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, @94.

..

Al.ltornotive Safety and


Engineering Standards

~Ge6metric

, DimerlsiQrting.
~ ~nd Toterancing
:\ ; Jt APocket Guide !o,
Supplementthe~ _ .
ASMEY14.5M-1994 ~
. , . Dimensioni'fg mm 1~.
Tolerancing;Stimdard

).

1-

OuaHty
-P-~uct

Design
Activities

Manufacturing
Activiti~

Environmental
and Safety

Engineering
Ford Automotive
Operations

;.-

'

.\_

-'-,\'

--

--

GEOMETRIC'DIMENSIONINGAND
-TOtERAN~IN(J (GOT}
- INT~ODUCl:ION~-r '

'"-,\'

---

,- '

'

_\

The purpose of.arfenginee(ing drawing is ta.plearly convey the - _


productdeslgn mtent of function. To-Clo &<> it fnust be interpreted/
by. Design and Manufacturing .uniformly.
.
'J
/

GOT is the Engineering',Producf-Definition -&alldard_whlch


describes the ge6metriC features of a product and th_eir
6peratlonal refations.hips-(e$essed as tolerances) to eac~
ottier .and their--. functional _ int~rfaces with/ rnatii;ifr parts,
,asserhblies1 etc, /It provides the dQ.cumentation b~ fo(lhe
- desig!l :of ttle productiOn and quality systems. -

a;

This J:>~O"klel is intended1o sen/e.


~n aid in und~rst~nciing GOT and is a ci>ndensed vers1on of the material.. For actditiooal
- infOrmatton refer to. '~Dlmensibning. and Tolerancing, ASME
Y14,5M-1994": _Drawings containing the note ~.DIMEN~IONING
--- AND l'OLERANCING IN ACCGRDANeE WIT~- ASME
Y14.5M-1994" eomply with th~ above stated -stC1fidcirO:.
-.Drawings not containing this note must Ile interpreted using the. /applical:51astanoard at the tirnE; of its draft.'_./ - -DIMENSIONS SHOWN IN:-THIS POBUcATfON ARE INtv'llLLIMETERS.
::: .
the llf~strations shown in this booklet are intended ~o aid
user in -.understanding the prindples. an-d methodS. of
Dimensioning and Tolerancin9: Ma)'ly bf the lttustrations are
incampiete by intent and should not be Used as the basis for
' Design Criteria, Acceptance, or Rejeetionof Components. -

me

/.

--

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ITEM

PAGE

INTRODUCTION
GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
COMMON TERMS AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
FEATURE CONTROL FRAME ......................... 3-4
GENERAL RULES ................................... 5-7
DATUM SYSTEM .................................. 8-14
STRAIGHTNESS .................................. 15-16
FLATNESS ......................................... 17
CIRCULARITY ...................................... 18
CYLINDRICITY ..................................... 19
PROFILE ......................................... 20-26
PARALLELISM ................................... 27-28
PERPENDICULARITY ............................. 29-30
ANGULARITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
TANGENT PLANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
POSITION ........................................ 33-53
SYMMETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
RUNOUT ......................................... 55-56
CONCENTRICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOLS


TYPE OF
TOLERANCE
FOR
INDIVIDUAL
FEATURES

FORM

FOR INDIVIDUAL OR
RELATED
FEATURES

PROFILE

ORIENTATION

FOR RELATED
FEATURES

LOCATION

CHARACTERISTIC

SYMBOL

STRAIGHTNESS

FLATNESS

CIRCULARITY

CYLINDRICITY

/)'

PROFILE OF A LINE

MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION @(MMC)

ANGULARITY

The condition in which a feature of size contains the maximum amount of material
within the stated limits of size - for example, minimum hole diameter, maximum
shaft diameter.

PERPENDICULARTY

_L

PARALLELISM

II

POSITION

'11-

CONCENTRICITY

0
-

CIRCULAR RUNOUT

J'.

TOTAL RUNOUT

Arrowhead(s) may be filled or not filled.

MATERIAL CONDITIONS
TERM

VIRTUAL CONDITION

NONE

REGARDLESS OF FEATURE SIZE

ADDITIONAL SYMBOLS
DIAMETRICAL FEATURE
ORTOL.ZONE

SYMBOL

BASIC DIMENSION

REFERENCE DIMENSION

(50)

PROJECTED TOLERANCE
ZONE

DATUM FEATURE

DATUM TARGET
DATUM TARGET POINT
DIMENSION ORIGIN
FEATURE CONTROL
FRAME
CONICAL TAPER

TERM
COUNTERSINK

DEPTH/DEEP
SQUARE (SHAPE)

6!1
x

<--$-100.s@IAIBIC

SYMBOL
'-./

DIMENSION NOTTO
SCALE

15

NUMBER OF TIMES/
PLACES

BX

ARC LENGTH

1o5

RAD UIS
SPHERICAL RADIUS
SPHERICAL DIAMETER
ALL AROUND

R
SR
S0

fr

FREE STATE

TANGENT PLANE

(j)

SLOPE

t:::,,..

CONTROLLED RADIUS

CR

COUNTERBORE/SPOT
FACE

L__J

STATISTICAL TOLERANCE

BETWEEN

* Datum Feature Triangle may be filled or not filled.

REGARDLESS OF FEATURE SIZE (RFS)


The term used to indicate that a geometric tolerance or datum reference applies at any
increment of size of the feature within its size tolerance.
(No additional positional or form tolerance is available; no matter what the size).
The total movement of an indicator when appropriately applied to a surface to
measure its variations. (Formerly called total indicator reading-TIR).

LEAST MATERIAL CONDITION

LEAST MATERIAL CONDITION (Q (LMC)


The condition in which a feature of size contains the least amount of material within
the stated limits of size-for example, maximum hole diameter, minimum shaft diameter.

FULL INDICATOR MOVEMENT (FIM)

SYllBOL

MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION

TERM

BASIC DIMENSION
A numerical value used to describe the theoretically exact size, profile, orientation, or
location of a feature or datum target. It is the basis from which permissible variations
are established by tolerances on other dimensions, in notes, or in a feature control frame.

PROFILE OF A SURFACE

SYMMETRY
RU NO UT

COMMON TERMS AND


DEFINITIONS

----

A constant boundary generated by the collective effects of a size feature's specified


MMC or LMC material condition and the geometric tolerance for that material
condition.

EXTERNAL FEATURE
MMC CONCEPT - a constant value equal to its maximum material condition
size PLUS its applicable geometric tolerances.
LMC CONCEPT - a constant value equal to its least material condition MINUS
its applicable geometric tolerances.

INTERNAL FEATURE
MMC CONCEPT - a constant value equal to its maximum material condition
size MINUS its applicable geometric tolerances.
LMC CONCEPT - a constant value equal to its least material condition PLUS its
applicable geometric tolerances.

IDENTIFICATION OF TOLERANCE ZONE


Where the specified tolerance value represents the diameter of a cylindrical or
spherical zone, the diameter or spherical diameter symbol shall precede the tolerance
value.
Where the tolerance zone is other than a diameter, identification is unnecessary, and
the specified tolerance value represents the distance between two parallel straight
lines or planes, or the distance between two uniform boundaries, as the specific case
maybe.

FEATURE CONTROL FRAME

FEATURE CONTROL FRAME (Cont.)

The feature control frame consists of:


I. Type of control (geometric characteristic)
2. Tolerance zone
3. Tolerance zone modifiers (i.e. @ or )
4. Datum references if applicable and any datum feature modifiers.
GEOMETRIC
CHARACTERISTIC
SYMBOL

~TOLERANCE

~5?METRIC

" " ' CHARACTERISTIC


SYMBOL

TOLZONE
SHAPE

SYMBOL FOR ALL AROUND

COMPOSITE FEATURE
CONTROL FRAME
0.6

MATERIAL CONDITION
SYMBOL

MATERIAL
CONDITION
SYMBOL

FEATURE CONTROL FRAME

FEATURE CONTROL FRAME


INCORPORATING
A DATUM REFERENCE

TWO SINGLE
SEGMENT FEATURE
CONTROL FRAMES

FEATURE CONTROL FRAME


WITH A SYMBOL
FOR ALL AROUND

~PRIMARY
ONE
DATUM
REFERENCE

MULTIPLE DATUM
\PRIMARY

'1J-

0.5

@@

16

A B@

PROJECTED
TOLERANCE
ZONE SYMBOL
TWO
DATUM
REFERENCES

'1l-

MINIMUM PROJECTED
HEIGHT OF
TOLERANCE ZONE

0.5

SECONDARY
THREE
DATUM
REFERENCES

COMBINED FEATURE
CONTROL FRAME AND
DATUM FEATURE SYMBOL

FEATURE CONTROL FRAME


WITH A PROJECTED
TOLERANCE ZONE

ORDER OF PRECEDENCE
OF DATUM REFERENCES

GENERAL RULES (Cont.)

GENERAL RULES

A. Specify a zero tolerance or orientation at MMC, including a datum reference


(at MMC, if applicable), to control angularity, perpendicularity, or parallelism of the feature

LIMITS OF SIZE
For an individual feature of size:
No element of the actual feature shall extend beyond the specified high or low limits
of size or the envelope of perfect form at MMC. Where the actual size of a fea1m'c
has departed form MMC to LMC a variation in form is allowed equal to sudt
departure. This control does not apply to stock such as bars, sheets, tubing or ocbrr
items produced to established industry standards.

EXTERNAL FEATURE

~14-

22.2 (MMC}
22 1 ------!

INTERNAL FEATURE

AT!1) 222

AT

{MMC} FORM

{MMC}FOIW

SHALL BE
PERFECT

SHALL BE
PERFECT

-I 14- 22.2 {MMC}

22.1

22.3

--t~t--

D. Relate dimensions to a datum reference frame by a local or general note


indicating datum precedence. The noted dimensions define only the maximum material condition envelope related to the datum reference frame
defined by the datums.

RFS applies, with respect to the individual tolerance, datum reference, or both,
where no modifying symbol is specified. MMC or LMC must be specified on the
drawing where it is required.

22.1-V.-

LIMITS OF SIZE & FEATURE RELATIONSHP


The limits of size of an individual feature prescribes the extcntlDwlidtWlilliimm
in its geometric form, as well as size, are allowed (Fig. I).
FIG.1

C. Indicate this control for the features involved by a note such as PERFECT
ORIENTATION (or COAXIALITY or SYMMETRY) AT MMC
REQUIRED FOR RELATED FEATURES.

ALL GEOMETRIC TOLERANCES

-1 14- 22.2 {MMC}

22.1 -

B. Specify a zero positional tolerance at MMC, including a datum reference at


MMC, to control coaxial or symmetrical features.

~~---

13 1 4

n\25~

n\25

>"24

DESIGN INTENT

'

'

>"24

POSSIBLE RESULT

Therefore relationship between individual features must be controlled to ..,,...


incomplete drawing requirements; geometric tolerancing is used to control
location or orientation
(Fig. 2).

EXAMPLE: IMPLIES RFS

SCREW THREADS
Each tolerance of orientation or position and datum reference specified for a screw
thread applies to the axis of the thread derived from the pitch cylinder (diameter).
Where an exception to this practice is necessary, the specific feature of the screw
thread (such as MINOR DIA or MAJOR DIA) shall be stated beneath the feature
control frame or beneath the datum feature symbol, as applicable.
EXAMPLE: {APPLICABLE TO
FEATURE CONTROLLED}

I-$- I
MAJOR

DESIGN INTENT

IL I 0.08 I A I
I /I 0.1 IA-Bi

lolo.o51

0.05

@ IA

(APPLICABLE TO DATUM)

I
MAJOR

CONTROLLED RESULT

PERFECT FORM MMC & FEATURE RELATIONSHIP


If it is necessary to establish a boundary of perfect form at MMC to control the

relationship between features, the following methods (A, B, C, D) are used.

DATUM SYSTEM

GENERAL RULES (Cont.)


GEARS AND SPLINES

DATUM

A QUALIFYING NOTATION MUST BE ADDED TO THE SYMBOL OR NOIE


(E.G., MAJOR)

A theoretically exact point, axis, or plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of a
specified datum feature. A datum is the origin from which the location or geometric characteristics of features of a part are established.

DATUM FEATURE SIMULATOR

EXAMPLE:

I-$- I

0.08

MAJOR

A surface of adequately precise form (such as surface plate, a gage surface, or a mandrel)
contacting the datum feature(s) and used to establish the simulated datum( s ).

@I A I

SIMULATED DATUM

A point, axis, or plane established by processing or inspection equipment (datum feature


simulator).

DATUM FEATURES AT VIRTUAL CONDITION

DATUM FEATURE

When a feature is designated to be used as a datum feature (Fig. I, B and C) * e


datum features apply at their virtual condition when used for verifying a ~
relationship to them (Fig. 2).

FIG.1

+0.4
2XIZS5 _ _
01

o.5

@I A le~lc81

An actual feature of a part that is used to stage the part in the equipment (datum feature simulator)
for purposes of relating its geometry (relationships) to the datum reference frame.

DATUM REFERENCE FRAME


Sufficient datum features, those most important to the design of a part, or designated portions of these features are chosen to position the part in relation to a set of three mutually
perpendicular planes, jointly called a datum reference frame (see figure 1). This reference
frame exits in theory only and not on the part. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a
method of simulating the theoretical reference frame from the actual features of the part (see
figure 2). This simulation is accomplished by positioning specifically identified features in
contact with appropriate datum simulators, in a stated order of precedence, to restrict motion
of the a part and to relate the part adequately to the datum reference frame.

FIG.1

DIRECTION OF
MEASUREMENTS

FIG. 2

90

9.25- 2 HOLES
(VIRTUAL CONDITION
OF DATUM FEATURES)

15
BASIC

13
16MIN+-

BASIC

BASIC

l_~ :~ $~ : ~-f

?).

~'

MUTUALLY
PERPENDICULAR PLANES

10MIN

4.4-2PINS
(VIRTUAL CONDITION)

GAGE FOR VERIFYING


FEATURE RELATIONSHIPS

DATUM SYSTEM (Cont.)

DATUM SYSTEM (CONT.)


FIG. 2a

ESTABLISHMENT OF DATUM AXIS, RFS EXTERNAL FEATURE

THIS ON THE DRAWING

FIG. 2C

ESTABLISHMENT Of DATUM AXIS, RFS INTERNAL FEATURE

THIS ON THE DRAWING

____r1AJ

t,-------=--=----3-

MEANS THIS

MEANS THIS

Datum feature A

NOTE: Simulated datum fealUre

Component

not shown for clarity

~~~~

Datum fea ure simulator


e.. Collet)

Datum feature simulator


-~'!9ing MandrelL

Datum axis A (theoretical)


(Axis of true
geometric counterpart)

Datum axis A
(theoretical) (Axis of true
geometric counterpart)

FIG. 2b

THIS ON THE DRAWING

11 DATUM REFERENCED BY THE


FEATURE IS TO BE A PLANE

Datum plane A (theoretical) (True geometric counterpart of


datum feature A)
Oat

f t

__I_

TO AN EXTENSION OF THE
FEATURE

--CYLINDRICAL FEATURE

t:i)- l;-+==D

t~l-

DATUM REFERENCED BY THE


FEATURE IS TO BE AN AXIS

Datum feature A
Component
Datum Feature Simulator
(e.g. Surlace Plate)
Datum plane A (theoretical)
(True geometric counterpart
of datum feature A)

(b) Component & datum feature simulator in contact

(a) Component & datum feature simulator prior to contact

Jl

TO THE FEATURE OUTLINE

Simulated datum plane A


Simulated datum feature
(Plane established from the actual
(Surlace of manuafacturing or
surlace of the datum feature simulator) verification equipment)

Simulated datum plane A


(Plane established from the actual
surlace of the datum feature simulator)

NOTE: Simulated datum feature


not shown for clarity

(SOME TYPICAL EXAMPLES)


PLANE SURFACE

h
\T

True geometric counterpart


of datum feature A (Largest
inscribed cylinder)

DATUM FEATURE SYMBOL PLACEMENT

NON--SIZE DATUM FEATURE ESTABLISHMENT OF DATUM PLANE

MEANS THIS

_J

NON CYLINDRICAL FEATURE


DATUM REFERENCED BY THE
FEATURE IS TO BE A CENTERPLANE

19

10

PART POSITIONING IN THE DATUM


REFERENCE FRAME (ORF)
NON-CYLINDRICAL DATUM FEATURES

I~ I

0.2

CYLINDRICAL DATUM FEATURES

COMPONENT AS DRAWN
The datum established by a cylindrical surface is the axis of a true cylinder
simulated by the processing equipment. A cylindrical datum feature is always
associated with two theoretical planes intersecting at right angles on the datum

@I A I B I c I

Et? 58

(ORF) (Cont.)

er

axis.

COMPONENT AS DRAWN

I'

The primary datum feature relates the part to the datum reference frame by
bringing a minimum of three points on the surface into contact with the first datum plane. The part is further related to the frame by bringing at least two points
of the secondary datum feature into contact with the second datum plane. 1bc
relationship is completed by bringing at least one point of the tertiary datum feature into contact with the third datum plane.

--~-->
l------- ------

FIRST DATUM PLANE


(PRIMARY)
~goo~

,..i --

(PRIMARY)

-------y

goo~:

(1

', "-.......---

',

These two theoretical planes are represented on a drawing by center lines


crossing at right angles. The intersection of these planes coincides with the
datum axis. Once established, the datum axis becomes the ongm for related
dimensions while the two planes (X and Y) indicate the direction of
measurements.

'>

-------

THIRD DATUM PLANE


(TERTIARY)

SEQUENCE OF DATUM FEATURES RELATING


COMPONENT TO DATUM REFERENCE FRAME

11

--~ FIRST DATUM PLANE A

SECOND DATUM PLANE B


(SECONDARY) ~

~~--

ESTABLISH (SECONDARY)
DATUMAXISB

NOTE:
The processing equipment controls movement in three mutually perpendicular
directions. These three directions establish the three perpendicular planes of the
datum reference frame which can be used as origins of measurements. Machine
tables and movements, surface plates, etc., are not true planes, but are of such
quality they simulate datum planes adequately. Measurements, therefore are
made from planes, axes, and points in the processmg eqmpment.

12

DATUM TARGETS

DATUM TARGET AREA

A specified point, line, or area on a part used to establish a datum.

A datum target area is indicated by section lines inside a phantom outline of the
desired shape, with controlling dimensions added. The diameter of circular areas
is given in the upper half of the datum target symbol.

DATUM TARGET POINT


A datum target point is indicated by the symbol
located on a direct view of the surface.

X (cross) which is dimensionally

CONTACT AREA
AT BASIC LOCATION
COMPONENT

POINT CONTACT
AT BASIC LOCATION

/
COMPONENT

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

DATUM TARGET AREA


DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

Where it becomes impracticable to show a target area, the method shown below
may be used.

DATUM TARGET LINE


A datum target line is indicated by the symbol X (cross) on an edge view of the surface, a phantom line on the direct view or both.

COMPON~ENT

~CATING
~(PIN
DRAWING CALLOUT

13

INTERPRETATION

14

...

STRAIGHTNESS

en

TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

DATUM
REFERENCE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS

FORM

STRAIGHTNESS-

NONE

RFS

MMCORLMC
IF TOLERANCE
APPLIES TO
AN AXIS OR
CENTER PLANE

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

1-1

1-1

o.os
TOTAL WIDTH

0.os
CYLINDRICAL

KEYS TO REMEMBER

1. COMPARES TO A PERFECT
COUNTERPART OF ITSELF
(STRAIGHT LINE)
2. ADDITIVE TO SIZE WHEN
APPLIED TO AN AXIS

STRAIGHTNESS:
A condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight line.

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCE ZONE:


A tolerance zone within which the considered element or derived median line, must lie.

CASE1

CASE2

CASE3

Straightness tolerance of element lines on a surface

Straightness tokrance of an axis RFS

Straightness tolerance of an axis MMC

12.9-$-

E-3-=l_

12.7

12.9-$ 12.7

E-=+=l_

~OLFRAME

JURE CONTROL FRAME


MUST POINT TO ELEMENT
LINES ON A SURFACE

1-100.os@I

~EATURECONTROLFRAME
MUST BE WITH THE SIZE

MUST BE WITH THE SIZE


DIMENSION

DIMENSION

DRAWING CALLOUT

DRAWING CALLOUT

12.9-$012.1

DRAWING CALLOUT

.08

--~--'---+-012.9MMC

c:=J

cs
r===:J==t_

...

12.9MAX+0.08

12.98 VIRTUAL COND


(MAY NOT BE VIOLATED)

0 12.9MMC

0.08 T'L RFS

AXIS MUST LIE


WITHIN

Lo.oa

=r=t==:J=t

12.7 ATANYCROSS
SECTION

DIFFERENCE
IN DIA SIZE
STRAIGHTNESSO TOL
SPECIFIED

f
["~'""'

12.98 VIRTUAL COND


MAY NOT BE VIOLATED)

0 12.9MMC

~
0

"\
\
\

O.OS + 0.

12.7LMC

INTERPRETATION
INTERPRETATION
INTERPRETATION
L___ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _....J._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _...L..._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___,

FLATNESS
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

FORM

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

FLATNESS

DATUM
REFERENCE

NONE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

1. COMPARES TO A PERFECT
COUNTERPART OF ITSELF
(PLANE)
2. NOT ADDITIVE TO SIZE OR
LOCATION LIMITS
3. NO PARTICULAR
ORIENTATION

lolo.051

NONE

RFS

KEYS TO REMEMBER

TOTAL WIDTH

FLATNESS:
A condition of a surface having all elements in one plane.
0.05 TOLERANCE ZONE
ANY PLACE WITHIN
HIGH & LOW LIMIT NO PARTICULAR
ORIENTATION

FLATNESS TOLERANCE ZONE:


A tolerance zone is defined by two parallel planes within which the entire surface must lie.

POSSIBLE
SURFACE
CONTOUR

TOLERANCE - ZONE

60
HIGH
LIMIT

59
LOW
LIMIT

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

,,
CIRCULARITY
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

DATUM
REFERENCE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS

Io
FORM

CIRCULARITY

NONE

RFS

10.131

TOTAL WIDTH TOL


ZONE BETWEEN
TWO CONCENTRIC
CIRCLES

NONE

KEYS TO REMEMBER
1. APPLIES AT SINGLE CROSS
SECTIONS ONLY
2. IS LIKE A STRAIGHTNESS
TOL ZONE CURLED
AROUND A CIRCLE

CIRCULARITY:
A condition on a surface of revolution (cylinder, cone, sphere) where all points of the surface intersected by any plane perpendicular to a common axis
(cylinder, cone) or passing through a common center (sphere) are equidistant from that axis or center.

CIRCULARITY TOLERANCE ZONE:


A tolerance zone bounded by two concentric circles within which each circular element of the surface must lie.

I 1

-4-,

12 (SELECTED)

0 9.74

~90

...co

010MAX.
(ACTUAL
MEASUREMENT
AT THIS SECTION)
POSSIBLE
PART
CONTOUR AT
THIS SECTION

0.13TOL
ZONE
SECTION ENLARGED

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

...

CYLINDRICITY

<O

TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

DATUM
REFERENCE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS

NONE

RFS

NONE

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE
l1Ylo.13I

FORM

CYLINDRICITY

IY

TOTAL WIDTH TOL


ZONE BETWEEN
TWO CONCENTRIC
CYLINDERS

KEYS TO REMEMBER

1. APPLIES OVER THE ENTIRE


SURFACE
2. IS LIKE A FLATNESS TOL
ZONE CURLED AROUND A
CYLINDEREXPENSIVEI

CYLINDRICITY:
A condition of a surface of revolution in which all points of the surface are equidistant from a common axis.

CYLINDRICITY TOLERANCE ZONE:


A tolerance zone bounded by two concentric cylinders within which the surface must lie.
POSSIBLE
PART CONTOUR

010MAX.
(ACTUAL MEASUREMENT
DERIVED FROM
ENTIRE SURFACE)

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

PROFILE
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL
PROFILE OF A
LINE ( \

PROFILE

PROFILE OF A
SURFACE 0

DATUM
REFERENCE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS

WITH OR
WITHOUT
DATUM

RFS

MMCORLMC
MAY BE APPLIED
TO THE DATUM
OF REFERENCE
ONLY

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

lnl o.4 Ir\ I


TOTAL WIDTH
lo! o.4 jr\I
TOTAL WIDTH

KEYS TO REMEMBER
PROFILE OF A SURFACE/LINE
TOLERANCING ALLOW THE TRUE
PROFILE TO BE DEFINED BY
BASIC DIMENSIONS, FORMULAS,
OR UN DIMENSIONED DRAWINGS

PROFILE: Profile of a line and profile of a surface

PROFILE TOLERANCE ZONE: The tolerance for profile

tolerancing is a method used to specify a uniform amount


of variation of a surface or line elements of a surface.

of a line or surface may be divided bilaterally to both sides of the


true profile or applied unilaterally to either side of the true profile.

,,___

~BASIC
_
....: CONTOUR

r=h'

DRAWING CALLOUT/INTERPRETATION

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPR/ION
BILATERAL TOLERANCE
Where a bilateral tolerance is intended, it is only necessary to
show the feature control symbol with a leader directed to the
surface.

OR

o.4 I

UNILATERAL TOLERANCE
For a unilateral tolerance, a phantom line is drawn parallel to the
basic profile to clearly indicate whether the tolerance zone is inside
or outside the basic profile.

SPECIAL CASE
DRAWING CALLOUT/INTERPRETATION
For an unequally disposed profile tolerance phantom lines are also required to
indicate the distribution of the tolerance.

0.1_1-dol

0.4

PROFILE

(Cont'd.)

PROFILE OF A LINE
TOLERANCE ZONE:

PROFILE OF A SURFACE
TOLERANCE ZONE:

A uniform two dimensional zone limited by two parallel


zone lines extending along the length of a feature.

A uniform three dimensional zone contained between two


envelope surfaces separated by the tolerance zone across the
entire length of a surface.

CASE 1
PROFILE FOR SPECIFIC LENGTH

CASE2
PROFILE ALL AROUND

~lf~:~~LE

D LJ

ilJ_ '

0.4

DRAWING CALLOUT
0

t_ EACH LINE
PROFILE

DATUM__../
FEATURE A
SIMULATOR

'"''ITT'"
SURFACE

1 ~C_J

DATUM FEATURE

INTERPRETATION

MEASUREMENTS
TAKEN NORMAL
TO BASIC
PROFILE
0.2

INTERPRETATION

SIMULATOR

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION
~

PROFILE -

COPLANAR SURFACES

lWr
rrrt=
~DE
I

TOLERANCE ZONE

2SURFACES

0.2

CASE3
PROFILE ALL OVER

0.2 TOL. ZONE

I\ 0.1 TOL. ZONE

_ll '

y--0.~-

EACH SURFACE MUST LIE BETWEEN TWO COMMON


PARALLEL PLANES 0.9 APART.

INTERPRETATION

PROFILE -

COMPOSITE PROFILE TOLERANCING OF AN IRREGULAR FEATURE

DRAWING CALLOUT

,
/

09WIDETOLERANCE1
ZONE

DATUM PLANE C

90'1

~/~',
/

(~,,~ ~-- ' ~~))- .'"""'"'.J=f~uZONE

DATUM PLANE

DATUM PLANE

A~

THE FEATURE SHALL BE LOCATED WITHIN A LARGER BOUNDARY (0.9) RELATIVE


TO THE PRIMARY DATUM A, SECONDARY DATUM 8, AND TERTIARY DATUM C.
ONCE THE FEATURE IS LOCATED WITHIN THE LARGER BOUNDARY (0.9) ITS SIZE
SHALL BE CONTROLLED RELATIVE TO THE BASIC FEATURE DEFINING DIMENSIONS
AND TO THE PRIMARY DATUM A WITHIN THE SMALLER BOUNDARY (0.1 ).

INTERPRETATION

~ '-------------------------------------------~

---- ------ --------------------~~~~-~~----,.PROFILE -

BOUNDARY CONTROL FOR A NON-CYLINDRICAL FEATURE

B C

DRAWING CALLOUT

LMC OF FEATURE

0.7

(0.7)

r--0.7

TRUE PROFILE

MMC OF FEATURE

TRUE PROFILE
MMC OF FEATURE
(AT BASIC LOCATION)

POSITIONAL
BOUNDARY

0.3

:-r
~
r

~FROM

DATUM PLANE

DATUM
PLANEA

POSITION CONTROL

PROFILE CONTROL
THE SURFACE, ALL AROUND, MUST LIE BETWEEN TWO
PROFILE BOUNDARIES 1.4 APART EQUALLY DISPOSED
ABOUT THE TRUE PROFILE.

I\)

11

FROM DATUM
PLANE C
I/~==-~-~=-

NO PORTION OF THE SURFACE MAY BE PERMITTED TO LIE


WITHIN THE BOUNDARY OF MMC CONTOUR MINUS THE
TOTAL POSITIONAL TOLERANCE WHEN POSITIONED WITH
RESPECT TO DATUM PLANES A, 8 AND C.

INTERPRETATION

en ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - '

.... ll!WJiilil:ZtlilQlil4t:O!;:;::;........

~"F'~-

PARALLELISM
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

ORIENTATION

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

DATUM
REFERENCE

PARALLELISM II

YES

IMPLIED
CONDITION

RFS

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS
MAY BE MODIFIED
TOMMCORLMC
IF TOLERANCE
APPLIES TO AN AXIS
OR CENTER PLANE
OF A FEATURE OF
SIZE.

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

KEYS TO REMEMBER
RELATION TO MORE THAN
ONE DATUM FEATURE
SHOULD BE CONSIDERED TO
STABILIZE THE TOLERANCE
ZONE IN MORE THAN ONE
DIRECTION.

III I o. 5 I A I
TOTAL WIDTH

III l0o.51 A I
CYLINDRICAL

PARALLELISM:
The condition of a surface, center plane, or axis which is equidistant at all points from a datum of reference.

PARALLELISM TOLERANCE ZONE:


Parallelism tolerance zones will be one of the following types:
Case I - Tolerance zone between 2 parallel planes.
Case 2 - Tolerance zone between 2 parallel lines.
Case 3 - Tolerance zone with a cylindrical shape.
CASE 1
Two parallel planes; parallel to a datum plane within which the feature must lie.

r1 II I

0.5

IA I

r2

-f

PARALLEL PLANES

r05TOLZONE

PARALLEL TO
DATUM PLANE A

~//]~//~////(;/
/
;::9~ry~ f7!'J~ry~ /~~y11-;9~

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION
_f

CASE2
Two parallel Jines; parallel to a datum plane or axis within which the
element line must lie.

/,~~TY~ ;7~i;u,R~ ,A, ~l~!-J~~i;o,R,


INTERPRETATION
CASE3
A cylindrical tolerance zone parallel to a datum axis within which the
axis of the feature must lie.

POSSIBLE
ORIENTATION OF
FEATURE AXIS

DATUM AXIS A

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

PERPENDICULARITY
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

DATUM
REFERENCE

ORIENTATION PERPENDICULARITY _L

IMPLIED
CONDITION

YES

RFS

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS
MAY BE MODIFIED
TO MMC OR LMC IF
TOL APPLIES TO
AN AXIS OR
CENTER PLANE
OF A FEATURE
OF SIZE

KEYS TO REMEMBER
RELATION TO MORE THAN
ONE DATUM FEATURE
SHOULD BE CONSIDERED TO
STABILIZE THE TOLERANCE
ZONE IN MORE THAN ONE
DIRECTION.

0.5
I-LI
IAI
TOTAL WIDTH
I _LI 0 0.5 I A I
CYLINDRICAL

PERPENDICULARITY
The condition of a surface, center plane, or axis which is exactly at 90 with respect to a datum plane or axis.

PERPENDICULARITY TOLERANCE ZONES:


Perpendicularity tolerance zones will be one of the following types: Case 1 thru 4 - Tolerance zone between 2 parallel planes.
Case 5 - A tolerance zone with a cylindrical shape.
Case 6 - Tolerance zone between 2 parallel lines.
CASE 1 Two parallel planes perpendicular to a datum plane
within which the surface of a feature must lie.
-LI

0.5

'"

CASE 4 Two parallel planes perpendicular to a datum plane


within which the center plane of a feature must lie.

90 TO DATUM
PLANE A

~DRAWING CALLOUT

~noc
:
I

A SIMULATOR
INTERPRETATION

CASE 2 Two parallel planes perpendicular to a datum axis


within which the surface of a feature must lie.

~~"~"

0.5TOLZONE

I~ i ~~lo.5IAI

DATUM FEATURE

POSSIBLE ORIENTATION

GlJ

ZONE

TO DATUM PLANE

L_ DATUM FEATURE A SIMULATOR

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

_,

CASE 5 A cylindrical tolerance zone perpendicular to a datum


plane within which the axis of a feature must lie.
POSSIBLE
ORIENTATION OF
FEATURE AXIS

0.5 I A I

~-=LDl
::~

"

DATUM
PLANE A

900

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

CASE 3 Two parallel planes perpendicular to a datum axis


within which the surface of a feature must lie.

DRAWING CALLOUT

O.~ TOL ZONE

INTERPRETATION

CASE 6 Two parallel planes perpendicular to a datum plane or


axis within which an element of the surface must lie.
_L 0.5 A
EACH
ELEMENT

DRAWING CALLOUT

~~~su~~o-o

'

0.5 TOL ZONE

DRAWING CALLOUT

\ljY
POSSIBLE ORIENTATION
OF FEATURE AXIS

CAUTION THIS CONDITION ONLY APPLIES IN


THE VIEW WHERE IT IS SPECIFIED

0.5 TOL ZONE

2LtNAERSAALTLAENL~goo
LOCATION

CHECKED
DATUM

~'--~~~~~~~IN~T~E~R~P~R~E~T~A~J~IO;:;;..:..:N~~~~~~~..._~~~~~~-'"'-IN~T~E~R~P~R~E~T~A~Jl~O~N-=--~~-P-LA_N_E_A~--'

ANGULARITY
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

ORIENTATION

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

ANGULARITY L

DATUM
REFERENCE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

YES

RFS

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

IL I 0.3 I A I

MAY BE MODIFIED
TOMMCORLMC
IF TOLERANCE
APPLIES TO AN AXIS
OR CENTER PLANE
OF A FEATURE OF
SIZE.

TOTAL WIDTH

IL !00.si AI
CYLINDRICAL

KEYS TO REMEMBER
RELATION TO MORE THAN
ONE DATUM FEATURE
SHOULD BE CONSIDERED TO
STABILIZE THE TOLERANCE
ZONE IN MORE THAN ONE
DIRECTION.

ANGULARITY:
The condition of a surface, center plane, or axis, at a specified angle from a datum plane or axis.

ANGULARITY TOLERANCE ZONE:


Angularity tolerance zones will be one of the following types:
- Tolerance zone between 2 parallel planes
- Tolerance zone with a cylindrical shape
- Tolerance zone between 2 parallel lines
These tolerance zones must be at a specified basic angle.
2 PARALLEL
POSSIBLE ORIENTATION
OF FEATURE AXIS

PLANES

I
0.3TOLZONE

SIMULATED DATUM
PLANE A

INTERPRETATION

ORIENTATION -

SPECIFYING A TANGENT PLANE:

Where it is desired to control a feature surface established by the contacting points of that surface, the tangent plane symbol is added
m the feature control frame after the stated tolerance.

II

0.8

0.3

PARALLEL

"""'---=~~==-! ~
A

DATUM FEATURE

A PLANE CONTACTING THE HIGH POINTS OF THE SURFACE


SHALL LIE WITHIN TWO PARALLEL PLANES 0.3 APART.

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

POSITION
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

POSITION

LOCATION

-$-

DATUM
REFERENCE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

YES

RFS

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

MMC OR LMC MAY


BE SPECIFIED WITH 1'171o.5@1 A I B@lc@I
RESPECT TO THE
CYLINDRICAL
INDIVIDUAL
TOLERANCE AND
0.25 IAIB@lc@I
1'171
DATUM REFERENCE
TOTAL WIDTH
IF APPLICABLE.

KEYS TO REMEMBER
WITH THE MMC MODIFIER
1. PERMITS FUNCTIONAL
GAGING TECHNIQUES
2. ALLOWSADDITIONAL
TOLERANCE BASED ON
SIZE (BONUS)
3. RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE

POSITION:
A term used to describe the perfect (theoretically exact) location of individual features in relationship with a datum reference or other
feature( s).

POSITION TOLERANCE ZONE:


A zone within which the center, axis, or center plane of a feature of size is permitted to vary from its true (theoretically exact) position.

OR
Where specified on an MMC or LMC basis a boundary, defined as the virtual condition, located at the true (theoretically exact) position, that may not be violated by the surface or surfaces of the considered feature .

POSITION -

AXISMUSTBI!
CONTAINED WITHIN
CYLINDRICAL
TOLERANCE ZONE
FOR POSITION AND

AS APPLIED TO HOLES

ENLARGED VIEW

4X

~O

ORIENTATION TO
THE DATUM
REFERENCE
FRAME
ESTABLISHED BY
THE DATUM
FEATURES IN THEIR
ORDER OF
PRECEDENCE

CASE1
0.5TOLZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

CASE1

I '171

0.5 @

CASE2

I '171

05 I A I BI c I

CASE3

0.5

'171

I A IB Ic I

I A I BI c I

2.5 TOL ZONE


AT 10 (LMC OF HOLE)

CASE2
0.5TOLZONE
AT 10 (LMC OF HOLE)
2.5 TOL ZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

CASE3
0.5 TOL ZONE
REGARDLESS OF THE
HOLE SIZE

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

~ '--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--''--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-l

isl POSITION - AS APPLIED TO THREADED HOLES OR PRESSED PINS


CASE1

~---4XM6

I~ I

t.

0.5 @

I AIBI c I

l~/0.5@14/AI

1/_

MINIMUM
THO. DEPTH

00.5
TOL
ZONE
POSSIBLE
AXISOF
M6THD.

'

B/cl

DATUM PLANE

ENGLARGED VIEW

INTERPRETATION
CASE2

~
-n~'

DATUM PLANE

-I
.I

14 MIN (PROJECTED
TOL ZONE)

POSSIBLE
/AXIS
OF
M6THD.

I
0

0.5TOL
ZONE
ENGLARGED VIEW

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

DIMB

l~lo.25@1 A I B le I
1~10.25/A/B/cl
I ~I 0.25
I A I B Ic I

CIATUM llLANI A

(SEE CHART BELOW)

,... , W-1/r: /
l=

----++I

CASE 1
DIMA
CASE2

r
__
'11)''"

llllOTANCIULAlll
TOL.ZONI!

POSITION - AS APPLIED TO Bl-DIRECTIONAL


POSITIONAL TOLERANCING

AXIS

--

'

CASE 3

ENLARGED VIEW
DIMB

DIMA

CASE1

~ 0.5@ A B C

CASE2

l~I

0.51 A I BI c I

CASE3

/~I

0.5

DRAWING CALLOUT

IA/Biel

CASE1
0.5TOLZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

CASE1
0.25 TOL ZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

2.5TOLZONE
AT 10 (LMC OF HOLE)

2.25 TOL ZONE


AT 10 (LMC OF HOLE)

CASE2
0.5TOLZONE
AT 10 (LMC OF HOLE)
2.5TOLZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

CASE2
0. 25 TOL ZONE
AT 10 (LMC OF HOLE)
2.25 TOL ZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

CASE3
0.5TOLZONE
REGARDLESS OF THE
HOLE SIZE

CASE3
0.25 TOL ZONE
REGARDLESS OF THE
HOLE SIZE

INTERPRETATION

~'-----------------------'---------------------~

POSITION -

AS APPLIED TO ELONGATED HOLES -

BOUNDARY CONCEPT

1~ ~1

16
--4X14

j-$-j 1.5@JAjsjcJ
BOUNDARY

l.

-=hlC

14.0 MMC WIDTH OF HOLE


- 1.5 POSITIONAL TOLERANCE
12.5 WIDE BOUNDARY

"' wm o ><0<r

--0.5 POSITIONAL TOLERANCE


7.5 WIDE BOUNDARY

~4X

10
8

HOLES MUST BE WITHIN SIZE LIMITS AND


NO PORTION OF THEIR SURFACES ARE
PERMITIED TO LIE WITHIN THE AREA
DESCRIBED BY THE 7.5-12.5 BOUNDARIES
WHEN PART IS POSITIONED WITHIN THE
DATUM REFERENCE FRAME.

[-$-[ o.5@[A I sic [


BOUNDARY

-- -

DRAWING CALLOUT

llOlmON -

rr

INTERPRETATION

~t=~~A

AS APPLIED TO CONICAL TOLERANCI ZON!

-A

:yr
J,
f+

\2)TOL ZONE
(SEE CHART
BELOW)

Y-' TOL.

ZONE

~
~.:.;,,
~+- BELOW)
I

SURFACED
SURFACED

,..,

POSSIBLE
AXIS

ENLARGED VIEW

!
!
l

I-$- J 025@

CASE1

I A I BI c I

AT DATUM FEATURE

J -$- J

CASE2

0.5

CD I A I BI c I

2.25 TOL ZONE


AT 10 (LMC OF HOLE)

2.50 TOL ZONE


AT 10 (LMC OF HOLE)

CASE2
0.25 TOL ZONE
AT 10 (LMC OF HOLE)
2.25 TOL ZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

CASE2
0.5 TOL ZONE
AT 1O (LMC OF HOLE)
2.5 TOL ZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

CASE3
0.25 TOL ZONE
REGARDLESS OF THE
HOLE SIZE

CASE3
0.5 TOL ZONE
REGARDLESS OF THE
HOLE SIZE

I A

I B Ic I

AT SURFACED

I -$-I 025

CASE3

I A I BI c I

AT DATUM FEATURE

l -$- I

0.5

I A IB Ic I

AT SURFACED

c.>

ATSURFD

I A IB c I

0.5 @

AT DATUM FEATURE

I -$- j

CASE1
0.5 TOL ZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

AT SURFACED

I-$- J 025

AT DATUM FEATURE

CASE1
0.25 TOL ZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF HOLE)

DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

m~---------------------'----------------------~

ig

POSITION -

AS APPLIED TO NON-CYLINDRICAL FEATURES


POSSIBLE
CENTER PLANE

DATUM PLANE A

ZONE

CASE1
CASE2
CASE3

lfl -1 o.s@I A IBJ


lfl -1 o.sJ AIBJ
lfll-Jo.s IAJBJ

(SEE CASES
BELOW)

ENLARGED VIEW
CASE3
0.5TOLZONE
REGARDLESS OF
THE SLOT SIZE

CASE1
0.5TOLZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF SLOT)
2.5TOLZONE
AT 10 (LMC OF SLOT)

CASE2
0.5TOLZONE
AT 10 (LMC OF SLOT)
2.5TOLZONE
AT 8 (MMC OF SLOT)

INTERPRETATION

DRAWING CALLOUT

DATUM
AXISA

POSSIBLE\
FEATURE
AXIS

10.0
9.5

CASE 1
CASE 2
CASE 3
CASE 4

20
19

Ifll- J
I fll- J
Ifll- J
Ifll- J

@IA@I
0.2 @I AI
0.2 I A@ I
0.2 I AI

CASE1

CASE2

0.2 TOL. ZONE


AT 20 (MMC OF FEATURE)
AND 010 (MMC OF DATUM
FEATURE)

0 0.2 TOL. ZONE


AT Qj 20 (MMC OF FEATURE)
REGARDLESS OF THE SIZE
OF THE DATUM FEATURE

01.7TOL.ZONE
AT 19 (LMC OF FEATURE)
AND 0 9.5 (LMC OF DATUM
FEATURE)

1.2 TOL. ZONE


AT 019 (LMC OF FEATURE)
REGARDLESS OF THE SIZE
OF THE DATUM FEATURE

0.2

DRAWING CALLOUT

CASE3
0 0.2 TOL. ZONE
REGARDLESS OF THE SIZE OF
THE FEATURE AND
010 (MMC OF DATUM FEATURE)
0 0.7 TOL. ZONE
REGARDLESS OF THE SIZE OF
THE FEATURE AND
9.5 (LMC OF DATUM FEATURE)

CASE4
0.2 TOL. ZONE
REGARDLESS OF THE
SIZE OF THE FEATURE
AND REGARDLESS OF
THE SIZE OF THE DATUM
FEATURE

INTERPRETATION

g,__~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--'-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

:!:::

POSITION -

AS APPLIED TO SYMMETRY

DEFINITION:
A CONDITION IN WHICH A FEATURE IS SYMMETRICALLY DISPOSED
ABOUT THE CENTERPLANE OF A DATUM FEATURE

DATUM CENTERPLANE

,*[~

POSSIBLE
CENTER
PLANE

40
39

12
11

CASE 1
CASE2
CASE3

I-Ell-I o.5@1 A I B@I


I-Ell-I o.51 A I BI
I-Ell-I 0.5 IA I BI

CASE1
WITH DATUM FEATURE
AT 40 (MMC SIZE)

TOL. ZONE
2 PARALLEL PLANES

CASE2
WITH DATUM FEATURE 8
AT 39 (LMC SIZE)

0.5 TOL. ZONE AT 11 (MMC


OF FEATURE)

0.5 TOL. ZONE AT 12 (LMC


OF FEATURE)

1.5 TOL. ZONE AT 12 (LMC


OF FEATURE)

1.5 TOL. ZONE AT 11 (MMC


OF FEATURE)

CASE3
THE LOCATIONAL TOLERANCE OF 0.5 MUST BE HELD
REGARDLESS OF THE SIZE OF THE FEATURE AND
DATUM FEATURE 8

INTERPRETATION

DRAWING CALLOUT

-AS APPLIED TO MATING PARTS WITH FLOATING FASTENER


CALCULATIONS:
USING THE FORMULA
WHERE

H@
F@

H@- F@= T

=MIN. CLEARANCE HOLE


= MAX. DIA. OF FASTENER
=POSITIONAL TOLERANCE

SUBSTITUTING:
T = 10.5-10
T = 0.5 POSITIONAL TOLERANCE
CALCULATION FOR GAGE PIN SIZE
PIN =H@-T
10 = 10.5-0.5

COMPONENT PART
2 REQ'D

10(GAGE
PINS)

GAGE FOR COMPONENT CHECKING


GAGE MAKERS

~~-----------------------1--------~T~O=LE~R~A~N~C=ES~A~P~P~LY.:.__ _ _ _ _ _~

POSITION -

FIXED FASTENER SYSTEM


CALCULATIONS:
USING THE FORMULA H@- f@=T1 + T2
WHERE H @ =MIN. DIA. CLEARANCE HOLE
F @= MAX. DIA. OF FASTENER
T1 =POSITIONAL TOLERANCE (COMPONENT 1)
T, = POSITIONAL TOLERANCE (COMPONENT 2)
SUBSTITUTION:
10.5- 10 = Q.25 + @.25
CALCULATIONS FOR GAGE PIN SIZE
N0.1
PIN=H@-T

N0.2
PIN=F@+ f
10.25=10 + 0.25

10.25 = 10.5 -0.25

4X 10.25

i"'

COMPONENT2

-.j

HI1J

N0.2

GAGES

N0.1

DRAWING CALLOUT

AS APPLIED TO HOLES AT MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDmON

(NOT RECOMMENDED FOR THREADED HOLES)

WITH THIS
SPECIFICATION THE
FEATURE SIZE
MUST BE CONTAINED
WITHIN THIS RANGE.

~l

ACTUAL
MATING
ENVELOPE

47 TOLERANCE
ZONE

10.25@
10.3
10.35
10.4
10.45

0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2

10.5@
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
11
L

0.25
0.35
0.45
0.55
0.65
0.75

47

WITH ZERO
TOL. CALLOUT
FEATURE SIZE
RANGE IS INCREASED
PROVIDING MAXIMUM
MANUFACTURING TOL.

I NOTE: I
SINCE THE MMC SIZE (10.25)
IS EQUAL TO THE MMC VIRTUAL
CONDITION - NO SEPARATE
MMC LIMIT FEATURE SIZE
GAGE (GO OR SIMULATION)
IS REQUIRED.

DRAWING CALLOUT
t~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

POSITION -

FEATURE RELATIONSHIPS CONTROLLED BY A COMPOSITE


POSITIONAL TOLERANCING

1~ I

DRAWING CALLOUT

0.9 PATIERN-LOCATING TOLERANCE


ZONE CYLINDER (4 ZONES, BASICALLY
RELATED TO EACH OTHER AND
BASICALLY LOCATED TO THE DATUM
REFERENCE FRAME)

4fbFEATURE-RELATING TOLERANCE
ZONE CYLINDER (4 ZONES, BASICALLY
RELATED TO EACH OTHER AND
ORIENTED TO THE DATUM)

ACTUAL FEATURE AXES


48
MUST SIMULTANEOUSLY
LIE WITHIN BOTH TOLERANCE
ZONE CYLINDERS

10
FROMDATUMB

}
FROMDATUMC
ONE POSSIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF ACTUAL FEATURE PATIERN.

""

INTERPRETATION

~ '--------------------------------------------~

POSITION -

TWO SINGLE-SEGMENT FEATURE CONTROL FRAMES WITH SECONDARY


DATUM IN LOWER FEATURE CONTROL FRAME

DRAWING CALLOUT

mo.a "ATTll'INLOCATING TOLERANCE

(210.3 FEATURE-RELATING TOLERANCE


ZONE CYLINDER (4 ZONES, BASICALLY
RELATED TO EACH OTHER AND
ORIENTED TO THE DATUMS)

ZONE CYLINDER (<4 ZONES, BASICALLY


RELATED TO EACH OTHER AND
BASICALLY LOCATED TO THE DATUM
REF FRAME)

48

[gQJ
22.Sf----1-14----1
FROMDATUMC
DOES NOT APPLY

FROMDATUMB

FROMDATUMC
ONE POSSIBLE DISPLACEMENT OF ACTUAL FEATURE PATIERN.

""

INTERPRETATION

~'---------------------------------------------~

....

'

COORDINATE MEASUREMENT CONVERSIONS TO TRUE POSITION LOCATION


. . . - - - - - ACTUAL HOLE PRODUCED
AT\ZS8.45MAX
INSCRIBED CYLINDER
4X 8.25 + ~-

\ZS TOLERANCE ZONE


= 0.25 + 0.2 (8.45-8.25)
ACTUAL MMC
=0.45 TOLALLOWED

-x--

DATUM PLANE

ACTUAL MEASUREMENTS
TAKEN FROM DATUM
REFFRAME
CALCULATIONS

'lEBIIQAL

HORIZONTAL
X =ACTUAL - BASIC
X=12.16-12
X=0.16

Y =ACTUAL - BASIC
Y=12.1-12
Y=0.1

FROM CHART SHOWN ON PG. 38


0.16X & 0.1YYIELDS
\2)0.377 TOL. ZONE WHICH IS
WITHIN LIMITS ALLOWED (\ZS0.45)

DRAWING CALLOUT

CONVERSION -

COORDINATE MEASUREMENTS TO TRUE POSITION ZONE DIAMETER

TRUE POSITION ZONE DIAMETER (Z)


0.50 1.001 1.003 1.007 1.013
0.48 0.961 0.963 0.967 0.973
0.46 0.921 0.923 0.928 0.934
0.44 0.881 0.884 0.888 0.894
0.42 O.B41 0.844 0.849 0.855
0.40 0.801 0.804 0.809 0.816
0.38 0.761 0.764 0.769 0.777
0.36 0.721 0.724 0.730 0.738
0.34 0.681 0.685 0.691 0.699
0.32 0.641 0.645 0.651 0.660

ACTUALMEASUREMENT

1.077
1.040
1.003
0.967
0.930
0.894
0.859
0.824
0.789
0.755

1.093
1.056
1.020
0.984
0.948
0.913
0.878
0.844
0.810
0.777

1.109
1.073
1.038
1.002
0.967
0.933
0.899
0.865
0.832
0.800

1.127
1.092
1.057
1.022
0.988
0.954
0.921
0.888
0.856
0.825

1.146
1.111
1.077
1.043
0.010
0.977
0.944
0.912
0.881
0.850

1.166
1.132
1.098
1.065
1.Q32
1.000
0.968
0.937
0.907
0.877

1.187
1.154
1.121
1.088
1.056
1.024
0.994
0.963
0.934
0.905

1.209
1.176
1.144
1.112
1.081
1.050
1.020
0.990
0.962
0.934

1.232
1.200
1.168
1.137
1.106
1.076
1.047
1.018
0.990
0.963

1.256
1.224
1.193
1.163
1.133
1.103
1.075
1.047
1.020
0.994

1.281
1.250
1.219
1.189
1.160
1.131
1.103
1.076
1.050
1.024

1.306
1.276
1.246
1.217
1.188
1.160
1.133
1.106
1.081
1.056

1.332
1.302
1.273
1.245
1.217
1.189
1.163
1.137
1.112
1.088

1.359
1.330
1.301
1.273
1.246
1.219
1.193
1.168
1.144
1.121

1.386
1.358
1.330
1.302
1.276
1.250
1.224
1.200
1.176
1.154

1.414
1.386
1.359
1.332
1.306
1.281
1.256
1.232
1.209
1.187

0.621
0.582
0.544
0.506
0.468

0.632
0.595
0.557
0.520
0.483

0.646
0.609
0.573
0.537
0.501

0.662
0.626
0.591
0.556
0.522

0.680
0.645
0.611
0.577
0.544

0.700
0.666
0.632
0.600
0.569

0.721
0.688
0.656
0.625
0.595

0.744
0.712
0.681
0.651
0.622

0.768
0.738
0.708
0.679
0.651

0.794
0.764
0.735
0.708
0.681

0.821
0.792
0.764
0.738
0.712

0.849
0.821
0.694
0.768
0.744

0.877
0.850
0.825
0.800
0.777

0.907
0.881
0.856
0.832
0.810

0.937
0.912
0.888
0.865
0.844

0.968
0.944
0.921
0.899
0.868

1.000
0.977
0.954
0.933
0.913

1.032
1.010
0.988
0.967
0.948

1.065
1.043
1.022
1.002
0.984

1.098
1.077
1.057
1.038
1.020

1.132
1.111
1.092
1.073
1.056

1.166
1.146
1.127
1.109
1.093

0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12

0.402
0.362
0.322
0.283
0.243

0.408
0.369
0.330
0.291
0.253

0.418
0.379
0.342
0.305
0.268

0.431
0.394
0.358
0.322
0.288

0.447
0.412
0.377
0.344
0.312

0.466
0.433
0.400
0.369
0.339

0.488
0.456
0.425
0.396
0.369

0.512
0.482
0.453
0.425
0.400

0.538
0.509
0.482
0.456
0.433

0.566
0.538
0.512
0.488
0.466

0.595
0.569
0.544
0.522
0.501

0.625
0.600
0.577
0.556
0.537

0.656
0.632
0.611
0.591
0.573

0.688
0.666
0.645
0.626
0.609

0.721
0.700
0.680
0.662
0.646

0.755
0.734
0.716
0.699
0.684

0.789
0.769
0.752
0.735
0.721

0.824
0.805
0.788
0.773
0.759

0.859
0.841
0.825
0.810
0.797

0.894
0.877
0.862
0.848
0.835

0.930
0.914
0.899
0.885
0.874

0.967
0.951
0.936
0.923
0.912

1.003
0.988
0.974
0.962
0.951

1.040
1.025
1.012
1.000
0.990

1.077
1.063
1.050
1.038
1.028

0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02

0.204
0.165
0.126
0.089
0.057

0.215
0.179
0.144
0.113
0.089

0.233
0.200
0.170
0.144
0.126

0.256
0.226
0.200
0.179
0.165

0.283
0.256
0.233
0.215
0.204

0.312
0.288
0.268
0.253
0.243

0.344
0.322
0.305
0.291
0.283

0.377
0.358
0.342
0.330
0.322

0.412
0.394
0.379
0.369
0.362

0.447
0.431
0.418
0.408
0.402

0.483
0.468
0.456
0.447
0.442

0.520
0.506
0.495
0.487
0.482

0.557
0.544
0.534
0.526
0.522

0.595
0.582
0.573
0.566
0.561

0.632
0.621
0.612
0.605
0.601

0.671
0.660
0.651
0.645
0.641

0.709
0.699
0.691
0.685
0.681

0.747
0.738
0.730
0.724
0.721

0.786
0.777
0.769
0.764
0.761

0.825
0.816
0.809
0.804
0.801

0.863
0.855
0.849
0.844
0.841

0.902
0.894
0.888
0.884
0.881

0.941
0.934
0.928
0.923
0.921

0.981
0.973
0.967
0.963
0.961

1.020
1.013
1.007
1.003
1.001

0.02

0.04 0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12 0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

0.22 0.24

0.32

0.34

0.36

0.38 0.40

0.42

0.44

0.46 0.48

b~\~~E .. "Y"DIFFERENCE

1.063
1.025
0.988
0.951
0.914
0.877
0.841
0.805
0.769
0.734

0.612
0.573
0.534
0.495
0.456

ACTUAL
DIMENSK)N
(DRAWING)

(JI

1.050
1.012
0.974
0.936
0.899
0.862
0.825
0.788
0.752
0.716

0.605
0.566
0.526
0.487
0.447

ACTUAL

'

1.038
1.000
0.962
0.923
0.885
0.848
0.810
0.773
0.735
0.699

0.601
0.561
0.522
0.482
0.442

BASIC~~~~SIONS
PO~g~

1.028
0.990
0.951
0.912
0.874
0.835
0.797
0.759
0.721
0.684

0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22

~4--"X"DIFFERENCE

(DRAWING)

1.020
0.981
0.941
0.902
0.863
0.825
0.786
0.747
0.709
0.671

........

0.26

0.28 0.30

0.50

CONVERSION CHART
COORDINATE TOL TO POSITION TOL

POSITION TOL TO COORDINATE TOL


POSITION TOLERANCE DIAMETER
I

00000000000000000000~~~~~~~~~~~

o~~NNWW~~~~mm~~OOOOWW

01

01

\ V" -

01

(.n

01

(.n

VI I

EXAMPLE:
0.5 DIA TOL

I\ V L

Vrv

......

-~

IL

01

01

01

v
v
I/
v
_,.v v
v

>-

IJ JI

v"'

v "'~
1>

I/

"'

"' "'"'

0.25
1

I/

I/ I/ I/ I
0.3

I/ I/ I/
I/

I/

I// I
I/

VII

I/
V I

IJ
I/

I/

11

v
0

0.2

I/

v
v

)<

/I/ /I/

IJ I/ J

ILL

;,, ;,,

l:-0

I/

v
v

I/

I/

0.1

I I I
I
0.15

1/1/

I/

IL -'.

v ;
LL

......

- -"'

01

ii/ I

IL-'.

,;

"'

111 J_ 1
ILL L

>-

01

ILLL -'-

I/
L.--

a~~NNWW~~~

01

I/ I

......
,_

1--

v
v

01

11

01

0.05

IX

01

11
0

:.. :..

"'

I
cOORDINATE
DI FFERENCE

0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5

"' "'"' "' "'"'

:..,

:..,

"'

.t 0.175C OORDINATED TOL


I

COORDINATE DIFFERENCE

RELATION OF MMC HOLES TO ANOTHER MMC HOLE


4X

18.75
(MMC VIRTUAL
COND.)

20
19

7MMCHOLE
-1 TOLZONE
6GAGEPIN

6
4PINS

AS THE 4 HOLES INCREASE IN SIZE FROM 7 TO 8 (A BONUS


AMOUNT) + 1 IS ADDED TO THE POSITIONAL TOLERANCE.
NOTE:
ASIZE INCREASE FROM 19.0TO19.1 (0.1) IS ADDED TO THE
HOLE PATTERN POSITIONAL TOLERANCE AS A GROUP.

~~~~~~~-D_R_A_W_l_N_G_C_A_L_L_O_U_T~~~~~~~~~~IN_T_E_R_P_R_E_T_AT_l_O_N~~~~~~~~~~~~

4X

AS THE 4 HOLES INCREASE IN SIZE FROM 7 TO 8 (A BONUS


AMOUNT) + 1 IS ADDED TO THE POSITIONAL TOLERANCE.
NOTE:
A SIZE INCREASE FROM 19.0 TO 19.1 (0.1) IS NOT ADDED TO
THE HOLE PATTERN POSITIONAL TOLERANCE UTILIZING RFS
ON DATUM FEATURE.

INTERPRETATION

DRAWING CALLOUT

TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

LOCATION

SYMMETRY-=-

DATUM
REFERENCE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

ALLOWAllL!
MODIFIERS

I -=- I 0.5 I A I
YES

RFS

NONE

TOTAL WIDTH

KEYS TO REMEMBER

1.1 VERY EXPENSIVE

2. SHOULD FIRST TRY TO


USE POSITION

SYMMETRY:
The condition where the median points of all opposed or correspondingly located elements of two or more feature surfaces are congruent
with the axis or centerplane of a datum feature.

:+a

SYMMETRY TOLERANCE ZONE:

A tolerance zone defined by two parellel planes being equally disposed about the datum axis or plane within which all median points
of opposed elements of the feature must lie.
8.8-9.2

~
LS tl
16.7

DRAWING CALLOUT

THE CENTER PLANE OF


DATUM FEATURE A

\
DERIVED MEDIAN
POINTS

o.'W'"
TO~CE~O:E
~
_J

INTERPRETATION

--

U1
U1

RU NO UT
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL
CIRCULAR
RUNOUT

RUNOUT

TOTAL
RUNOUT

DATUM
REFERENCE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

KEYS TO REMEMBER
1. CAN BE DEFINED AS THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
TWO FEATURES
2. RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE

L/

YES

NONE

RFS

RUNOUT:
A composite tolerance used to control the relationship of one or more features of a part to a datum axis during a full 360 rotation about
the datum axis.

RUNOUT TOLERANCE:
The tolerance zone is the total amount of tolerance specified by a full indicator movement (FIM) when rotated 360.
There are two types of runout - circular & total.

CIRCULAR RUNOUT:
Each circular element of the feature must be within the runout tolerance.

NOTE: INDICATOR REMAINS IN FIXED


POSITION NORMAL TO THE TRUE
GEOMETRIC SHAPE

DATUM AXIS A

0.5

A
ROTATE PART 360
DATUM FEATURE

DRAWING CALLOUT

A SIMULATOR

INTERPRETATION

TOTAL RUNOUT:
All surface elements across the entire surface must be
within the runout tolerance.
NOTE: INDICATOR MOVED AT EVERY LOCATION
ON THE SURFACE NORMAL TO THE TRUE
GEOMETRIC SHAPE WITHOUT RESET
OF INDICATOR

0.25

L/

0.5

A
0.3

DRAWING CALLOUT

ROTATE
PART
360

DATUM FEATURE
SIMULATOR

INTERPRETATION

CONCENTRICITV
TYPE OF
TOLERANCE

LOCATION

CHARACTERISTIC
AND SYMBOL

CONCENTRICITY

DATUM
REFERENCE

IMPLIED
CONDITION

ALLOWABLE
MODIFIERS

TOLERANCE
ZONE SHAPE

lI
YES

RFS

NONE

0 0.5

IAI

CYLINDRICAL

KEYS TO REMEMBER

1. MUST COMPARE AXES


2. IVERY EXPENSIVE I
3. SHOULD FIRST TRY TO USE
POSITION, RUNOUT, OR
PROFILE INSTEAD

CONCENTRICITY:
The condition where the median points of all diametrically opposed elements of a figure of revolution are congruent with the axis of a
datum feature.

CONCENTRICITY TOLERANCE ZONE:


A cylindrical tolerance zone whose axis coincides with the datum axis and within which all cross-sectional axes of the feature being
controlled must lie.
POSSIBLE
FEATURE
AXIS

~!DA_T_"~l-A-,,:.~
DRAWING CALLOUT

INTERPRETATION

/ 0 0.5 TOL ZONE

Environm8nlal and Safely Engineering


USA

Ford Autolnotive ~

700 C Fairlan1fl'laza South

---

Dea#'fK>ln; Mit:higan 48f?fj

EnvironmentSland Safety ~ng . . ;::::::-


~
~ .
Europe
,--

.....,

""

Ford Automotive OperatiOOs


I

--...______

Koeln ~ M,ertcenich
Spessartstrasse
D-50Z2.S Koe/rt

..

_;;;

__,,,;:,._

..

No. 80-14-215 B

1st Edition- JaJ'\uary 1995 -.~ . _


Ford Motor Company, 1995

'"

j
-~.-

....