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LCM09

Version:
Issue Date:
Review By Date:
Owned By:
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1.1
August 2006
June 2008
Engineering Manager D & P
Executive Manager D & P

LINE CONSTRUCTION MANUAL LCM09

LATTICE TOWER LOAD TESTING

REVISION TABLE
Version No

Date of Revision

1.0

June 2006

1.1

August 2006

Details of Amendment
Initial Release
Numbering changed to represent previous system used

The above table lists in summary the amendments which have been made with most recent issues of this standard. The table is
updated with each re-issue. The latest amendments within the documents are marked with a change indicator (|) in the outer
margin.

CONTACT
This standard is the responsibility of the
Development and Projects Division, ElectraNet.
Please contact the indicated owner of the standard
with any inquiries.

ElectraNet
52-55 East Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000
PO Box 7096, Hutt Street Post Office,
Adelaide, South Australia 5000
Ph (08) 8404 7966, Fx (08) 8404 7104

LI M I T AT I O N O F L I A B I LI T Y A N D
D I S C LA I M E R O F W A R R AN TY
ElectraNet makes no representation or warranty as
to the accuracy, reliability, completeness or
suitability for particular purposes of the information
in this document. ElectraNet and its employees,
agents and consultants shall have no liability
(including liability to any person by reason of
negligence or negligent misstatement) for any
statements, opinions, information or matter
(expressed or implied) arising out of, contained in or
derived from or for any omissions from the
information in this document, except in so far as
liability under any statute cannot be excluded.

2006 ElectraNet Pty Limited trading as ElectraNet. No part of this document may be
reproduced or copied in any form or by any means (graphic, electronic, mechanical,
including photocopying, recording, taping or information retrieval systems) without the prior
written permission of ElectraNet.

LCM09

ElectraNet

TABLE OF CONTENTS
9.1

SCOPE......................................................................................................................................................3

9.2

TOWER TEST METHODS ...................................................................................................................3

9.3

SELECTION OF TOWERS FOR TESTING.......................................................................................3

9.4

STRUCTURE TESTING........................................................................................................................3

9.4.1
9.4.2
9.4.3
9.4.4
9.4.5

GENERAL ...............................................................................................................................................3
TESTING STATION & FACILITIES ............................................................................................................3
TEST STRUCTURE ...................................................................................................................................4
TESTING PROGRAMME AND TEST LOADS ...............................................................................................4
TESTING PROCEDURE.............................................................................................................................4

9.5

FAILURE OF TEST STRUCTURE......................................................................................................5

9.6

VARIATIONS TO TEST PROGRAMME AND DEFERMENT OF TESTS....................................6

9.6.1
9.6.2
9.6.3

STAND DOWN CHARGES ........................................................................................................................6


SUPPLY OF REINFORCED STEEL .............................................................................................................6
ADDITIONAL LABOUR ............................................................................................................................6

9.7

COMPUTER SIMULATED TOWER TEST .......................................................................................6

9.8

TEST REPORTS .....................................................................................................................................6

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9.1 SCOPE
The contractor shall test new lattice towers in accordance with this section.

9.2 TOWER TEST METHODS


As directed by the Superintendent, tower testing may comprise one or more of the following
procedures:

Full-scale load testing;

Computer simulated load testing.

9.3 SELECTION OF TOWERS FOR TESTING


Full-scale load tests of tower designs provided by ElectraNet will generally not be required to unless
otherwise specified in the contract.
New tower designs offered by the contractor not previously tested & used in the ElectraNet network
shall be subject to the full-scale load testing procedure nominated by the Superintendent.
Should the number of new towers required for the project be too small to justify testing costs, the
Superintendent may exclude the tower from full-scale testing. Instead, the Superintendent may
specify additional measures to be included in lieu of testing at the cost of the Contractor. These
measures may include some or all of the following:

adopting a more conservative material strength reduction factor in design calculations;

higher level of prototype & construction quality control; and

specification of more severe construction tolerances.

9.4 STRUCTURE TESTING


9.4.1 General
Towers shall be tested in accordance with IEC 60652 and requirements specified herein.
The contractor shall supply all materials, equipment and personnel necessary for assembly, erection,
testing and disassembly for each tower test.
The test structures shall remain the property of the contractor and components may be used in general
production provided they are not deformed or damaged in any manner, the galvanising is intact, and
bolt holes are not elongated. Bolts, nuts and washers may also be used in production towers provided
they are not deformed and the galvanising is intact. The use of these members, connections, and
fastenings shall be subject to inspection and approval by the Superintendent.
The Superintendent shall be entitled to witness the tests. The contractor shall provide adequate notice,
not less than four weeks, of readiness for conducting tower tests to permit time for travel to test
station.

9.4.2 Testing Station & Facilities


The contractor shall test nominated towers at a testing station approved by ElectraNet. Details of
proposed testing facilities and equipment shall be supplied in tender schedules.

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If the Superintendent decides to test the structures at other than the Contractors nominated test
station, the Principal will arrange for and meet the costs of such tests, and the Contractor shall supply
and deliver the structure components required to such testing station or other places as directed. An
amount shall be agreed upon for the delivery. The Superintendent will if possible, arrange that a duly
authorised representative of the Contractor shall be entitled to witness any such tests, and reasonable
notice given, in order that such representation may be arranged.
The structures shall be erected on firm foundations, and loads shall be supplied in accordance with the
schedule of test loads, all to the satisfaction of the Superintendent.
Where possible, testing is to be carried out with collapse limiting devices installed to provide support
for the tower in the event of a failure. Appropriate measures are to be adopted during the loading of
the tower to detect incipient failure before a general collapse occurs. If such precautions are not taken
and a general collapse occurs that could reasonably have been prevented the contractor shall be
deemed responsible for fabrication of new members and erection of a replacement test structure at no
expense to ElectraNet.

9.4.3 Test Structure


The test tower shall be manufactured using members and components fabricated to the same tolerance
and from the same material to be used for production towers in accordance with the specification.
High tensile members of test towers shall be stamped with a distinguishing mark. Bolts used for the
assembly of the test structure shall be identical with the bolts that will be supplied for field erection.
The height of each structure to be tested shall be the maximum design height unless otherwise
nominated, and shall include if possible, any special design features such as long slender leg
extensions and/or wide portal bays in the case of tower structures. All members and component parts
of the test structure shall be manufactured to the same tolerance and from the same material specified
for the structures to be supplied under this Contract. (Step bolts, working access and rest platforms
shall be provided on the test structure.) All steelwork comprising the test structure shall be
galvanised before tests commence.

9.4.4 Testing Programme and Test Loads


The Principal shall supply a schedule of up to 6 load trees for each suspension structure type and 10
load trees for each strain structure type.
The contractor shall supply for approval, a test loading schedule for each tower type to demonstrate
the adequacy of the tower design to meet the intent of the requirements under the contract. The
schedule shall be provided four weeks prior to the start of testing. Details of test loads shall comprise

Magnitude of force;
Point of application;
Direction of force;
Sequence of loading;
Load increments;
Load holding periods.

Test load rigging drawing showing load cell positions, spreader bars, load equalising devices and
pulling rope paths and angles plus dimensional and/or other details necessary to check the proposed
rigging.
The Superintendent may direct the Contractor to vary the test programme before or during testing.

9.4.5 Testing Procedure


Before application of test loads:

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All rigging and equipment shall be inspected and approved by ElectraNet nominated
representative;
One day prior to commencement of any testing, all load cells shall be calibrated with an indate load calibration device certified by an approved authority;
Between sub tests confirmation needs to be obtained that the tower is square and plumb and
free from residual stresses from the previous sub-test - with the exclusion of bolt slip that
may have occurred.

Inspection and approval of testing arrangements, rigging and equipment does not absolve the
contractor from responsibility of preventing fouling of rigging, members or guys, that loads are
applied in accordance with approved loading schedule and satisfactory provision made to prevent
general collapse of the tower.
For any subtest, two types of test may be required. The first test consists of application of test loads
up to specified ultimate design loads; the second consists of continuing loading to failure as directed
by the ElectraNet nominated representative. If required, the second test shall be carried out after the
release of all loads applied in the first test.
The contractor shall provide a digital video recording of the whole structure of each test. These
original tapes shall be provided free of charge to ElectraNet on completion of each sub test. The video
camera shall be mounted on a stable tripod during image capturing.
When the test station facilities are such that longitudinal and/or transverse forces cannot be applied to
the test structure horizontally, then the vertical and horizontal components of the force in any inclined
ropes will be taken as the actual force on the test structure and if such arrangement produces
unavoidable vertical overloads, then the degree of overload is to be clearly indicated in the test
programme.
Testing of structures shall not necessarily be to destruction, and the Contractor shall ensure that
limiting devices are installed such that the tower will be adequately supported should a member or
component fail.
The instrumentation incorporated in the test station shall be sufficiently sensitive to enable incipient
failure to be detected before a general collapse occurs.
The Contractor shall be required to satisfy the Superintendent that the instruments used for testing are
accurately calibrated. Standard loads shall be applied to the load cells for calibration, before and after
the tests.
Should the Contractor cause any undue delay, the Superintendent may require an additional pre test
calibration to be carried out at no cost to the Principal.

9.5 FAILURE OF TEST STRUCTURE


Should any tower not withstand the specified ultimate design loads, the designer shall direct what
corrective action shall be taken and the contractor shall carry out work as directed.
If the failure is deemed to be due to the contractors joint design and detailing, the contractor shall be
responsible for the cost of the necessary modifications and repeat the tests to the satisfaction of the
Superintendent. Additional testing and stand-down charges shall then be borne by the Contractor.
If the failure is deemed to be due to design modifications directed by the Principal outside the scope
of the Contractors responsibility, the necessary modifications shall be made, and the test repeated to
the satisfaction of the Superintendent. The cost of additional testing, members and stand-down
charges shall in this case by the responsibility of the Principal.

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9.6 VARIATIONS TO TEST PROGRAMME AND


DEFERMENT OF TESTS
Should the Superintendent decide to alter the testing programme then any additional work beyond the
scope of the original tender will be paid for at the scheduled rats for variations. Payment in this event
will be made on the following basis:

9.6.1 Stand Down Charges


These will apply on an hourly basis for items when testing operations are suspended at the direction
of the Superintendent or his representative and shall include all labour and plant normally engaged on
the test facilities. Once a test has commenced this rate will apply to alterations to the test structure as
a result of failures determined as the responsibility of the Principal and include removal and
replacement of damaged components, removal and replacement where necessary or rigging

9.6.2 Supply of Reinforced Steel


Payment will be made at the scheduled rate for all replacement steel where this work is the Principals
responsibility.

9.6.3 Additional Labour


Should it be determined that additional labour is required to carry out the test, payment will be made
at the scheduled rate where this work is at he Principals responsibility.

9.7 COMPUTER SIMULATED TOWER TEST


Computer simulation tests shall comprise a 3rd order, non-linear finite element analysis, such as that
performed by AK Tower software developed at The University of Queensland, or approved
equivalent.
The computer model shall be based on the structure assembly drawings and shall accurately represent
the normal framing eccentricities of angle section connections, the true orientation of the angle
sections and any eccentricities of member intersection lines.
Loads shall be applied to the structure in accordance with ElectraNet approved loading specification.
The sequence of load application shall represent as far as practicable actual field conditions that
would be expected.
Each simulated test shall identify the loads and location at which significant initial yielding or
buckling occurs (initial non-linearity), and the ultimate load capacity of the structure. The analysis
shall take into account the effects of changes in tower geometry and the effects of member buckling
and yielding.
The test shall be considered satisfactory if initial non-linearity occurs at not less than 80% of the
design loads and the ultimate load capacity is not less than 110% of the design loads (including tower
structure capacity factor per AS3995 Table 1.8).
If the Superintendent determines the computer simulation cannot accurately model the performance
of member material & geometric non-linearity, connections & eccentricities, an independent
functional engineering review shall be conducted to verify tower detailing and shop drawings at the
Contractors expense by a third party nominated by the Superintendent.

9.8 TEST REPORTS


The contractor shall supply three copies of a detailed report of each test.

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Test reports shall contain:

Summary of scope of tests;


Description of the test station arrangement used for full-scale testing (facilities, equipment,
load/instrument calibrations, tower failure limiting devices, date of test) or outline of
analytical and modelling processes and assumptions used in computer simulated tests;
Tower details (structure designation, outline drawing and material lists);
Summary of sub-tests and test load specifications;
Loading schedule including magnitude and direction of loads, and sequence of load
application;
Load-deflection curves;
Details of failures including description of failure mode, location of failure and supporting
evidence (enlarged photographs showing failure region, graphic models of deformed tower
etc);
Material sampling and test certificates;
Corrective action taken or recommended.

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