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VALUE EDUCATION

UNIT - 1
Value Education: Definition and the Concept of Value Education (With Example)!
Values education is a term used to name several things, and there is much academic controversy
surrounding it. Some regard it as all aspects of the process by which teachers (and other adults)
transmit values to pupils.
Others see it as an activity that can take place in any organization during which people are
assisted by others, who may be older, in a position of authority or are more experienced, to make
explicit those values underlying their own behavior, to assess the effectiveness of these values
and associated behavior for their own and others long term well-being and to reflect on and
acquire other values and behavior which they recognize as being more effective for long term
well-being of self and others.
Value and value system in education
In social science research, the term valueshas been used variously to refer to
interests,pleasures, likes, preferences, duties, moralobligations, desires, wants, goals,
needs,aversions and attractions, and many otherkinds of selective orientations
A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is
personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end- state of
existence
A value is a belief pertaining to desirable end states or modes of conduct that transcends
specific situations; guides selection or evaluation of behavior, people, and events; and is ordered
by the importance relative to other values to form a system of value priorities
Hierarchy of values Sensory Values the values of pleasant and unpleasant, technical values,
and luxury values. The values of Civilization the vital values of noble and vulgar, Spiritual
Values - the values of justice/ injustice; truth/ falsehood; beauty / ugliness The values of the
holy/unholy
What is man? Time Economic Wellness Heredity Rationality Environment Spirituality
Body Unique Mind Individual Spirit Purpose Social Mission Social Norms A being of the
world Social Interactions A being in the world A Paradox
The role of culture and civilization
The words 'culture' and 'civilization' have been often used synonymously, though they have
clearly defined meanings differentiating them. 'Civilization' means the betterment of ways of
living, making Nature bend to fulfil the needs of humankind. It includes also organizing societies
into politically well-defined groups working collectively for improved conditions of life in
matters of food, dress, communication, and so on. Thus a group considers itself as civilized,
while others were looked down upon as barbarians. This has led to wars and holocausts, resulting
in mass destruction of human beings. Therefore civilization by itself cannot be the goal of life.
On the other hand 'culture' refers to the inner man, a refinement of head and heart. One who may
be poor and wearing cheap apparel may be considered 'uncivilized', but still he or she may be the
most cultured person. For 'culture' concerns itself with the inner refinement of a person. This
includes arts and sciences, music and dance and various higher pursuits of human life which are

also classified as cultural activities. One possessing ostentatious wealth may be considered as
'civilized' but he may not be cultured. Therefore when we deal with cultural yardsticks, we have
to make clear our definition of 'culture'.
We would prefer to call it the 'higher levels of inner refinement' of a human being. Man is not
merely a physical being. He lives and acts in three levels: physical, mental and spiritual. While
better ways of living socially and politically and better utilisation of nature around us may be
termed civilization, they are not enough to be a cultured individual. Only when the deeper levels
of human intellect and consciousness are brought into expression can we call a person 'cultured'.
Looked at in this perspective, modern man may at once be called civilized, but not cultured,
though cultural expressions in art, music and literature are there. But if culture in a deeper sense
had penetrated the human psyche, the modern world would not have had to witness two world
wars besides innumerable smaller ones. To add to this, whole communities have been wiped out
in vast genocides. All this destruction cannot be called expressions of culture, though they are, to
be sure, characteristics of modern civilization. More efficient methods of destruction do not take
man far away from his animalism. If anything, they make him more brutish. Only such qualities
which raise the human being from the animal level to the human level, and thence to the divine
level could be called culture. From this point of view we may say that humankind will have to
travel a long way before being culturally transformed.
Throughout history while humankind is all the time getting more and more 'civilized', we also
find this struggle to transcend one's animalism. Simultaneously there have been cultural
transformations at the micro level. Great intellectuals and poets, composers of profound music
and various art forms and, above all, spiritually transformed saints and prophets, have
transcended the limitations of societal living and have become world citizens, for they represent
the highest pinnacle of human transformation. Such persons have been described by Acharya
Shankara as 'There are good souls, calm and magnanimous, who do good to others as does the
spring, who having crossed this dreadful ocean of birth and death, help others to cross the same
without any selfish motive whatsoever!'
HOLISTIC LIVING:
Holistic Education
Giving our children the best shot at life means providing the best all-round education. Home
schooling obviously has a big advantage in this area, as long as the parent is aware of these
factors. Straight left-brain academic will not do, neither will waiting until they go to school,
which is already past most of their major formative years. We need to help them develop in all of
the eight intelligences or learning styles which we all have, as described by Howard Gardner, a
Harvard psychologist. (Originally he only described seven, but later discovered the eighth,
Existential Intelligence - a person who naturally questions and ponders the deeper meaning of
existence from a relatively early age.) This includes right-brain education used in accelerated
learning, as mentioned above, plus the education of the heart and the soul. It includes learning by
music and movement. And it includes teaching them from an early age. Much research has been
done and many positive results obtained from people teaching children from an early age and/or
in a holistic way.

The Mind-Body Connection


Since the body and mind are inextricably connected, every time we have a thought, we set off a
cascade of cellular reactions in our nervous system that influence all the molecules in our body.
Our cells are constantly observing our thoughts and being changed by them.
Each day at the Chopra Center, we see guests who reinforce our view that our thoughts and
choices and experiences influence our tendency to be healthy or become ill. A man in a toxic
work environment has incapacitating headaches that dont respond to multiple medications. A
woman decides she will no longer accept her boyfriends demeaning behavior, and her
debilitating panic attacks mysteriously subside.
Of course, this is not to say that all illnesses are caused by our thoughts. The relationship
between the mind and body is complex, and sometimes things happen at a physical level for
which we dont have a plausible explanation. We have to acknowledge that we may have an
inherent tendency for health or imbalance, and in some cases, genetic inheritance is the major
factor underlying an illness. At the same time, we have amazing potential to heal and transform
ourselves through our thoughts, perceptions, and choices. The body is a magnificent network of
intelligence, capable of far more than current medical science can explain.
Balancing the outer and inner Body, Mind and Intellectual level
Establishing a healthy dialogue between our thoughts and our molecules helps us shift from
imbalance to balance. And when were in an optimal state of dynamic balance, we naturally tend
to listen to our body with love and reverence and make choices that support balance, happiness,
and wellbeing. The following seven mind-body prescriptions will help you create this positive
feedback loop:
Take time each day to quiet your mind and meditate.
Meditation is one of the most powerful tools for restoring balance to our mind and body. In
meditation, you experience a state of restful awareness in which your body is resting deeply
while your mind is awake though quiet. In the silence of awareness, the mind lets go of old
patterns of thinking and feeling and learns to heal itself. Scientific research on meditation is
accelerating with the growing awareness of meditations numerous benefits, including a
decrease in hypertension, heart disease, anxiety, depression, insomnia, and addictive
behaviors.A groundbreaking study by Massachusetts General Hospital found that as little as
eight weeks of meditation not only helped people feel calmer but also produced changes in
various areas of the brain, including growth in the areas associated with memory, empathy, sense
of self, and stress regulation.
Meditation brings us home to the peace of present moment awareness and gives us an experience
of profound relaxation that dissolves fatigue and long-standing stresses. In our experience at the
Chopra Center, the most powerful benefits of meditation come from having a regular, daily
practice.
The Chopra Center offers instruction in Primordial Sound Meditation, a mantra-based meditation
practice that is easy for anyone can learn. You can receive instruction in Primordial Sound

Meditation and your personal mantra at any Chopra Center program or click here to find a
Chopra Centercertified meditation teacher in your area.
Each day eat a healthy diet that includes the six Ayurvedic tastes and a wide variety of colorful
fruits and vegetables.
Next to breathing, eating is our most vital bodily function. To create a healthy body and mind,
our food must be nourishing. Ideal nutrition comes from consuming a variety of foods that are
appropriately prepared and eaten with awareness.
A simple way to make sure that you are getting a balanced diet is to include the six tastes (sweet,
salty, sour, pungent, bitter, and astringent) in each meal. The typical American diet tends to be
dominated by the sweet, sour, and salty tastes (the main flavors of a hamburger). We do need
these tastes, but they can lower metabolism especially if eaten in excess.
The pungent, bitter, and astringent tastes, on the other hand, are anti-inflammatory and increase
metabolism. These tastes are found in food such as radishes, ginger, mustard, peppers, spinach,
mushrooms, tea, lentils lettuce, and so on. You can find more information on the six tastes here.
In addition to including the six tastes in each meal, focus on eating a variety of fresh and freshly
prepared foods, while eliminating or at least limiting items that are canned, frozen, microwaved,
or highly processed. These are dead foods that weaken health and accelerate aging.
Move your body: Engage in daily exercise.
Regular exercise offers incredible benefits for your body and mind. Drs. William Evans and
Irwin Rosenberg from Tufts University have documented the powerful effect of exercise on
many of the biomarkers of aging, including muscle mass, strength, aerobic capacity, bone
density, and cholesterol.
Not only does exercise keep the body young, but it also keeps the mind vital and promotes
emotional wellbeing. In his book Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the
Brain,Harvard University professor John Ratey, M.D. describes research showing that physical
activitysparks biological changes that increase the brains ability to learn, adapt, and perform
other cognitive tasks. Exercise can reverse the detrimental effects of stress and lift depression.
A complete fitness program includes exercises to develop flexibility, cardiovascular
conditioning, and strength training. Find an aerobic activity that you enjoy and will be able to
three to four times each week for twenty to thirty minutes. After your body is warmed up, spend
five to ten minutes stretching. Be sure to include strength training in your program to
systematically exercise the major muscle groups of your body. The key is to start off slowly, find
physical activities you like, and do them regularly. You will be surprised how quickly you
increase your endurance and enthusiasm for moving and breathing.
Take time for restful sleep.
Restful sleep is essential key to having health and vital energy. When you're well-rested, you can
approach stressful situations more calmly, yet sleep is so often neglected or underemphasized.
There is even a tendency for people to boast about how little sleep they can get by on. In reality,
over time, inadequate sleep disrupts the bodys innate balance, weakens our immune system,
contributes to weight gain and depression, and speeds up the aging process.

Human beings generally need between six and eight hours of restful sleep each night. Restful
sleep means that youre not using pharmaceuticals or alcohol to get to sleep but that youre
drifting off easily once you turn off the light and are sleeping soundly through the night. If you
feel energetic and vibrant when you wake up, you had a night of restful sleep. If you feel tired
and unenthusiastic, you havent had restful sleep.You can get the highest quality sleep by
keeping your sleep cycles in tune with the rhythms of the universe, known as circadian rhythms.
At the Chopra Center, we find that if people can commit to a consistent sleep ritual, they can
usually retrain their mind to experience healthy sleep patterns. Find recommendations for a
restful sleep routine here.
Release emotional toxins.
Many of us harbor emotional toxicity in the form of unprocessed anger, hurt or disappointment.
This unprocessed residue from the past contributes to toxicity in our body and needs to be
eliminated. You can begin by asking yourself, What am I holding onto from the past that is no
longer serving me in the present?
Once you have identified what you want to release, spend some time journaling about how your
life will be different when you change. Then you can do a specific releasing ritual that declares
to yourself and to the world that you are letting go of whatever it is youve been holding on to. If
you need more help in this area, consider attending the Healing the Heart workshop at the
Chopra Center. In a nurturing, supportive environment, you will be guided intensive, loving
process to release emotional pain and then fill the newly created space in your heart with love
and self-nurturing behaviors.
Cultivate loving relationships.
Research shows that a good social support network has numerous physical and mental health
benefits. It can keep you from feeling lonely, isolated or inadequate and if you feel good about
yourself, you can deal with stress better. Friends and loved ones can be a good source of advice
and suggest new ways of handling problems. But they can also be an excellent distraction from
what's bothering you. If your network of friends is small, think about volunteering, joining an
outdoor activities group or trying an online meet-up group to make new friends.
Enjoy a good belly-laugh at least once a day.
From the scientific perspective, laughter is an elegant mind-body phenomenon that reduces the
production of stress hormones and boosts the immune system. Researchers in Japan found that
people with rheumatoid arthritis who watched rakugo or comic storytelling experienced a
significant decrease in their pain and stress hormone levels as well as an increase in two
immune-enhancing

UNIT 2
Thevalueofalife

Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality,[1] or fidelity to an original
or standard.[1] Truth may also often be used in modern contexts to refer to an idea of "truth to
self," or authenticity.
The commonly understood opposite of truth is falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take
on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several
contexts, including philosophy, art, andreligion. Many human activities depend upon the
concept, where its nature as a concept is assumed rather than being a subject of discussion; these
include most (but not all) of the sciences, law, journalism, and everyday life. Some philosophers
view the concept of truth as basic, and unable to be explained in any terms that are more easily
understood than the concept of truth itself. Commonly, truth is viewed as the correspondence
of language or thought to an independent reality, in what is sometimes called the correspondence
theory of truth.
The terms self-esteem and self-confidence are often used interchangeably when referring to how
one feels about themselves. Although they are very similar, they are two different concepts. It is
important to understand their roles when looking to improve your overall sense of self.
What is Self-Esteem?
Self-esteem refers to how you feel about yourself overall; how much esteem, positive regard or
self-love you have. Self-esteem develops from experiences and situations that have shaped how
you view yourself today.
Self-confidence is how you feel about your abilities and can vary from situation to situation. I
may have healthy self-esteem, but low confidence about situations involving math (this is true).
When you love yourself, your self-esteem improves, which makes you more confident. When
you are confident in areas of your life, you begin to increase your overall sense of esteem. You
can work on both at the same time.
What Does Low Self-Esteem Look Like?
A friend told me she has low self-esteem; she constantly feels Im not good enough. This
concept has developed over her entire life. She has been in a series of unhealthy relationships, is
frequently belittled by her boss, and constantly tells herself I suck, Im not worth it.
Recognizing she has this negative script, she is now better able to change it.
On the positive side, she is confident about being an amazing chef, a caring friend, and having
the ability to be super-organized. She knows and believes this about herself and feels confident
in these areas. By focusing on the things she is confident in and working on changing her
negative self-talk, she is improving both her self-esteem and self-confidence.
Ideas for Improving Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence
If you are having trouble finding areas you are confident in, try these tips.
Think of qualities others say you excel in. Even if you believe them slightly, this is a step in the
right direction.
Stop the negative chatter. Shut it up! Start to think of contradictions to these statements.
Would you say it to a friend? If not, stop saying these statements to yourself.
Make a list of strengths. Think of what you would say about yourself if you were on a job
interview.

The more we recognize our challenges with self-confidence and self-esteem, the more aware we
Punctuality is the characteristic of being able to complete a required task or fulfill an obligation
before or at a previously designated time.[1] "Punctual" is often used synonymously with "on
time". It is also acceptable that punctual can also, be related to talking about grammar, mean "to
be accurate"
Guidelines to Problem Solving and Decision Making
Much of what people do is solve problems and make decisions. Often, they are "under the gun",
stressed and very short for time. Consequently, when they encounter a new problem or decision
they must make, they react with a decision that seemed to work before. It's easy with this
approach to get stuck in a circle of solving the same problem over and over again. Therefore, it's
often useful to get used to an organized approach to problem solving and decision making. Not
all problems can be solved and decisions made by the following, rather rational approach.
However, the following basic guidelines will get you started. Don't be intimidated by the length
of the list of guidelines. After you've practiced them a few times, they'll become second nature to
you -- enough that you can deepen and enrich them to suit your own needs and nature.
(Note that it might be more your nature to view a "problem" as an "opportunity". Therefore, you
might substitute "problem" for "opportunity" in the following guidelines.)
1. Define the problem
This is often where people struggle. They react to what they think the problem is. Instead, seek to
understand more about why you think there's a problem.
Define the problem: (with input from yourself and others). Ask yourself and others, the following
questions:
What can you see that causes you to think there's a problem?
Where is it happening?
How is it happening?
When is it happening?
With whom is it happening? (HINT: Don't jump to "Who is causing the problem?" When we're
stressed, blaming is often one of our first reactions. To be an effective manager, you need to
address issues more than people.)
Why is it happening?
Write down a five-sentence description of the problem in terms of "The following should be
happening, but isn't ..." or "The following is happening and should be: ..." As much as possible,
be specific in your description, including what is happening, where, how, with whom and why.
(It may be helpful at this point to use a variety of research methods.
Defining complex problems:
If the problem still seems overwhelming, break it down by repeating steps 1-7 until you have
descriptions of several related problems.
Verifying your understanding of the problems:
It helps a great deal to verify your problem analysis for conferring with a peer or someone else.
Prioritize the problems:

If you discover that you are looking at several related problems, then prioritize which ones you
should address first.
Note the difference between "important" and "urgent" problems. Often, what we consider to be
important problems to consider are really just urgent problems. Important problems deserve more
attention. For example, if you're continually answering "urgent" phone calls, then you've
probably got a more "important" problem and that's to design a system that screens and
prioritizes your phone calls.
Understand your role in the problem:
Your role in the problem can greatly influence how you perceive the role of others. For example,
if you're very stressed out, it'll probably look like others are, too, or, you may resort too quickly
to blaming and reprimanding others. Or, you are feel very guilty about your role in the problem,
you may ignore the accountabilities of others.
2. Look at potential causes for the problem
It's amazing how much you don't know about what you don't know. Therefore, in this phase, it's
critical to get input from other people who notice the problem and who are effected by it.
It's often useful to collect input from other individuals one at a time (at least at first). Otherwise,
people tend to be inhibited about offering their impressions of the real causes of problems.
Write down what your opinions and what you've heard from others.
Regarding what you think might be performance problems associated with an employee, it's
often useful to seek advice from a peer or your supervisor in order to verify your impression of
the problem.
Write down a description of the cause of the problem and in terms of what is happening, where,
when, how, with whom and why.
3. Identify alternatives for approaches to resolve the problem
At this point, it's useful to keep others involved (unless you're facing a personal and/or employee
performance problem). Brainstorm for solutions to the problem. Very simply put, brainstorming
is collecting as many ideas as possible, then screening them to find the best idea. It's critical
when collecting the ideas to not pass any judgment on the ideas -- just write them down as you
hear them. (A wonderful set of skills used to identify the underlying cause of issues is Systems
Thinking.)
4. Select an approach to resolve the problem
When selecting the best approach, consider:
Which approach is the most likely to solve the problem for the long term?
Which approach is the most realistic to accomplish for now? Do you have the resources? Are
they affordable? Do you have enough time to implement the approach?
What is the extent of risk associated with each alternative?
(The nature of this step, in particular, in the problem solving process is why problem solving and
decision making are highly integrated.)
5. Plan the implementation of the best alternative (this is your action plan)
Carefully consider "What will the situation look like when the problem is solved?"

What steps should be taken to implement the best alternative to solving the problem? What
systems or processes should be changed in your organization, for example, a new policy or
procedure? Don't resort to solutions where someone is "just going to try harder".
How will you know if the steps are being followed or not? (these are your indicators of the
success of your plan)
What resources will you need in terms of people, money and facilities?
How much time will you need to implement the solution? Write a schedule that includes the start
and stop times, and when you expect to see certain indicators of success.
Who will primarily be responsible for ensuring implementation of the plan?
Write down the answers to the above questions and consider this as your action plan.
Communicate the plan to those who will involved in implementing it and, at least, to your
immediate supervisor.
(An important aspect of this step in the problem-solving process is continually observation and
feedback.)
6. Monitor implementation of the plan
Monitor the indicators of success:
Are you seeing what you would expect from the indicators?
Will the plan be done according to schedule?
If the plan is not being followed as expected, then consider: Was the plan realistic? Are there
sufficient resources to accomplish the plan on schedule? Should more priority be placed on
various aspects of the plan? Should the plan be changed?
7. Verify if the problem has been resolved or not
One of the best ways to verify if a problem has been solved or not is to resume normal operations
in the organization. Still, you should consider:
What changes should be made to avoid this type of problem in the future? Consider changes to
policies and procedures, training, etc.
Lastly, consider "What did you learn from this problem solving?" Consider new knowledge,
understanding and/or skills.
Consider writing a brief memo that highlights the success of the problem solving effort, and what
you learned as a result. Share it with your supervisor, peers and subordinates.
Rational Versus Organic Approach to Problem Solving
Rational
A person with this preference often prefers using a comprehensive and logical approach similar
to the guidelines in the above section. For example, the rational approach, described below, is
often used when addressing large, complex matters in strategic planning.
Define the problem.
Examine all potential causes for the problem.
Identify all alternatives to resolve the problem.
Carefully select an alternative.
Develop an orderly implementation plan to implement that best alternative.
Carefully monitor implementation of the plan.

Verify if the problem has been resolved or not.


A major advantage of this approach is that it gives a strong sense of order in an otherwise chaotic
situation and provides a common frame of reference from which people can communicate in the
situation. A major disadvantage of this approach is that it can take a long time to finish. Some
people might argue, too, that the world is much too chaotic for the rational approach to be useful.
Organic
Some people assert that the dynamics of organizations and people are not nearly so mechanistic
as to be improved by solving one problem after another. Often, the quality of an organization or
life comes from how one handles being on the road itself, rather than the arriving at the
destination. The quality comes from the ongoing process of trying, rather than from having
fixed a lot of problems. For many people it is an approach to organizational consulting.
INTRAPERSONAL AND INTERPERSONAL
Intrapersonal communication is the communication that occurs within an individual. An
individual uses this type of communication for various purposes such as analyzing situations,
clarifying concepts, and reflecting upon phenomena. There are three elements that govern
intrapersonal communication, namely self-concept, perception and expectation. An individual
employs certain methods to communicate within themselves and these are internal discourse
where thinking, concentration and analyzing occur, solo vocal communication which involves
speaking out aloud to oneself, and solo written communication that encompasses writing not
intended for others.
Interpersonal communication on the other hand is the type of communication that takes place
between people. People communicate with each other for a number of reasons such as to explain,
to teach, to inquire, and to inform. The channel of interpersonal communication consists of four
basic elements; sender, message, medium and receiver. There are verbal and non-verbal forms of
communication that are used to conduct interpersonal communication and these include letters,
signs, notes, text messages, e-mails, memos as well as face-to-face conversations.
teamwork is "a dynamic process involving two or more healthcare professionals with
complementary background and skills, sharing common health goals and exercising concerted
physical and mental effort in assessing, planning, or evaluating patient care"
Problems solving: A single brain cant bounce different ideas off of each other. Each team
member has a responsibility to contribute equally and offer their unique perspective on a
problem to arrive at the best possible solution.[12] Teamwork can lead to better decisions,
products, or services. The quality of teamwork may be effective by analyzing the following six
components of collaboration among team members: communication, coordination, balance of
member contributions, mutual support, effort, and cohesion.[13] In one study, teamwork quality as
measured in this manner correlated with team performance in the areas of effectiveness (i.e.,
producing high quality work) and efficiency (i.e., meeting schedules and budgets).[13] A
2008 meta-analysis also found a relationship between teamwork and team effectiveness.[9]
Healthy competition: A healthy competition in groups can be used to motivate individuals and
help the team excel.

Developing relationships: A team that continues to work together will eventually develop an
increased level of bonding. This can help people avoid unnecessary conflicts since they have
become well acquainted with each other through teamwork.[12] Team members ratings of their
satisfaction with a team is correlated with the level of teamwork processes present.[9]
Everyone has unique qualities: Every team member can offer their unique knowledge and ability
to help improve other team members. Through teamwork the sharing of these qualities will allow
team members to be more productive in the future.
In healthcare: teamwork is associated with increased patient safety.
CREATIVITY AND POSITIVE THINKING:
Flood Your Mind with Creative Materials. Exceptional thinkers are exceptional learners. The
creative power of your mind becomes activated in an atmosphere of constant exposures to
quality and stimulating learning. Do not just immerse your mind into unhelpful readings that
have no connection whatsoever with your goals. Rather, flood your mind with books, audios,
videos and other materials of your most cherished and respected creative people in your field or
world of passion. The genius of your mind requires heroes to emulate and constantly learn from,
before its own uniqueness can emerge, position and be fully energized for maximum
productivity.
Hang Out With Creative People. It is absolutely true that birds of a feather flog together. If I
know who you hang around with all day long, I can predict the quality of your thinking. Your
creative thinking brain is extremely adaptive. It, after some time, downgrades or upgrades itself
to the level of your closest friends thinking. Your quality of thinking will always be the average
of the five of your closest friends. Association is a powerful atmosphere, carrying positive or
negative energy. That is why great thinkers hang out with each other. They harness the positive
energy of the atmosphere they create to further dig deeper into their thinking mind for
uncommon creativity. Look for those who are smarter than you in many areas, and submerge
yourself in their company. Join a mastermind group, where great and like-minded people bounce
off great ideas of each other.
Schedule Quality Time for Creative Thinking. Your creative mind requires uninterrupted and
undisturbed time to completely focus and position itself for action. Silence is the environment
where the creative power of the mind comes out to play and for self-expression. Create time for
yourself where you can sit quietly and relax your mind and think. Turn off all your electronic
distractions (TV, iPhone, iPad, etc,.). I have never met an achiever who does not know the
incredible importance of solitude. In order to take your creativity to a new different level,
focused thinking is a skill that has to be developed with great discipline. But its benefits are
enormous.
Only Permit Positive Thoughts. Nothing kills creativity faster than a neurotic state of mind.
Habitual Negative thinking simply destroys your minds ability to function at its best. Your
creative thinking future will be largely dependent on your ability to guard your mind from
slumping into a weakening state of negative mindset. When negative thoughts flood into your
mind to overtake you, Turn them all to positives and walk away from them as if you dont really
care at all. And of course, you should not care at all for unhelpful intruding thoughts! Take the

weight out of them and render those negativity unimportant, irrelevant and meaningless, then
refocus your energy for positivity. By so doing, you snatch back your creative mind-power from
the paralysis of negative thinking.
Be Ruthless With Self-Doubt. Self-doubt is the number one creativity assassin. When self-doubt
steps in, self-belief steps out. Both cannot co-exist. Creative agility of your mind only responds
in the atmosphere of confidence and high self-esteem. Therefore, do all you can to keep your
self-confidence up and your self-image intact. Avoid aggressively, whatever promises to make
you feel small. Whoever or whatever diminishes or reduces your self-confidence will also
diminish your creative thinking. Constantly evaluate your self-image. If you find yourself
lacking in self-esteem at any level, focus to pump it back up. The best way to do this is to read a
book or listen to tapes on self-esteem and confidence. You need somebody elses voice or writing
to help remind you again of the positive values you once believed about yourself.
Get Rid of Fear and Anxiety. Perhaps you could still remember a time in your life, maybe at
school, when you were so fearful and anxious about a test, or an exam, or about speaking out in
front of some people that your mind went completely blank. Even though you had spent hours
planning what you would write or say, you failed to pull it off, because you were engulfed in fear
leading to anxiety attacks. Fear freezes creativity. Anxiety chokes and suffocates creative
intelligence and blocks great ideas and insights from sprouting. You cannot live in fear and
anxiety and expect to maximize your full potential in life. You must be willing to do all it takes
to defeat your anxiety and fear. Men do not fail for lack of creative ability, they fail for lack of
ability to overcome their fear and anxiety. Creative ability requires creative expression. But you
cannot express yourself creatively if your mind is filled with fear and anxiety. If you have any
issue with anxiety disorders, you may want to request for my FREE eBook: The Essential Guide
To Anxiety Panic Recovery here.
Take Action on Your Creative Thoughts. This is crucial! For the growth of your creative mind
and for your motivation, taking positive action is extremely important. Quality action is a key to
progression. If you only think creatively, and never turn those thinking into tangible products or
things that can be seen, touched or measured, your brilliance in creative thinking wont last. Your
mind requires a track record of successes , no matter how small, to sustain its strength and keep
progressing. Therefore, become an active agent of your own creative thinking. Bring them to life.
Transform your ideas from the realm of invisibility to the physical realm of visibility. And you
will keep your creative thinking alive.
Engage In Creative Thinking and Action Consistently. We are all creatures of rituals and habits.
And so is the mind it likes rituals and adapts to habits. The minds energy and vitality are
nourished, expanded and maintained, through constant exposures to creative thinking and acting.
What does that mean? It means that you must think and act daily. It does not have to take 10
hours everyday. If it is only 10 minutes youve got, use it wisely. Unless you engage in creative
thinking daily and take positive actions required, you cannot develop an uncommon creative
mind. Your creative mind needs feeding daily in order to grow and develop to a world-class
level.

A great future requires daily habits of greatness. Study the lives of great achievers in arts,
philosophy, psychology, science, entertainment, sports, business, and spirituality, and you will
see how they have dedicated every single day of their lives to personal growth and positive
actions.
In my opinion, everyone is born with enough unique creativity and ability for unprecedented
accomplishments in life. One reason many have not achieved their potential in this area is lack of
success-disciplines that release their creative mind-power. I hope the above tips are helpful to
you.
UNIT 3
HUMAN RIGHTS DEFINED
What are human rights?
Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of
residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all
equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated,
interdependent and indivisible.
Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties,
customary international law , general principles and other sources of international law.
International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to
refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental
freedoms of individuals or groups.
Universal and inalienable
The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights
law. This principle, as first emphasized in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights in 1948,
has been reiterated in numerous international human rights conventions, declarations, and
resolutions. The 1993 Vienna World Conference on Human Rights, for example, noted that it is
the duty of States to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, regardless
of their political, economic and cultural systems.
All States have ratified at least one, and 80% of States have ratified four or more, of the core
human rights treaties, reflecting consent of States which creates legal obligations for them and
giving concrete expression to universality. Some fundamental human rights norms enjoy
universal protection by customary international law across all boundaries and civilizations.
Human rights are inalienable. They should not be taken away, except in specific situations and
according to due process. For example, the right to liberty may be restricted if a person is found
guilty of a crime by a court of law.
Interdependent and indivisible
All human rights are indivisible, whether they are civil and political rights, such as the right to
life, equality before the law and freedom of expression; economic, social and cultural rights,
such as the rights to work, social security and education , or collective rights, such as the rights
to development and self-determination, are indivisible, interrelated and interdependent. The
improvement of one right facilitates advancement of the others. Likewise, the deprivation of one
right adversely affects the others.

Equal and non-discriminatory


Non-discrimination is a cross-cutting principle in international human rights law. The principle is
present in all the major human rights treaties and provides the central theme of some of
international human rights conventions such as the International Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
The principle applies to everyone in relation to all human rights and freedoms and it prohibits
discrimination on the basis of a list of non-exhaustive categories such as sex, race, colour and so
on. The principle of non-discrimination is complemented by the principle of equality, as stated in
Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: All human beings are born free and
equal in dignity and rights.
Both Rights and Obligations
Human rights entail both rights and obligations. States assume obligations and duties under
international law to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights. The obligation to respect means
that States must refrain from interfering with or curtailing the enjoyment of human rights. The
obligation to protect requires States to protect individuals and groups against human rights
abuses. The obligation to fulfil means that States must take positive action to facilitate the
enjoyment of basic human rights. At the individual level, while we are entitled our human rights,
we should also respect the human rights of others.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of
human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all
regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in
Paris on 10 December 1948 General Assembly resolution 217 A as a common standard of
achievements for all peoples and all nations. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human
rights to be universally protected and it has been translated into almost 500 languages.
Preamble
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all
members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have
outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall
enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the
highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to
rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of
law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in
fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights
of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life
in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United
Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental
freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for
the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION
OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to
the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in
mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and
by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective
recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among
the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
Article 1.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason
and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without
distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion,
national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made
on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to
which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other
limitation of sovereignty.
Article 3.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all
their forms.
Article 5.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 6.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7.

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the
law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration
and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Article 8.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts
violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
Article 9.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Article 10.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial
tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against
him.
Article 11.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved
guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his
defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did
not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was
committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time
the penal offence was committed.
Article 12.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or
correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the
protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Article 13.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each
state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
Article 14.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from nonpolitical crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 15.

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.


(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his
nationality.
Article 16.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have
the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during
marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection
by society and the State.
Article 17.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Article 18.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes
freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others
and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and
observance.
Article 19.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold
opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any
media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 20.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
Article 21.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through
freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be
expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and
shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Article 22.

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization,
through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization
and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his
dignity and the free development of his personality.
Article 23.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable
conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself
and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other
means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Article 24.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and
periodic holidays with pay.
Article 25.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of
himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary
social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability,
widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether
born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
Article 26.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and
fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional
education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to
all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the
strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote
understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall
further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
Article 27.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the
arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any
scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Article 28.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth
in this Declaration can be fully realized.
Article 29.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his
personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations
as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the
rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and
the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and
principles of the United Nations.
Article 30.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any
right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights
and freedoms set forth herein.
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION
There is now near-universal consensus that all individuals are entitled to certain
basic rights under any circumstances. These include certain civil liberties and political rights, the
most fundamental of which is the right to life and physical safety. Human rights are the
articulation of the need for justice, tolerance, mutual respect, and human dignity in all of our
activity.[1] Speaking of rights allows us to express the idea that all individuals are part of the
scope of morality and justice.
To protect human rights is to ensure that people receive some degree of decent, humane
treatment. To violate the most basic human rights, on the other hand, is to deny individuals their
fundamental moral entitlements. It is, in a sense, to treat them as if they are less than human and
undeserving of respect and dignity. Examples are acts typically deemed "crimes against
humanity," including genocide, torture, slavery, rape, enforced sterilization or medical
experimentation, and deliberate starvation. Because these policies are sometimes implemented
by governments, limiting the unrestrained power of the state is an important part of international
law. Underlying laws that prohibit the various "crimes against humanity" is the principle of
nondiscrimination and the notion that certain basic rights apply universally.[2]
The Various Types of Violations
The number of deaths related to combat and the collateral damage caused by warfare are only a
small part of the tremendous amount of suffering and devastation caused by conflicts. Over the
course of protracted conflict, assaults on political rights and the fundamental right to life are

typically widespread. Some of the gravest violations of the right to life are massacres, the
starvation of entire populations, and genocide. Genocide is commonly understood as the
intentional extermination of a single ethnic, racial, or religious group. Killing group members,
causing them serious bodily or mental harm, imposing measures to prevent birth, or forcibly
transferring children are all ways to bring about the destruction of a group. Genocide is often
regarded as the most offensive crime against humanity.
The term "war crime" refers to a violation of the rules of jus in bello (justice in war) by any
individual, whether military or civilian.[3] The laws of armed conflict prohibit attacks on
civilians and the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or long-term environmental
damage.[4] Other war crimes include taking hostages, firing on localities that are undefended
and without military significance, such as hospitals or schools, inhuman treatment of prisoners,
including biological experiments, and the pillage or purposeless destruction of property.[5]
Although clearly outlawed by international law, such war crimes are common. According to Kofi
Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations, it is increasingly true that "the main aim...[of
conflicts]... is the destruction not of armies but of civilians and entire ethnic groups."[6]
Women and girls are often raped by soldiers or forced into prostitution. For a long time, the
international community has failed to address the problem of sexual violence during armed
conflict.[7] However, sexual assaults, which often involve sexual mutilation, sexual humiliation,
and forced pregnancy, are quite common. Such crimes are motivated in part by the long-held
view that women are the "spoils" of war to which soldiers are entitled. Trafficking in women is a
form of sexual slavery in which women are transported across national borders and marketed for
prostitution. These so-called "comfort women" are another example of institutionalized sexual
violence against women during wartime. Sexual violence is sometimes viewed as a way to
destroy male and community pride or humiliate men who cannot "protect" their women. It is also
used to silence women who are politically active, or simply inflict terror upon the population at
large.[8] Mass rapes may also form part of a genocidal strategy, designed to impose conditions
that lead to the destruction of an entire group of people. For example, during the 1990s, the
media reported that "rape and other sexual atrocities were a deliberate and systematic part of the
Bosnian Serb campaign for victory in the war" in the former Yugoslavia.[9]
Rather than simply killing off whole populations, government forces may carry out programs of
torture. Torture can be either physical or psychological, and aims at the "humiliation or
annihilation of the dignity of the person."[10] Physical torture might include mutilation, beatings,
and electric shocks to lips, gums, and genitals.[11] In psychological torture, detainees are
sometimes deprived of food and water for long periods, kept standing upright for hours, deprived
of sleep, or tormented by high-level noise.
Torture is used in some cases as a way to carry out interrogations and extract confessions or
information. Today, it is increasingly used as a means of suppressing political and ideological
dissent, or for punishing political opponents who do not share the ideology of the ruling group.
[12]
In addition to torture, tens of thousands of people detained in connection with conflicts
"disappear" each year, and are usually killed and buried in secret.[13] Government forces "take

people into custody, hold them in secret, and then refuse to acknowledge responsibility for their
whereabouts or fate."[14] This abduction of persons is typically intended to secure information
and spread terror. In most cases, interrogations involve threats and torture, and those who are
arrested are subsequently killed.[15] Corpses are buried in unmarked graves or left at dumpsites
in an attempt to conceal acts of torture and summary execution of those in custody.[16] Because
people disappear without any trace, families do not know whether their loved ones are alive or
dead.
Various lesser forms of political oppression are often enacted as well. Individuals who pose a
threat to those in power or do not share their political views may be arbitrarily imprisoned, and
either never brought to trial or subject to grossly unfair trial procedures. Mass groups of people
may be denied the right to vote or excluded from all forms of political participation. Or,
measures restricting people's freedom of movement may be enforced. These include forcible
relocations, mass expulsions, and denials of the right to seek asylum or return to one's home.[17]
Political oppression may also take the form of discrimination. When this occurs, basic rights may
be denied on the basis of religion, ethnicity, race, or gender. Apartheid, which denies political
rights on the basis of race, is perhaps one of the most severe forms of discrimination. The system
of apartheid in South Africa institutionalized extreme racial segregation that involved laws
against interracial marriage or sexual relations and requirements for the races to live in different
territorial areas. Certain individuals were held to be inferior by definition, and not regarded as
full human beings under the law.[18] The laws established under this system aimed at social
control, and brought about a society divided along racial lines and characterized by a systematic
disregard for human rights.
In addition, women are uniquely vulnerable to certain types of human rights abuses -- in addition
to the sexual abuse mentioned above, entrenched discrimination against women is prevalent in
many parts of the world and leads to various forms of political and social oppression. This
includes strict dress codes and harsh punishments for sexual "transgressions," which impose
severe limitations on women's basic liberties. In addition, women in some regions (Africa , for
example) suffer greater poverty than men and are denied political influence, education, and job
training.[19]
Human Rights Violations and Intractable Conflict
Many have noted the strong interdependence between human rights violations and intractable
conflict. Abuse of human rights often leads to conflict, and conflict typically results in human
rights violations. It is not surprising, then, that human rights abuses are often at the center of
wars and that protection of human rights is central to conflict resolution.[20]
Violations of political and economic rights are the root causes of many crises. When rights to
adequate food, housing, employment, and cultural life are denied, and large groups of people are
excluded from the society's decision-making processes, there is likely to be great social unrest.
Such conditions often give rise to justice conflicts, in which parties demand that their basic needs
be met.
Indeed, many conflicts are sparked or spread by violations of human rights. For example,
massacres or torture may inflame hatred and strengthen an adversary's determination to continue

fighting. Violations may also lead to further violence from the other side and can contribute to
a conflict's spiraling out of control.
On the flip side, armed conflict often leads to the breakdown of infrastructure and civic
institutions, which in turn undermines a broad range of rights. When hospitals and schools are
closed, rights to adequate health and education are threatened. The collapse of economic
infrastructure often results in pollution, food shortages, and overall poverty.[21] These various
forms of economic breakdown and oppression violate rights to self-determination and often
contribute to further human tragedy in the form of sickness, starvation, and lack of basic shelter.
The breakdown of government institutions results in denials of civil rights, including the rights to
privacy, fair trial, and freedom of movement. In many cases, the government is increasingly
militarized, and police and judicial systems are corrupted. Abductions, arbitrary arrests,
detentions without trial, political executions, assassinations, and torture often follow.
National integration is a process by which divisive people and culture are synthesized into a
unified whole. It is a process of harmony, common identity and above all national consciousness.
National integration consolidates all the diverse loyalties into one national unity. Nation and
national consideration overpower all other sectarian, regional and communal considerations.
National integration has been described as a psychological and educational process involving
the development of common feeling of unity, solidarity and cohesion in the hearts of people, a
sense of common citizenship and a feeling of loyalty to the nation.
The culture of peace and non-violence is a commitment to peace-building, mediation, conflict
prevention and resolution, peace education, education for non-violence, tolerance, acceptance,
mutual respect, intercultural and interfaith dialogue and reconciliation. To be able to live a
peaceful and non-violent life, an individual must first have their basic survival needs met. They
must have food, shelter and water. Alleviating the poverty of our people in our world is one of
the first steps to creating a culture of peace and non-violence. For this to ever happen, it has to be
a worldwide effort, however it can start with individuals and on a small scale. The simplest step
is sharing your own time and resources to help others. This can be done in our own lives, in our
homes, at our workplaces, in classrooms. If everyone contributes a small amount of their time
and resources to the cause of alleviating the poverty of others, there would be a drastic change in
the number of impoverished people in our world.
Another impediment to peace is intolerance of other people. Intolerance can be to differences of
race, religion, cultures and lifestyles. Through education this can be changed. By educating
children about different religions, races, cultures and lifestyles in our world we can help them to
understand the similarities between everyone. They will understand how insignificant these
differences are, how they are not a reason for discrimination or prejudices. We can promote
respect and tolerance of others.
Dr. APJ Abdul Kalams Ten Point for enlighten citizenship
1. I will pursue my education or the work with dedication and I will excel in it.
2. From now onwards, I will teach at least 10 persons to read and write those who cannot read
and write.
3. I will plant at least 10 saplings and shall ensure their growth through constant care.

4. I will visit rural and urban areas and permanently wean away at least 5 persons from addiction
and gambling.
5. I will constantly endeavour to remove the pain of my suffering brethren.
6. I will not support any religious, caste or language differentiation.
7. I will be honest and endeavour to make a corruption free society.
8. I will work for becoming an enlightened citizen and make my family righteous.
9. I will always be a friend of the mentally and physically challenged and will work hard to make
them feel normal, like the rest of us.
10. I will proudly celebrate the success of my country and my people.
Welfare and society
Social policy draws on sociology to explain the social context of welfare provision. If we are
trying to improve people's welfare, it is helpful to try to understand something about the way that
people are, and how welfare policies relate to their situation. Some writers have gone further,
arguing that because welfare takes place in a social context, it can only be understood in that
context. This has been particularly important for 'critical social policy', which begins from a view
of social policy as underpinned by social inequality - particularly the inequalities of class, race
and gender.
The social structure
Societies are 'structured' in the sense that people's relationships follow consistent patterns. Fiona
Williams has argued that social policy is dominated in practice by the dominant values of society
- the issues of family, work and nation. [1]
Family A range of policies are built around the idea of the 'family' as a man, woman and
children. Examples are child benefits, education and child care. Some countries have policies
built on the idea of the man as 'breadwinner', with support based on the idea that the marriage is
permanent and the woman will not work. Families which deviate from the norm - for example,
poor single mothers - are likely to be penalised, though there may also be anomalies in the
organisation of benefits (e.g, when promiscuity is accepted and stable cohabitation is not).
Work Many systems of social protection depend on a stable work record for basic cover in
unemployment, ill health and old age. Workers who misbehave - for example, by striking or
being dismissed - may be penalised.
Nation Most systems discriminate against non-citizens, and many have residence rules for
particular benefits or services. Immigrants are likely to have different, and often second-class,
services.
These issues are discussed further in the sections which follow.
Family policy
The normal family
"Normal" does not mean "average"; it means "conforming to social norms". The 'normal' family
consists of two parents with one or more children, but it is increasingly untypical in developed
countries. Several factors have contributed to this trend:
ageing populations, which mean that increasing numbers of households consist of elderly people
without children;

the delay in undertaking childbirth, which means that more households consist of single women
or couples without children;
the growth of single parenthood; and
household fission - the tendency for households to split, because of divorce and earlier
independence for children.
Social policies sometimes seek to reinforce the normal family, by rewarding normal conduct or
penalising "deviant" (non-normal) circumstances. Rewards include subsidies for married
dependants and children; penalties include requirements to support one's family, and legal and
financial deterrents to divorce. At the same time, the assumption that couples live more cheaply
than single people may lead to two single people getting greater support: cohabitation rules,
treating people living together as if they were married, are used to ensure equity with married
couples.
Single parents
The rise in single parenthood is mainly based on three factors:
Divorce, which has been increasing as women have gained independence in finance and career;
Unemployment. Unemployment is correlated with divorce, partly because it strains the marriage,
and partly, perhaps, because it has undermined the role of the traditional male breadwinner.
Cohabitation. This effect is a statistical artefact, rather than a real change in parental status.
There is no reason to attribute the rise to teenage motherhood (which, like other forms of
motherhood, has tended to fall).
The position of single parents who receive social benefits has been controversial. The liberal
individualist position is that if people choose to have children it's then up to them to look after
their family. The collectivist position, and to a large extent the dominant position in continental
Europe, is that children are other people's business as well. There is also a strong body of opinion
which considers that the interests of the children override any moral concerns about the status of
the parents.
Work
Patterns of work
The incorporation of people into the formal labour market has been central both to policies to
deal with poverty and exclusion, and to the development of social protection. However, in many
circumstances people are only partly integrated into the labour market. Their situation is
characterised as
a "dual labour market", distinguishing the social position of secure employees on regular pay
from others;
"peripheral" workers, whose role in the economy is more marginal, and who are liable to
displacement during economic cycles; and
"precariousness", the role of marginal workers who move between casual and part-time work and
joblessness.
Economic marginality has implications for social inclusion. Unstable economic conditions lead
to social instability - marginal employment is associated with family breakdown - while also
reducing the level of social protection available.

The role of the labour movement


Many welfare systems have their origins in collective and mutualist actions by trades unions,
professional or occupational groups, rather than the state. Trades unions developed, for example,
unemployment benefits in Denmark, social housing in Norway, or the health service in Israel.
In France, social protection for unemployment is administered by a "convention" of employers
and trades unions.
It is also true that welfare developed historically at a time of social conflict, and labour
organisations have had an important role in the development of policy, including Bismarck's
establishment of social insurance and the foundations of the British social
services. Marxists have traditionally seen the welfare state as the outcome of struggles by the
labour movement. This is only true in part: several measures - like insurance-based pensions in
the UK - have developed despite the resistance of organised labour, and others, like the extension
of rights to the poorest, have been marked by conflicts between groups.
Nation
Nations and welfare
Nations are seen at times as groups linked by a shared history or culture; as a collective group of
people in a specific geographical location, with a common identity; or as political communities.
Historically, social welfare became important shortly after the rise of "nation states", and in some
views the ideas are closely associated. David Miller, for example, argues that the nation is the
principal community on which welfare provision depends. [2]
National identity is as often used, however, to exclude people from welfare as to promote
inclusion, and the influence of nationalism on welfare has tended to be negative. Titmuss
criticised the idea of the "welfare state" because it seemed to limit the scope of welfare to a
particular locality. [3] Universalists have promoted an inclusive concept of welfare; in principle,
this concept is inclusive, but in practice it tends to be confined to citizens, or members of the
political community.
Immigration and nationality
Immigrants, by definition, come from outside a community; wherever social protection depends
on contribution to collective welfare, immigrants are liable to be excluded. Residual income
support may be available, but it is unusual for non-contributory benefits, such as benefits for
disabled people, to be available directly to immigrants; many countries have some kind of
minimum residential qualification.
Much immigration consists of movements of people from poorer countries to richer ones:
immigrants tend to come with relatively limited resources. Few countries offer immigrants a full
range of social protection or benefits, and in the short term this is likely to lead to disadvantage.
At the same time, migrants tend to be younger and more mobile than host populations. In the
longer term, much depends on the economic niche occupied by immigrant groups, and their
relative status and resources. Immigrant careers are highly differentiated.
Issues of immigration overlap with racism. However, there are racial minorities who are not
immigrants and widely persecuted (like the Roma in central and Eastern Europe), and some
immigrant groups are not disadvantaged.

Social problems
Social policies can be seen as collective responses to social problems. A problem is social when
it is socially recognised: important issues like grief and emotional distress are not necessarily
'social', and there may be no social policies to deal with them. Conversely, other, seemingly
minor, concerns and complaints can be elevated to the status of social problems, and acted on dealing with 'NIMBY' protests ('not in my back yard') bedevils community care provision.
Problems are 'socially constructed'. People's values, beliefs and opinions are conditioned by the
society they live in, and people come to share many basic perceptions. This can shape the way
people think about issues, and close off some options: so, child abuse is usually constructed as
the result of parental abnormality, and not as the obvious outcome of rules which allow children
to be beaten physically.
Deviance
Deviance refers to a breach of social rules, or 'norms'. Normal behaviour is behaviour within
these rules. There are many possible explanations for deviance. The main schools of thought
include
genetic views. This is based on the idea that some social traits are inborn. The gene pool changes
very little over time; this would imply a relatively static proportion of problems, and continuity
between generations. Neither is consistent with the evidence.
sub-cultural views. There is an argument that people become deviant because they are part of
deviant sub-cultures. They have different values, beliefs and patterns of behaviour, formed in
adapting to different social circumstances.
functional explanations. Societies have to define what is acceptable and what is not. Lvi-Strauss
argues for example that the ban on incest is functionally necessary, and that is why it is so
common. [4]
interactionist views. Some sociologists have argued that deviance is the result of social
definitions. Lemert distinguishes primary deviance (the deviant act) from secondary deviance
(the identification of the person as deviant). [5] 'Labelling theory' goes further, attributing
deviance to the creation of rules by society.
structural views. This attributes deviance to the social structure, including family, community
and economy. For example, increasing crime has been linked with unemployment (though falls
in unemployment have not been matched by falls in crime rates).
The literature on deviance includes material not just on crime, but on many other issues which
are seen as 'problematic', such as disability, sexuality and illegitimate births.
Two things we now know:
When the media does its job differently, citizens do their jobs differently.
When you seed innovation in newsrooms, you get new ideas.
We live in an era today in which both journalists and the public in the United States are
struggling to reach a consensus on what constitutes good journalism.
It's no longer enough for journalists themselves to think they are doing a good job. For
journalism to continue to receive constitutional protection -- and continue to attract readers and

viewers -- readers and viewers have to agree that journalism plays an essential role in our
democratic society.
Recently, though, there have been disturbing data that this is not the case. National surveys
document a reservoir of resentment toward the American press and its practices. Arrogant,
insensitive, biased, inaccurate, and sensational are the words the public uses to characterize the
media.
There appears to be a growing consensus that "news" is broken. Now the big question is: do
journalists know how to fix it?
Newspaper circulation is flat or falling. Although people are reading more, they're not reading
newspapers. And TV news viewership is plummeting.
The Freedom Forum, a nonpartisan, international foundation, recently conducted a survey on the
state of the First Amendment. Overall, the press held its First Amendment rights in higher esteem
than did the general public.
More than half of the respondents -- 53 percent -- said they believe the press has too much
freedom. This is an increase of 15 percentage points from a similar survey in 1997.
Only 45 percent said they believe the media protect democracy, down from 54 percent in 1985.
And 38 percent said the media actually hurt democracy.
Some 65 percent said newspapers should not be able to publish freely.
Disturbing numbers of people said the press should not be allowed to endorse or criticize
political candidates, should not be able to use hidden cameras for newsgathering, and should not
be able to publish government secrets.
UNIT 4
the concept of Environmental & Ecological Balance
The Effect of Over Exploitation of Natural Resources and Industrialisation
The environment refers to natural things around us which sustain our life, such as the atmosphere
of the earth, fresh and healthy air and drinkable water etc.
To define environment we may say that it is an outer physical and biological system in which
man and other organisms exist with many interacting components.
The most recognised among these components include the rocks, minerals, soils and waters, the
land and its present and potential vegetation, the animal life and potential for livestock
husbandary and the climate etc.

Image Source: lunar.thegamez.net


There is a close interaction among these various components which seem to produce some kind
of equilibrium in the scheme of nature which is termed as ecological balance.
This interaction of various components is known as ecosystem. This ecosystem is related with
environmental factors. The various living organisms of this environment get heat and energy
from the sun to make a closely knit ecocycle.
Organisms of this ecosystem may generally be divided into three categories:
1. Producers, 2. Consumers, 3. Decomposers.
Producers mostly belong, to the category of plants that make their food by the inorganic
substances by themselves in the presence of light.
Consumers particularly include animals including human being, that depend for their food on
other organism including plants, and the decomposers come in the category of bacteria and
fungus etc. that decompose the organic substances present in dead plants and animals.
The system is useful to man. A perfect ecological balance cannot be expected in the wake of
growing industrialisation as owing to this, pollution of environment becomes inevitable.
The environment has carrying capacity, or the amount of pollution or damage an environment
can sustain without further degradation.
A lake that is 5 times larger than another one can carry roughly 5 times the pollution load. If the
loads of pollution are not minimised or environment upgraded to an extent that it will be able to
carry them, the environmental degradation will inevitably worsen.
By the misuse, abuse and uncontrolled use of resources both natural and otherwise have upset the
equilibrium between human activity and nature.
Over-exploitation of natural resources in the name of industrialization is posing a great danger to
the ecosystem. This danger may be understood in following two ways:
1. Physical Environment. 2. Human Environment.

Physical Environment consists of all constituents of natural origin like physiography-, climate,
vegetation, soil, water bodies, wild animals and minerals.
Human Environment consists of all elements having a human touch in their origin. Such
elements include all manifestations of human activities.
Of course natural resources cannot be confined to the physical manifestation of nature, it also
includes the entire environmental scenario-the carrying capacity of nature, the extent up to which
the nature can accommodate.
Interdependence of living and Non-living things
Interdependence of living and Non-living things
competition and niche two species in an ecosystem cannot depend on the same exact set of
factors the niche of a species is the set of all factors used by that species communities change
over time:
Climate change, natural events, and human impact can change a habitat over time
Ecological succession is the pattern of change in the species present in a given habitat over time
succession:
primary succession begins in an area that has no plants at all the first living things to move into
an area are called pioneer species (lichen) secondary succession are where soil and organisms are
present in an area and have been there in the past Competition for resources adaptation is a
characteristic of an organism that helps it survive in its environment a habitat is where a
community lives and where species interact the living things in an ecosystem are called biotic
factors the non-living things are called abiotic factors Humans and ecosystems overfishing is the
taking of wildlife from the ocean faster that the species can naturally replace itself native species
are species that are found naturally in an area invasive species is an organisms that is not native
to an ecosystem whose introduction causes harm to native species
Humans affecting the oceans
Overfishing
Dead Zone - an area of water with so little dissolved oxygen that no organisms can survive there
fertilizer flowing off farms in rainwater travels down the Mississippi River and empties into the
Gulf of Mexico
Nutrients cause an algae bloom, algae use the nutrients, decomposers use up oxygen
Environmental Change
When an environment changes, some living things will suffer, while others have an easier time
quick change? species can die or relocate
gradual change? natural selection can cause the population to adapt over many generations
environmental change can effect some species directly, and other indirectly
New Words
Biodiversity and Sustainability
biodiversity is a measure of how many species are in an ecosystem
ecosystems with more biodiversity tend to be more sustainable
they are able to bounce back, or recover more quickly
What you need to Know:

Describe how biodiversity contributes to the sustainability of an ecosystem


describe the role of ecological succession
investigate how organisms and populations depend on and may compete for biotic and abiotic
factors.
Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action is a book written
by George Perkins Marsh in 1864.
It is one of the first works to document the effects of human action on the environment and it
helped to launch the modern conservation movement. Marsh argued that
ancient Mediterranean civilizations collapsed through environmental
degradation. Deforestation led to eroded soils that led to decreased soil productivity.
Additionally, the same trends could be found occurring in the United States. The book was
instrumental in the creation of Adirondack Park in New York and theUnited States National
Forest. Gifford Pinchot, first Chief of the United States Forest Service, called it "epoch making"
and Stewart Udall wrote that it was "the beginning of land wisdom in this country."
The book is divided into six chapters.
Introductory
Transfer, Modification, and Extirpation of Vegetable and of Animal Species
The Woods
The Waters
The Sands
Projected or Possible Geographical Changes by Man
Environmental Enrichment
Environmental enrichment is the process of providing stimulating environments for captive
animals in order for them to demonstrate their species-typical behavior, to allow them to exercise
control or choice over their environment, and to enhance their well-being.
At Wildlife Reserves Singapore, we believe that environmental enrichment is just as critical to
zoo animal welfare as nutrition and veterinary medicine. Enrichment is an integral part of the
daily care of the species in our collection.
Enrichment includes the design of stimulating and naturalistic enclosures, the housing of
appropriate social groups in zoos, and the introduction of objects, sounds, smells or other stimuli
in the animals environment.
Goals and Objectives
Alleviate boredom and lethargy
Improve the physical and mental well-being
Reduce stereotypical behaviour (Eg: pacing, swaying)
Stimulate and simulate natural behavior
Improve animal display

Increase the educational value of the exhibits


Allow keepers to observe the animal for new and interesting behavioral responses
Establish a positive relationship between animal and keeper
To be as imaginative and creative towards the enrichments as possible.
UNIT V
Lets start out with a brief introduction on what we think social evils are all about. a definition
of social evil would be something like this:
Social evils are issues are issues which in one way or another affects members of a society and
is often considered controversial or problematic in terms of moral values. Some of the most
common social evils would be alcoholism, racism, (child) abuse, organized crime and
inequality.
So basically, social evil is anything that could be considered harmful or dangerous to a society
and/or community. Lets take a few examples and determine why they can be called social
evils.
One of the first things one will think of when discussing issues that could be harmful for a
society would be crime. Organized crime is something that is happening for thousands of years
now and will most likely keep happening for the next few decades. But what makes organized
crime a social evil?
Judging from the definition we just mentioned above, organized crime can be harmful to society
in many ways. First of all, some forms of crime go hand in hand with violence, which can be
considered a direct threat or danger to society.
Other forms of organized crime can take a non-violent approach but can still cause harm to
individuals and groups of people. For instance, a bank fraud which was deliberately kept secret
by the perpetrators can cause harm for people who deposited money on that bank. In a worst case
scenario the bank could go bankrupt and thousands of people would lose their hard earned
savings.
As we can conclude from the examples mentioned earlier, social evils can happen in many forms
and be harmful for society in several different ways ranging from physical harm to financial,
social and even psychological harm.
Corruption is a broad term covering a wide range of misuse of entrusted funds and power
for privat gain: Theft, fraud, nepotism, abuse of power etc. A corrupt act is often - but not
necessarily - illegal.
5 Ways To Reduce Corruption:
The question again arises how to control this increasing corruption in our country? There are
several bodies that are working for a corruption free system. Here are suggested some of the
tools to reduce corruption:
1. The first tool is education. With the help of education we can reduce corruption. According
to a report by Transparency International, the least corrupt state is Kerala, the reason being that
Keralas literacy rate is highest in India. So we can see how education effects education. In most
of the states, normally a fairly large number of people are uneducated. Those who are uneducated
do not know about the process, provisions and procedures through which they can get justice.

Corrupt public servants try to make a fool of them and often demand bribes. It is due to
unawareness in the field of law, public rights and procedures thereof that a common and an
uneducated suffer out of the corrupt society. This suggests that if we are educated, we can
understand our rights well.
2. We need to change the government processes. If the members of the governing body are
government officials, there will certainly be less reports of the criminal cases. The reverse may
be possible only when there are no more criminal politicians in our government. The provision is
that, if there is any case filed against a person then he would not be eligible for election. But if
we see 100 politicians then about 60% of those would have a criminal case against them. If these
criminal politicians are in charge of forming and implementing laws, what type of law would
be formed, one can only guess! Thus during election, we should keep in mind the person for
whom we shall not vote. In India there is a provision that no person as a criminal shall be
allowed as a Member of Parliament or member of legislative. Unfortunately a fairly large
number of them are a part of it.
3. We can reduce corruption by increasing direct contact between government and the governed.
E-governance could help a lot towards this direction. In a conference on, Effects of Good
Governance and Human Rights organised by National Human Right Commission, A. P. J.
Abdul Kalam gave an example of the Delhi metro rail system and online railway reservation as
good governance and said that all the lower courts should follow the example of the Supreme
Court and High Court and make judgements available online. Similarly, Sivraj Patil said that the
Right to information should be used for transparency. We have legal rights to know a lot
of information. According to this act, (Right to Information act 2005), generally people should
follow the procedure of law given to then when their work is not being implemented in a proper
way in public services. This act is a great help in the order to control corruption.
4. Lack of effective corruption treatment is another reason. That means, instruments which are in
use, are not running properly. Despite the Prevention of Corruption Act 1988, corruption is still
flourishing. Why? Because of weak actions and proceedings towards corrupt people. People
dont have any fear of this act and the court. The act may thus be revised for its better
implementation.
5. Lack of transparency and professional accountability is yet another big reason. We should be
honest to ourselves. Until and unless we will not be honest, we cant control corruption. If each
of us is honest towards our profession, then corruption will automatically decrease. We need to
pay attention towards professional accountability i.e., how much we are faithful and truthful
towards our profession. Corruption may be controlled by handling five major
professions: lekhpal, medical, revenue, police and judicial.
5 Places Where Corruption Exists:
1. Lekhpal, a government official, whose job is to examine, report and keep all records of lands.
But recently, there have been a lot of cases in the court, which are based on land dispute. Why is
it so? This is due to the flaws in the department of lekha vibhag. As far as this department is
concerned, if the people pay attention towards professional accountability, land disputes can be

considerably reduced, or resolved faster. This would account for a fairly large control over
corruption.
2. Another type of profession where corruption is rampant is the medical sector. How? There are
many government hospitals and public health centres in villages and cities. There are some
doctors, appointed for the treatment of the people. But in government hospitals, there is hardly
ever proper treatment for the common man. Doctors have started opening their own private clinic
to earn more money. The public hospitals lack adequate medicines and other required facilities.
Doctors may not be found on the scheduled timings. The poor people, who only depend upon the
government hospitals, are suffering since they cant afford treatment from the private hospital. If
the doctors would come in time, and in hospital there is sufficient medicines and proper
treatment available, then most of the people would have been healthy. Thus doctors need to give
their job professional accountability.
3. Third one is the revenue department. In this department, a fairly large number of the
employees are corrupt. They take bribes and leave the person who didnt even give tax off the
hook. For e.g. income tax. If every person is honest towards his/her profession then a heavy loss
of Indian government may be saved.
4. There is a lot of crime around us and criminals are doing their work without any fear. If police
becomes serious then there will be control over corruption to the extent of nearly, say about 6070%. They should perform their duty honestly. The day all the officers will be serious towards
their profession, we may expect a corruption-free environment.
5. And last but not the least, is the department of judiciary. We know there are several lakh cases
which are pending in the courts in India. The process of justice is very delayed in our country.
Due to this, the numbers of cases are increasing day by day. If the proceedings are fast, people
may see that if they do wrong or commit any crimes then they will have to face punishment.
People thus will hesitate to take bribe. To recall and mention a famous quote here, Justice
delayed is justice denied.
Computer crime, or cybercrime, is crime that involves a computer and a network.[1] The
computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target.[2] Debarati
Halder and K. Jaishankar define cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against
individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation
of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using
modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and
groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)".[3] Such crimes may threaten a nation's security and
financial health.[4] Issues surrounding these types of crimes have become high-profile,
particularly those surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child
grooming.
Classification[edit]
Computer crime encompasses a broad range of activities.
Fraud and financial crimes[edit]
Main article: Internet fraud

Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain
from doing something which causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining a
benefit by:
Altering in an unauthorized way. This requires little technical expertise and is common form of
theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or by entering
unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes;
Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized
transactions. This is difficult to detect;
Altering or deleting stored data;
Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems, including bank
fraud, carding, identity theft, extortion, and theft of classified information.
A variety of internet scams, many based on phishing and social engineering, target consumers
and businesses.
Cyber terrorism[edit]
Main article: Cyberterrorism
Government officials and information technology security specialists have documented a
significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001. But there is a
growing concern among federal officials[who?] that such intrusions are part of an organized effort
by cyberterrorists, foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map potential security holes in
critical systems. A cyberterrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or
organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching a computer-based
attack against computers, networks, or the information stored on them.
Cyberterrorism in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of
cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). As such, a simple propaganda in the Internet,
that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. There are
also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within
networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information
relevant for ruining peoples' lives, robberies, blackmailing etc.[citation needed]
Cyberextortion[edit]
Main article: Extortion
Cyberextortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected to or
threatened with repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers. These hackers
demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks and to offer "protection". According to
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyberextortionists are increasingly attacking corporate
websites and networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their
service. More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order
to keep the victim's name out of the public domain. Perpetrators typically use a distributed
denial-of-service attack.[11]
An example of cyberextortion was the attack on Sony Pictures of 2014.[12]
Cyberwarfare[edit]

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) notes that the cyberspace has emerged as a nationallevel concern through several recent events of geo-strategic significance. Among those are
included, the attack on Estonia's infrastructure in 2007, allegedly by Russian hackers. "In August
2008, Russia again allegedly conducted cyberattacks, this time in a coordinated and
synchronized kinetic and non-kinetic campaign against the country of Georgia. Fearing that such
attacks may become the norm in future warfare among nation-states, the concept of cyberspace
operations impacts and will be adapted by warfighting military commanders in the future.[13]
Computer as a target[edit]
These crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals. Unlike crimes using the computer
as a tool, these crimes require the technical knowledge of the perpetrators. As such, as
technology evolves, so too does the nature of the crime. These crimes are relatively new, having
been in existence for only as long as computers havewhich explains how unprepared society
and the world in general is towards combating these crimes. There are numerous crimes of this
nature committed daily on the internet:
Crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices include:
Computer viruses
Denial-of-service attacks
Malware (malicious code)
Computer as a tool[edit]
Main articles: Internet fraud, Spamming, Phishing, and Carding (fraud)
When the individual is the main target of cybercrime, the computer can be considered as the tool
rather than the target. These crimes generally involve less technical expertise. Human
weaknesses are generally exploited. The damage dealt is largely psychological and intangible,
making legal action against the variants more difficult. These are the crimes which have existed
for centuries in the offline world. Scams, theft, and the likes have existed even before the
development in high-tech equipment. The same criminal has simply been given a tool which
increases his potential pool of victims and makes him all the harder to trace and apprehend.[14]
Crimes that use computer networks or devices to advance other ends include:
Fraud and identity theft (although this increasingly uses malware, hacking and/or phishing,
making it an example of both "computer as target" and "computer as tool" crime)
Information warfare
Phishing scams
Spam
Propagation of illegal obscene or offensive content, including harassment and threats
The unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes (spam) is unlawful in some
jurisdictions.
Phishing is mostly propagated via email. Phishing emails may contain links to other websites
that are affected by malware.[15] Or, they may contain links to fakeonline banking or other
websites used to steal private account information.
Obscene or offensive content[edit]

The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful, obscene or
offensive for a variety of reasons. In some instances these communications may be legal.
The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries, and
even within nations. It is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating
between groups with strong beliefs.
How to Stop Terrorism: 7 Ways to Drain the Swamp
In the wake of the barbaric Paris terror attack, everyone is debating how to stop further terrorism.
Some say we need more war against Islamic countries or more spying or more crackdowns
on our liberties.
But despite what the talking heads may say the methods for stopping future attacks are well
known
Weve got to drain the swamp.
I. Stop Supporting the Dictators Who Fund Terrorists
Saudi Arabia is the worlds largest sponsor of radical Islamic terrorists.
The Saudis have backed ISIS and many other brutal terrorist groups. According to sworn
declarations from a 9/11 Commissioner and the Co-Chair of the Congressional Inquiry Into 9/11,
the Saudi government backed the 9/11 hijackers(see section VII for details).
Saudi Arabia is the hotbed of the most radical Muslim terrorists in the world:
theSalafis (both ISIS and Al Qaeda are Salafis).
And the Saudis with U.S. support back the radical madrassas in which Islamic radicalism
was spread.
And yet the U.S. has been supporting the Saudis militarily, with NSA intelligenceand in every
other way possible for 70 years.
In addition, top American terrorism experts say that U.S. support for brutal and tyrannical
countries in the Middle east like Saudi Arabia is one of the top motivators for Arab terrorists.
So if we stop supporting the House of Saud and other Arab tyrannies, well get a two-fold
reduction in terror:
(1) Well undermine the main terrorism supporters
And
(2) Well take away one of the main motivations driving terrorists: our support for the most
repressive, brutal Arab tyrannies
II. Stop Arming Terrorists
Were arming the most violent terrorists in the Middle East, as part of a geopolitical strategy to
overthrow leaders we dont like (see section III for more details). And
see this, this, this, this and this.
Previously-leaked documents showed that the CIA warned Obama that funding extremist rebels
doesnt work but Obama decided to fund the Syrian rebelsanyway for cynical political gain.
Indeed, the French terrorists who just murdered the cartoonists in Paris apparently just
returned from waging war against the Syrian government, where they may directly or
indirectly have obtained U.S. weapons and training.

And strangely were overthrowing the more moderate Arabs who stabilized the region and
denied jihadis a foothold.
If we want to stop terrorism, we need to stop supporting the terrorists.
III. Stop Imperial Conquests for Arab Oil
The U.S. has undertaken regime change against Arab leaders we dont like for six decades. We
overthrew the leader of Syria in 1949, Iran in 1953, Iraq twice, Afghanistan twice, Turkey,
Libya and other oil-rich countries.
Neoconservatives planned regime change throughout the Middle East and North Africa yet
again in 1991.
Top American politicians admit that the Iraq oil was about oil, not stopping terrorism (documents
from Britain show the same thing). Much of the war on terror is really a fight for natural gas.
Or to force the last few hold-outs into dollars and private central banking.
And the U.S. military described terror attacks on the U.S. as a small price to pay for being a
superpower:
A senior officer on the Joint Staff told State Department counter-terrorism director Sheehan he
had heard terrorist strikes characterized more than once by colleagues as a small price to pay for
being a superpower.
Security experts including both conservatives and liberals agree that waging war in the
Middle East weakens national security and increases terrorism.
Seethis, this, this, this, this, this, this and this.
For example, James K. Feldman former professor of decision analysis and economics at the Air
Force Institute of Technology and the School of Advanced Airpower Studies and other experts
say that foreign occupation is the main cause of terrorism. University of Chicago professor
Robert A. Pape who specializes in international security affairs agrees.
Weve fought the longest and most expensive wars in American history but were less secure
than before, and there are more terror attacks than ever.
Remember, Al Qaeda wasnt even in Iraq until the U.S. invaded that country.
If we want to stop terrorism, we have to stop overthrowing Arab leaders and invading Arab
countries to grab their oil.
IV. Stop Mass Surveillance
Top security experts agree that mass surveillance makes us MORE vulnerable to terrorists.
V. Stop Torture
Top terrorism and interrogation experts agree that torture creates moreterrorists.
Indeed, the leaders of ISIS were motivated by U.S. torture.
Once again, we have a very current example: Paris terrorist Cherif Kouchi told a court in 2005
that he wasnt radical until he learned about U.S. torture at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.
If we want to stop creating new terrorists, we have to stop torturing permanently.
VI. Stop Drone Assassinations of Innocent Civilians
Top CIA officers say that drone strikes increase terrorism (and see this).
The CIA the agency in charge of drone strikes even told Obama that drone kills can increase
terrorism.

If we want to stop creating new terrorists, we have to stop the drone strikes.
VII. Stop Covering Up 9/11
Government officials agree that 9/11 was state-sponsored terrorism they justdisagree
on which state was responsible.
Because 9/11 was the largest terror attack on the U.S. in history and all of our national security
strategies are based on 9/11 we cant stop terror until we get to the bottom of what really
happened, and which state was behind it.
Many high-level American officials including military leaders, intelligence officials and 9/11
commissioners are dissatisfied with the 9/11 investigations to date.
The Co-Chair of the congressional investigation into 9/11 Bob Graham and 9/11
Commissioner and former Senator Bob Kerrey are calling for either a permanent 9/11
commission or a new 9/11 investigation to get to the bottom of it.
The Co-Chair of the Congressional Inquiry into 9/11 and former Head of the Senate Intelligence
Committee (Bob Graham) said that the Paris terror attack, ISIS, and other terrorist developments
are a result of failing to stand up to Saudi Arabia and declassify the 9/11 investigations report
about Saudi involvement in 9/11:
The 9/11 chairs, Ron Paul, and numerous other American politicians have called for
declassification, as well.
Again, others have different ideas about who was behind 9/11. But until we get to the bottom of
it, terror attacks will continue.
Stop Throwing Bodies In the River
Defenders of current government policy say: we have to do something to stop terrorists!
Yes, we do
But we must also stop doing the 7 things above which increase terrorism. We have to stop
throwing new bodies in the river.
But the powers-that-be dont want to change course they gain tremendous power and
influence through our current war on terror strategies.
For example, the military-complex grows rich through war so endless war is afeature not a
bug of our foreign policy.
Torture was about building a false justification for war.
Mass surveillance is about economic and diplomatic advantage and crushing dissent.
Supporting the most radical Muslim leaders is about oil and power a small price to pay to
try to dominate the world.
A leading advisor to the U.S. military the Rand Corporation released a study in 2008 called
How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qaida. The report confirms what
experts have been saying for years: the war on terror is actually weakening national security
(see this, this and this).
As a press release about the study states:
Terrorists should be perceived and described as criminals, not holy warriors, and our analysis
suggests that there is no battlefield solution to terrorism.

We, the People, have to stand up and demand that our power-hungry leaders stop doing the
things which give them more power but are guaranteed toincrease terrorism against us, the
civilian population.
Alcohol Abuse Treatment and Self-Help
How to Stop Drinking and Start Recovery
Overcoming an addiction to alcohol can be a long and bumpy road. At times, it may even feel
impossible. But its not. If youre ready to stop drinking and willing to get the support you need,
you can recover from alcoholism and alcohol abuseno matter how bad the addiction or how
powerless you feel. You dont have to wait until you hit rock bottom; you can make a change at
any time. Read to get started on the road to recovery today.
Alcohol treatment and recovery 1: Commit to stop drinking
Most people with alcohol problems do not decide to make a big change out of the blue or
transform their drinking habits overnight. Recovery is usually a more gradual process. In the
early stages of change, denial is a huge obstacle. Even after admitting you have a drinking
problem, you may make excuses and drag your feet. Its important to acknowledge your
ambivalence about stopping drinking. If youre not sure if youre ready to change or youre
struggling with the decision, it can help to think about the costs and benefits of each choice.
Ways to reduce drug use
Options for reducing drug use
Managing your drug use may be a big step. If you reduce your drug use you may still crave them
for sometime after.
Try not to be too hard on yourself if you dont reach your immediate goal. Having to try several
times may be part of reducing your use and it is important you keep trying. It may be helpful to
have someone you can talk to. This may be a friend, a family member or a counselor. Check out
the Get Help section of the website for more information about what counseling professionals do
and how they can help.
The ways in which people manage their drug use may depend on:
What it is they are trying to stop or cut down e.g. reducing smoking will be different to reducing
heroin use;
How regularly they are using the drug;
For how long they have used the drug;
What other things are happening in their life;
What resources are available to them.
Sometimes a range of options may be used before you find the right one.
Managing your drug use may include speaking to a professional. It is a good idea to talk to a
doctor or drug and alcohol counselor about the best way to manage your drug use as the
reduction of some drugs may cause medical complications.
Some suggestions for helping to manage your drug use may include:
Make it difficult to access drugs. For example if you are trying to stop smoking, throw out all
your smokes, lighters and ashtrays so they are not tempting you.

Have things you can do to distract yourself when you feel like taking the drug. Some ideas
are hanging out with friends who are not taking the drug, going for a run or walk, listening to
music.
If possible get support from your family and friends. They may be more supportive of you if
they know that you are trying to reduce its use.
Talking to someone - talking to someone you trust may be helpful in reducing your drug intake.
This person may be a friend, family member or youth worker.
Counseling - It may be helpful for you to talk to a counselor. Some counselors specialize in drug
and alcohol treatment. A good counselor can help you to work out how best to manage your drug
use. Counseling can either be done in a group or individually. Check out the Get Help section to
find out more about what counselors do. Your local doctor, hospital, community health center or
youth worker should also be able to help you find information about getting help.
Self help - this is another form of treatment for people who have drug dependencies. Self help
groups are made up of those people who are affected by a particular drug problem. Instead of a
group being run by a professional it is run by the members of the group. Alcoholics Anonymous
and Narcotics Anonymous are examples of self help groups. For more information it may be
helpful to talk with your local doctor or counselor.
Medical Treatment - reducing your drug intake may be done with the assistance of other drugs.
The function of these drugs depends on what they are replacing. Methadone, Naltrexone and
Buprenolphine are drugs used to help reduce heroin intake. Medical treatment is often done
along with counseling. For more information about medical treatments you may want to talk to
your local doctor or counselor.
Dowry System in India: Advantages and Disadvantages
Article shared by Shuani
Advantages of Dowry System in India
Though the practice of dowry is publicly condemned, legally banned and morally despised of in
practice it still persists as some of the supporters of this system argue that this practice has its
advantages. Some of the arguments in favour of dowry by the supporters of this system are
discussed here under.
1. Dowry helps newly married couple to establish their family:
The advocates of the practice of dowry say that the dowry, money, utensils and other house hold
articles that a bride brings at the time of marriage help the newly married couple to establish
their new home and also enables them to furnish their home with necessary accessories.
2. It makes marriage of ugly looking girl easy:
ADVERTISEMENTS:
Practice of dowry makes the marriage of ugly looking, uneducated and aged girl easy as huge
amount of dowry acts as effective and useful method for luring suitable bride groom for the
bride.
3. Supports the Higher Education of poor boys:

The practice of dowry solves the financial problem of poor young bachelors and gives support
for higher education to prospective bridegroom.
4. Raises the status of women in family:
ADVERTISEMENTS:
Supporters of this system think that marriage is a girls life insurance and the dowry is the
premium. A girl earring with her huge amount of dowry feels confident while entering her inlaws house and is given greater attention and importance in-laws family where as a girl without
dowry feels uneasy and apprehensive. Besides, it enables for a lower Class / Caste women to
marry an upper class/ caste boy through which she can be able to raise her status in the society.
5. Promotes Inter-caste, inter religion and inter- state marriage:
Dowry helps to find a suitable bridegroom from other cast, religion or form other state Dowry is
practically helpful when in a particular caste we are not able to find a suitable and qualified boy
for a suitable girl.
6. Acts as a provident fund:
ADVERTISEMENTS:
Supporters of this practice put arguments that dowry acts as a provident fund for the girls to face
many financial hazards in future as boys of other cast and religion easily allured by dowry and
give their consent for inter-cast, inter- religion and inter-state marriage.
Disadvantages of Dowry System in India
In modern times this custom has taken magnified proportion and has emerged as contemptible
social evil because this system has more disadvantages than advantages. Practice of dowry which
assumed the form of an institution over the years has caused lots of hardship to large number of
people in the Indian society. It reduces the sacred institution of marriage to business transaction.
It has degraded a young maiden to the level of a saleable commodity. Dowry has virtually
become a menace in the Indian society. Its practice leads to various evil consequences among
which the following may be noted.
1. Dowry causes great economic burden on brides family:
Dowry has become a great economic burden to the middle and lower class families. These
people live hand to mouth. They rarely save money. They spend their resources to meet their
necessary want, for childrens education and in meeting various social obligations.
Hence they have to borrow money or sell a piece of their property or mortgage valuable articles
of the family to give dowry in daughters marriage which becomes ultimately a great economic
burden for parents to repay the borrowed amounts after marriage. Therefore Gandhiji has stated
that one, who makes dowry a pre- condition for his marriage, not only shows disrespect to
women but also humiliates his own nation, education and womanhood and such young persons
should be socially boycotted.
2. Increases corrupt attitude of parents:

Many parents develop their corrupt attitude to collect money for paying dowry. They accept all
sorts of briberies. They undertake unsocial activities like smuggling or earn by unfair means.
Thus dowry practices forces some parents to be corrupt.
3. Lowers the standard of living:
Each marriage of daughters leads the drainage of money from brides side due to dowry practice
and breaks the backbone of the family by lowering the standard of living, if of course the family
earns by legal means.
4. Dowry leads to some immoral practices:
In order to escape from the menace of dowry, some young girls prefer to undertake jobs to earn
huge amount of money to meet the dowry expenses and thereby reduce the dowry tension of
their parents. In the process some innocent girls are carried away by the false promises of the
young boys and are often sexually cheated to be made pregnant. Subsequently such girls are
socially defamed and finally they are forced to commit suicide finding no alternatives.
At times girls are bound to commit suicide when their in-laws forced them to bring more and
more dowry form parents. Even the husband along with his parents or other family members do
not hesitate to take away the life of bride on dowry issue if the dowry is not up to their
satisfaction. This accounts for an explosive situation such as bride burning and many other
atrocities activity against women in our society.
Women are ill treated, disrespected, manhandled, tortured and subject to all sorts cruelties in the
name of dowry. Newly married girls are always the victims of harassment, violence, murder and
suicide. Dowry is demanded as though it is fundamental right of the bridegroom. Violence
against women who bring less dowry or no dowry includes-physical battering, emotional neglect,
torture, verbal abuse, refusal of sufficient food, imposition of heavy physical work and so on.
In-spite of the varied legislation to ban the practice of dowry, the regret is that it still persists.
Demands for dowry have even caused dowry death. For every 17 minutes one dowry death
occurs in our society. Further some girls, who remain unmarried due to dowry system, take
decision to carry on illegal sexual relations in order to satisfy their sexual urge and there by
pollute the whole society.
5. Dowry practice lowers the status of women:
A girl is considered a liability in her own natal home due to prevalence of the custom of dowry
practice. Some parents are unwilling to give higher education to their daughter as they have to
search for highly educated boy for marriages and better educated boy will demand more dowries
which creates unnecessary problem, for parents.
Dowry is thus a great impediment in the progress of education of girls and girls being deprived
of higher education are unable to raise their status. In middle class family boy is always given
more importance in respect of food, dresses, medical care and education only due to practice of
dowry.
Besides, the boy who receives huge amount of dowry may think of himself as more dignified as
having a higher status greater prestige and more respectful than the girl. Subsequently the girl
develops inferiority complex. Dowry system lowers the status of women in another way. Some

greedy boys want to marry several women to get monetary benefit in the form of dowry. This
naturally affects the status of the women.
6. Dowry system makes imbalance in the sex ratio:
Parent of poor families kill their daughter from their vary birth or at the stage of fetuses in their
mothers womb. The practice of female infanticide and feticide has led to an imbalance in the sex
ratio in our society.
7. Dowry practice enhances psychological tension:
Many marriages breakdown due to dowry practice and increases the tension of both parents and
daughters. Besides, parents always remain worried and tensed in arranging money required to
pay in dowry for daughters marriage.
In some cases girls with self dignity may refuse to marry a boy who demands dowry and may be
forced to remain spinsters throughout their lives. Forcible suppression of sex urge may make
them to become irritable, frustrated disgusted and pessimistic. They may even develop neurotic
diseases and get involved in an emotional problem.
In many cases, girls are ill-treated even after the payment of dowry. So they spoil their mental
peace and cause continuous irritation though they resist this treatment.
Many times just for the sake of dowry parents fix up their sons marriage without taking his
consent which finally leads misunderstanding and unhappiness between married couple.
Despite rapid globalization, liberalization and privatisation dowry has become the greatest social
evil today. Legislative and non legislative measures are to be taken for the eradication of dowry
practice.
Domestic violence in India
Domestic violence in India includes any form of violence suffered by a person from a biological
relative, but typically is the violence suffered by a woman by male members of her family or
relatives.[1][2] According to a National Family and Health Survey in 2005, total lifetime
prevalence of domestic violence was 33.5% and 8.5% for sexual violence among women aged
1549.[3] The instance of violence was reported to be lowest among Buddhist and Jain women,
and highest among Muslim women in India.[3][page needed], A 2014 study in The Lancet reports that
the reported sexual violence rate in India is among the lowest in the world, the large population
of India means that the violence affects 275 million over women their lifetime.[4]
The 2012 National Crime Records Bureau report of India states a reported crime rate of 46 per
100,000, rape rate of 2 per 100,000, dowry homicide rate of 0.7 per 100,000 and the rate of
domestic cruelty by husband or his relatives as 5.9 per 100,000.[5] These reported rates are
significantly smaller than the reported intimate partner domestic violence rates in many
countries, such as the United States (590 per 100,000) and reported homicide (6.2 per 100,000
globally), crime and rape incidence rates per 100,000 women for most nations tracked by the
United Nations
Domestic violence is currently defined in India by the Protection of Women from Domestic
Violence Act of 2005. According to Section 3 of the Act, any act, omission or commission or
conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it:[10]

harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or
physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual
abuse, verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse; or
harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other
person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable
security; or
has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct
mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b); or
otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.
Jammu and Kashmir, which has its own laws, has enacted in 2010 the Jammu and Kashmir
Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2010.[11]
2006 NFHS survey report on domestic sexual violence[edit]
The National Family Health Survey of India in 2006 estimated the lifetime prevalence of sexual
violence among women aged 1549, including instances of marital rape in India. The study
included in its definition of "sexual violence" all instances of a woman experiencing her husband
"physically forcing her to have sexual intercourse with him even when she did not want to; and,
forcing her to perform any sexual acts she did not want to".[12] The study sampled 83,703 women
nationwide, and determined that 8.5% of women in the 15-49 age group had experienced sexual
violence in their lifetime.[13] This figure includes all forms of forced sexual activity by husband
on wife, during their married life, but not recognised as marital rape by Indian law.
The 2006 NFHS study reported sexual violence to be lowest against women in the 15-19 age
group, and urban women reporting 6% lifetime prevalence rate of sexual violence, while 10% of
rural women reported experiencing sexual violence in their lifetime.[14] Women with ten years of
education experienced sharply less sexual violence, compared to women with less education.[14]
By religion, Buddhist and Jain women reported the lowest prevalence of sexual violence in their
lifetime (3 and 4 percent), while 5% of Sikh women, 6% of Christian women and 8% of Hindu
women reported experiencing sexual violence. The highest prevalence rate (11%) of lifetime
sexual violence was reported by Muslim women.[13]
A 2014 study in The Lancet states, "Whereas an 85% prevalence of sexual violence in the
country [India] is among the lowest in the world, it is estimated to affect 275 million women in
India [given India's large population]".[4] Further, the 2006 survey found that 85% of women who
suffered sexual violence, in or outside of marriage, never sought help, and only 1% report it to
the police.[4][15]
Data reliability[edit]
Renuka Chowdhury, former Union minister for Women and Child Development, stated in 2006,
that around 70% of women in India are victims of domestic violence.[16] However her statistics
were disputed by Save Indian Family Foundation, stating that Renuka Chowdhury talked about
the reported dowry death cases and deliberately avoided mentioning the actual convictions in
dowry death trials after false cases are dismissed in the courts.[17] According to a BBC report,
in 2013, around 309,546 crimes were reported against women of which 118,866 were for
domestic violence alone.[18]

Forms[edit]
The map shows the comparative rate of violence against women in Indian states and union
territories in 2012. Crime rate data per 100,000 women in this map is the broadest definition of
crime against women under Indian law. It includes rape, sexual assault, insult to modesty,
kidnapping, abduction, cruelty by intimate partner or relatives, trafficking, persecution for
dowry, dowry deaths, indecency, and all other crimes listed in Indian Penal Code.[7][19]
Physical violence[edit]
Physical injury is the most visible form of domestic violence. The scope of physical
domestic/intimate partner violence includes slapping, pushing, kicking, biting, hitting, throwing
objects, strangling, beating, threatening with any form of weapon, or using a weapon.
[20]
Worldwide, the percentage of women who suffer serious injuries as a result of physical
domestic violence tends to range from 19% - 55%.[2] Physical injuries as a result of domestic
violence against women are more obvious than psychological ones, and can be more easily
discerned by health professionals as well as courts of law in the context of legal prosecution.
Emotional abuse[edit]
Emotional abuse has been gaining more and more recognition in recent years as an incredibly
common form of domestic violence (and therefore a human rights abuse) within the private home
throughout developing nations such as India. Psychological abuse can erode a womans sense of
self-worth and can be incredibly harmful to overall mental and physical wellbeing.
Emotional/psychological abuse can include harassment; threats; verbal abuse such as namecalling, degradation and blaming; stalking; and isolation.[20]
Women who experience domestic violence overwhelmingly tend to have greater overall
emotional distress, as well as disturbingly high occurrences of suicidal thoughts and attempts.
According to a study by the National Centre for Biotechnology Information, suicide attempts in
India are correlated with physical and psychological intimate partner violence. Of the Indian
women who participated in the study, 7.5% reported attempting suicide. This correlation is
supported by the high rates of domestic violence in India, although the rates differ greatly by
region, individual socioeconomic status and other factors.[21]
Sexual assault[edit]
Further information: Rape in India
Domestic sexual assault is a form of domestic violence involving sexual/reproductive
coercion and marital rape. Under Indian law, marital rape is not a crime,[22][23]except during the
period of marital separation of the partners.[24]
The Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) considers the forced sex in marriages as a crime
only when the wife is below 15. Thus, marital rape is not a criminal offense under IPC.[25] The
marital rape victims have to take recourse to the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence
Act 2005 (PWDVA).[26] The PWDVA, which came into force in 2006, outlaws marital rape.
[27]
However, it offers only a civil remedy for the offence.[28]
Honor killing[edit]
An honour killing is the practice wherein an individual is killed by one or more family
member(s), because he or she is believed to have brought shame on the family.[29] The shame

may range from refusing to enter an arranged marriage, having sex outside marriage, being in a
relationship that is disapproved by the family, starting a divorce proceeding, or engaging
in homosexual relations.[30][31]
In 2010, the Supreme Court of India issued notice seeking data and explanation for rise in honor
killings to the states of Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh,Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Himachal
Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.[32]
Dowry-related abuse and deaths[edit]
Some newly married brides suffer domestic violence in the form of harassment, physical abuse
or death when she is thought to have not brought enough dowry with marriage. Some cases end
up in suicides by hanging, self-poisoning or by fire.[33] In dowry deaths, the grooms family is the
perpetrator of murder or suicide.[34]
According to Indian National Crime Record Bureau, in 2012, 8,233 dowry death cases were
reported across India,[35] or dowry issues cause 1.4 deaths per year per 100,000 women in India.
[36][37]
For contextual reference, the United Nations reports a worldwide average female homicide
rate of 3.6 per 100,000 women, and an average of 1.6 homicides per 100,000 women
for Northern Europe in 2012.[38] Although India's dowry death rate per 100,000 is lower than
equivalent rate for Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is a significant social issue in India.
Dowry deaths in India is not limited to any specific religion, and it is found among Hindus,
Muslims, Sikhs and others. The ratio of dowry deaths are about the same as the ratio of
population in India by religions.[39][40][41]
The Dowry Prohibition Act 1961, prohibits the request, payment or acceptance of a dowry, "as
consideration for the marriage", where "dowry" is defined as a gift demanded or given as a
precondition for a marriage. Gifts given without a precondition are not considered dowry, and are
legal. Asking or giving of dowry can be punished by an imprisonment of up to six months, or a
fine. It replaced several pieces of anti-dowry legislation that had been enacted by various Indian
states.[42]Murder and suicide under compulsion are addressed by India's criminal penal code. The
law was made more stringent with Section 498a of Indian Penal Code(enacted in 1983). Under
the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 (PWDVA), a woman can seek help
against dowry harassment by approaching a domestic violence protection officer.
Regional, gender and religious differences[edit]
Kimuna et al. have published domestic violence trends in India, based on the 2005-2006 India
National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) data on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15
to 49 from all regions of India.[43] They report 31% of respondents had experienced minor to
major form of physical violence in the 12 months prior to the survey, while the domestic sexual
violence prevalence rate ever experienced by the woman was about 8%. Women who lived in
cities, had higher household wealth, were Christian and educated had significantly lower risk of
physical and sexual domestic violence.[43] In contrast, wives of men who drank alcohol had
significantly higher risks of experiencing both physical and sexual violence.[43]
According to a study made by Michael Koenig about the determinants of domestic violence in
India published by the American Journal of Public Health in 2006, higher socioeconomic status
reduced domestic abuse.[44]

Gender[edit]
Babu et al. surveyed both genders on domestic violence in eastern region of India.[45] The results
show that 16% of women had reported experiencing physical forms of domestic violence, 25%
sexual form, 52% psychological, and 56% reported any form of domestic violence.[45] Men
reported being perpetrators of domestic violence with 22% reporting some form of physical
domestic abuse, 17% sexual, 59% psychological, and 59.5% any form of domestic abuse. Men
reported experiencing higher prevalence of all forms of violence, but reported experiencing
lowest rates of sexual violence. The perpetrator of domestic violence, physical or sexual or
psychological, was typically the husband in majority of cases and in some cases husbands'
parents. Further, low income and low education increased the risks of domestic violence.[45]
Religion[edit]
Across religious groups, a 2010 study by Babu and Kar reports Christian Indians had the lowest
domestic violence rates, Muslim Indians had the highest and Hindu Indians in between.[46]
In 2005-2006 nationwide family and health survey report, the lowest domestic violence
prevalence rate was reported by women of Jainism religion (12.6% of women), the highest by
women of Buddhist religion (40.9%).[47] The same report also states that the frequency and
intensity of domestic violence experienced was lowest among Jain women who had ever been
victims of such violence, while the frequency and intensity of domestic violence was highest
among Muslim women who had been victims.[47]
Dynamics[edit]
A map of the Indian dowry death rate per 100,000 people in 2012.[5]
According to Unicef's Global Report Card on Adolescents 2012, 57% of boys and 53% of girls
in India think a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife.[48]
Patriarchal social structure[edit]
There are three main aspects of the patriarchal household structure in India that affect womens
agency: marriage, active discrimination by means of abuse (marital or extramarital), and
diminished womens agency through limited economic opportunity through stifled opportunity
for independence.[49] In all these dimensions, there is a clear relationship between strong
patriarchal familial structures and limited capabilities and agency for women, which are strongly
correlated with causal factors for domestic violence such as gender disparities in nutritional
deprivation and a lack of womens role in reproductive decisions.[49]
Dowry system[edit]
See also: Dowry law in India and Dowry death
Domestic violence often happens in India as a result of dowry demands.[50] Dowrypayments are
another manifestation of the patriarchal structure in India. There are strong links between
domestic violence and dowry, a cultural practice deeply rooted in many Indian communities,
which is the money, goods, or property the woman/womans family brings to a marriage to now
become under the ownership of the husband. This practice continues even today in India
although banned by law since 1961, and in recent years dowry amounts have risen dramatically.
[citation needed]

In a 2005 study published in World Development, results from a survey pointed to a negative
correlation between dowry amount and inter-spousal violence, indicating the potential dangers of
a wife falling short on dowry payments or expectations.[51] These dangers include not only
common physical and emotional abuse such as hitting and continual degradation, but in some
cases dowry death and bride burning as a result of the husbands dissatisfaction with the dowry
payment. In fact, 8391 dowry deaths reported in 2010, a steep rise from 6995 such reported cases
in 1997.[52]
Under-reporting of domestic violence[edit]
Earlier there is widespread hesitancy amongst the Indian women who experience domestic
violence to report or prosecute against such crimes. Domestic violence was often not handled as
a legitimate crime or complaint, but more of a private or family matter. But now this trend has
changed. Section 498a introduced to protect women from Domestic Violence
.[53] Caste, class, religious bias and race also determine whether action is taken or not.[53] For
example, poor or lower-caste females do not have the same access to legal enforcement or
education and often have trouble getting help from law enforcement.[54]
Other[edit]
Other factors outside culture that demonstrate differences in domestic violence prevalence and
gender disparities in India include socioeconomic class, educational level, and family structure
beyond the patriarchal framework. A 1999 study published by the American Journal of
Epidemiology identified so-called stress factors that are critical to understanding varying rates
of domestic violence in other scopes outside of region-specific factors. These stress-related
factors within the household include low educational attainment, poverty, young initial age of
marriage, having multiple children, and other limiting engendered development factors.[9]
Effects[edit]
Women suffer many types of physical and emotional abuse as a result of illegal actions taken
within the private home, and those who have experienced some form of domestic violence tend
to have greater long-term mental disorders and drug dependencies than those who do not.[55] In
India, reducing domestic violence is imperative not only from an ethical and human rights
perspective but also because of obvious instrumental and immediate health benefits that would
be gained from such reduction.[56]
Health[edit]
Further information: Women's health in India
Serious health problems often result from physical, emotional, and sexual forms of domestic
violence.[2] Physical health outcomes include: Injury (from lacerations to fractures and internal
organs injury), Unwanted Pregnancy, Gynaecological problems, STDs including HIV,
Miscarriage, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Chronic pelvic pain, Headaches, Permanent
disabilities, Asthma, Irritable bowel syndrome, Self-injurious behaviours (smoking, unprotected
sex)[57] Mental health effects can include depression, fear, anxiety, low self-esteem, sexual
dysfunction, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or post traumatic stress disorder.
[57]
Fatal effects can include suicide, homicide, maternal mortality, or HIV/AIDS.[57]

Negative public health consequences are also strongly associated with domestic violence.
[2]
Social and economic costs have been identified as direct results of these public-health
consequences, and it is argued that these justify state action to act in the interest of the public to
reconcile these costs (specifically including costs such as worker earnings and productivity,
public healthcare, and costs associated with the criminal justice system). [58]
Women's agency[edit]
The act of domestic violence towards women is a human rights violation as well as an illegal act
under Indian law. It is therefore widely considered a threat to womens agency through any lens,
and there is a growing recognition in many Indian regions that the nation can reach a higher
potential through obtaining greater social and economic capital than by reducing womens
participation in society. Domestic violence is one of the most significant determinants of this
denial. Greater gender equality through greater womens agency cannot be achieved if basic
health needs are not being met and if cultural biases that allow for domestic violence in India
persist.[57]
Legal efforts[edit]
New sexual violence legislation[edit]
Main article: Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013
On 19 March 2013, the Indian Parliament passed a new law with the goal of more effectively
protecting women from sexual violence in India.[59] It came in the form of the Criminal Law
(Amendment) Act, 2013, which further amends the Indian Penal Code, the Code of Criminal
Procedure of 1973, the Indian Evidence Act of 1872, and the Protection of Children from Sexual
Offences Act, 2012.[60] The law makes stalking, voyeurism, acid attacks and forcibly disrobing a
woman explicit crimes for the first time, provides capital punishment for rapes leading to death,
and raises to 20 years from 10 the minimum sentence for gang rape and rapes committed by a
police officer. The new law doesnt address marital rape, rape committed by the armed forces or
rape against men.[61]
Reformist lawmakers have argued that the higher age of consent could result in abuses and
wrongful arrests in statutory rape cases. Additionally, critics point out that there is often a
disconnect between law and practice in India.[62] For example, according to a 2012 United
Nations report, 47% of Indian women marry younger than 18 (the legal marriage age is 21 for
men and 18 for women).[63]
Gender discrimination under law[edit]
The Domestic Violence Act of 2005 has been used to prosecute domestic violence cases, but
activists state that it discriminates against men.[64] In Karnataka, for example, the act cannot be
used against women.[65] The Delhi High Court clarified that the Act could also be used to
prosecute women
Untouchability is the low status of certain social groups confined to menial and despised jobs. It
is usually associated with the Hindu caste system, but similar groups exist outside Hinduism, for
example the Burakumin in Japan and Hutu and Twa of Rwanda. At the beginning of the twentyfirst century there were over 160 million untouchables on the Indian subcontinent.
Origins[edit]

Untouchables of Malabar, Kerala(1906)


The sacred books of the Hindus contain no uniform or consistent account of the origin of castes,
but offer mystical, mythical, and rationalistic explanations of it, or fanciful conjecture concerning
it.[5]
The earliest of the Hindu Books, written by scholars (10.90.11-12), describes a society divided
into four varnas ("colors" orcastes): Brahmin (poet-priest), Kshatriya (warriorchief), Vaishya (traders), and Shudras (menials, servants). The four basic divisions of society had
their roots in the Vedic era (1500-800 BCE) and assumed definitive form by the sixth century
BCE. The idea is further developed in the Laws of Manu (200 BCE-200 CE). The first three
varnas are known as the twice-born, all of whom undergo a ceremony in their youth admitting
them into high status.
The varna caste division excluded the Untouchables, who were and are below the Shudras in any
ranking, despised because they engaged in occupations that were considered unclean and
polluting. Untouchable castes became a category as avarnas, without varna, probably sometime
after the fourth century CE. The untouchables (an d las) are mentioned in theUpanishads and
early Buddhist literature, as a "fifth caste" resulting from the polluting contact of Shudra males
and Brahmana females.
Parallel to the varnas and outside scripture were jatis, meaning "by birth" and also translated as
castes. A jati is an endogamous group, sharing many customs and often an occupation, usually
based in one language area. There were hundreds of jatis within each varna, and while
untouchables were avarna, without varna, they were members of specific jatis. Jatis were a preAryan social division of society which, by being grafted on to the Aryan concept of social order
(varna), has acquired Brahmanical sanction.[6]
The varna model of social ranking persisted throughout the Hindu subcontinent for over
millennia. Beliefs about pollution generally regulated all relations between castes. Members
were not allowed to marry outside their caste; there were strict rules about the kind of food and
drink one could accept and from what castes; and there were restrictions on approaching and
visiting members of another caste. Violations of these rules entailed purificatory rites and
sometimes expulsion from the caste. This hierarchical society was justified with traditional
Hindu religious beliefs about samsara (reincarnation) and karma (quality of actions). A person's
position in this life was determined by his or her actions in previous lives. Persons who were
born in a Brahman family must have performed good deeds in their earlier lives. Being born a
Shudra or an Untouchable was punishment for the sinful acts committed in previous lives.
Untouchables were confined to menial, despised jobs, working as sweepers, gutter and latrine
cleaners, scavengers, watchmen, farm laborers, rearers of unclean animals such as pigs, and
curers of hides. They were denied access to Hindu temples, were not allowed to read religious
Sanskrit books and remained illiterate, could not use village wells and tanks, were forced to live
in settlements outside the village, and were forbidden to enter the residential areas of the upper
castes.Burning ghat workers and executioners are two of the occupations still considered most
polluting. The seventh century Chinese traveler Xuanzang listed butchers, fishermen, public
performers, executioners, and scavengers as marked castes living outside the city. Anything to do

with a dead cow or its hide is the work only of untouchables. A caste of drummers in the south
known as the Parayan contributed the word pariah (outcaste) to English. In this case, the
drumhead made of hide is polluting.
For most Indians, especially those who live in rural areas (73% of the Indian population is still
rural), caste factors are an integral part of their daily lives. In many parts of the country
Untouchables are not allowed inside temples and cannot use village water wells. Marriages are
generally arranged between persons of the same caste. Deferential bodily movements and speech
patterns in the presence of members of the upper castes have governed the appropriate conduct
of untouchables in public, and have frequently forbidden them the use of various markers of
honor and status, from modes of transport such as elephants, horses, and palanquins to apparel
and accessories such as upper-body garments, turbans, and shoes.
Modern developments[edit]
Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the British began recording and codifying caste, and
more untouchable castes based usually on occupation emerged:Bhangis or removers of human
waste in the north; Doms, the caretakers of the extensive burning grounds in the holy city
of Benaras (Varanasi); Dhobis, laundrymen who handle polluted clothing; Mahar and Chamar.
However, occupation is not always a reliable guide. Laundrymen (Dhobis) and barbers may be
untouchables in certain areas of the north but not in the state of Maharashtra.
In 1935, the new term "scheduled castes", those on a list or schedule, was applied to 429 castes.
By 1993 the number had grown to 4,635, including subcastes and small
castes. Harijan ("children of God", a term coined by Gandhi) became the most popular word for
the general public, replacing the terms "depressed classes", "exterior castes", "outcastes", and
"untouchables".
The British granted special political representation to the Untouchables, who had become
politically mobilized under the leadership of Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. Ambedkar, a convert
from Hinduism to Buddhism, held that the Untouchables had been Buddhists isolated and
despised when Brahmanism became dominant about the fourth century. While Ambedkar
pursued legal and political means of securing Untouchable's rights, Gandhi opposed those
measures as too divisive, condemning untouchability without renouncing the varna concept of
caste.
After India became independent from British rule in 1947, a new Constitution was adopted,
which abolished untouchability and prohibited discrimination in public places. In addition,
special places were reserved for Untouchables in higher educational institutions, government
services, and in the lower houses of the central and state legislatures. A small proportion of
Untouchables have managed to gain entry into the middle class as school teachers, clerks, bank
tellers, typists, and government officials. However, most politicians belonging to the
Untouchable community have little say in party matters and government policymaking. The
majority of Untouchables remain landless agricultural laborers, powerless, desperately poor, and
illiterate.
Since the 1970s, the name Dalit ("ground down", "broken up", as in the title "Broken People")
has replaced the words "untouchable" and "harijan" in most public pronouncements and the

press. Young men who called themselves Dalit Panthers in imitation of the Black Panthers in the
United States are no longer active.
Other oppressed castes, who belong mainly to the Shudra caste and form about 50% of the
country's population, have demanded from the government benefits similar to those available to
Dalits in government service and educational institutions, leading to discontent among the upper
castes.
A Dalit political party, the Bahujan Samaj Party ("party of the majority"), founded in 1984
by Kanshi Ram, an untouchable Sikh, is particularly strong in the northern Indian state of Uttar
Pradesh where they received 20.61% of the votes in the 1996 general elections. Mayawati, a
Chamar woman, served three terms as chief minister of Uttar Pradesh. However, at the national
level, the party has captured only 11 seats (3.64% of the votes) in the 1996 general elections.
In the 1990s there were numerous instances of violence between the middle peasant castes and
Dalits in rural areas.
Religion
The worship and festivals of the lower castes, including untouchables, emphasize the use of
blood sacrifice, liquor, possession, and various forms of bodily chastisements and self-inflicted
tortures.The untouchables who became Sikh have created specific faiths that
combine Sikhism with popular practices of Hinduism and Islam. Indian Islam refers not so much
to the varna distinctions of caste Hinduism, as to the social separation between ashraf (well-born)
and adjlaf(low-born) Muslims. High and low Muslims might worship together in the mosque, but
in relations of marriage, commensality, and occupation they remain separate. The Roman
Catholic Church, with an extensive membership in southern India, has historically tolerated caste
divisions, and has traditionally provided entirely separate or spatially segregated services for
their higher and lower caste constituents. Protestant churches in South Asia have opposed caste,
but the taint of impurity and its attendant discrimination have clung to their untouchable
members.
Female Infanticide In India Sociology Essay
Published: 23, March 2015
Sex-selective infanticide has increased in present day patriarchal India. The bias infanticide is the
practice of terminating a pregnancy based on the predicted sex of the fetus (Goodkind 53). The
preference of male children has lead to over millions of female deaths and abortions; the cause of
the rising of female infanticide in India is due to the influences of over population, the dowry
system, economic statuses, caste systems, social norms, women's role, cultural beliefs, religion,
etc. Most of these practices are due to the value or devaluation of women in some parts of the
world. The system, custom, and tradition of these patriarchal societies lead to the neglect of girl
children, which is what is happening today in India.
Sex-selective abortion was unusual before the late 20th century, because of the difficulty of
determining the sex of the fetus before birth. But due to new and improved technology
introduced in India like the ultrasound, it has made the selection an easier task. The process
began in the political text during the emergency in the 1970's. The examination of the text in
India, was up to debate whether "it was in order to demonstrate that the effect of conjuncture

between the overt rhetoric of over population covert discourse of femicide is that female
populations are targeted for extermination" (Bhatnager 3). (this is awk, idk how to fix/rephrase).
During the years of the Emergency, Amniocentesis was introduced in 1974. It was "to ascertain
birth defects in a sample population," but "was quickly appropriated by medical entrepreneurs.
An epidemic of sex-selective abortions followed." (Karlekar) Female infanticides are oppressing
female mother and women in general."[T]hose women who undergo sex determination tests and
abort on knowing that the fetus is female are actively taking a decision against equality and the
right to life for girls. In many cases, of course, the women are not independent agents but merely
victims of a dominant family ideology based on preference for male children" (Karlekar). 10,000
female fetuses are killed every year in India (Bhatnager 2), and every year its being more and
more accepted by the community. Families are trying to find an easy way out where they don't
have to live with a life long debt.
As known, India is one of the most overpopulated countries, but unlike Africa, the Caribbean and
other, there's a higher percentage of males than females. Due to Hindu beliefs and the strict caste
system, young girls were being murdered daily. When demographic statistics were first collected
in the nineteenth century, it was discovered that in "some villages, no girl babies were found at
all; in a total of thirty others, there were 343 boys to 54 girls. ... [I]n Bombay, the number of girls
alive in 1834 was 603." (Rummel 65-66.) The significant decrease in the female population
occurs after birth and before the age of 4. From 1978 to 1983 of 12 million girls born each
year only 9 million lived to be 15. (Balakrishnan 276). 1991 the ration from women to men was
945 to 1000, 2001 was 927 to 1000. This decline was attributed to regressive manifestations of
patriarchy in a modernizing society, and not simply to ancient traditions, like the religious
obligations in Hinduism. Amniocentesis, increased female infanticide; and although sexdiscriminatory abortion is illegal and expensive, it's practiced. From the year "1978 to 1983,
78,000 were reported killed, or 13,000 female fetuses annually aborted following the use of
amniocentesis as a sex determination test" (Bhatnager 3). A portrayal of a gendercide against
women.
"In Jaipur, capital of the western state of Rajasthan, prenatal sex determination tests result in an
estimated 3,500 abortions of female fetuses annually," according to a medical-college study.
(Dahlburg) Most strikingly, according to UNICEF, "A report from Bombay in 1984 on abortions
after prenatal sex determination stated that 7,999 out of 8,000 of the aborted fetuses were
females. Sex determination has become a lucrative business." (Zeng Yi 297.)
Gender has become secondary interest to a nation focused on religious and caste controversies. A
study of Tamil Nadu by the Community Service Guild of Madras found that "female infanticide
is rampant" in the state, though only among Hindu (rather than Muslem or Christian) families.
"Of the 1,250 families covered by the study, 740 had only one girl child and 249 agreed directly
that they had done away with the unwanted girl child. More than 213 of the families had more
than one male child whereas half the respondents had only one daughter" (Karlekar).

Religion and economic status intertwined as one. Due to what caste you're in determines your
economic status within society. In the Hindu religion once a young girl is set of to marry, she
becomes "property" of her husband's family, but before those arrangements occur, the wife's
family would have to hold a well planned wedding. One way of these families avoiding
themselves from getting into a situation like this is not having and girl child at all. During this
whole festivity "the family of a prospective bride must pay enormous sums of money to the
family in which the woman will live after marriage. Though formally outlawed, the institution is
still pervasive. "The combination of dowry and wedding expenses usually add up to more than a
million rupees ([US] $35,000). In India the average civil servant earns about 100,000 rupees
($3,500) a year. Given these figures combined with the low status of women, it seems not so
illogical that the poorer Indian families would want only male children." (Porras) Murders of
women whose families are deemed to have paid insufficient dowry have become increasingly
common.
The modern holocaust of feminicide signifies not only the serial killing of female fetuses also
girl-child murder by negligence through discriminatory practices such as uneven food allocations
causing nutritional deficiencies, uneven access to medical care, family resources, and minimum
survival needs (Bhatnager, 3). The bias against females in India is related to the fact that "sons
are called upon to provide the income; they are the ones who do most of the work in the fields. In
this way sons are looked to as a type of insurance. With this perspective, it becomes clearer that
the high value given to males decreases the value given to females" (Porras). "[A]nother
disturbing finding," namely "that, despite the increased ability to command essential food and
medical resources associated with development, female children [in India] do not improve their
survival chances relative to male children with gains in development. Relatively high levels of
agricultural development decrease the life chances of females while leaving males' life chances
unaffected; urbanization increases the life chances of males more than females. ... Clearly,
gender-based discrimination in the allocation of resources persists and even increases, even when
availability of resources is not a constraint." (Kishor 262.) In Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh
[states], it is usual for girls and women to eat less than men and boys and to have their meal after
the men and boys had finished eating. Greater mobility outside the home provides boys with the
opportunity to eat sweets and fruit from saved-up pocket money or from money given to buy
articles for food consumption. In case of illness, it is usually boys who have preference in health
care (Karlekar).
It's Ironic that although Indians have defied knowledge as the goddess Sarasrati, Indian women
have been regulated to educational subservience throughout India's history. Education is power,
which is in male's hands. In 1947 the ratio of literacy from women to men was 6% to 22.6%, in
1961 15.3 to 40.4, 1981 28.5% to 76, and in 2001 from 33.6% to 60.3%(ADD MORE,
SOURCE?).
"In rural India, the centuries-old practice of female infanticide can still be considered a wise
course of action." (Dahlburg) According to census statistics, "from 972 females for every 1,000
males in 1901 ... the gender imbalance has tilted to 929 females per 1,000 males. ... In the nearly
300 poor hamlets of the Usilampatti area of Tamil Nadu [state], as many as 196 girls died under

suspicious circumstances [in 1993] ... Some were fed dry, unhulled rice that punctured their
windpipes, or were made to swallow poisonous powdered fertilizer. Others were smothered with
a wet towel, strangled or allowed to starve to death." A case from Tamil Nadu:
"Lakshmi already had one daughter, so when she gave birth to a second girl, she killed her. For
the three days of her second child's short life, Lakshmi admits, she refused to nurse her. To
silence the infant's famished cries, the impoverished village woman squeezed the milky sap from
an oleander shrub, mixed it with castor oil, and forced the poisonous potion down the newborn's
throat. The baby bled from the nose, then died soon afterward. Female neighbors buried her in a
small hole near Lakshmi's square thatched hut of sunbaked mud. They sympathized with
Lakshmi, and in the same circumstances, some would probably have done what she did. For
despite the risk of execution by hanging and about 16 months of a much-ballyhooed government
scheme to assist families with daughters, in some hamlets of ... Tamil Nadu, murdering girls is
still sometimes believed to be a wiser course than raising them. 'A daughter is always liabilities.
How can I bring up a second?' Lakshmi, 28, answered firmly when asked by a visitor how she
could have taken her own child's life eight years ago. 'Instead of her suffering the way I do, I
thought it was better to get rid of her.'" (Dahlburg)
Atrocities Against Women
These may not necessarily be correct, complete or acceptable to all.
(i) Male domination culture through the ages.
Sex instinct and associated emotional urge are common to both male and female and is
considered a natural characteristic built into the biological system for preservation and
sustenance of several living species. But, unlike in the animals, in the case of human being his
mind has transformed the sex urge into a habit and practice to serve as his supreme physical
enjoyment submitting to temptation without restraint and cultivating it in many subtle ways. It is
seen that the male member is invariably the offender in all reported incidents of sexual outrages.
His feeling of superiority with physical prowess and adventurous spirit naturally ingrained in the
male biology to face dangers and challenges during the primitive age when forests, fruits,
hunting and caves were his only concerns is still retained in his constitution which could be
inducing him to do such crime.
Why do girls in #India get typecasted as marriage or career oriented? My
thoughts: http://t.co/nYwKMfpJxS via @YouthKiAwaaz Saanya Gulati
(@BombayDelhiGirl) March 11, 2014
The female role was then limited to child-bearing and taking care of the domestic realm. The
male domination was an accepted fact of life in the society during the past for millennia..
Further, the physical superiority of the male is considered to be the basis of all human progress in
the life style brought about by the physical and intellectual efforts of the male members,
throughout the ages. However, the same physical gift, was also misused by thieves, robbers,
dacoits, kidnappers, pirates etc causing atrocities in human society. The feeling of superiority,
built into the male subconscious culturally could be tempting some of them to take an

adventurous attitude in satisfying their ambition, greed and sex related passion. Thus, the sexual
harassment of female by the male can be considered a residue of the feeling of domination still
remaining in his subconscious and still encouraged by many in the society. In the drastically
changed context of modern society and life style, this mindset of the male has no place, and has
to be totally erased from both his conscious and subconscious being.
(ii) Security of Women.
Any attractive and valuable object has to be protected from theft and misuse due to common
human temptation among many to possess the attractive and valuable and enjoy pleasures. Thus,
diamond, platinum, gold, rare art forms and other valuables are preserved securely in safe
locations and protected by necessary foolproof arrangements. Our houses are generally provided
with doors and locks, offices and other installations provided with special security and so on, to
protect them. It is not that every individual in the society is prone to criminal tendencies, but a
very small fraction of the population definitely has such inclinations.
The female body is an object of great fascination and attraction to a large number of male
members in the society. This must be clear from the fact that anything needing attraction for sale
and publicity uses the exposed female body picture making it an object for attractive
advertisement. Naturally, some get tempted for its possession and use for carnal pleasures. As
such, the female human body also needs proper security. This fact was well understood from
olden times, and was taken care by the code of conduct followed in the society and other
arrangements necessary and feasible then and according to the competence of the leaders who
guided the society in those days.
Presently, the perspective of the common man has changed drastically in many places and the
surroundings and circumstances where women have to be present have changed vastly making it
imperative to provide effective security measures for them. At the same time, there is also a
notion that men and women are equal and no special consideration and protection bringing about
likely constraint in their freedom is necessary. Instead, the male members should be compelled to
behave in a civilized way and women have the capability and confidence to take care of
themselves. While this courage is a welcome attitude our culture and surroundings have not yet
become secure enough to depend on the above assessment.
(iii) Safety Precaution For Women.
Security is for protection against intentional and wilful acts of stealing, creating trouble and
attempts to destroy or do harm to a person, place or thing. Safety is more against unintentional
causes, leading to the same results. It is well-known that inflammable materials, explosives etc.,
have to be stored with extreme care and precaution to avoid any accidental fire and explosion.
An electrical spark, an unexpected sparkle or a thermal spike etc, can trigger the initiation of
ignition and cause heavy damage and loss of property. In spite of repeated accidents ,care and
precaution, still accidents happen because enough attention and seriousness have not been
provided.
Why do Indian women flock to cities -to escape Men & Patriarchyhttp://t.co/GtINxpcbF2
Genderlog (@genderlogindia) October 20, 2013

The female body is like the spark or sparkle to some male members and it can set fire to their
suppressed or nurtured sexual passion under favorable surroundings. It is reported that the male
sex urge is nine fold powerful compared to the female and so if ignited it is almost impossible to
quench. As a comparison, if female is like the ignition power of kerosene the male power is like
that of dynamite. Just like in the gun, once the trigger is pulled, bullet just gets fired and then
nothing can be done.
Some males could easily get excited with least stimulation and get into a wild sexplosive state,
like a hungry tiger chasing its prey for the kill. If, this analogy has any merit, then one should
always take enough precaution, in not igniting the sexual passion of easily excitable male
members. When there is a favorable situation for the uncontrolled sexual passion to be aroused,
such as lonely places, very crowded places, in the night or in darkness, during long travel etc.,
the mind of the male member can get disengaged from usual thought process and slide into
sexual thought domain, nurtured by ads, cinema, nude pictures from internet etc,. and suddenly
go out of control and lose all discrimination, and act without any concern about the
consequences. This is the reason why, persons even in highly dignified position too, misbehave
with females, much against ones belief. So, it is in the interest of the female members, that
irrespective of age, position, relationship, character and other considerations, they should avoid
unfavorable situations. Here again, there is opinion that women are as free as men, and it is the
responsibility of men to ensure that, they do not misbehave with female members. Yes, it should
be so, but as yet, the situation and facts do not give that assurance.
(iv) Domination of Habits and Subconscious over Discrimination.
The present standard of science education and general awareness must be high enough to
recollect that the human brain consists of two distinct parts. One part called the cortex is the
exclusive preserve of the human beings. The animals do not have this part. The size of this part is
about 10 per cent of the whole brain. The thinking process and all conscious mental activity take
place here. The remaining large 90 percent of the brain is similar to that of animals and can be
referred to as animal brain or old brain. It contains the subconscious and takes care of all
automatic functions of the bod, as per the data and instructions stored in it. It is extremely
powerful in controlling human actions on the basis of instincts and habits and other actions
needed to protect and preserve life. Breathing, sleep, thirst, hunger etc are to be taken care of by
this part. It always over rides the authority of the thinking mind, when special situations arise.
The thinking man will be always busy with the question, What is to be done next ? But, when
he is under emotional disturbance like anger, depression, agony or under the influence of alcohol,
drug etc the thinking part i.e. cortex gets completely over powered by the animal brain, and will
behave according to instincts and habits . His discriminating ability, guiding him to choose good
against evil, and his normal intelligence available for rational thinking will be lost
temporarily. He will be following his animal propensities and emotional passions influenced by
the data present in his subconscious. There is every chance that his sub conscious is loaded with
all kinds of sex stimulating pleasures, enjoyed by seeing and watching easily available books and
websites, the modern life style provides. Thus, a drunkard can get easily get ignited into a sex

related passion mode and commit unimaginable atrocities against women. Even a highly
educated person occupying a responsible position can also slip into this situation, where his
normal character, knowledge, wisdom or nobility are of no use. It is this danger, against which,
the old saying, See no evil, hear no evil , speak no evilcautions, so that one is able to have a
clean subconscious, without any temptation for illegitimate actions or pleasures. One can
understand from the above limitations of even severe punishment, in controlling atrocities
against women.
(v)Conclusion
Any meaningful and effective solution to the problem of atrocities and cruelty against the
females by the male members has to consider various aspects including the causes for this
immoral behavior. With the media and advertisement profession heavily dependent on the human
weakness of temptation, especially using pictures of exposed female body for their effectiveness,
and the use of intoxicating drink becoming a fashion for the highly cultured, it appears difficult
to implement any integrated and complete solution to the problem. Stringent laws can certainly
work as a deterrent. But creating proper awareness also can bring about some
improvement. Thus the causes and some answers have been presented here for awareness among
the concerned. As for solution, some words of wisdom are the only solace.