Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 60


Geographical features
Happenings since 1947:
Nehru, Indira, Rajiv, PV, MMS, NM.
Demonetization, I.T. Raids


The Four regions are:

the great mountain zone,
plains of the Ganga and
the Indus, the desert
region and the southern
The Himalayas comprise
three almost parallel
ranges interspersed with
large plateaus and
valleys, some of which
are fertile, extensive and
of great scenic beauty.

Indias Geography

India is a civilization
with a variety and rich
cultural heritage. It has
become self-sufficient in
agricultural production
and is now the tenth
industrialized country in
the world. It covers an
area of 32,87,2631 sq
km, extending from the
heights to the tropical rain
forests of the south.

India is marked off by

mountains and the sea,
which give the country a
distinct geographical
entity. Bounded by the
Great Himalayas in the
north, it stretches
southwards and at the
Tropic of Cancer, tapers
off into the Indian Ocean
between the Bay of
Bengal on the east and
the Arabian Sea on the

Indias Geography

Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere,

the mainland extends between latitudes 84'
and 376' north, longitudes 687' and 9725'
east and measures about 3,214 km from
north to south between the extreme latitudes
and about 2,933 km from east to west
between the extreme longitudes. It has a
land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total
length of the coastline of the mainland,
Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman &
Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

Himalayan ranges

Some of the highest peaks in the world are

found in these ranges. The high altitudes
admit travel only to a few passes, notably
the Jelep La and Nathu La on the main
Indo-Tibet trade route through the Chumbi
Valley, north-east of Darjeeling and Shipki
La in the Satluj valley, north-east of Kalpa

Eastern hills

The mountain wall extends over a

distance of about 2,400 km with a varying
depth of 240 to 320 km.
In the east, between India and Myanmar
and India and Bangladesh, hill ranges are
much lower. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and
Naga Hills,running almost east-west, join
the chain to Mizo and Rkhine Hills running
north south.

River systems

The plains of the Ganga and the Indus, about

2,400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad, are
formed by basins of three distinct river systems
- the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
They are one of the worlds greatest stretches
of flat alluvium and also one of the most
densely populated areas on the earth. Between
the Yamuna at Delhi and the Bay of Bengal,
nearly 1,600 km away, there is a drop of only
200 metres in elevation.

Arid and desert regions

The desert region can be divided into two parts the great desert and the little desert. The great
desert extends from the edge of the Rann of
Kuchch beyond the Luni river northward. The whole
of the Rajasthan-Sind frontier runs through this. The
little desert extends from the Luni between
Jaisalmer and Jodhpur up to the northern wastes.
Between the great and the little deserts lies a zone
of absolutely sterile country,
consisting of rocky land cut up by limestone ridges.

The Peninsular Plateau

The Peninsular Plateau is marked off from the

plains of the Ganga and the Indus by a mass of
mountain and hill ranges varying from 460 to
1,220 metres in height. Prominent among these
are the Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura, Maikala and
Ajanta. The Peninsula is flanked on the one side
by the Eastern Ghats where average
elevation is about 610 metres and on the other
by the Western Ghats where it is generally from
915 to 1,220 metres, rising in places to over
2,440 metres.

Coastal area and hills

Between the Western Ghats and the

Arabian Sea lies a narrow coastal strip,
while between Eastern Ghats and the Bay of
Bengal there is a broader coastal area.
The southern point of plateau is formed by
the Nilgiri Hills where the Eastern and the
Western Ghats meet.
The Cardamom Hills lying beyond may be
regarded as a continuation of the Western


The climate of India may be broadly

described as tropical monsoon type.
There are four seasons: (i) winter
(January-February), (ii) hot weather
summer (March-May); (iii) rainy southwestern monsoon (June-September) and
(iv) post-monsoon, also known as northeast monsoon in the southern Peninsula


Indias climate is affected by two seasonal

winds - the north-east monsoon and the
southwest monsoon. The north-east monsoon
commonly known as winter monsoon blows
from land to sea whereas south-west monsoon
known as summer monsoon blows from sea to
land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the
Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The southwest monsoon brings most of the rainfall during
the year in the country.

Happenings since 1947:


Gandhi, Jinnah and the British

Gandhi & Jinnah didnt last long after the British departed from their
Crown Jewel of the Empire, one was bumped off by Godse and the
other was claimed by TB.
No one cared for Gandhis Hind Swaraj and Jinnahs Secular
Muslim Majority Democratic state.
While India brought in Unity in Diversity Pakistan practiced
between Democracy and Unity by Army guided Governance.
the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to
have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil
Independence Day came, January 26th, 1930; it revealed to us, as
in a flash, the earnest and enthusiastic mood of the country.
Ah! Hitlers air force and Gandhis truth-force finally convinced the
British to quit India, creating Pakistan as a parting gift.

The Polity:
INDIA, a Union of States

INDIA, a Union of States, is a Sovereign Secular Democratic

Republic with a parliamentary system of government.

The Republic is governed in terms of the

Constitution, which was adopted by
Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 and came into
force on 26 January 1950.


Martyrdom of Gandhi

Gandhi had fought for a free and united India; and yet, at the end,
he could view its division with detachment and equanimity.

Others were less forgiving. On the evening of 30 January he was shot


The assassin, who surrendered afterwards, was named Nathuram

Godse. He was tried and later sentenced to death.

Godse claimed that his main provocation was

the Mahatmas constant and consistent pandering to the Muslims,

culminating in his last pro-Muslim fast [which] at last goaded me to the
conclusion that the existence of Gandhi should be brought to an end


The Constitution of India formed, adopted

WITH 395 ARTICLES AND 12 schedules the constitution of India is

long. Coming into effect in January 1950, it was framed over a period
of three years.

During this time its drafts were discussed clause by clause in the
Constituent Assembly of India. In between the sessions the work of
revising and refining the drafts was carried out by various committees
and sub-committees.

B. R. Ambedkar was law minister in the Union government; and also

chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution.

After its adoption, the constitution has been amended many times.

Nehru era: Indian economy consolidated,

but did not take off, why?
1. Import substituting inward looking swaraj no global outlook
2. Massive, monopolistic, inefficient public sector investment with

no autonomy of working. (Trained and employed youth?)

3. Diminished competition in the market by over-regulation.
4. Less FDI, no benefit of world class competition.
5. Pampered organized labour, lower productivity.
6. Insufficient investment in education, specially, girl children.


Nehrus Tryst with destiny

Preserve, consolidate and strengthen India's unity, to build

up and protect the national state as an instrument of

development and social transformation.

Indian unity was strengthened by recognizing and accepting

India's immense regional, linguistic, ethnic and religious


Indianness was to be further developed by acknowledging

and accommodating the Indians' multiple identities and by
giving different parts of the country and various sections of
the people an adequate space.

Goa liberated from being a Portuguese colony

In the third week of December 1961 a detachment of

the Indian army moved up to the borders of the
Portuguese colony of Goa.

For a decade now New Delhi had sought, by persuasion

and non-violence, to convince Portugal to give up that

With those measures failing, Nehrus government

decided to liberate Goa by force.

Colonial Legacy: Educational System, Based on English

The British evolved a general educational system, based on English as the
common language of higher education,. This system in time produced an Indiawide intelligentsia which tended to have a similar approach to society and
common ways of looking at it and which was, capable of developing a critique of
colonialism during the second half of the nineteenth century and after.
But English-based education had two negative consequences.
One, it created a wide gulf between the educated and the masses. Though this
gulf was bridged to some extent by the national movement which drew its
leaders as well its cadres from the intelligentsia, it still persisted to haunt
independent India.
Second, the emphasis on English prevented the fuller development of Indian
languages as also the spread of education to the masses.


Linguistic states reorganisation-1

After an agitation, with death of P.Sriramulu in December, 1952,

Andhra would come into being with Telugu language.

Once Nehru conceded Andhra, he had to set up the States

Reorganization Commission-1956.

Unexpectedly, Linguistic reorganization did not disturb, but

consolidated the unity of India. Hindi is now official language along with
English (which is an interstate and international one).

Eventually, on 1 May 1960, the states of Gujarat (Gujarati) and

Maharashtra (Marati) came into being, with Bombay allotted to the


Linguistic states reorganisation-2

Other examples of states with language:

Assam (Assamese), Bengal(Bengali),

Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh (Hindi),

Telangana (Telugu),Tamil Nadu (Tamil), Odisa (Oriya), Karnataka
(Kannada), Kerala (Malayalam) Punjab (Punjabi) Goa (Konkani),
etc. Sanskrit is an originating language and Urdu is a recognised

Officially (statutorily) recognised languages are 22.


Integration of Princely States into India

By 15 August most of the states had signed the Instrument of

Accession. Congress Party cleverly used the threat of popular
protest to make the princes fall in line. They had acceded; now they

were being asked to integrate, that is to dissolve their states as

independent entities and merge with the Union of India.

They would be allowed to retain their titles and offered an annual

allowance. There was the threat of uncontrolled agitation by
subjects whose emotions had been released by the advent of


Socialistic pattern for India _ Nehru

(1947-1964 and later)

Develop and industrialize rapidly through the agency of the

State, within a democratic framework.

Even though foreign capital and technology may be essential,

these would be under the control of the State.

(Do not grant freedom for FDI, they exploit us)

Rationality of technocrats, economists and scientists would

bear on decision making. Mixed or khichdi economy.

Thus India started Five Year Plans.


Indira Gandhi era: Modernized agriculture

The 1960s and 1970s showed India was still vulnerable to the effects
of failed monsoons, droughts and food shortages: in 1965 1996
India was forced to turn to the United States for grain imports and
Indira Gandhi was obliged to devalue the rupee. She initiated
agriculture with high yielding wheat.

The Green Revolution brought some respite by increasing domestic

grain yields, but the benefits were unevenly distributed regionally the
Punjab, Haryana and Tamil Nadu were the states where the new

varieties were most successfully introduced.


Indira Gandhi era: Socialism, Bangladesh

Indira took over the Indian premiership two years after

Nehru's death in 1964. Domestically, Indira Gandhi
picked up where Nehru had left off, further tightening

the government's hold on industrynationalizing

banks and forcing foreign companies to either go into

partnership with an Indian firm or quit the country.

The war between India and Pakistan over East

Pakistan took place in 1971 and a new liberated
nation called Bangladesh resulted.

India in Rajiv Gandhi, Narasimha Rao, MMS Years

Rajiv Gandhi initiated long overdue moves to rid India of the burden of

bureaucratic controls that had been built up since the late 1940s, to
encourage new industries like telecommunications and computers,
and to open the country up to global markets after fifty years of near


Momentum was sustained by Manmohan Singh (MMS) as finance

minster in the coalition administration of P. V. Narasimha Rao in the
early 1990s.

Faced with a deepening economic crisis which saw India turn to the
International Monetary Fund for a US$1.4 billion loan, Manmohan
Singh committed the Government of India to range of radical reforms.28

Significant economic growth since 1991

India s rapid economic growth since the early 1990s has

also been aided by the Indian diaspora.

The old swadeshi ideal has largely been supplanted by a

belief that India has most to gain by being a global player,
using its domestic resources and overseas connections to
build an economy closely tied to the outside world.

Special Economic Zones have been created as tax - free

havens in which firms can operate unconstrained by the

labour laws and environmental protection legislation that

prevail across the country as a whole.

Economic liberalization and a section of

people below poverty line

Economic liberalization and participation in a globalized economy

have brought wealth and material benefits to many Indians. They
have helped increase not just the size but also the confidence of
the Indian middle classes, finally freed from the austerity of
Gandhian economics and Nehruvian state socialism.

However, in the 1990s more than 260 million people, nearly 30 per
cent of the total population, lived below the poverty line.

A huge slice of the population either remains excluded from the

boom - time economy or has its cheap but arduous labour (as in the
garment industry) exploited to fuel India s dynamic
export sector.

Indias Urban Economy

India will add millions of people to the urban economy in the years
and decades ahead. Indias cities need to be safe, efficient, pleasant
to live in, supported by infrastructure (water, sewerage, electricity,

transport, etc.).

Cities be able to create jobs which are globally competitive and India
needs a revolution in sustainable urban planning.

Sustainable cities mean: walk able, mix used areas, public transport,
urban planning, public health and other services, and climate

resilient especially coastal cities.


Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Education for All)

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) began with a modest budget of

Rs. 150 crores which now stands at a staggering Rs. 20,000 crores.

SSA has undoubtedly helped the country take impressive strides in

the elementary education sector with opening of large number of

schools; large-scale hiring of teachers; provision of free school books
for students from the BPL families; mid-day meals program and so

on. As a result, while in 2001, 28.5 percent of the 205 million children
in the 6-14 age group were out of school, by 2006 this proportion had
dropped to 6.9 percent and further to 4.3 in 2010.
However, many schools have only one or two classrooms and most
lack running water and toilets.


On the national infrastructure front, India needs

inter-city rail upgrading,

sustainable and secure energy,

watershed management (river-linking to the extent that this is
a sound and safe concept), dams policy,
fiber connectivity nationally,
ports and airports, etc.

India will also need an integrated, life-cycle, population scale

vision of human capital accumulation.
This includes: Population stabilization and early childhood

development, especially to overcome the scars of undernutrition, which may be Indias greatest plague.

Knowledge revolution and world-scale economy

In fact, India was the worlds largest economy in the first
millennium and also at the beginning of the industrial
revolution around 1,700 A.D. But subsequently, its share in

the world economy headed south, being a latecomer to the

industrial revolution.

Now, three centuries down the line, India is again poised to

become the second largest, if not the largest, economy in
the world as it increasingly assumes leadership of the
current knowledge revolution.

India and Pakistan, Estranged brothers?

India and Pakistan will have great economic potential to exploit if

they bury their differences and join hands to promote bilateral

India and Pakistan continue to talk to each other, even though the
dialogue often appears to be heading nowhere.

Pakistan claims that relations between the two countries can

improve only if the Kashmir dispute is settled.

India and Pakistan have been the worst of neighbors, on four

different occasions descending into a shooting war.


Economic Reform

Over the past many years, since India

embarked on the path of economic
reforms, there have been several
governments and different prime
ministers, but the economy has moved in
just direction
a sustained eight-percent-plus economic
growth and no reversal of the processes of
economic reform and liberalisation.


What is India in 2016?

India, for administrative purposes, is divided into the

National capital territory of Delhi, 29 States, and 6
centrally administered union territories.
States: Andhra, Arunachala Pradesh, Assam, Bengal,
Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal
Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka,
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab,
Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura,
Uttarakhand, Uttara Pradesh.
Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu,
Lakshadweep, Puducherry.



Demonetization and its impact

Event Update-8-11-2016

The move by the government to demonetize Rs.500

and Rs.1000 notes by replacing them with new
Rs.500 and Rs.2000 notes has taken the country
with surprise. The move by the government is to
tackle the menace of black money, corruption, terror
funding and fake currency.
From a market perspective, we think that this is a
very welcome move by the government and which
has taken the black money hoarders with surprise.




Income Tax Evasion - Raids

Tax noncompliance is a range of activities that are unfavorable to a
state's tax system. This may include tax avoidance, which is tax
reduction by legal means, and tax evasion which is the criminal nonpayment of tax liabilities. The use of the term 'noncompliance' is
used differently by different authors. Its most general use describes

non-compliant behaviors with respect to different institutional rules

resulting in what Edgar L. Feige calls unobserved economies. Noncompliance with fiscal rules of taxation, gives rise to unreported

income and a tax gap that Feige estimates to be in the neighborhood

of $500 billion annually for the United States

These are the major raids I-T Department has

conducted since demonetisation-1
Post demonetisation, headlines about income tax and police raids
across the country have caught everybody's attention with the
authorities seizing large stashes of new Rs. 2,000 notes
Given that the new banknote is being carefully rationed, the raids have
raised some serious questions about how these people have managed
to get hold of so much of the new currency.
Within days of the announcement of the note ban, two people were
arrested with Rs 3.5 crore in New Delhi. Also, Axis Bank managers

were arrested in the capital for alleged illegal conversion of currency


These are the major raids I-T Department has

conducted since demonetisation-2
But, that was just the beginning. Here's a list of the major raids Income
Tax Department has carried out since then:
Over 13 crores seized in New Delhi: Income Tax officials and Delhi Police

on December 10 raided the office of a law firm T&T in southern part of the
national capital and found over Rs. 13 crore in cash, of which Rs. 2.5
crore was in new currency notes.
The Crime branch team found 7 crores in old Rs 1,000 rupee notes, 3
crores in Rs. 100 denominations, and the rest a mix of old and new
notes. When the police team raided the office, most of the rooms were
locked and only a caretaker was present. The founder of the firm has not
been arrested yet.


These are the major raids I-T Department has

conducted since demonetisation-3

166 crore currency seized from Chennai: On December 10, the

Income Tax department seized 24 crore rupees cash in new notes in
Chennai. This comes on the back of the biggest haul of cash and
gold post demonetisation in the city, in which over Rs 142 crore
unaccounted assets were recovered on Friday. The total value of the
seizure in Chennai has now risen to 166 crore rupees.
Hyderabad: In Hyderabad, CBI busted a note exchange racket by

recovering 65 lakh rupees of new 2000 denomination notes from the

Senior Superintendent of Post Offices.

These are the major raids I-T Department has

conducted since demonetisation-4
Challakere, Karnataka: In another development, on December 10,
the Income Tax department zeroed in on 5.7 crore rupees cash in new

notes. Besides 32 kgs of Bullion (gold biscuits) and old notes worth 90
lakh rupees was stashed inside bathroom tiles of a Hawala operator in
Challakere town in Karnataka. The department officials laid their hands
on the stash on the basis of searches that began against casino and
bullion traders in Hubballi and Chitradurga districts on December 9.

Vellore, Tamil Nadu: On December 9, a seizure took place in Vellore

where Rs 24 crore in cash was recovered. Rs 2,000 currency notes,

kept in 12 boxes, were seized from a car.


These are the major raids I-T Department has

conducted since demonetisation-5

Poll bound states of UP and Punjab: In Punjab, fake currency with

face value of 4.15 lakh rupees was seized in Sangrur. In Uttar
Pradesh, Enforcement Directorate reportedly found huge amount
of cash in a raid at the ruling Samajwadi Party MLC Santosh
Yadav's house.

Bhilwara, Rajasthan: In yet another raid on December 10, Income

Tax Department seized Rs 7, 20, 000 in new Rs 2,000 currency
notes from Bhilwara, Rajasthan.


These are the major raids I-T Department has

conducted since demonetisation-6
Surat, Gujarat: In Surat, on December 9, Income Tax officials raided
different locations in the city and found Rs 1.57 crore in the form of
new currency notes issued by the government after demonetisation.
Goa: The CBI and local police arrested eight persons and
confiscated Rs 1.5 crore worth of new currency in Goa on Dec. 7.

Raid at former BJP leader's house in West Bengal: On December 6,

former BJP leader Mahesh Sharma from West Bengal was arrested
by the special task force. Rs 33 Lakh in form of Rs 2,000 notes was

confiscated from him.


I-T raid at Tamil Nadu Chief Secretary Rammohan Rao's son's office;
33 crore in new currency seized? Reports [22-12-2016]

In a major crackdown on black money, the Income-Tax

department officials have conducted raid at the office of Tamil
Nadu Chief secretary Rammohan Rao's son even as he
admitted to a Rs. 5 crore secret income, according to TV
reports. It has been learned that a whopping 33 crore in new
currency has been seized during the raid.

According to India Today report, during the search

operations which had commenced yesterday, around Rs 30
lakh and 5 kg gold were recovered from Rao's residence.

Significantly, along with the cash and bullion, 40 valuable

documents were also seized.


As per reports, at least five officials of I-T department had conducted

raid at Rao's residence in Anna Nagar in the state capital.

They also conducted raid at the office of Rao. It has been learned that
CRPF and Tamil Nadu police personnel were also present at the spot.
Earlier this year, Tamil Nadu Government had appointed Rao as State

Chief Secretary. The searches were conducted in connection with its

tax evasion probe against the son and few other relatives of Rao, said
some reports.

The I-T department recently seized a total of 177 kg of gold and cash
amounting to Rs.96 crore in withdrawn 500 and 1,000 rupee notes and
Rs.34 crore in the new denomination from three businessmen J.

Shekhar Reddy, Srinivasalu and Prem.


Senior RBI Official Arrested For Allegedly

Money Laundering a Crore

A senior Reserve Bank of India or RBI official has

been arrested in Bengaluru for allegedly helping
convert banned notes. Eight men have also been
arrested in a series of raids in which crores in new
notes have been found. More than Rs. 1.50 crores
was involved in one case.
Investigators pretended to be customers to catch
the eight middlemen allegedly involved in
laundering black or untaxed money for a price


A government engineer arrested

Around Rs. 93 lakh in new notes was found on

them in raids over the weekend. One of the
arrested men is the relative of government engineer
SC Jayachandra, who was arrested recently after

Rs. 5.7 crore in new notes was found during raids

at his home.


Accused of converting black money.

Earlier in the city, four bank officers were accused by
the police of converting black money after Rs. 5.7 crore
cash was seized from a hawala operator.
While endless queues at banks and ATMs reflect a
cash crunch and less than adequate number of Rs. 500
and 2,000 notes, crores in new cash has been found in
raids across the country over the past few weeks.


Start finding answers to India's most challenging problem,

the plight of its teeming 250 million poor.



Knowledge revolution

Literacy and general education form the base of the knowledge

pyramid which is essential for a rapid and sustained development of
the society in the 21st Century.

The continuous advancement of science and the application of

improved technology constitute the middle rung.
Social ideals and values form the apex.

Technical education, both vocational and professional, provide the

foundation for development of science and technology.
A large number of the countrys engineering colleges need to be

upgraded to quality standards nearer to those of Indias world-class


Our vision of India in 2020 is of a nation bustling with energy,

entrepreneurship and innovation.

The countrys people will be better fed, dressed and housed, taller
and healthier, more educated and longer living than any generation
in the countrys long history.

India will be much more integrated with the global economy and will
be a major player in terms of trade, technology and investment.
Rising levels of education, employment and incomes will help

stabilise Indias internal security and social environment. A united

and prosperous India will be far less vulnerable to external security
threats. A more prosperous India in 2020 will be characterised by a

better educated electorate and more transparent, accountable,

efficient and decentralised government.

India, the nation-state, one must insist that its future

lies in the mundane works of men.
So long as the constitution is not amended beyond
recognition, so long as elections are held regularly
and fairly and the ethos of secularism broadly
prevails, so long as citizens can speak and write in
the language of their choosing, so long as there is an

integrated market and a moderately efficient civil

service and army, and lest I forget so long as

Hindi films are watched and their songs sung, India

will survive.


An overview of India today

You cannot visit India today without sensing a nation
on the move. A feeling of abundance and optimism
combined with a belief in India's destiny pervades all
walks of life.
India has all the resources
People, Land, water, oil and gas, coal, mineralsand
is driving forward to take its place among the leading

nations of the world.