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Abstract

Abuilding can be said to be green or sustainable when conscious steps are takenduring its
construction and operation to keep natural resource depletion minimal. The aim of the green
building design is to minimize demand on non-renewable resources; maximize utilization
efficiency; and maximize reuse, recycling, and use of renewable resources. A green building
is evolved through a design process that requires all the concerned professionals the
architect; the landscape designer; and the air conditioning, electrical, plumbing, and energy
consultants to work as a team that carefully considers all aspects of the building and
associated systems.
Sustainable building construction practices, popularly known as green building practices are
widely gaining acceptance due to the tangible and intangible benefits to the environment and
industry. The rating systems act as evaluation tools and bench marking systems to assess
the greenness of the projects claimed to have undertaken following sustainable practices.
The qualitative comparison of such systems by analyzing the various features is attempted in
the study.
This report contains three major projects as research on green building rating systemGRIHA, case study of green buildings in Nepal- Hama Iron and Steel Building, Kamaladi and
lastly case study, analysis and conversion of grey building into green buildings.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank our teacher Sr. Ar. Sushil Bajracharya for giving us the opportunity to
conduct research on this topic and providing invaluable guidance, encouragement, friendly
attitude and support. We thank him for helping to shape our research skills.
In this project, we got the chance to study about Green Building and its design. The
comparative study gave us wider concept about green featured buildings and their design
criteria. This research project also helped us a lot to widen our horizon of knowledge which
would help us implement our design as we move ahead in our project.
Lastly, we are very grateful to the department of architecture, other teachers and also the
office and staffs of our selected case studies for their help and invaluable assistance.
We are also very grateful to Ar. Bhibuti Man Singh, Ar. SaritaMaharjan, Ar. Pushpa Shrestha,
Technical Interface and Er. NarendraYadav, CEA, who have provided us with much
information and support so far in the case study.
Thank you.

ii

Table of contents
Abstract .................................................................................................................................. i
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................ ii
List of Figures ....................................................................................................................... vi
List of Tables ........................................................................................................................ ix
1.

2.

Green Building ................................................................................................................ 1


1.1.

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1

1.2.

Objectives of Green Building.................................................................................... 1

1.3.

Concept of Green Building ....................................................................................... 1

1.4.

Energy Efficient Techniques .................................................................................... 1

1.4.1.

Solar Chimney .................................................................................................. 1

1.4.2.

Wind Catcher .................................................................................................... 2

1.4.3.

Trombe Wall ..................................................................................................... 3

Green Building Rating System GRIHA ......................................................................... 4


2.1.

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 4

2.2.

Genesis ................................................................................................................... 5

2.3.

Conditions of Site Before Griha ................................................................................ 6

2.4.

Condition of Site After GRIHA .................................................................................. 6

2.5.

Reasons for Building Rating System ........................................................................ 7

2.6.

Criteria of Rating System - GRIHA ........................................................................... 8

2.7.

Benefits.................................................................................................................. 10

2.8.

Case Study ............................................................................................................ 11

2.8.1. Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering Building (CESE) At IIT,
Kanpur 11
2.8.2.
2.9.
3.

4.

Suzlon One Earth ........................................................................................... 18

Comparison Between Leed India And Griha .......................................................... 32

Case Study of Green Buildings in Nepal ....................................................................... 34


3.1.

LEED: Practical Example Applied In Nepal - Hama Iron & Steel Building, Kamaladi
34

3.2.

Green Building Features ........................................................................................ 34

Hama iron & steel building, Kamaladi ........................................................................... 36


4.1.

Sustainable Sites ................................................................................................... 40

4.1.1.

SS Credit 1: Site Selection .............................................................................. 40


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4.1.2.

SS Credit 4.1: Alternative TransportationPublic Transportation Access ....... 41

4.1.3.

SS Credit 4.1: Alternative TransportationPublic Transportation Access ....... 42

4.1.4. SS Credit 4.2: Alternative TransportationBicycle Storage and Changing


Rooms 43
4.1.5. SS Credit 4.3: Alternative TransportationLow-Emitting & Fuel-Efficient
Vehicles 43
4.1.6.

SS Credit 6.1: Storm water DesignQuantity Control .................................... 44

4.1.7.

SS Credit 7.1: Heat Island EffectNon roof ................................................... 44

4.1.8.

SS Credit 7.2: Heat Island EffectRoof ......................................................... 45

4.2.

WATER EFFICIENCY............................................................................................ 46

4.3.

LEED Criteria ......................................................................................................... 46

4.3.1.

Energy & Atmosphere ..................................................................................... 46

4.3.2.

Materials and Resources ................................................................................ 49

4.4.

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ............................................................... 54

4.4.1.
4.5.

IE Q Credit 8.1:DAYLIGHT AND VIEWS - DAYLIGHT ........................................... 55

4.6.

ID Credit 1: Innovation in Design ........................................................................... 55

4.6.1.

5.

IE Q Credit 2: Increased Ventilation ................................................................ 54

HYDROPONICS: ............................................................................................ 56

4.7.

ID Credit 2: LEED Accredited Professional ........................................................... 58

4.8.

REGIONAL PRIORITY CREDITS .......................................................................... 58

4.9.

CHALLENGES TILL NOW.. ............................................................................... 58

An approach to green building ...................................................................................... 59


5.1.

Calculation of criterias of GRIHA ........................................................................... 59

5.1.1.

An introduction to grey building ....................................................................... 59

5.1.2.

Existing Features ............................................................................................ 60

5.1.3.

Sustainable site planning ................................................................................ 62

5.1.4.

Energy efficiency and renewable energy......................................................... 63

5.1.5.

Water Efficiency .............................................................................................. 68

1.1.1.

Materials and Resources - 15% ...................................................................... 69

1.1.2.

Health and Well Being - 15% .......................................................................... 71


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1.1.3.

Solid Waste Management - 6%....................................................................... 72

1.1.4.

Innovations - 4% ............................................................................................. 72

1.1.5.

Overall Green Building Features ..................................................................... 73

6.

Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 74

7.

Bibliography .................................................................................................................. 75

List of Figures
Figure 1: Solar Chimney ...........................................................................................................................2
Figure 2: Wind Catcher .............................................................................................................................2
Figure 3: Trombe Wall ..............................................................................................................................3
Figure 4: Green Building Features ...........................................................................................................4
Figure 5: Genesis of GRIHA .....................................................................................................................5
Figure 6: Pollution around site, unmanaged sanitation, Lack of safety measures ...................................6
Figure 7: Condition of Site after GRIHA ...................................................................................................6
Figure 8: Control of Pollution around site, using barriers, resource and waste management .................7
Figure 9: Project scoring ...........................................................................................................................8
Figure 10: IIT Kanpur ............................................................................................................................. 11
Figure 11: Floor Plan ............................................................................................................................. 12
Figure 12: Section ................................................................................................................................. 12
Figure 13: Top soils was excavated, stored and preserved .................................................................. 13
Figure 14: Tree preservation ................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 15: Sustainable Site Planning .................................................................................................... 14
Figure 16: Low flow plumbing fixtures

Figure 17: Maximum green areas ........................................ 14

Figure 18: Glare Free light..................................................................................................................... 15


Figure 19:Roof shaded by bamboo trellis .............................................................................................. 15
Figure 20: Low energy strategies .......................................................................................................... 16
Figure 21 : Skylight and ventilation ....................................................................................................... 16
Figure 22:Tree preservation .................................................................................................................. 16
Figure 23: Suzlon One Earth ................................................................................................................. 18
Figure 24: Suzlon One Earth- Site ........................................................................................................ 19
Figure 25: Systematic organization from part to whole ......................................................................... 20
Figure 26: The Whole on Site ................................................................................................................ 20
Figure 27: Conceptual Sketch ............................................................................................................... 21
Figure 28: Driving Factors ..................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 29: Orientation and Shading Devices Used ............................................................................... 22
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Figure 30:Controlled Solar Access Shading with Mass articulationfor maximum solar energy
generation .............................................................................................................................................. 23
Figure 31: Envelope Detailing with Section and 3d View ...................................................................... 24
Figure 32: High Performance Glazing- Envelope .................................................................................. 24
Figure 33: Sustainability at the Site ....................................................................................................... 25
Figure 34: Water Efficiency ................................................................................................................... 26
Figure 35: Efficient water use during construction- Use of Ready Mix Concrete, Efficient Curing
System, and Chemical Curing ............................................................................................................... 27
Figure 36: Renewable Energy ............................................................................................................... 28
Figure 37: Renewable Energy ............................................................................................................... 28
Figure 38: Use low-energy material in the interiors- Recycled Content, Local / Regional Materials,
Rapidly Renewable Materials, Low-Emitting Materials ......................................................................... 29
Figure 39: Indoor Environmental Quality ............................................................................................... 30
Figure 40: Innovation in Design ............................................................................................................. 31
Figure 41: Section showing Green Features in Hama Iron and Steel Building, Kamaladi .................... 35
Figure 42 Ramp ..................................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 43 Fire staircase ......................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 44 Metal ramp constructions for disable people ........................................................................ 37
Figure 45 Metal staircase constructions at the entrance of building ..................................................... 37
Figure 46 Space left for surface parking ............................................................................................... 37
Figure 47 Car hoist ................................................................................................................................ 38
Figure 48 Generator house ................................................................................................................... 38
Figure 49 Sewerage Treatment Plant ................................................................................................... 38
Figure 50 Void for car hoist ................................................................................................................... 39
Figure 51 Metal staircases from basement to ground floor ................................................................... 39
Figure 52 DTW access port above ........................................................................................................ 39
Figure 53: Renewable Energy Use (Left-Proposed), Slope roof for housing solar panels (Construction
on site) ................................................................................................................................................... 47
Figure 54: Scheme of a common grid-connected roof integrated PV installation. ................................ 48
Figure 55: Grid tied battery-less system ................................................................................................ 48
Figure 56: Grid tied battery-less system ................................................................................................ 49
Figure 57: Construction Waste- Aggregate ........................................................................................... 50
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Figure 58: Construction Waste- Aggregate ........................................................................................... 50


Figure 59: Construction Material ........................................................................................................... 51
Figure 60: Construction of Cement Fiber Board Partition Wall ............................................................. 52
Figure 61: Allocation of Waste & Resource Management on Basement .............................................. 53
Figure 62: Waste & Resource Management ......................................................................................... 53
Figure 63: ventilation ............................................................................................................................. 54
Figure 64: ventilation at top ................................................................................................................... 54
Figure 65: vertical greenary ................................................................................................................... 56
Figure 66: hydroponics .......................................................................................................................... 57
Figure 67: lighting in basement ............................................................................................................. 57
Figure 5-1: Grey building ....................................................................................................................... 59
Figure 5-2: Ground floor Plan ................................................................................................................ 60
Figure 5-3: Open stair case at South .................................................................................................... 61
Figure 5-4: Shops at North facade ........................................................................................................ 61
Figure 5-5: Vegetable garden at south .................................................................................................. 61
Figure 5-6 Well ...................................................................................................................................... 61
Figure 5-7: Open slab of roof ................................................................................................................ 62
Figure 5-8: Permeable pavings ............................................................................................................. 62
Figure 5-9: community services ............................................................................................................ 63
Figure 77: DOUBLE FLUSH TOILET .................................................................................................... 69
Figure 78: PUMP ................................................................................................................................... 69
Figure 79: RAINWATER HARVESTING ............................................................................................... 69

viii

List of Tables
Table 1: Criteria of Rating System ........................................................................................................ 10
Table 2: General Information ................................................................................................................. 11
Table 3: Space Distribution ................................................................................................................... 19
Table 4: Comparative Chart .................................................................................................................. 32
Table 5: Comparative Pie-Chart ............................................................................................................ 33
Table 6: Comparative chart of electrical calculations of different LEED projects .................................. 46
Table 5-1: Weightage of Criterias .......................................................................................................... 59
Table 2: Comparative chart ................................................................................................................... 68

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

1.

Green Building

1.1.

Introduction
A practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally
responsible and resource efficient.

Throughout a buildings life-cycle from sitting to design, construction, operation,


maintenance, renovation and deconstruction.

Provide comfortable living and working conditions to its occupants while minimizing
its detrimental impact on the environment.

1.2.

Objectives of Green Building


Helps to reduce building-related environmental impacts while creating places that are
healthier and more satisfying for people.

Green Building is designed to save energy and resources, recycle materials and
minimize the emission of toxic substances throughout its life cycle.

Green Building harmonizes with the local climate, traditions, culture and the
surrounding environment.

Green Building are able to sustain and improve the quality of human life whilst
maintaining the capacity of the ecosystem at local and global levels

1.3.

Concept of Green Building

There are three basic concepts of green building. They are:

To retain the external environment at the location of the building.

To improve the internal environment of the occupants.

To preserve the environment at places far away from the building.

1.4.

Energy Efficient Techniques

1.4.1. Solar Chimney


A solar chimney often referred to as thermal chimney is a way of improving the natural
ventilation of buildings by using convection of air heated by passive solar energy.
Uses of solar chimney

Improved ventilation rates on still, hot days

Improved control of air flow through

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Figure 1: Solar Chimney

1.4.2. Wind Catcher


A wind catcher is a traditional Persian architectural device used for many centuries to create
natural ventilation in buildings.
The wind catcher functions on several principles:
First, a wind catcher is capped and has several directional ports at the top (Traditionally
four). By closing all but the one facing the direction of the incoming wind, air is drawn
inwards, by the application of principle of continuity. The wind would push air down the shaft.
This generates significant cooling ventilation within the structure below .In a windless
environment or waterless house, a wind catcher functions as a stack effect aggregator of hot
air. It creates a pressure gradient which allows less dense hot air to travel upwards and
escape out the top. This is also compounded significantly by the day-night cycle mentioned
above, trapping cool air below:

Figure 2: Wind Catcher

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1.4.3. Trombe Wall

Figure 3: Trombe Wall

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Figure 4: Green Building Features

Green Building Rating System GRIHA

2.
2.1.

Introduction

GRIHA(Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) conceived by TERI (The Energy
and Resources Institute) and developed jointly by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(MNRE), Government of India. It is a Green Building Design Evaluation System. It is based
on nationally accepted energy and environmentalprinciples, and seeks to strike a balance
between established practices and emerging concepts, both national and international.
GRIHA attempts to minimize a buildings resource consumption, waste generation, and
overall ecological/ environmental impact by comparing them to certain nationally acceptable
limits / benchmarks. Some silent features of GRIHA are:

GRIHA has been developed for the different agro-climatic Zones of India.

Developed particularly for non-ac spaces or partially AC building.

Evaluators are experts from different fields connected to the buildings and are from
specific region where the building is situated.

Stresses on optimization of visual and thermal indoor comfort.

Integrates all relevant Indian Codes and Standards to act as tools for implementation.

It does so, adopting the five R philosophy of sustainable development, namely

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

1. Refuse to blindly adopt international trends, materials,technologies, products, etc.


Especially in areas wherelocal substitutes/equivalents are available
2. Reduce the dependence on high energy products,systems, processes, etc.
3. Reuse materials, products, traditional technologies, soas to reduce the costs
incurred in designing buildings aswell as in operating them
4. Recycle all possible wastes generated from thebuilding site, during construction,
operation anddemolition
5. Reinvent engineering systems, designs, and practicessuch that India creates global
examples
6. Energy / power consumption (in terms of electricityconsumed in kWh per square
meter per year)
7. Water consumption (in terms of litres per person perday)
8. Waste generation (in terms of kilograms per day, orlitres per day)
9. Renewable energy integration (in terms of kW ofconnected load)

2.2.

Genesis

Figure 5: Genesis of GRIHA

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2.3.

Conditions of Site Before Griha

Figure 6: Pollution around site, unmanaged sanitation, Lack of safety measures

2.4.

Condition of Site After GRIHA

Figure 7: Condition of Site after GRIHA

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Figure 8: Control of Pollution around site, using barriers, resource and waste management

2.5.

Reasons for Building Rating System


Reduced energy consumption without sacrificing the comfort levels (lower
operational costs)

Reduced water consumption

Reduced system sizes (HVAC, transformers, cabling, etc.) for optimal performance at
local conditions.

Reduced investment (Lifecycle costs)

Reduced destruction of natural areas, habitats, and biodiversity, and reduced soil
loss from erosion etc.

Reduced air and water pollution (with direct health benefits)

Limited waste generation due to recycling and reuse

Reduced pollution loads

Increased user productivity

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

2.6.

Criteria of Rating System - GRIHA

GRIHA assesses a building out of 34 criteria and awards points on a scale of 100. In order to
qualify for GRIHA certification, a project must achieve at least 50 points. Certain criteria /
sub-criteria are mandatory and have to be complied for the project to be at all eligible for
rating. Following are four main categories:
a) Selection and site planning
b) Conservation and efficient utilization of resources
c) Building operation and maintenance
d) Innovation
Project scoring
1. 50-60 points is certified as a 1 star GRIHA rated building,
2. 61-70 is a 2 star GRIHA rated building,
3. 71-80 is a 3 star GRIHA rating building,
4. 81-90 is a 4 star GRIHA rated building and
5. 91-100 is a 5 star GRIHA rated building

Figure 9: Project

scoring

.
NO

CRITERIA

POINTS

1.

Site selection

Partly Mandatory

2.

Preserve and protect the landscape during


construction/compensatory depository forestation

Partly Mandatory

3.

Soil conservation (till post-construction)

4.

Design to include existing site features

Mandatory

5.

Reduce hard paving

Partly Mandatory

6.

Enhance outdoor lighting system efficiency

7.

Plan utilizes efficiently and


circulation efficiency

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optimize

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

8.

Provide
,at
least,
minimum
level
of
sanitation/safety facilities for construction workers

Mandatory

9.

Reduce air pollution during construction

Mandatory

10.

Reduce landscape water requirement

11.

Reduce building water use

12.

Efficient water use during construction

13.

Optimize building design to reduce conventional 6


energy demand

14.

Optimize energy performance of building within


specified comfort

12

15.

Utilization of fly ash in building structure

16.

Reduce volume, weight and time of construction by 4


adopting efficient technology (e.g pre-cast
systems, ready-mix concrete, etc.)

17.

Use low-energy material in interiors

18.

Renewable energy utilization

19.

Renewable energy based hot water system

20.

Waste water treatment

21.

Water re-cycle and re-use (including rainwater)

22.

Reduction in waste during construction

23.

Efficient waste segregation

24.

Storage and disposal of waste

25.

Resource recovery from waste

26.

Use of low VOC paints/ adhesives/ sealants.

27.

Minimize Ozone depleting substances

Mandatory

28.

Ensure water quality

Mandatory

29.

Acceptable outdoor and indoor noise levels

30.

Tobacco and smoke control

31.

Universal Accessibility

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Mandatory

Partly Mandatory

REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

32.

Energy audit and validation Mandatory

Mandatory

33.

Operations and Maintenance protocol for electrical


and mechanical equipment

Mandatory

Total score

100

Innovation points (over the above 100 points)

Total points

104

34

Table 1: Criteria of Rating System

2.7.

Benefits

Green Buildings are beneficial to the building owners, users and the community as a whole.
The operational cost is reduced because renewable energy is used without compromising
the households level of comfort. Water demands are met through rain water harvesting
process. Heating, Ventilation and Air condition systems are reduced in size to provide
optimal performance at local conditions. As a result, the capital cost also is reduced.
Keeping in mind of biodiversity and ecological balance, GRIHA supports minimization of
deforestation and land erosion on site. Pollution and waste are controlled through recycling
and reuse of energy mechanisms. The above mentioned processes ensure health benefits
with reduced water and air pollution. Moreover, green building owners get the image of being
conscious and sensitive to environmental degradation. By getting their buildings rated under
GRIHA, they are contributing in maintaining biodiversity and protecting the earth from further
damage.
In effort to promote green designs, MNRE provides incentives to developers and users with
a minimum project size of 2500 square meters. It reimburses of up to 90% of the registration
fee for buildings under 5000 square metres area with minimum three star rating and for
those getting four star rating over 5000 square metres area. For architects and design team
complying with GRIHA benchmarks, they receive Rs 2, 50,000 for projects between 2500 to
5000 square metres area; and Rs 5 lakhs for projects over 5000 square metres area. MNRE
also provides a subsidy on solar photo voltaic (solar energy used for generating electricity)
and solar thermal (hot water systems).

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

2.8.

Case Study

2.8.1. Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering Building (CESE) At


IIT, Kanpur
2.8.1.1.

Introduction

Project:

Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering

Location

IIT Kanpur

Climate

Composite

Built-up Area

4240 m2

Air-conditioned area

1912 m2

Energy consumption reduction

41% per year

Water consumption reduction

70% below GRIHAs benchmarks

GRIHA RATING

***** (5 stars)

Operational schedule

Day time, 6 working days in a week


Table 2: General Information

IIT

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Figure 10:
Kanpur

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

2.8.1.2.

Green Features of the Building

The width of the floor plate is reduced for the same amount of floor plate area
thereby allowing natural light to penetrate deep into the interior spaces.

It ensures that part of the faade is always shaded.

Figure 11: Floor Plan

Figure 12: Section

2.8.1.3.

Sustainable Site Planning

In order to minimize impact of site development on the environment and surroundings,


several practice guidelines were adopted like demarcation of site for construction, installation
dust screen around the disturbed area to prevent air pollution and spillage to undisturbed
site area. Top soil was excavated, stored and preserved outside the disturbed construction
site. Erosion control systems were adopted and several trees on site were protected. To
increase the preciousness of site and to reduce heat island effect caused due to hard paving

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

around the building, total paving around the building was restricted to 17%, and more than
50% of the paving is either pervious or shaded by trees. Irrigation water demand has been
reduced by more than 50% in comparison to GRIHA benchmark. Adequate health and safety
measures related to construction were taken.

Figure 13: Top soils was excavated, stored and preserved

Figure 14: Tree preservation

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Figure 15: Sustainable Site Planning

2.8.1.4.

Water Conservation

There are two ways of conserving water during post construction and after the building is
occupied. One is landscape water demand and second is building water demand. In this
building, reduction in landscape water demand by more than 50% was achieved by use of
minimum grass/lawn area, maximum green area under native vegetation and native trees.
Low flow plumbing fixtures are used in the building resulting in reduced water consumption
from GRIHAs benchmark in this building by 62%.Waste water is treated and reused for
irrigation. Rain water harvesting has been designed.

Figure 16: Low flow plumbing fixtures


Figure 17: Maximum green areas

2.8.1.5.

Conservation and Efficient Utilization of Resource: Energy

Maximum points weight age in GRIHA is given for energy conservation. The criteria and
commitment for energy conservation could be divided into three parts.

Energy: end use

Energy: embodied and construction

Energy: Renewable energy utilization

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

2.8.1.6.

Energy: End Use

The objective and the aim is to reduce annual energy consumption of the building. This has
been achieved in CESE building at IIT, Kanpur through following ways.

Architectural design optimized as per the climate of Kanpur, sun path analysis,
predominant wind direction, and existing vegetation.

Optimized building envelope to comply to the Energy Conservation Building. Code, to


reduce cooling load in the air conditioned spaces and to achieve thermal comfort in
the non-air conditioned areas.

Efficient window design by selecting efficient glazing, external shading to reduce


solar heat gain but at the same time achieve glare free natural daylight inside all the
laboratory spaces of the building.

Roof shaded by bamboo trellis and green cover to reduce external solar heat gains
from the roof.

Common circulation areas are natural day lit and naturally ventilated through
integration of skylights and ventilators.

Water cooled chiller selected that complies with the efficiency recommended by the
Energy Conservation Building code.

Variable Frequency Drive installed in the Air Handling Units (AHUs).

Low energy strategies such as replacement of water cooler by water body to cool the
condenser water loop, integration of thermal energy storage and earth air tunnels
enabled reduction in chiller capacity.

Integration of energy efficient lighting design that complies to the recommendations


of ECBC.

Figure 18: Glare Free light

Figure 19:Roof shaded by bamboo trellis

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Figure 20: Low energy strategies

2.8.1.7.

Figure 21 : Skylight and ventilation

Energy: Embodied and Construction

GRIHA encourages replacement of high energy intensive materials with low energy intensive
materials, to utilize regionally available materials, materials which use low energy in their
manufacturing process. Following are the measures incorporated at CESE building, IIT,
Kanpur:

Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) with fly-ash content is used in plaster and
masonry mortar.

Wood for doors is procured from commercially managed forests. Modular furniture
made from particle board is used for interiors.

2.8.1.8.

Energy: Renewable Energy Utilization

Following are the measures incorporated at CESE building, IIT, Kanpur to integrate
renewable sources of energy with the building:

Renewable energy from photovoltaic panels provide annual energy requirements


equivalent to 30% of internal lighting connected load.

Hot water demand is met by solar hot water system.

Figure 22:Tree preservation

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

2.8.1.9.

Special Features

The building is fully compliant with the ECBC (Energy Conservation Building Code).

Sustainable site planning has been integrated to maintain favorable micro climate.

The architectural design has been optimized as per climate and sun path analysis.

Energy efficient artificial lighting design and daylight integration.

Energy efficient air conditioning design with controls integrated to reduce annual
energy consumption.

Passive strategies such as an earth air tunnel incorporated in the HVAC design to
reduce the cooling load.

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

2.8.2. Suzlon One Earth


2.8.2.1.

Introduction

Owner:Suzlon Energy Ltd.


Architect: Christopher Charles Benninger
Type: Office Block with Corporate Learning Center
Site area: 45,392 sq.m.
Built up area: 70,865 sq.m.
Capacity 3000 employees
Objectives: To showcase as building project with minimal impact on the environment
Climate: hot semi-arid and tropical wet and dry climate
Only Building in India with both LEED Platinum and GRIHA Five Star certified campus.
Indias first campus 100% on renewable energy

Figure 23: Suzlon One Earth

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

2.8.2.2.

The Site

The site for Suzlon campus is located behind Kumat IT Park, Pune, Maharastra, India.
Thislocation is surrounded by large townships and IT parks, the site rests amidst a fast
growing suburban context.

Figure 24: Suzlon One Earth- Site


Highlights

Land

443,473 sqft (10.18 acres)

Office space

598,256 sqft

Terminus (basement)

223,270 sqft

Open space (landscape)

185,578 sqft

Capacity

2300

Table 3: Space Distribution

2.8.2.3.

About Design

Campus built on a concept of Global Village


o

Global standing for adoption of best practices across the world and
integration of best practices

Village being for integration taking into account the local aspect of
architecture, culture and climate

Purpose is to provide protection from climate hence is climate responsive

Building envelope been designed taking into account the climate of Pune,
Maharashtra and India

Buildings are low rise, direction oriented, have double glazed glass to provide
sufficient light into building but not heat

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Figure 25: Systematic organization from part to whole

Figure 26: The Whole on Site

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Figure 27: Conceptual Sketch

2.8.2.4.

Driving Factors of the Project

Sustainability:Principles of sustainability as site selection, design, construction,


material and operations
o

Energy- focus on renewable resources from construction to operations and


optimization of the needs at source

Water- attempt to conserve it by adopting methods from design to operations

Waste- focus on waste minimization from source and responsible disposal


methods

Material- focus on use of environment friendly and certified material through


efficient sourcing

Inspiring place to work- its a place which inspires and motivate providing healthy and
productive environment for occupants in terms of indoor air quality and daylight
usage.

Figure 28: Driving Factors

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2.8.2.5.

Green Building Design Features

Passive design strategies for visual and thermal comfort with minimum interventions
of technologies

Orientation of the blocks face N, S, N-W, S-E for adequate day lighting and glare
control

Use of louvers for shading

Figure 29: Orientation and Shading Devices Used

Office Block partly self-shaded to create interesting office atmosphere, break-out


spaces as small terraces are scattered all over the office block

To minimize disturbance on site, to ensure easy maintenance, various utility corridors


have been provided coupled with the roads and pathways on site.

Use of high efficiency mechanical systems significantly reduce energy consumption


of the building

Equipped with LED lights governed by motion sensors i.e. turn on only when people
are seated on their seats reduces lighting load to 0.8 W/sq.ft.

HVAC system like pre-cooling of fresh air heat recovery/exchanger mechanisms to


minimize energy consumption in HVAC

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Managed to reduce energy consumption by 47% below the GRIHA criterion 14


benchmark figures

Figure 30:Controlled Solar Access Shading with Mass articulationfor maximum solar energy
generation

Adopt standards for energy and water management which is reflected in their
projected energy and water savings

Use of renewable energy systems as solar PV, windmills

Reduce water consumption by use of low flow fixtures (65% less water than
conventional buildings for sanitary purposes)

Reduce landscape water requirement by 50%

Over 55% of water is recycled and reused within the complex

Use of low-energy materials, recycled content

Minimize environmental impact with contemporary feel to the buildings and spaces,
thereby proving the point that green buildings can be as aesthetically pleasing as any
conventional building and yet are able to have minimal negative impact on
environment.

System flexibility of variable refrigerant volume system (hvac)

The indoor unit's cooling operation can be controlled to maintain desired temperature
in any location in the premises according to end user's needs and preferences.

Optimize building design to reduce the conventional energy demand

Optimize the energy performance of the building within specified comfort limits

Utilization of fly ash in the building structure

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Reduce volume, weight, and time of construction by adopting an efficient technology

Use low-energy material in the interiors

Project Performance Targets Energy


Carbon Neutral (through on site + off site energy)

Zero Net Energy for Lighting (through On-Site generation)

PV systems integrated in design

Micro Wind (to be evaluated)

Biomass (Kitchen waste + STP output + landscape Waste)

Envelope Performance
Minimal Heat Gain (40% better than ASHRAE 90.1 2007 and ECBC envelope standards)
100% shaded Glazing during summer (April-October)
Natural Ventilation Potential in transition spaces
Day lighting (>90% Day lit spaces)

Figure 31: Envelope Detailing with Section and 3d View

Figure 32: High Performance Glazing- Envelope

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2.8.2.6.
1)

Criteria Applied on Suzlon One Earth Based on GRIHA and LEED

Sustainability at the Site

The Suzlon project has a Transportation Policy inplace to cater to about 20% of the building
occupants and employees can avail the company bus services in addition to the 200
executives participate in the carpooling program and 30 preferred parking spaces have been
reserved for carpools.
Alternative Transportation has been encouraged in this project by providing 96 e-charging
points to promote the use of low emitting and alternative fuel stations like electric cars and
bikes. Various Water Treatment Techniques have been used in Suzlon One Earth project to
ensure general water quality. The Rain water harvesting system helps to capture and treat
and reuse the rain water on site.This reduces the need for potable water.
The project has mitigated the heat island effect by providing 90.99% roof with SRI compliant
materials. The steep slope roof is provided with high reflectance Indiana copper
coatedKalzip Aluminum Profile sheet whereas the flat roof uses white ceramic tiles; a
concept quite often seen in traditional architecture. The Solar Reflectance Index of these
materials is more than 78, combining envelope performance with cost effectiveness.

Figure 33: Sustainability at the Site

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2)

Water Efficiency

The Suzlon project is an excellent example of a buildingthat is water efficient. The water use
is reduced; generatedsewage is treated and reused on site.To maximize the water efficiency
within the buildingsto reduce the burden on municipal water supply andwaste water systems,
following water saving fixturesare installed at site:
Low flow faucets (pressure compensated 1.6 GPMeconomic aerators)
Touchless urinals with hytronic sensor (0.22l/sec;default flush time of 4 secs.)
Geberit concealed Dual Flush - half/full (0.8/1.6 GPF)
The on site waste water treatment is being done througha Sewage Treatment plant located
at basement to treatthe wastewater to tertiary standards. This treated wateris used for
Irrigation completely by eliminating the potablewater demand by 100%. The treated water is
also used forAC make up for the water cooled chillers.

Figure 34: Water Efficiency

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Figure 35: Efficient water use during construction- Use of Ready Mix Concrete, Efficient Curing
System, and Chemical Curing

3)

Energy Efficiency

Optimize building design to reduce the conventional energy demand

Optimize the energy performance of the building within specified comfort limits

100% renewable energy campus: 155KW on site wind solar hybrid system

Solar PV: 0.23KWX243 panels

Wind: 4.75KWX18 no. turbines

BIPV: 0.105KWX128 modules

100% external and common area lighting, indoor AC units and communication
serveron renewable energy resources

Efficient envelope design with high performance glazing, over deck insulation,
reduced interior light density, day light density, day light optimization

LED for outdoor and street lighting, occupancy sensors

1 year, renewable energy generated:


o

On site: 0.122 million units

Off site: 4.26 million units

Efficient Lighting Design


Dimmable ballasts in conjunction with daylight sensors are used throughout the Open Office
space.

General lighting at 350 Lux.

The Artificial Lights -dimmed up & dimmed down from 0% to 100% depending on the
adequacy of available daylight to meet the 350lux requirement.

The Task Lights have an Intelligent Built-in Occupancy sensor in conjunction with a
Continuous dimmer.

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Lighting of individual offices is controlled by combined daylight and occupancy


sensors.

90 % of the Luminaries in the Office space are with dimmable ballasts & are either
connected to Occulux sensors, daylight sensors.

The installed lighting of office spaces has been designed at 0.8 W/sq. ft.,
0.75W/Sq.ft. for cores, 0.23W/ sq. ft. for basement parking. Overall L.P.D. by whole
building area method is 0.8 W/ sq. ft.

Figure 36: Renewable Energy

Figure 37: Renewable Energy

4)

Materials

To reduce impacts resulting from extraction and processing of new virgin materials, products
with high recycle content are used, which measure to about 13.26% of the total value of the
materials in the project. The use of PPC cement for non-structural areas with fly ash, use of

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Rerolled reinforcement steel, Fly Ash Bricks, High recycled content carpets and modular
ceilings are also a part of the Green design features.

Figure 38: Use low-energy material in the interiors- Recycled Content, Local / Regional
Materials, Rapidly Renewable Materials, Low-Emitting Materials

5)

Indoor Environmental Quality

The Suzlon One Earthteam has taken measures to ensure a very high level of indoor
environment in this project. Some of the Green features pertaining to IEQ are listed below

Campus is non smoking.

CO2 Sensors have been provided in densely occupied spaces and workstation areas
to monitor and control CO2 levels inside the building.

HVAC system is designed for 30% additional ventilation rates required by


ASHRAEStandard.

Low emitting materials - To reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants Low
Emitting Adhesives, Sealants, Paints and Carpets and composite wood products
have been used.

3M Mats are being used at the entrances to prevent dust entering into the building.
Separate exhausts for the photocopier rooms, separate plumbing at selected service
rooms.

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Task lights are provided for individual control for all the workstations and occupancy
sensors are provided for all the areas such as cabins, meeting rooms and
workstation areas.

For Thermal Control openable panels are provided in the glazing for more than 50%
of building occupants.

Also there are remote controls for each Indoor VRV unit for thermal control.

Multi occupant spaces provided with multi-functional light module, DSI Smart Sensor
occulux, CEFL PIR Occus switches.

Figure 39: Indoor Environmental Quality

6)

Innovation in design

Green Design Education Suzlon has in place a GreenDesign Education policy


through which green design education in given to the new recruits, green awareness
program to employees as per training calendar & continuous GreenEducation
Programs, distribution, display and dissemination of green education information.

Green Housekeeping PolicySuzlon with help of CBRE has in place a Green


Housekeeping policy through which a green housekeeping products and process
has been implemented.

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Exemplary Performance In Regional Material The project has achieved


exemplary performance by using regional materials which measure to about 50% of
the total value of the materials in the project

Construction On Renewable Energy- The project offsets more than 50% annual
energy consumption used during construction with renewable energy. This is the
most unique approach taken by any project to ensure dedicated concern towards
environment.

Zero Waste Policy- In addition a Zero Waste Policy has been formulated that is
slated to become a very ambitious, committed and synchronous part of Suzlons
already established list of Green Corporate Social Measures. The Zero Waste Policy
will guide people to redesign their resource use system with the aim of reducing
waste to zero. It will also help to make people understand that resources such as
paper, cardboard, food, etc. should be used responsibly in order to achieve a green
office environment. The policy will project the fundamental understanding that waste
management starts at an individual level and that the person generating waste
should be aware of its importance.

Figure 40: Innovation in Design

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2.9.

Comparison Between Leed India And Griha


LEED

GRIHA

It is led by the Indian Green Building Council It is conceived by TERI and developed jointly
(IGBC)
with the Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy, Government of India.
It is meant for rating new and existing Buildings include offices, retail spaces,
Commercial, institutional and high-rise
institutional buildings, hotels, hospital
buildings,
healthcare
facilities,
Residential buildings.
residences,and
multi-family
high-rise
buildings.
Its initial cost is higher than GRIHA.

Its initial cost is less than LEED.

Rating is primarily based on per capita It is an easy, yet comprehensive rating


energy consumption.
system designed for India.
Too American" as the united states green GRIHA on the other hand is made in India,
building council (USGBC)
for India
LEED offers
conservation.

fewer

points

for

water Water is critical in India .GRIHA has given a


major point for water efficiency.

Building commissioning is a mandatory Material and resource sustainability criteria


requirement ,not a common practice in India are poorly
Classification

1. Site Planning
2. Health and well being during construction
3. Conservation and efficient utilization of
resources
4. Recycle, reuse, and recharge of water
5. Health and well-being
6. Operation and maintenance
7. Innovation points

1. Sustainable sites
2. Water Efficiency
3. Energy and Atmosphere
4. Materials and Resources
5. Indoor Environmental Quality
6. Innovation& Design process
Certification is provided as per the scores
obtained as follows
Score rating
26 - 32 certified
33 38 silver
38 51 gold
51 69 platinum

Score Rating
50-60 one star
61-70 two star
71-80 three star
81-90 four star
91-100 five star

Table 4: Comparative Chart

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Table 5: Comparative Pie-Chart

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3.

Case Study of Green Buildings in Nepal

3.1.

LEED: Practical Example Applied In Nepal - Hama Iron & Steel


Building, Kamaladi

3.2.

Green Building Features

Parking Ventilation Based Co/Co2 Levels

Photovoltaic System

Wind Turbine

Solar Water Heating System

Cristopia HVAC System

VRV HVAC System

Waste Heat Recovery System

Building Integrated Energy Mgnt.

Energy Efficient Lighting Techniques

Rain Water Harvesting & Aquifer Recharge

Water Efficient Fixtures

Pedal Powered Generator For Electrification

Waterless Urinal

Sewage Treatment Plan

Insulated walls and openings

Thermal Displacement and Ventilation

Green roof

Eco-friendly Refrigerant / HVAC

Efficient Garbage Disposal

Hydroponics & Vertical Farming

Maximum Day Lighting and Views

High Speed Regenerative Elevators

Provision of Electric Vehicles.

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Figure 41: Section showing Green Features in Hama Iron and Steel Building, Kamaladi

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4.

Hama iron & steel building, Kamaladi

INTRODUCTION

Location
Building Type
No. of stories
Site Area
Footprint Area
Total Built-up Area
LEED Attempt

Kamaladi, KTM
Mix Use
B+12
633 sq. m.
353 sq. m.
6405 s. m.
Platinum Certification

Hama iron and steel building is more likely to be commercial


building, then apartment and pent house. According to WikipediaA commercial
building is
a building that
is
used
for commercial use like office buildings, warehouses, or retail similarly apartment is defined
as flat in a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building and pent house
is defined as an apartment that is on the highest floor of an apartment building containing
luxurious features.
SITE
Site is located at Kamladi Kathmandu having irregular shape. The site is located at
the commercial zone so it is supposed to be suitable according to its purpose
Site selection

Commercial zone
Publicly accessible
Good transportation for both vehicular and pedestrian

DESIGN CONCEPT
The building is designed for commercial purpose since it is commercial zone, likely
apartment is designed since it is easily accessible and the view of Kathmandu can be seen.
On the other hand the pent house is built for personal use by owner.. the building consist of
the terrace garden, then hydroponics plants plantation in elevation (Hydroponics is a
subset of hydro culture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in
water, without soil.) likely sewerage treatment plan STP(Sewagetreatment is the process of
removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents),
domestic, commercial and institutional.)

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Figure 43 Fire
staircase

Figure 42 Ramp

Figure 45 Metal staircase


constructions at the entrance of
building

Figure 44 Metal ramp


constructions for disable
people

Figure 46 Space left for surface parking


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Figure 48 Generator house

Figure 49 Sewerage Treatment Plant

Figure 47 Car hoist

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Figure 52 DTW access port above

Figure 50 Void for car hoist


Figure 51 Metal staircases from
basement to ground floor

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LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design)

Most popular and widely known certification.


Evaluates the environmental performance from a whole-building perspective.

LEED Credits
Six Categories:

Sustainable Sites (26),


Water Efficiency (10),
Energy & Atmosphere (35),
Materials & Resources (14),
Indoor Environmental Quality (15),
Innovation and Design (6) and
Regional priority credits (4)

LEED Certified (40-49), Silver (50-59), Gold (60-79), and Platinum (80 above)

4.1.

Sustainable Sites

SS Prerequisite 1: Construction Activity Pollution Prevention

4.1.1. SS Credit 1: Site Selection


1

Point

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4.1.2. SS Credit 4.1: Alternative TransportationPublic Transportation


Access
6 Point

Community Connectivity Tabulation


Service Identification Business Name
(Corresponds to
Uploaded Vicinity Plan)

Service Type

1
2
3
4
Community Connectivity Tabulation
Service Identification Business Name
(Corresponds to
Uploaded Vicinity Plan)

1
2

Service Type

5
6
7
8
9

3
4

10

5
Site Surrounding
6
7
8
9
10

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4.1.3. SS Credit 4.1: Alternative TransportationPublic Transportation


Access
6 Point

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4.1.4. SS Credit 4.2: Alternative TransportationBicycle Storage and


Changing Rooms
1 Point

4.1.5. SS Credit 4.3: Alternative TransportationLow-Emitting & Fuel-Efficient


Vehicles
3
Point

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Basement parking

4.1.6. SS Credit 6.1: Storm water DesignQuantity Control


1 Point
Site Run-off:
Pre-Development quantity (cft/storm)=

265.84 cft/storm

Post-Development quantity (cft/storm)

Percent reduction

171.08 cft/storm

35.65 %

TECHNICS TO MINIMIZE SITE RUN-OFF

4.1.7. SS Credit 7.1: Heat Island EffectNon roof


1 Point
Option 2: Place a minimum of 50% of parking spaces under cover

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

4.1.8. SS Credit 7.2: Heat Island EffectRoof


1 Point
OPTION 2
Install a vegetated roof that covers at least 50% of the roof area.

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4.2.

WATER EFFICIENCY

Attempting Features for Water Efficiency


Rain Water Harvesting and Aquifer Recharge
Sewerage Treatment Plant
Water Efficient Fixtures
Hydroponics & water efficient landscaping
Water Saving by 50%
Water Efficiency
Reduction in consumption
Explore on site w/s option

4.3.

LEED Criteria

4.3.1. Energy & Atmosphere


4.3.1.1.

EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance (1 -19 Point)

Intent:
To achieve increasing levels of energy performance beyond the prerequisite standard to
reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with excessive energy use.
Green Design (Hama Iron and Steel Building) vs. Conventional Design
El.Demand(Calculat

Time

ed)

El.

Energy

Energy

Consumption/Year

Energy
Consumption/Yr/
Sft.

Area

Convention

Green

Convention

al
Sq . Ft.

Green

al

KW

KW

Hours

KW h

KW h

Efficien

Convention

Gree

cy

al

KW

h/Yr/

Sq.ft.

KW
h/Yr/
Sqft

61,235.0

17.10

436.41

295.15

2,400.0

1,047,384.

708,360.

00

00

32.37

11.5
7

Table 6: Comparative chart of electrical calculations of different LEED projects

4.3.1.2.

EA Credit 2: On-site Renewable Energy (1 -7 Point)

Intent

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

To encourage and recognize increasing levels of on-site renewable energy self-supply to


reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with fossil fuel energy use.
Potential Technologies & Strategies

Use of net metering with local utility

Energy Saving by 30%

Nonpolluting, renewable energy as


o

Solar Energy: Solar Thermal Energy (Water Heating System and Space
Heating System, Solar Photovoltaic System)

Wind Energy Wind Turbine

Human Energy (Bicycle)

Figure
53: Renewable Energy Use (Left-Proposed), Slope roof for housing solar panels (Construction
on site)

Electricity Use

HVAC

Lighting/ Power

Regenerative Lift

Solar energy reduce 20% cost of total construction

Efficiency of PV Panels = 21%

4.3.1.3.

EA Credit 6: Green Power (1-2 Point)

Intent
To encourage thedevelopment and use of grid-source, renewable energy technologies on a
net zero pollution basis.

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Grid tied battery-less system of solar photovoltaic used so that the power they generate can
be fed directly into the utility grid. Whenever the systems are active, the electricity produced
is not stored; instead it is delivered directly to the loads in building or to the local electric
company. If PV system is producing more electricity, the electric company then uses power
to meet the general demand and you receive a credit for the electricity that your system
produces. When this occurs, your utility meter will spin backwards, a very rewarding
experience! This process is called net metering, and in most states utilities are required to
allow solar PV systems to net meter. The advantage of grid-tied systems is that they are the
simplest and most economical systems available. They do not require batteries and are
more efficient than battery
systems. A disadvantage
is that when the utility
power is out, the solar
array

will

not

provide

electricity to your home or


business. This is required
to protect the utility workers
repairing the outage

Figure 54: Scheme of a common grid-connected roof integrated PV installation.

Figure 55: Grid tied battery-less system

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4.3.2. Materials and Resources


4.3.2.1.

MR Prerequisite 1: Storage and Collection of Recyclables

Intent
To facilitate the reduction of waste generated by building occupants that is hauled to and
disposed of in landfills.

Figure 56: Grid tied battery-less system

Provision of easily-accessible dedicated area or areas for the collection and storage of
material for recycling for the entire building at each floor is given as trash chute. Materials
must include, at a minimum: paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastics and metals.

4.3.2.2.

MR Credit 2: Construction Waste Management (1-2 Point)

Intent
To divert construction and demolition debris from disposal in landfills and incineration
facilities. Redirect recyclable recovered resources back to the manufacturing process and
reusable materials to appropriate sites.

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Figure 57: Construction Waste- Aggregate

Recycle and/or salvage nonhazardous construction and demolition debris. Develop and
implement a construction waste management plan that, at a minimum, identifies the
materials to be diverted from disposal and whether the materials will be sorted on-site or
comingled. Excavated soil and land-clearing debris do not contribute to this credit.
Calculations can be done by weight or volume, but must be consistent throughout.
Waste construction materials as formwork are documented (batch number, number of
reused and sold materials)

4.3.2.3.

MR Credit 3: Materials Reuse (1-2 Point)

Intent
To reuse building materials and products to reduce demand for virgin materials and reduce
waste, thereby lessening impacts associated with the extraction and processing of virgin
resources.

Figure 58: Construction Waste- Aggregate

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Use of salvaged, refurbished or reused materials, the sum of which constitutes at least 5%
or 10%, based on cost, of the total value of materials on the project. Reuse of iron and steel
waste from reinforcement bars are done for making structure for hydroponics, truss, trough,
decorative rain chain.
Materials and Resources used in HamaIron and Steel Building

Double Grid ACP panel with themocoal sheet at back for both sound and thermal
insulation

Double Glazed Glass used

High reflective stainless steel used on exterior

Expansive Poly Styli (EPS) used for interior partition insulation(4 inch thickness)

Cement fiber board used for wall partition

Use of metal and steel in staircase, structural purpose

Use of Sustainable Material


o

Recycled Content

Rapidly Renewable

Certified Wood (FSC)

Low VOC Content Material


Figure 59: Construction Material

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Observation of Construction of Cement Fiber Board Partition Wall

Firstly, support for cement fiber board are provided

Cement fiber board then nailed to supports

Horizontal support provided from outside but are removedlater

Small holes to fill void at top are provided on cement fiber board

Mixture of cement, sand and thermacoal made in ratio 1:2:4 plus a spoon of adhesive
chemical

Mixture then injected to void through those holes with help of vibrator

Then finally the gaps are filled finally.

Figure 60: Construction of Cement Fiber Board Partition Wall

Waste & Resource Management

Sewerage Treatment Plant for grey water treatment (cistern with grey water tank)

Deep well tube 200m deep with bio-sand filter for waste water treatment

Rain water harvesting as collection of water and recharging ground water table
(20,000-50,000 gallon water tank capacity)

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Figure 61: Allocation of Waste & Resource Management on Basement

Figure 62: Waste & Resource Management

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4.4.

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

4.4.1. IE Q Credit 2: Increased Ventilation


1 point

Figure 63: ventilation

Plenum ventilation is used for the cross ventilation and proper air flow throughout the
building.

Figure 64: ventilation at top

Chimney Effect Concept


Wind Driven Ventilator at Roof top
This effect helps for the natural air flow and helps to throw out the inner unwanted air from
the building and provides the fresh inside.

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4.5.

IE Q Credit 8.1:DAYLIGHT AND VIEWS - DAYLIGHT

1 point

1 point

4.6.

ID Credit 1: Innovation in Design

1-5 point

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Figure 65: vertical greenary

4.6.1. HYDROPONICS:
Basic concept:

4.6.1.1.

Instead of soil, use of water & nutrient solutiion to grow the plant
System needs to find a balance between feeding & plants

ADVANTAGES:

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Greater food security


o Free from chemical pesticides
o Reduced pathogenic contaminants
Direct integration of food supply into built environment
Reduced environmental footprint
Reduced transportation cost
Reduced turn around time (no soil preparation)
Enhanced energy management of building envelop

56

REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Figure 66: hydroponics

Light in the basement through


ventilation on beams

Figure 67: lighting in basement

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4.7.

ID Credit 2: LEED Accredited Professional


1 point
LEED AP- SUJATA TULADHAR

4.8.

To support and encourage the design integration required by LEED to streamline the
application and certification process.

REGIONAL PRIORITY CREDITS


Projects outside of the U.S. are not eligible for Regional Priority credits.

4.9.

CHALLENGES TILL NOW..

Standard data/ labs/research


Governmental Rules & Regulations
Communication with USGBC
Specialized Personnel

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5.

An approach to green building

5.1.

Calculation of criterias of GRIHA

The 34 criterias of GRIHA has been calculated as following:

CRITERIA

POINTS IN %

Sustainable site planning

15

Energy
energy

efficiency

and

renewable 35

Water Efficiency

15

Materials and Resources

14

Health and well-being

15

Solid Waste Management

Total

100

Innovations

Grand Total

104
Table 5-1: Weightage of Criterias

5.1.1. An introduction to grey building


Location:

Kirtipur, Kathmandu

Orientation:

North

Building Type: Commercial cum Residential Use


No. of stories : Four
GF: Shops
FF - TF: Rent ( individual room)
ROOF: Open Slab

Figure 5-1: Grey building

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

5.1.2. Existing Features

Figure 5-2: Ground floor Plan

SYMBOL

FEATURE

Main road

Shops

Neighbouring buildings

Open staircase at South

Hard Paving

Vegetable Garden

Well

Secondary Road at West

Table 5-2 Legend of the Plan

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Figure 5-4: Shops at North


facade

Figure 5-6 Well

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Figure 5-3: Open stair case at


South

Figure 5-5: Vegetable garden at


south

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Figure 5-7: Open slab of roof

5.1.3. Sustainable site planning


S.N.

Existing

Hard paving

Proposed

Reduce hard paving


Introduce permeable
paving
Grass paving

Remarks
Porous-permeable paving allows
rainwater to pass through the cross
section, and back to the ground
water supply

Figure 5-8: Permeable pavings

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

5.1.3.1.

Community Services

The community services such as schools, health posts, training centres, armed police force,
temples are at a walking distance from the existing site.

LEGEND

Sym Services
School
Bus stop
Armed police
Center
disabled

for

Training
center
Bihar
Horticulture
Figure 5-9: community services

Clinic

5.1.4. Energy efficiency and renewable energy


S.N
1.

Remarks

Existing

Proposed

Bulls Trench Kilns)BTK Brick

Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK


Brick

Uses 160 tones of coal per


million bricks.

Figure 5-10: A VSBK kiln


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Table 5-3 Legend of the


Plan

Figure 5-11: A VSBK brick


63

REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

S.N

Existing

Proposed

Remarks

2.

English Bond

Rat Trap Bond

Reduction in number of bricks by


20%-30%, cement 35%-45%
Thermal comfort
Economical

Rat trap bond

S.N

Existing

Proposed

3.

Open
staircase

Glass panel

Existing Open Staircase

B. ARCH. V/I

Remarks

Heat insulation
Sound insulation

Proposed glass panel at


Staircase

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

S.N

Existing

Proposed

4.

Open slab at Pergola


roof
shading

Remarks
Heat insulation to the floor below

Pergola Shading at roof

5.

9 thick masonry
wall

Cavity
wall
(north,
south
and west)
Rat trap bond

Damp prevention
Heat insulation
Sound insulation
Economical

Cavity wall

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

S.N
6.

Existing
Open Wall

Proposed
Punctured wall

Remarks
Proper Ventilation

The existing open wall has been blocked and punctured


for a proper ventilation
The existing open wall at the south gives a cold temperature at Winter and hot at summer.
To maintain the favourable temperature at both seasons, the open wall has been blocked
with rat trap bond or cavity walls. Also the wall has been punctured to give the proper
ventilation

S.N
7.

Existing
Incandescent
and
Fluorescent
lamps

Proposed
LED Lights

Remarks
Reduction on energy consumption
Less carbon emission

Energy efficiency and Energy


cost
and
environmental
impacts

Light
Emitting
Diodes
(LEDs)

Incadescent
bulbs

Life Span average

50,000
hours

1,200 hours

8.000 hours

Watts of electricity used

6-8 watts

60 watts

13-15 watts

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Light Compact
Fluorescent
Lamps (CFLs)

66

REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

( equivalent to 60 watt bulb )


Kilo-watts of Electricity Used

329 KWh/yr

3285 KWh/yr

767 KWh/yr

Energy Saving Cost

$ 32.85/yr

$ 328.59/yr

$ 76.65/yr

CO2 Emission

451
pounds/yr

4500 pounds/yr

1051 pounds/ yr

450

4-5

40

9-13

800

6-8

60

13-15

1,100

9-13

75

18-25

1,600

16-20

100

23-30

2,600

25-28

150

30-55

(30 Incandescent Bulbs /yr


equivalent )

(30 Bulbs/yr )

S.N
7.

Existing
Electric
heaters

Proposed
Solar water heater

Remarks
Use of renewable energy

Use of renewable energy( sun) for


the heating of water.
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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

S.N
8.

Existing
Lamps

Proposed
Photovoltic
cells

Remarks
Use of renewable energy

Use of renewable energy( sun) for


the generation of an electricity.

5.1.5. Water Efficiency


Water is a very critical in Nepal mostly Kathmandu Valley. Most of the household are
deprived of regular clean water. Thus, GRIHA has given major point to water efficiency. We
had given water efficiency major 15% point.
S NO

EXISTING

1.

Single flush toilet

2.

Collecting
buckets

3.

PROPOSED

rainwater

in

REMARKS

Double flush toilet

Less water consumption

Rainwater harvesting

Utilization of rainwater

Water of well can be


Use of well water at water used in water closets and
closets,
washing
and irrigation.
irrigation.
Waste water from basin,
sink and shower can be
retreated and re-enter to
the household water
system

Re use of water
Saving of water

Gray water from laundry


can be subjected to basic
treatment and reused to
flush toilet and used for
irrigation

Table 2: Comparative chart

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

HALF FLUSH

FULL FLUSH

Figure 77: DOUBLE FLUSH TOILET

GUTTER
PIPE
RAINWATER
CATCHMENT
SAND FILTER
WATER
FILTER

WATER TANK

Figure
79:
HARVESTING

RAINWATER
WATER
FILTER

Figure 78: PUMP

1.1.1.

Materials and Resources - 15%

S NO

EXISTING

PROPOSED

REMARKS

1.

Normal Brick

VSBK Brick

Low carbon emission

2.

Single Glazed

Double glazed

Thermal comfort

3.

Cement flooring

Parquet flooring

Durable

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

Easy cleaning
Non allergic
4.
5.

Half
brick
partition

wall

Concrete
with
cement punning at
roof

Timber framed with glass


wool
Thermoplastic PVC roofing
Pergola

Good insulation
Flexibility
Insulation
Long lasting roof membrane

Green roof

DOUBLE GLAZED

PARQUET FLOORING

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

1.1.2.

Health and Well Being - 15%

S
NO

EXISTING

PROPOSED

REMARKS

1.

Toxic paints

Use low VOC (Volatile Organic


Compound) paints, adhesives

Non toxic

2.

NO strict
smoking

Prohibition of smoking within the


building premises through sufficient
warning and notice boards

Good Health

Proper lighting

Two rooms at west

A wall is removed to make a single


room

English bond

RAT Trap bond

Open wall at roof

Punctured wall

provision

of

3.
4.
5.

EXISTING FLOOR PLAN

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Insulation
Proper
ventilation

PROPOSED FLOOR PLAN

71

REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

1.1.3.

Solid Waste Management - 6%

S NO

EXISTING

PROPOSED

REMARKS

1.

Disposal of wastes
through
municipality waste
collector by truck

Use different colored bins for


collecting different categories of
waste from the building.

Proper disposal of
wastes

1.1.4.

Cleanliness

Allocate
separate
space
for
collected waste before transferring it
to the recycling/disposal stations.

Innovations - 4%

S NO

EXISTING

PROPOSED

REMARKS

1.

Open slab at roof

Roof garden

Temperature Control

Indoor plants

ROOF GARDEN

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

1.1.5.

Overall Green Building Features

LEGEND
1. PARGOLA SHADING AT ROOF
2. PHOTOVOLTIC PANEL
3. SOLAR WATER HEATER
4. GLASS PANEL
5. DOUBLE GLAZED GLASS
6. RAT BOND
7. DUAL FLUSH W.C
8. NON TOXIC PAINTS
9. GRASS PAVING

5
4
7
6

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

6.

Conclusion

Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to a


structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient
throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance,
renovation, and demolition. Even though the initial cost for green building construction may
be high but in long term it helps to save energy and reduces the operational cost. We can
build a energy efficient building by using simple techniques such as rain water harvesting,
using vernacular building materials etc.

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REPORT ON GREEN BUILDING DESIGN

7.

Bibliography

www.emt-india.net/ECBC/NationalECBCAwarenessProgrammeJun
Jul2009/Pune/CaseStudy-KavitaJain.pdf

www.coa.gov.in/mag

www.grihaindia.org

GRIHA Official website www.grihaindia.org

http://mnre.gov.in/press-releases/press-release-06082008.pdf

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