm 1:3 with w/c ratio of 0.4
provided. And joints between the seats are sealed with polymer mortar.
Pipes which are leaked should be replaced.
4. GroutingGrouting is used to repair deep structural cracks by injecting grout material like
cement grout or resin. It is very effective method for repairing RCC or masonry
structure. admixture are added to reduce shrinkage problem of cement grout so
that it can reach upto the deepest crack in the structure and fill the pores.
5. ShotcretingShotcreting is a technique to achieve better structural capability for walls an other
elements. In this method mortar or concrete is conveyed at a high velocity onto a
receptive surface by the application of compressed air for moving concrete. the
cement, sand mix and water are kept in separate containers, which are connected
to a nose pipe. Compressed air is forced into these containers through a motor.
FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is a composite material made by combining two or
more materials to give a new combination of properties.

It is composed of fiber and matrix, which are bonded.


In this case, the reinforcing fiber provides FRP composite with strength and
stiffness, while the matrix gives rigidity and environmental protection.
Formation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite

A fiber is a material made into a long filament with a diameter generally in


the order of 10 mm.

The main functions of the fibers are to carry the load and provide stiffness,
strength, thermal stability, and other structural properties in the FRP.

To perform desirable functions, the fibers in FRP composite must have1. High Modulus of Elasticity for use as reinforcement;
2.

High Ultimate Strength;

3.

Low variation of strength among fibers;

4.

High Stability of their strength during handling; and

5.

High Uniformity of diameter and surface dimension among fibers.

Matrix
Matrix material is a polymer composed of molecules made from many simpler and
smaller units called monomer.
The matrix must have a lower modulus and greater elongation than those of fibers,
so that fibers can carry maximum load.
Made from Metal, Polymer or Ceramic
Some Ductility is Desirable
TYPES OF FRP MATERIALS
USES
To strengthen the structures due to:1) Loading Increase

Increasing the Live Load in warehouses


Increased traffic volume on Bridges
Installation of Heavy machinery in Industrial Building

Vibrating Structures
Change of Building utilization
2) Damage to Structural parts

Ageing of Construction material


Steel Reinforcement corrosion
Vehicle Impact
Fire
Earthquakes
3) Serviceability Improvement

Decrease of Deformation
Stress reduction in steel reinforcement
Crack width reduction
4) Change in Structural System

Removals of walls or columns


Removal of slab section for openings
5) Design or Construction Defects

Insufficient reinforcement
Insufficient Structural Depth
advantages
Low in weight
Available in any Length, no joints required
Low overall thickness
Easy to transport
Laminate Intersections are simple
Economical application- no heavy handling and installation equipment
Very high strength

High modulus of elasticity


Outstanding fatigue resistance
High alkali resistance
No corrosion
conclusion
1. With careful planning and close supervision, expected result can be achieved.
2. We can protect many buildings having historic, cultural, monumental,
archeological importance by rehabilitation.
3. Can save lot of money by rehabilitation.
4. Rehabilitation increases the life of building and any type of structure.
5. FRP gives the strength of the structural member.

UNIT-2
Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation In Low Strength
Masonry Buildings

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Low Strength Masonry Building is Laid in

Fired brick work in clay & mud mortar

Random rubble ; Uncoursed, Undressed stone masonry in weak mortars


made of cement-sand , lime-sand & clay-mud.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Component Of Low Strength Masonry Building:

Foundation

Flooring

Brick/ Stone Columns

Brick Work

Stone Masonry

Wood Work

Slab

Slopping Wooden frame Roof

Plaster

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Life Of Structure Depend Upon:


A. Geography Of Location
B. Building Material
C. Technology
D. Workmanship

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

A . Geography Of Location:

Type of Strata

Water Table

Earth Quack, Wind, Cyclone, Flood, Snow

Pollutant

Land Slide

Tree location w.r.t. building

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

B . Building Materials

Cement

Lime

Fine Sand

Coarse Sand

Coarse Aggregate

Quality of Water

Bamboo/Wood

Brick

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

C. Technology

Architectural Design

Structural Design Based On Load Bearing Wall

Construction Methods

Quality Practices

Construction Management
Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

D Workmanship

Structural Work

Finishing Work

Water Proofing Work

Development of Drainage (Internal &

Maintenance Of Building

External)

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Building Needs Repairs & Retrofitting

Crack & Spalling In Structural Members

Crack & Settlement In Flooring

Crack & Spalling in Non Structural Members

Leakage In Water Supply & Drainage System

Redesigning existing structure for nature forces

Changed functional requirements

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Crack & Spalling In Structural Members

Cracks Occur Due To Settlement In Foundation

Cracks Due To Earth Quack ,Wind

Crack Due To Overloading Of Structure

Crack Due To Reduction in Load Carrying Capacity of Structure Due To


Weathering

Crack Due To Improper Design Of Structure

Crack due to Poor connection Of Structural Members Resulted From Poor


Workmanship

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Crack & Settlement In Flooring

Due To Improper Plinth Filling

In case of black cotton soil in foundation not replaced up to sufficient depth


by Good Soil under plinth (For generating enough Counter weight upon black
cotton soil)

Water Table vary within the Plinth Sub base (this occur in frequent flooding
area & near sea soar)

Improper curing, Improper laying, Poor Quality of workmanship.

Improper design for loading i.e. thickness & type of flooring.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Crack & Spalling in Non Structural Members

Crack In Plaster

Crack In Finishing

Crack In Water Proofing Work

Vertical cracks in long boundary wall due to thermal movement Or Shrinkage.

Crack Induced due to thermal changes, change in moisture content in


building material, Chemical Reactions

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Leakage In Water Supply & Drainage

It may result from structural cracks & settlement

Improper selection of pipe thickness

Improper selection of Supports & its spacing to Pipe

Improper making Of joints

Non Provision for contraction & expansion (Particularly when pipe is passing
over different type of long structures)

Non Testing of Pipe before & after laying

Insufficient soil cover over pipe

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Redesigning existing structure to meet functional requirement as well as forces


generated by Nature
It is a comprehensive task & require planning which include following Information
gathering.

Field investigations including details of sub strata, foundation details

Type of Existing structure & its members stability

Design Data Collection

Identification of components required to be strengthened, replaced.

Cost Estimates (it is feasible up to 60% of new construction)

Method or Procedure to be fallowed.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Crack Investigation

Location

Profile (vertical, Horizontal, Diagonal)

Crack Size throughout length (Width,Depth & length)

Thin crack< 1mm


Medium Crack >1 to 2 mm
Wide Crack > 2 mm
Crack may be non-uniform width. i.e. Tapper in width(narrow at one end & wider
at other end. )

Static or Live cracks

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Cracks are static or live, is monitored & recorded by Tell-Tale method

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Construction Details Of Bearing Of R.C.C. Roof Slab Over a Masonry Wall

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


When two adjacent walls shake in different directions, their joint at
corners comes under a lot of stress. This causes crack at the
junction of two walls.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


When the long wall bends outward or inwards vertically in the
middle of its length, this stretching causes tension and causes
vertical cracks in the walls.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Similarly when the walls bends outward or inwards horizontally in
the middle of its height, this stretching causes tension and causes
horizontal cracks in the walls. This happens at the base of gable
wall.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Many times the wall gets pulled from its corners. This results in to
tearing of wall in diagonal direction. In the wall if there is a window
or a door, then the diagonal crack occur at their corners.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Flexural Tension Cracks At Lintel Level Due to Shrinkage &
contraction of R.C.C. Slab

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


If the window is very large or if there are many doors and windows
in a wall, then it tears even more easily in an earthquake.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Many times the roof slides on top
of the walls on which it is sitting on

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structural Repairs
Load Bearing Walls: PROCEDURE IN NEXT SLIDE

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Repairing Of Crack Due To Structural Cause

Replace all cracked bricks

Use R.C.C. Stitching Block In Vertical Spacing In Every 5 th or 6th Course ( 0.5
meter apart ).

Stitching block

Width=equal to wall width,


Length = 1.5 to 2 bricks,
Thick =1 or 2 bricks as per severity of cracks

Mortar For Repairs 1:1:6 (1 Cement :1 lime: 6 sand)

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

load bearing walls(May be Brick or Stone) have inbuilt deficiency.

Each Brick have different strength

Thickness of Mortar Joints are not also uniform.

Bricks are not perfectly laid horizontally & vertically

Opening in walls

Improper staggered joints

Use of unwanted Brick bats

1. These resulted in cumulative effect & concentration of stress in particular section


of wall is more than other section.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Corrective Measures For Load Bearing Wall Building

Therefore Shifting of Window, Door ,Inbuilt construction of Almirah should be


carried out with due consideration to IS code 13828:1993

Proper Bearing to lintel over brick work to avoid diagonal cracks & it can be
done in retrofitting work.

It is advisable to keep window width as less as feasible while height can be


increased with fixed glass pans on top portion as per slide 41.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Importance Factor(I) Depend Upon

Functional Use Of Structures

Hazardous Consequences Of Its Failure

Post Earthquake Personal needs

Historical Value

Economic Importance

School Building Have I value=1.5

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Elevation : Distance b1 to b8 changes as per Building


Need

Retrofitting

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Table :Size, Position Of Opening In Above Figure

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Strengthening Of Window When Its Position Is


Not As Per Table Above Slide No 42.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Strengthening Arrangements Recommended For low Strength Masonry Building

b =
C

Lintel Bend
Roof Bend, Gable bend

d =

Vertical steel at corners & junctions of wall

Bracing in plan at tie level of Pitched Roofs

g =

Plinth band

For Building of Category B in two storey constructed with stone masonry in weak
mortar, provide vertical steel of 10 mm dia in both storey.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Strengthening Arrangements Recommended For Elements of low Strength Masonry


Building

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Seismic wave propagation increases as height of wall/structure increases.

Seismic wave expansion pushes bricks of corner of wall out of building.

Movement of Seismic wave through joints of similar or dissimilar component


of building ,makes joint open, resulting in falling of component of the
building.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Possibility For Old Masonry Structures Strength

Plinth Belt in lieu of plinth band

Lintel level belt in lieu of band

Roof level/ gable level band

Corner steel

Shape, Size & location of Window In Wall

Wall length to Height Ratio

Cross wall/ Brick Pillar/counter fort

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Reinforced band on top of gable wall


It will reduce bending of gable wall

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


In long walls introduce buttress
to strengthen it.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Low Strength Masonry Building Retrofitting


For Brick Masonry Structure

Height of the building in B.W. shall be restricted to the following.

1. For retrofitting category of building A,B,C up to3 storey with flat roof or 2
storey plus Attic for pitched roof.
2. For category D up to 2 storey with flat roof or one storey plus Attic for pitched
roof.
where each storey height shall not exceed 3.0 m. Cross wall spacing should not be
more than 16 times the wall thickness
CONTD.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

3. Minimum wall thickness in brick masonry shall be one brick for one & two storey
construction, while in case of three storey, the bottom storey wall thickness is one &
half brick.
4. Use brick from kiln only after 2 weeks when work is in summer & 3 week when
work in winter.
5. Use leaner mortar preferably also adding lime for repairing cracks in particular&
in masonry in general. It can be 1:1:6,1:2:9,1:3:12 as per need.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


For Stone Masonry

Height of the building in Stone Masonry shall be restricted to the following

1. For retrofitting category of building A,B,2 storey with flat roof or 1 storey
plus Attic for pitched roof .In case cement sand mortar 1:6, the building up to
2 storey plus Attic for pitched roof.
2. 2. For category C,D 2 storey with flat roof or 2 storey plus Attic for pitched
roof with Cement sand mortar or 1 storey plus Attic for pitched roof with limesand or mud mortar.

CONTD.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

3. Maximum wall thickness in stone masonry shall be 450 mm & preferably 350
mm. ,

Each storey height shall not exceed 3.0 m and span of walls between cross
wall is limited to 5.0m

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Cross wall connection In steps

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Wall to wall joints are to be made
by building wall ends in steps form

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Vertical reinforcement within the masonry


in corners increases walls capacity to withstand Horizontal cracks due to
bending.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


In Each Layer Staggered Toothed Joint

PLAN

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Recommended Longitudinal steel in Reinforcement Concrete Bends

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Steel Profile In Band At Corner & Junction

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Bonding Elements
A. Wood Plank
( 38x38x450 mm)
B. R.C.C. Block
(50x50x450 & 8 mm)
C. 8 or 10 mm Hook
or S shape bent Bar

Plan showing Through Stone


Through stone = Bonding Element

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


S shaped steel rod placed in a through hole in random rubble wall and fully
encased in concrete

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Plan showing Center bar in Casing


Casing in every 0.6 m is lifted & M15 or Mortar 1:3 is Compacted around bar.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Half Split Bamboo Ties To Rafter

Brace the Rafter to 50 mm Dia Bamboo (B)

Seismic Bend & Rafter should be tied Properly

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Diagonal tying on the upper or underside


of the roof Prevents roof from getting distorted and damaged

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Installing multiple strands of galvanized


iron wires pulled and twisted to pretension

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Vertical steel at corners and junction of walls up to 350 mm thick should be
embedded in plinth masonry of foundations, bands, roof slab as per table

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

One Brick Thick

One & Half Brick Thick

-------- Contain One Bar At Centre

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Seismic Belts & closing a opining with pockets made in jams of masonry.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Encasing masonry column in cage of steel rods and encased in micro
concrete.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Anchoring the roof rafters and trusses with
steel angles or other means

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Weld mesh belt approximately 220mm wide all
around the openings and anchored to masonry wall and encased in cement
mortar

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Vertical deformed steel encased in concrete bar from foundation to roof,
anchored to both masonry walls at wall junctions with special connectors.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Seismic belt in lieu of Seismic Band is made of weld mesh approximately
220mm wide anchored to masonry wall and encased in cement mortar.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Use smaller glass panes for windows Prevents the shattering of glass in
earthquake and cyclone

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Anchoring roof to wall &, reducing roof
overhangs,
prevent the roof from getting blown off

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation Prolonged flooding can weaken the mortar,
especially if it is mud mortar, and hence,
the wall, causing cracking in walls or collapse.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


If the ground is sandy in which the foundation is sitting, then high speed
flood/surge water can scour the land around and under the foundation of your
school, leading to settlement and/or cracking of the wall.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Simple erosion of wall near its bottom, or cracking, plaster peeling off and
settlement
in floor.

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


Extensive cracking of walls caused by differential settlement due to flood

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation


High plinth level to avoid entering flood

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

Use of pilasters strengthens walls against flowing water

Structure Repairs & Rehabilitation

This Presentation was focused on Low Strength Masonry Buildings therefore


for framed structures & rich cement mortar building ,certain slides are invalid. In next Presentation this balance portion will be highlighted.

This Presentation was aiming to provide some technical input to site peoples
so that we could point out any doubtful detailing in drawings to
Structural/Architectural Designer.

It is possible that features of Flood, Heavy Rain fall, Cyclone, earth quack may
collide but We have to look priority of our geographical requirement.
Thank You

UNIT-3
Definition of Corrosion
Corrosion is the deterioration of materials by chemical interaction with their
environment. The term corrosion is sometimes also applied to the degradation of
plastics, concrete and wood, but generally refers to metals.
Anodic & Cathodic Reactions
Effects of corrosion
The consequences of corrosion are many and varied and the effects of these
on the safe, reliable and efficient operation of equipment or structures are often
more serious than the simple loss of a mass of metal. Failures of various kinds and
the need for expensive replacements may occur even though the amount of metal
destroyed is quite small.
Underground corrosion
Buried gas or water supply pipes can suffer severe corrosion which is not
detected until an actual leakage occurs, by which time considerable damage may
be done.
Electronic components
In electronic equipment it is very important that there should be no raised
resistance at low current connections. Corrosion products can cause such damage
and can also have sufficient conductance to cause short circuits. These resistors
form part of a radar installation.
Corrosion influenced by flow-1
The cast iron pump impeller shown here suffered attack when acid
accidentally entered the water that was being pumped. The high velocities in the
pump accentuated the corrosion damage.
Corrosion influenced by flow 2
This is a bend in a copper pipe-work cooling system. Water flowed around
the bend and then became turbulent at a roughly cut edge. Downstream of this
edge two dark corrosion pits may be seen, and one pit is revealed in section.
Safety of aircraft

The lower edge of this aircraft skin panel has suffered corrosion due to
leakage and spillage from a wash basin in the toilet. Any failure of a structural
component of an aircraft can lead to the most serious results.
Influence of corrosion on value
A very slight amount of corrosion may not interfere with the usefulness of an
article, but can affect its commercial value. At the points where these scissors were
held into their plastic case some surface corrosion has occurred which would mean
that the shop would have to sell them at a reduced price.
Motor vehicle corrosion and safety
The safety problems associated with corrosion of motor vehicles is illustrated
by the holes around the filler pipe of this petrol tank. The danger of petrol leakage
is obvious. Mud and dirt thrown up from the road can retain salt and water for
prolonged periods, forming a corrosive poultice.
Corrosion at sea
Sea water is a highly corrosive electrolyte towards mild steel. This ship has
suffered severe damage in the areas which are most buffeted by waves, where the
protective coating of paint has been largely removed by mechanical action.
Aluminium Corrosion
The current trend for aluminium vehicles is not without problems. This
aluminium alloy chassis member shows very advanced corrosion due to contact
with road salt from gritting operations or use in coastal / beach regions.
Damage due to pressure of expanding rust
The iron reinforcing rods in this garden fence post have been set too close to
the surface of the concrete. A small amount of corrosion leads to bulky rust
formation which exerts a pressure and causes the concrete to crack. For structural
engineering applications all reinforcing metal should be covered by 50 to 75 mm of
concrete.
Corrosion of plastics
Not only metals suffer corrosion effects. This dished end of a vessel is
made of glass fibre reinforced PVC. Due to internal stresses and an aggressive
environment it has suffered environmental stress cracking.
Galvanic corrosion

This rainwater guttering is made of aluminium and would normally resist


corrosion well. Someone tied a copper aerial wire around it, and the localised
bimetallic cell led to a knife-cut effect.
Galvanic corrosion
The tubing, shown here was part of an aircrafts hydraulic system. The
material is an aluminium alloy and to prevent bimetallic galvanic corrosion due to
contact with the copper alloy retaining nut this was cadmium plated. The plating
was not applied to an adequate thickness and pitting corrosion resulted.
Galvanic corrosion
This polished Aluminium rim was left over Christmas with road salt and mud
on the rim. Galvanic corrosion has started between the chromium plated brass
spoke nipple and the aluminium rim.
Galvanic corrosion
Galvanic corrosion can be even worse underneath the tyre in bicycles used all
winter. Here the corrosion is so advanced it has penetrated the rim thickness.
Corrosion prevention

UNIT-4
DAMAGE IN STRUCTURES DUE TO FIRE

DAMAGE IN STRUCTURES DUE TO FIRE

PART 1: Fire Induced Damages in Structures

PART 2: Fire Rating of Structures

PART 3: Phenomenon of Desiccation

DAMAGE IN STRUCTURES DUE TO FIRE

PART 1: Fire Induced Damages in Structures

Part I: Fire Induced Structural Damages

Uneven volume changes in affected members, resulting in distortion,


buckling and cracking. The temperature gradients are extreme - from
ambient 70oF (21oC), to higher than 1500oF (800oC) at the source of the fire
and near the surface.

Spalling of rapidly expanding concrete surfaces from extreme heat near the
source of the fire. Some aggregates expand in bursts, spalling the adjacent
matrix. Moisture rapidly changes to steam, causing localized bursting of small
pieces of concrete.

The cement mortar converts to quicklime at temperatures of 750 oF (400oC),


thereby causing disintegeration of concrete.

Reinforcing steel loses tensile capacity as the temperature rises.

Once the reinforcing steel is exposed by the spalling action, the steel expands
more rapidly than the surrounding concrete, causing buckling and loss of
bond to adjacent concrete where the reinforcement is fully encased.

Concrete undergoes cracking, spalling, and experiences a decrease in


stiffness and strength as the temperature increases.

Concrete has low thermal conductivity, which allows it to undergo heating for
longer durations before the temperature increases significantly and damage
occurs.

The concrete compressive strength starts decreasing rapidly after its


temperature reaches approximately 400C (750F).

At temperatures of around 500oC (932oF), the concrete compressive strength


is reduced to 50% of its nominal strength.

The tensile yield strength of the steel decreases gradually up to 500 oC (932o
F). It is reduced to about 50% of its nominal yield strength at 600 oC (1112oF).
This essentially eliminates any factor of safety, which is usually between 1.5
and 2.0.

The steel yield strength decreases more rapidly for temperatures greater
than 500oC (932oF), and failure may be inevitable if temperatures keep
increasing while the loading is sustained.

Stages of deterioration due to Fire

DAMAGE IN STRUCTURES DUE TO FIRE

PART 2: Fire Ratings of Structures

PART 2: Fire Ratings of Structures

What is Fire Rating?


A fire rating refers to the length of time that a material can withstand
complete combustion during a standard fire rating test. Fire testing of
building materials and components of buildings -- such as joists, beams
and fire walls -- is required in most places by building codes.
Other fire tests for things such as appliances and furniture are voluntary,
ordered by manufacturers to use in their advertising. Wall and floor safes
are examples of products for which fire resistance is a key selling point.

PART 2: Fire Ratings of Structures

What is Fire Rating?


With the required tests, the results are measured in either units of time,
because the emphasis is on holding up under fire (literally) long enough
for the occupants of a home or building to escape, or by classification
designations. This does not mean, necessarily, that the components of
every new structure have to be fire tested. In most cases, the fire rating
has been already established by testing the product before it is even put
on the market.

DAMAGE IN STRUCTURES DUE TO FIRE

PART 3: Phenomenon of Desiccation

PART 3: Phenomenon of Desiccation

Desiccation is a phenomenon referring to dryness of the material


induced by the loss of moisture

UNIT-5
DISTRESS OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES & THEIR REPAIR TECHNIQUES
INTRODUCTION
If a building has given about 25v to 30 years of service without much maintenance
or repair then it is reasonable to expect that it would need some repair sooner or
later.
CATEGORIES OF REASONS DISTRESS OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
1. WEATHERING
2. AGEING
3. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
4. INADEQUATE MAINTENANCE
5. POOR DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION QUALITY
6. CHANGE OF LOADING PATTERN OR NON CONVENTIONAL LOADING ON
STRUCTURE
7. WATER LEAKAGE LEADING TO CORROSION OF CONCRETE STRUCTURE
CAUSES OF EARLY DETERIORATION OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
EFFECTS OF CRACKING ON LIFE OR DURABILIY OF STRUCTURE
IDENTIFICATION OF DISTRESSED LOCATIONS ON STRUCTURES
MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR CRACK REPAIR
SOME SPECIFIC REPAIR TECHNIQUE FOR CONCRETE SURFACE
ASSESMENT OF QUALITY OF STRUCTURE SOON AFTER ITS CONSTRUCTION
REQUIREMENT FOR TRAINING FOR CONCRETE REPAIR AND CONCRETE WORKERS
THANK YOU

UNIT-6
METHODS OF REPAIRING CONCRETE STRUCTURES
1. INTRODUCTION
3 Basic symptoms of distress in a concrete structure
Cracking, Spalling and Disintegration
Reasons for their development may be poor materials, poor design, poor
construction practice, poor supervision or a combination

repair of cracks usually does not involve strengthening


repair of a structure showing spalling and disintegration, it is usual to find that there
have been substantial losses of section and/or pronounced corrosion of the
reinforcement
2. Repairing cracks
In order to determine whether the cracks are active or dormant, periodic
observations are done utilizing various types of telltales
by placing a mark at the end of the crack
a pin or a toothpick is lightly wedged into the crack and it falls out if there is
any extension of the defect
A strip of notched tape works similarly :
Movement is indicated by tearing of the tape
The device using a typical vernier caliper is the most satisfactory of all.
Both extension and compression are indicated
If more accurate readings are desired, extensometers can be used
Where extreme accuracy is required resistance strain gauges can be glued
across the crack
2.1

Types of cracks

active cracks and dormant cracks

the proper differentiation between active and dormant cracks is one of


magnitude of movement, and the telltales are a measure of the
difference

If the magnitude of the movement, measured over a reasonable period


of time (say 6 months or 1 year), is sufficient to displace or show
significantly on the telltales, we can treat the crack as an active one.

If the movements are smaller, the crack may be considered as


dormant.

Cracks can also be divided into solitary or isolated cracks and pattern cracks
Generally, a solitary crack is due to a positive overstressing of the concrete either
due to load or shrinkage
Overload cracks are fairly easily identified because they follow the lines
demonstrated in laboratory load tests
In a long retaining wall or long channel, the regular formation of cracks indicates
faults in the design rather than the construction, but an irregular distribution of
solitary cracks may indicate poor construction as well as poor design
Regular patterns of cracks may occur in the surfacing of concrete and in thin slabs.
These are called pattern cracks
Methods of repairing cracks
1. Bonding with epoxies
Cracks in concrete may be bonded by the injection of epoxy bonding compounds
under pressure
Usual practice is to
drill into the crack from the face of the concrete at several
locations

inject water or a solvent to flush out the

allow the surface to dry

defect

surface-seal the cracks between the injection

points

inject the epoxy until it flows out of the


adjacent sections
of the crack or begins to bulge out the surface seals

Usually the epoxy is injected through holes of


about
inch in diameter and inch deep at 6 to 12 inches centers

Smaller spacing is used for finer cracks

The limitation of this method is that unless the


crack is
dormant or the cause of cracking is
removed and thereby the crack
is made
dormant, it will probably recur, possibly
somewhere
else in the structure

Also, this technique is not applicable if the defects are actively leaking to the
extent that they cannot be dried out, or where the cracks are numerous
2. Routing and sealing

This method involves enlarging the crack along its exposed face and filling
and sealing it with a suitable material

The routing operation


placing the sealant
This is a method where thorough water tightness of the joint is not required and
where appearance is not important
3. Stitching
Concrete can be stitched by iron or steel dogs
A series of stitches of different lengths should be used
bend bars into the shape of a broad flat bottomed letter U between 1 foot and 3 feet
long and with ends about 6 inches long
The stitching should be on the side, which is opening up first
if necessary, strengthen adjacent areas of the construction to take the additional
stress
the stitching dogs should be of variable length and/or orientation and so located
that the tension transmitted across the crack does not devolve on a single plane of
the section, but is spread out over an area
In order to resist shear along the crack, it is necessary to use diagonal stitching
The lengths of dogs are random so that the anchor points do not form a plane of
weakness
4. External stressing

cracks can be closed by inducing a compressive force, sufficient to overcome the


tension and to provide a residual compression
The principle is very similar to stitching, except that the stitches are tensioned;
rather than plain bar dogs which apply no closing force to the crack
Some form of abutment is needed for providing an anchorage for the prestressing
wires or rods
5. Grouting
same manner as the injection of an epoxy
cleaning the concrete along the crack
installing built-up seats at intervals along the crack
sealing the crack between the seats with a cement paint or grout
flushing the crack to clean it and test the seal; and then grouting the whole
6. Blanketing
similar to routing and sealing
applicable for sealing active as well as dormant cracks
Preparing the chase is the first step
Usually the chase is cut square
The bottom should be chipped as smooth to facilitate breaking the bond between
sealant and concrete
The sides of the chase should be prepared to provide a good bond with the sealant
material
The first consideration in the selection of sealant materials is the amount of
movement anticipated
and the extremes of temperature at which such movements will occur
elastic sealants
mastic sealants
mortar-plugged joints
7. Use of overlays

Sealing of an active crack by use of an overlay requires that the overlay be


extensible and not flexible alone
Accordingly, an overlay which is flexible but not extensible, ie. can be bent but
cannot be stretched, will not seal a crack that is active
Gravel is typically used for roofs
concrete or brick are used where fill is to be placed against the overlay
An asphalt block pavement also works well where the area is subjected to heavy
traffic
Repairing spalling and disintegration
In the repair of a structure showing spalling and disintegration, it is usual to find
that there have been substantial losses of section and/or pronounced corrosion of
the reinforcement
Both are matters of concern from a structural viewpoint, and repair generally
involves some urgency and some requirement for restoration of lost strength
1. Jacketing
primarily applicable to the repair of deteriorated columns, piers and piles
Jacketing consists of restoring or increasing the section of an existing member,
principally a compression member, by encasement in new concrete
The form for the jacket should be provided with spacers to assure clearance
between it and the existing concrete surface
The form may be temporary or permanent and may consist of timber, wrought iron,
precast concrete or gauge metal, depending on the purpose and exposure
Timber, Wrought iron Gauge metal and other temporary forms can be used under
certain conditions
Filling up the forms can be done by pumping the grout, by using prepacked
concrete, by using a tremie, or, for subaqueous works, by dewatering the form and
placing the concrete in the dry
The use of a grout having a cement-sand ratio by volume, between 1:2 and 1:3 , is
recommended
The richer grout is preferred for thinner sections and the leaner mixture for heavier
sections

The forms should be filled to overflowing, the grout allowed to settle for about 20
minutes, and the forms refilled to overflowing
The outside of the forms should be vibrated during placing of the grout
2. Guniting
Gunite is also known as shotcrete or pneumatically applied mortar
It can be used on vertical and overhead, as well as on horizontal surfaces and is
particularly useful for restoring surfaces spalled due to corrosion of reinforcement
Gunite is a mixture of Portland cement, sand and water, shot into the place by
compressed air
Sand and cement are mixed dry in a mixing chamber, and the dry mixture is then
transferred by air pressure along a pipe or hose to a nozzle, where it is forcibly
projected on to the surface to be coated
Water is added to the mixture by passing it through a spray injected at the nozzle
The flow of water at the nozzle can be controlled to give a mix of desired stiffness,
which will adhere to the surface against which it is projected
3. Prepacked concrete
This method is particularly useful for carrying out the repair under water and
elsewhere where accessibility is a problem
Prepacked concrete is made by filling forms with coarse aggregate and then filling
the voids of the aggregate by pumping in a sand-cement grout
Prepacked concrete is used for refacing of structures, jacketing, filling of cavities in
and under structures, and underpinning and enlarging piers, abutments, retaining
walls and footings
Pumping of mortar should commence at the lowest point and proceed upward
Placing of grout should be a smooth, uninterrupted operation
4. Drypack
Drypacking is the hand placement of a very dry mortar and the subsequent tamping
of the mortar into place, producing an intimate contact between the new and
existing works
Because of the low water-cement ratio of the material, there is little shrinkage, and
the patch remains tight. The usual mortar mix is 1:2.5 to 1:3

5. Replacement of concrete
This method consists of replacing the defective concrete with new concrete of
conventional proportions, placed in a conventional manner
This method is a satisfactory and economical solution where the repair occurs in
depth (at least beyond the reinforcement), and where the area to be repaired is
accessible
This method is particularly indicated where a water-tight construction is required
and where the deterioration extends completely through the original concrete
section
Overlays
In addition to seal cracks, an overlay may also be used to restore a spalled or
disintegrated surface
Overlays used include mortar, bituminous compounds, and epoxies
They should be bonded to the existing concrete surface
Conclusions
When repairing cracks, do not fill the crack with new concrete or mortar
A brittle overlay should not be used to seal an active crack
The restraints causing the cracks should be relieved, or otherwise the repair must
be capable of accommodating future movements
Cracks should not be surface-sealed over corroded reinforcement, without encasing
the bars
The methods adopted for repairing spalling and disintegration must be capable of
restoring the lost strength
References
[1]
Champion, S. Failure and Repair of Concrete Structures. John Wiley & Sons
Inc. New York, 1961
[2]
Sidney.M.Johnson. Deterioration, Maintenance and Repair of Structures. Mc
Graw-Hill Book Company. New York, 1965.
[3]
Lee How Son and George C.S. Yuen. Building Maintenance Technology.
Macmillan Distribution Ltd. England. 1993.

[4] Thomas H. McKaig. Building Failures.


Mc Graw-Hill Book Company. New York,
[5] Jagadish, R. Structural Failures - Case
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.1995.

1962.
Histories. Oxford & IBH

UNIT-7
Repair and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints: State of the
Art
CONTENT
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE
2. REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES FOR BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS
2.1 Epoxy repair
2.2 Removal and replacement
2.3 Concrete jackets
2.4 Reinforced masonry blocks
2.5 Steel jackets and external steel elements
2.6 Fiber-reinforced polymeric composites
3. APPENDIX
4. CONCLUSIONS
5. REFERENCES
1. INTRODUCTION
RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE
2.REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES FOR BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS
2.1 Epoxy
repair
2.3 Concrete jackets
Concrete jackets continues
2.5 Steel jackets and external steel elements
2.6 Fiber-reinforced polymeric composites
APPENDIX

3. CONCLUSIONS
From the literature review on the performance, repair, and strengthening of
nonseismically detailed RC beam-column joints presented in this paper, the
following conclusions were drawn:
1. The critical nonseismic joint details in existing RC structures have been wellidentified as shown in Fig. 1; however, the investigation of their effects on seismic
behavior have been limited to testing of isolated one-way joints (no floor slab,
transverse beams, or bidirectional loads) to a very large extent, and 1/8- and 1/3scale building models that may not accurately simulate the actual behavior of
structural details;
2. Epoxy repair techniques have exhibited limited success in restoring the bond of
reinforcement, in filling the cracks, and restoring shear strength in one-way joints,
although some authors believe it to be inadequate and unreliable.13
The authors believe that injection of epoxy into joints surrounded by floor members
would be similarly difficult;
Conclusion
3. Concrete jacketing of columns and encasing the joint region in a reinforced fillet
is an effective but the most labor-intensive strengthening method due to difficulties
in placing additional joint transverse reinforcement.
Welding an external steel cage around the joint instead of adding internal steel has
also proven effective in the case of a three-dimensional interior joint test. These
methods are successful in creating strong column-weak beam mechanisms, but
suffer from considerable loss of floor space and disruption to building occupancy;
4. An analytical study showed that joint strengthening with reinforced masonry units
can lead to desirable ductile beam failures and reduction of interstory drifts;
however, no experimental data are available to validate their performance;
Conclusion
5. Grouted steel jackets tested to date cannot be practically applied in cases where
floor members are present. If not configured carefully, such methods can result in
excessive capacity increases and create unexpected failure modes.
Externally attached steel plates connected with rolled sections have been effective
in preventing local failures such as beam bottom bar pullout and column splice
failure; they have also been successfully used in combination with a reinforced
concrete fillet surrounding the joint;

6. Externally bonded FRP composites can eliminate some important limitations of


other strengthening methods such as difficulties in construction and increases in
member sizes.
The shear strength of one-way exterior joints has been improved with 45-degree
fibers in the joint region; however, ductile beam failures were observed in only a few
specimens, while in others, composite sheets debonded from the concrete surface
before a beam plastic hinge formed. Reliable anchorage methods need to be
developed to prevent debonding and to achieve full development of fiber strength
within the small area of the joint, which can possibly lead to the use of FRPs in
strengthening of actual three-dimensional joints; and
Conclusion
7. Most of the strengthening schemes developed thus far have a limited range of
applicability, if any, either due to the unaccounted floor members (that is,
transverse beams and floor slab) in real structures or to architectural restrictions.
Experiments conducted to date have generally used only unidirectional load
histories. Therefore, the research in this area is far from complete, and a significant
amount of work is necessary to arrive at reliable, cost-effective, and applicable
strengthening methods. In developing such methods, it is important that testing
programs be extended to include critical joint types (for example, corner) under
bidirectional cyclic loads.
REFERENCES
Engindeniz, M.; Kahn, L. F.; and Zureick, A., Repair and Strengthening of
Non-Seismically Designed RC Beam-Column Joints: State-of-the-Art,
Research Report No. 04-4, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga.,
Oct. 2004, 58 pp. (available online at http://
www.ce.gatech.edu/groups/struct/reports)
Repair and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints: State of the
Art. by Murat Engindeniz, Lawrence F. Kahn, and Abdul-Hamid Zureick ,ACI
Structural Journal, V. 102, No. 2, March-April 2005.
THANK YOUJ

UNIT-8
The Absolutes of Life
Some Other Absolutes of Life (other than Death and Taxes)
The Gosain Dictum No. 1
So long as structures will keep on
getting built, failures will keep on occurring.
The Gosain Dictum No. 2
Failures will keep Forensics Engineers busy for a long time
Primary Causes of Engineering Failures
Deferred maintenance
Design flaws
Material failures
Overloading
Combination of all the above
Gosain and Prasad Observation No. 1
Fear of failure will spur some owners to action!
Gosain and Prasad Observation No. 2
An action may be Structural Health Monitoring!
Some failures are sudden and catastrophic, and some failures just take their time
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) can be very helpful in serving as an alarm
system for preventing both types of failures .
But what is Structural Health Monitoring?
What is Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)?
Definition: The process of implementing a distress or damage detection strategy for
aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering structures is referred to as Structural
Health Monitoring or SHM.

Not a new concept


Has been around for several decades
Advances in electronics made it easier to implement.
Several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools available for monitoring.
How old is SHM?
SHM work goes back almost 80 years.
Limited to major structures
Dams
Bridges
Some early high rises
Unique structures
Significant interest in the past 10 years.
Life-safety issues
Economic benefits
Performance evaluation
Affordable
Case History from the Past
San Jacinto Monument
Built 1936
La Porte, Texas
San Jacinto Monument Mat Foundation SHM
San Jacinto Monument Mat Foundation SHM
San Jacinto Monument Mat Foundation SHM
San Jacinto Monument Mat Foundation SHM
San Jacinto Monument Mat Foundation SHM
San Jacinto Monument Mat Foundation SHM

San Jacinto Monument Mat Foundation SHM


San Jacinto Monument Mat Foundation SHM
San Jacinto Monument Mat Foundation SHM
Objectives of Structural Health Monitoring: Farrar and Worden (2007)
1. Modifications to an existing structure,
2. Monitoring of structures affected by external factors,
3. Monitoring during demolition,
4. Structures subject to long-term movement or degradation of materials,
5. Feedback loop to improve future design based on experience,
Objectives of Structural Health Monitoring
6. Fatigue assessment,
7. Novel systems of construction,
8. Assessment of post-earthquake structural integrity, and
9. Growth in maintenance needs.
Instrumentation used for SHM
1. Strain gages,
2. Inclinometers,
3. Displacement transducers,
4. Accelerometers,
5. Temperature gages,
6. Pressure transducers,
7. Acoustic sensors,
8. Piezometers, and
9. Laser optical devices
Instrumentation used for SHM
Most of these sensors can be wirelessly connected.

Technology using solar energy is very common in instrumentation.


Latest technology even has self powered systems, i.e. no external power required.
Some Recent Work
Case History 1
Health Monitoring of a Stadium Truss During Erection
Health Monitoring of a Stadium Truss During Erection
Segmented Erection.
Monitor strains and stresses at various stages of erection.
Verification of predicted behavior was needed
Key Challenges
Non-interference with the construction schedule.
No wires were allowed to run from one segment to the other.
No main power supply.
No drilling or welding on to the frame.
Each segment needed to be prepared and instrumented in a narrow 2 day interval.
No lift access after erection.
Health Monitoring of a Stadium Truss During Erection
Instruments
MicroStrain V-Link
4 Strain gauges could be attached to the device.
Fully ruggedized for exterior applications.
One laptop with data querying software was sufficient to access all boxes.
Low duty cycle can give up to 1 year of battery life.
Case History 2
Health Monitoring of a Data Center
Health Monitoring of a Data Center

Health Monitoring of a Data Center


Key Challenges
Needed to prevent undesirable vibrations in the data center.
Quantify sensitivities of many high-performance computing systems.
Needed to inform the contractor immediately upon discovery of an issue.
Alarm system to alert Walter P Moore and the contractor.
Health Monitoring of a Data Center
Instruments
Pre-construction Testing.
National Instruments dynamic data acquisition system.
PCB mG scale accelerometers.
Construction and Operations Time Monitoring
Instantel Blastmate device.
Case History 3
Health Monitoring of a Parking Garage Structure
Health Monitoring of a Parking Garage Structure
Key Challenges
Selection of monitoring location.
Selection of types of measurements.
Need to operate during power outages.
Sensor installation.
Data logger installation.
Remote communication setup.
Alarm system to alert engineer and the client.
Instruments
Campbell Scientific CR10X logger with DC backup.

Inclinometers with temperature sensors.


Anemometer.
Rain gauge.
Health Monitoring of a Parking Garage Structure
Health Monitoring of a Parking Garage Structure
Case History 4
Health Monitoring of a Bridge Essential to Business Operations
Health Monitoring of a Bridge Essential to Business Operations
Key Challenges
Installation of inclinometers under girders.
Access was difficult.
Night time installation was preferred.
Installation has to be stopped when a train passed by under the bridge.
The whole system needed to be run with solar power.
Remote communication setup.
Alarm system to alert the engineer and the client.
Instruments
Campbell Scientific CR1000 logger with solar power.
Tilt beams with temperature sensors.
Cellular TCP/IP modem facilitates accessing data over the internet
Evaluate need
Discuss the motivation in implementing SHM with the client and the benefits to be
accrued
Discuss the period of time for monitoring
Have a clarity on how the damage or distress is to be defined and measured
Select the appropriate instrumentation and data acquisition system
Environmental conditions

Extract meaningful data


Presentation to client in a meaningful and understandable format
Reduce the implementation cost.
Improved hardware.
Extensive usage by the industry.
Implement wireless and self powered technology.
Facilitates usage even in remote areas.
Simplifies installation.
Insensitive to local power outages.
Estimate potential savings of using SHM.
Develop models to show potential savings in using SHM vs. periodic physical
inspections.
Deferred Maintenance and SHM