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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO SUSPENSION SYSTEM


1.1

BACKGROUND
In 1954, after countless refinements, a new dimension in ride comfort was opened up

by the Mercedes-Benz 300 SE, launched in 1961, in which air-chamber spring bellows
replaced the coil springs; at the same time, hydro-pneumatic level control was introduced for
the rear axle.
At the end of 1982 the Mercedes-Benz model 190 of the compact W 201 series was
presented, it featured the unprecedented and sensational multi-link independent rear
suspension. The optimal travel of the independently suspended rear wheels was achieved by
distributing the forces and moments to five three-dimensionally arranged links, each of which
was geometrically specialized for its function. Comfort and road holding were optimized
independently of each other. The rear suspension was complemented by a newly developed
front suspension with transverse control arms, damper struts and separately located coil
springs. The multi-link independent rear suspension was gradually introduced in the other
Mercedes-Benz models.
Suspension technology is revolutionized by electronics:

Fig.1.1: Bose Suspension System [1]


In the 1980s, electronics began to be adopted in suspension technology. Instead of a
classic springing and damping system using coil springs and gas-pressure shock absorbers,
this featured the newly developed, electronically controlled AIRMATIC system, in which the

air suspension and the adaptive damping system (ADS) form an integral unit, including
individual, automatic level control on each wheel.
Dynamism and motoring pleasure set a new standard for automotive engineering
excellence in 1999 in Germany. The pioneering technology of the coup opened up a new
dimension of driving, primarily as a result of the worlds first active suspension system:
Active Body Control ABC represented a milestone in dynamic handling control and ride
comfort. In this system, hydraulically controlled servo cylinders in the spring struts work in
unison with the passive shock absorbers and coil springs. The actively controllable elements
reduce oscillating body vibrations up to five hertz, such as are noticeable in the form of body
lift and roll on uneven road surfaces, heavy lateral roll on bends and diving under braking. In
the Mercedes-Benz CL passive gas-pressure shock absorbers and coil springs were still
responsible for handling higher-frequency wheel vibrations from six to 20 hertz, however
their damping effect was less pronounced than in conventional suspension systems. This had
a positive effect on vibration and road noise. Active roll stabilization rendered torsion bar
stabilizers superfluous.

Fig.1.2: Active Hydraulic Suspension System [2]


A glimpse of the future is provided by the Mercedes-Benz F 700 research car
displayed at the 2007 International Motor Show in Frankfurt. With its active PRE-SCAN
suspension, the car not only reacts highly sensitively to uneven patches of road surface but
also acts in an anticipatory manner enhancing both ride comfort and handling safety in
2

equal measure. PRE-SCAN uses two laser sensors in the headlamps as "eyes" which produce
a precise picture of the condition of the road. On the basis of the image created by the laser
sensors and the information about the road condition, the control unit develops a strategy for
overcoming the obstacle concerned. In response, Active Body Control adjusts the damping of
each individual wheel to a tauter or softer setting in advance and increases or reduces the load
on the wheel by means of an active hydraulic system. The suspension is adapted to a given
situation within fractions of a second. This results in a hitherto unprecedented level of ride
comfort, combined with maximum handling safety.
Launched in 2009, the E-Class of the 212 model series sets new standards for longdistance comfort in this vehicle category. The new model is equipped as standard with an
enhanced suspension featuring an adaptive shock absorber system which adjusts
automatically to the current driving situation by reducing the damping forces during normal
driving, thereby increasing ride comfort noticeably. During dynamic cornering or when
swerving at high speed to avoid an obstacle, the system applies the maximum damping force
in order to stabilize the vehicle as effectively as possible. What's more, the vehicle can be
ordered with a variant suspension system with dynamic damping characteristics and a
lowered ride height as well as air suspension; for the first time, this has been combined with
an infinitely variable electronically controlled damping system which processes various
sensor signals and controls each wheel independently.

1.2

SUSPENSION SYSTEM AND ITS CLASSIFICATION


Based on the working principle suspension system is classified in three categories:

Passive suspension system.


Semi-active suspension system.
Active suspension system.

1.2.1. Passive Suspension System


Traditional springs and dampers are referred to as passive suspensions most
vehicles are suspended in this manner.

Fig.1.3: Passive Suspension System [14]


1.2.2. Semi-active Suspension System
Semi-active suspensions include devices such as air springs and switchable shock
absorbers, various self-levelling solutions, as well as systems like hydro pneumatic, hydro
Elastic, and hydra-gas suspensions.

Fig.1.4: Semi-Active Suspension System [10]


1.2.3. Active Suspension System
In this system, hydraulically controlled servo cylinders in the spring struts work in
unison with the passive shock absorbers and coil springs. Fully active suspension systems use
electronic monitoring of vehicle conditions, coupled with the means to impact vehicle
4

suspension and behaviour in real time to directly control the motion of the car. Couples
experienced by the acceleration known as pitching and due to turning known as rolling are
also balanced in this system.
The Drawbacks of existing active suspension system:

Existing active body control suspension system is very expensive. It is so expensive


that at that price a normal car can be bought.

This system needs external source of power to run the hydraulic pump to compensate
the excited force.

1.3

It is a very complex and high maintenance cost.

PROPOSED PROTOTYPE
In the present project work, it is decided to design and fabricate an active suspension

system which will cancel the vibration due to the interaction between wheel and unevenness
of the road. A suspension system with lever and link between primary spring and secondary
spring is used which will give an opposite force from upper wishbone side on the spring in
the direction opposite to the line of action of the force applied on lower wishbone due to
unevenness of road profile and it will minimize the vibration of the vehicle. The detail
methodology of the current project is discussed with diagram in next section.

Fig.1.5: Proposed Prototype of Suspension System


In the above figure, the wheels are connected to the main suspension system. The
main suspension system consists of main (primary) spring connected to the chassis (frame).
One end of the rigid link is connected at the end of the main spring and the other end is
5

connected to one end of the lever. The lever is connected in such a way to the auxiliary
(secondary) spring with fulcrum in middle of the lever. The auxiliary spring is connected to
the chassis.
Whenever the wheel rolls over a bump or pit it experiences an upward or lower force
respectively, which is called the exciting force and thus the main spring is either compressed
or expanded respectively. Now the spring absorbs this exciting force in accordance to its
capacity of compression or expansion and the excess force is transmitted to the main frame of
the vehicle and thus the passengers along with the driver experiences a jerk.
We modified the traditional suspension system as indicated above, with the
introduction of the auxiliary spring. When the main spring experiences the upward exciting
force, it is compressed, and the lever pulls the auxiliary spring. This downward pull of the
auxiliary spring is approximately equal to the upward exciting force, pulling the chassis and
resulting in nullifying the upward exciting force. Again when the main spring experiences a
downward exciting force, it is expanded and the lever pushes the auxiliary spring pushing the
chassis upward and resulting in nullifying the downward exciting force. Thus the passengers
and the driver experience a smooth ride without any jerk.

CHAPTER 2
6

LITERATURE REVIEW
Eugenio & Bruno [1], presented a paper with US Patent No. 9073400 on motor
vehicle multilink suspension system including a traverse leaf spring. It consists of one
transverse arm for each wheel support having one end pivotally connected to respective
wheel support and the opposite end pivotally connected to motor vehicle supporting structure.
It allows the auto designer the ability to incorporate both good ride and good handling in the
same vehicle, it also allows the vehicle to flex more; this means simply that the suspension is
able to move more easily to conform the varying angles of off-road driving. This ensures best
results both from the standpoint of travel comfort, driving safety, structural reliability,
simplicity of construction and reduction of dimensions and weight.
M Hand Nait [2], presented a paper with US Patent No. 9080629 on Multi Tunable
digressive valve shock absorber. It consists of a pressure tube defining a fluid chamber; a
piston assembly disposed said fluid chamber, an upper working chamber and a lower working
chamber. This Disclosure relates generally to hydraulic dampers or shock absorbers which
can generate damping forces in rebound and/or compression moments of shock absorbers.
Earle S. Mac Pherson [3], presented a paper on Independent front suspension, which
allows each wheel on the same axel to move vertically (i.e. reacting to bump in the road)
independently of each other. This provides a more compact and lighter weight suspension
system that can be used for front wheel drive vehicle. It offers better ride quality and handling
characteristics due to lower un-sprung weight and ability of each wheel to address the road
undisturbed by activities of the other wheel on the vehicle.
In July 2010 Cohen, Shai S [4], Virginia presented a paper with US patent No.
8480106 B1 on Dual suspension system. It includes a chassis a suspension arm rotatably
connected to chassis, a wheel connection connected couple to the suspension arm, a first lock
connected to the chassis and suspension arm, and a second lock connected between a
differential housing and the chassis. The present invention makes it possible to have both a
solid axel suspension system and an independent suspension system in a single vehicle, at
any point of time, and depending on the road conditions and the necessity.
Haiping et al. [5]; have on International Journal (Advances in structural
engineering , Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 1-9) on Vibration control of vehicle seat integrating with
Chassis suspension and driver body model. Vehicles suspension is one of very important
7

components to provide ride comfort, in particular, commercial vehicles, to reduce driver


fatigue due to long hours driving. Static output feedback controller design method is
presented with considering driver body must vibration and limited capability of actuators.
The results shows that and appropriately design static output controller can provide better
ride comfort performance compared to passive seat suspension and the performance of the
static output control is compatible to the state feedback control with a realisable structure.
Different forms of static output feedback controllers in terms of Measurement available
signals show the effect improvement on the ride control performance.

CHAPTER 3

THEORY OF ISOLATION
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Whenever we analysis about suspension system Frahms isolation theory comes into
the main concerns. The main purpose of suspension system is isolating the main body from
road excitation. For obtaining a good suspension system we have to follow the principles of
excitation. We can better understand the isolation theory which is also known as Frahms
isolation theory by this derivation:
3.1.1 Frahms Dynamic Vibration Absorber

Fig.3.1: Isolation Block Diagram (a)


Let us consider a spring mass system (m 1, K1) called main system is excited by a
simple harmonic exciting force F= F0sint and the spring mass system (m2, K2) is attached to
main system called absorber system to reduce the vibration of main system, the differential
equation of motion arem1 x 1+ K 1 x 1K 2 ( x 2x 1) =F 0 sin t

(1)

m2 x 2 + K 2 ( x 2x 1 ) =0

(2)

Re-arranging above equation


9

K
( 1+ K 2) x 1=F 0 sin t + K 2 x2
m1 x1 +

(3)

m2 x 2 + K 2 x 2=K 2 x 1
(4)
The steady state equations are
x 1=X 1 sin t

2
x 1=X 1 sin t

(5)
x 2=X 2 sin t

2
x 2=X 2 sin t

(6)

Substituting above values in equations (3) & (4)


m1 ( X 1 2 sin t ) + ( K 1+ K 2 ) X 1 sin t=F 0 sin t + K 2 X 2 sin t

(7)

K 1+ K 2
m1 K 2 +m2 ( ] 2+ K 1 K 1
m1 m2 4
(K m2 2 )F 0
X 1= 2

(8)

K 1+ K 2
2
m1 K 2 +m2 ( ] + K 1 K 1
4
m1 m2
K F
X 2 = 2 0

(9)

In order to make the amplitude of main system to 0, the numerator of equation (8)
should be

( K 2 m2 2) F 0=0

(10)

10

K2
m2

(11)

Thus, the mass and spring constant of absorber system are selected in accordance with
equation (11), it acts as a vibration absorber i.e. the natural frequency of absorber system
alone is equal to the frequency of excitation against which it is desired to provide protection
to main system.

Putting

X st =

F0
0
K1

and dividing numerator and denominator by K1, K2.

Frequency deflection under static load

K1
m1

Natural frequency of main system

K2
m2

Natural frequency of absorber system

11 =

m=

And

m2
m1

Ratio of absorber mass to main mass

The equations (8) & (9) becomes


2

X1
=
X st

{1( ) }
m

4
2 2
(
)

1+

+
+1
211 2m
211 2m
(12)

X2
=
X st

1
4


( 1+ ) 2 + 2 + 1
2
2
11 m
11 m
(13)

11

From equation (12), if X1=0 then = 22, i.e. exciting frequency is equal to natural
frequency of absorber system.
For amplitude of mass system to 0, i.e. putting = 22 in equation (13)
X2
=
X st

X 2=

X 2=

1
2m

( )
211

F 0 / K 1
m2 K 2 / m2
.
m1 K 1 / m1

X st =

F0
K1

F0
K2

F0 =K 2 X 2

(15)

From the above equation, the spring force K2x2 due to absorber system acting on main
system is equal and opposite to exciting force in mass system resulting in no motion of the
main system.

At resonance, i.e. natural frequency of main system

11 =

K1
m1

is equal to the

frequency of excitation of force a. The amplitude of vibration (X1) is . Theoretically at


resonance or near resonance, = a, but absorber to be effective, = m. Therefore in such
condition we have,
=11 = m

K 1 K2
m1 = m2

(16)

12

When this condition is fulfilled, the absorber is known as tuned absorber. At tuned
condition, equations (12) & (13) becomes

X1
=
X st

{1(

2
)}
m

4
2 2
(
)

1+

+
+1
211 2m
211 2m
(17)

X2
=
X st

1
4


( 1+ ) 2 + 2 + 1
2
2
11 m
11 m

(18)
The denominator of equations (17) & (18) are same solving for (putting
denominator = 0). The amplitude of vibration (X 1 and X2) will be infinite at these natural
frequencies of the composite system.
To find resonance frequency at tuned condition (11=22), we equate denominator to
0.
4

2+ ) 2 +1=0
4
m
m

and solving for

22

( )

(19)

we have,

(2+ ) (2+ ) 4

=
m
2
2

( )

2
+
2
4

( )

1+

13

( ) ( )

1+

1+

2
1
2

(20)

The equation (20) can be written as

( ) ( ) ( )
n 1 2

= 1+
m
2

1+

2
1
2

(21)

And

( ) ( ) ( )

n 2 2

2
= 1+ + 1+ 1
22
2
2

n1

Where,

(22)

first natural frequency of composite system (main+ absorber

system)
n2 second natural frequency of composite system

11

= natural frequency of main system alone =

K1
m1

= natural frequency of absorber system alone =

K2
m2

= exciting frequency ( F=F0 sin t )

m2
m1

= mass ratio

Now from equation (20) we can see that if

Now, from equation (17), let us plot

14

X1
X st

( )

vs

m2

a
m

( )

=0, 22 =1

Fig.3.2: Frequency Ratio vs. % Vibration Graph [11]

Here we can see that if

a
X1
=1 , then percentage of vibration,
m
X st =0

( )

According to this principle if exciting force is equal and opposite to the force applied
on absorber system and if mass of absorber system is zero then the amplitude of the main
body will be zero.

Fig.3.3: Isolation Block Diagram (b)


15

At the conventional active system the absorber system force is generated by hydraulic
means.
But if we rearrange the block diagram it will be seen like this,

Fig.3.4: Isolation Block Diagram (c)


Now at our proposed prototype as discussed in the section 1.3, Fig. 1.5 main body
weight will be transmitted through the primary spring and secondary spring will not subjected
to the body weight .so we can assume mass of the absorber system as zero. And the lever
fulcrum is at the middle of the lever so it can be assumed the exciting force is equal to the
force acting on the secondary spring. So it follows all the condition of isolation due to which
amplitude of the frequency experienced by the main body will be zero.

16

CHAPTER 4

CONSTRUCTION AND COMPONENTS


4.1. CONSTRUCTION
The whole construction of this system is simple and efficient. The arrangement and
position of components makes the system to function. Each and every component has its own
property and responsibility. The power obtained from the exciting force is transmitted to the
appropriate component without power loss. The systematic design of system is made in order
to obtain same amount of energy at the secondary spring or absorber system. Construction of
the proposed semi-active suspension system consists of seven major components. They are

4.2. COMPONENTS&ITS DESIGN

Primary spring.
Secondary spring.
Lever.
Fulcrum.
Rigid link.
Base plate.
Main body plate.
17

Casing.

4.2.1. Primary Spring


For the initial experiment due to unavailability of required stiffness with respect to the
secondary spring we had to buy from scrap. Primary springs stiffness should be half of the
sum of the stiffness of secondary springs. It has a major rule in this system. The main body
weight is transmitted through this spring. Due to unavailability of appropriate housing we
have to attach to the base plate and main body plate (which is assumed as weight of the
vehicle) by means of welding. This is also reason of losing some spring property by reducing
number of active coil.

Fig.4.1: Spring
4.2.2. Secondary Spring
Secondary spring is the main component due to which principle of isolation
comes into the scenario. The same reason of unavailability of springs of required
stiffness we have bought springs using at motorbike suspension system. For balancing
the couple we are using two secondary spring instead of one as shown in the auto-cad
diagram Fig: (5). Secondary springs are in parallel so the sum of stiffness of
secondary springs should be equal to the stiffness of primary spring. Due to the reason
unavailability we are using spring using at heavy weight vehicle as primary spring. As
shown in the fig: upper end of the secondary springs are fixed with the main body
plate and lower ends are fixed with one end of the levers. Secondary springs are used
as absorber system. Main body weight is transmitted through the primary spring so
the weight of the secondary spring is assumed as zero.
4.2.3. Lever

18

Lever is the component which plays the role of transmitting half of the
exciting force to the absorber system. Due to the balancing reason we have used four
levers. Each two levers are connected to the lower end of secondary spring and the
end of the rigid link.
4.2.4. Fulcrum
The fulcrum is connected to the main body plate and the middle of the levers.
The fulcrum point is pin jointed to the lever so the force will not transmit through the
fulcrum.

4.2.5. Rigid Link


Because of using higher stiffness spring as primary spring the length of the
primary spring is more than the secondary springs. But for getting the actual result
lever should be parallel to the base plate at normal condition. For obtaining this
condition other end of the lever cannot be connected the lower end of primary spring.
So a rigid link is introduced from lower end of the primary spring.
4.2.6. Base Plate
It is the plate which is connected to the lower end of the primary spring where
one end of the rigid link is also fixed. For experimental reason, this plate is assumed
as wheel of the automobile where the exciting force is acted.
4.2.7. Main Body Plate
It is the plate where other ends of the primary spring and the secondary springs
are fixed. It is assumed as the chassis of the automobile. And the weight of this plate
should be more than the exciting force.
4.2.8. Casing
For supporting reason, because we are using one suspension system only and
not directly fitting it to automobile, we are using a casing. Its purpose is only to keep
the system vertical and at one position.
At fig. 4.2 final design of prototype,
19

Fig.4.2: Final Auto-Cad Design of Prototype


Table No. 1: LIST OF PARTS WITH DIMENSIONS AND MATERIALS USED
Sl.

Parts

No.
1.

Primary
(Main)
Spring

2.

Secondary
(Auxiliary)
Spring

3.
4.
5.

Lever
Fulcrum
Base plate

6.

Main body
plate

7.

Casing

Diameter of the coil


Outside diameter
Inside diameter
Length
No. of coils
Diameter of the coil
Outside diameter
Inside diameter
Length
No. of coils
Length
Length
Length
Breath
Thickness
Length
Breath
Thickness
Length
Breath
Thickness
Height

Dimension

Material

Quantity

(in mm)

Used

(nos.)

10
100
80
340
8 nos.
8
55
39
205
12 nos.
210
190
304.8
304.8
12
609.6
304.8
12
633.6
328.8
12
510

20

Mild steel
Mild steel
Wood

4
2
1

Wood

Wood

4.3. FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLING


4.3.1. Carpentry
Fabrication of the main body plate and the casing in the carpentry shop using power
saw, hand saw, measuring tape and four fold foot rule.
4.3.2. Drilling
In the second stage of fabrication drilling has been done on lever, fulcrums, main
plate and the base plate using drilling machine in the machine shop according to the required
measurement.
4.3.3. Welding
Later on fabrication of levers, fulcrums are done in the welding shop using arc
welding machine, grinding wheel, and anvil. By welding each one end of the secondary
springs and fulcrums are connected to the main plate and the other end of both the secondary
springs are connected to the fulcrum; on the other hand one end of the main spring is
connected to the main plate while the other hand is connected to the base plate.
4.3.4. Fitting
The connections between levers, fulcrums and both the primary and secondary springs
are made through pin joints as shown in Fig (4.2).
After the completion of fabrication and collection of required parts assembling had
been done keeping in mind to get the required purpose. Assembling of the parts is not exactly
same as the AUTO-CAD Fig. (5), because of modification of parts and unavailability but the
original principle is not changed. We have attached two secondary springs instead of one due
to the reason mechanical balance. For the same reason two levers are attached with each
absorber system. After assembling the parts the prototype of suspension system is shown in
Fig: (4.3).

21

Fig.4.3: Fabricated Prototype

22

CHAPTER 5

EXPERIMENTATION
5.1. INTRODUCTION
Experiment is the most necessary task after assembling. We can get the result of the
prototype by experimentation. Whenever we talk about the experimentation of suspension
system there are some instruments necessary. These instruments are listed below:

Vibra-meter.
Accelero-meter.
Shake table.

5.1.1. Vibra-meter

It is the instrument which is used for measuring amplitude and frequency of a


vibrating body. The maximum measuring frequency is 10Hz. It is used in suspension system
to measure the frequency and amplitude transferred to main body from excitation frequency.
5.1.2. Accelerometer
Its principle is same as vibra-meter but the range is up to 10 kHz. It also can calculate
change of frequency with respect to the time.
5.1.3. Shake Table
It is the table by which the exciting frequency is generated. The suspension system is
placed above the shake table give required frequency and frequency generated is measured by
vibra-meter.

5.2. INTRODUCED METHOD OF EXPERIMENTATION


For obtaining the resultant amplitude experienced by main body plate above
instruments are necessary. But due to unavailability of instruments, time and money, we
introduced new method of experimentation to measure the amplitudes.
In this new method, the exciting force is generated by a lever whose one end is
connected to base plate and the other end is free to move. The lever acts as a shake table.
Then one marker is attached to the lever and another marker is attached to the main body
23

plate. Two marking plates are placed simultaneously to each marker. The marking plates are
so placed that they do not experience any vibration. The marking obtained from the marker
attached to lever gives the input (or exciting) amplitude. Similarly the marking obtained from
other marker provides the resultant amplitude.

Fig.5.1: Auto-Cad Design of Experimentation Method (a)

Fig.5.2: Auto-Cad Design of Experimentation Method (b)


CHAPTER 6
24

MODEL IMPROVEMENT
6.1. RESULTS
After assembling, experimentation is done as discussed in section-4.2. From the test
we obtained the result as shown in Fig.(8).

Fig.6.1: Input and Output Amplitudes


Fig.6.1. shows amplitudes of input and output frequency respectively. From the image
it is seen that output amplitude of vibration which is experienced by the main body plate is
80-90% reduced. When experimenting, it is seen that there is a moment created in the main
body plate due to the improper line of action of exciting force.

6.2. ANALYSIS
25

From the experiment, there are some points evolved which are responsible for the
results6.2.1. Amplitude Reduction
It is seen that the amplitude of vibration transmitted to the main body plate from the
base plate is reduced to a great extent. It is a good sign to the success of the project. In the
normal suspension system there is maximum 10-15% reduction of amplitude observed.
6.2.2. Shock Remained
Some extent of shock is remained in the main plate due to the absence of damper
system. Damper system helps as resistance to the vibration which will in turn reduce
amplitude.
6.2.3. Induced Moment
A moment is obtained due to the improper line of action of lever force. The exciting
force applied on the base plate by the lever for experimenting. But the actual exciting force
normally acts perpendicularly to the base plate, so it is not a major problem.
6.2.3. Solutions
Some of the above drawbacks can be reduced. The solutions are as follows

Damper system is required to reduce the shock.


Multiple stiffness springs are required to the increase the range of frequency.
The modifications of the levers and the rigid links have to done.

6.3. IMPROVEMENT
The design of the system is modified on the basis of the assumed solutions as
discussed in previous section. Steps of improvement are carried as discussed below;
Step1: disassembled the system
Disassembling is done for modification of the design.
Step2: precise dimension of the system is determined
Step3: attaching new lever and joints with precise dimension:

26

On the previous model joints and levers are not precisely fabricated. For obtaining expected
results re-fabrication has been done.
Step4: attaching new body plate
On the previous design the main body plate is bended because of its low strength to withhold.
New body plate is attached keeping in mind the previous problem.
Step 5: aligning the system
The primary spring used in the previous design is not square end. So the system is not
aligning perfectly. For obtaining perfect alignment some packing has to be done at the
attaching point of the spring to the main body.
Step 6: assembling the model
After modification of the designed model parts assembling has been done as shown in fig.6.2.

Fig.6.2: Modified image of suspension system

6.3.1. Experimentation
27

Experimentation is a necessary to determine the performance of the system. On the


modified model experimentation has been done as mentioned in the chapter.
6.3.2. Results and analysis
Results: from the experimentation we have obtained the output amplitude or actuated
amplitude at the main body plate as shown in the fig

with respect to the input amplitude.

Fig.6.3: Input and output result of experimentation


From the analytical curves or lines of the output and input amplitude (fig ) we can
measure maximum and minimum percentage of amplitude reduction. The graphical
representation of input amplitude and output amplitude is shown below,

28

35
30
25
20
Amplitude

15
Input
10

Output

5
0

Time

Fig.6.4: Graph of input and output amplitude


Amplitude reduction
% of maximum amplitude reduction=95.35%
% of minimum amplitude reduction=93.93%
We have seen that range of amplitude reduction of the modified system is which is
efficient than the previous model.
Shock remained: because of the same reason as discussed in section there is a shock
remained due to absence of the damper.
Reduced moment: the moment or couple seen at the previous model has been reduced
to a large extent.

29

Chapter 7

SIMULATION
7.1. INTRODUCTION
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over
time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model
represents the key characteristic or functions of the selected physical or abstract system or
process. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulation represents the
operation of the system over time.
Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for
performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training, education and video games.

7.2. CLASSIFICATION AND TERMINOLOGY


Historically, simulations used in different fields developed largely independently, but 20 th
century studies of system theory and cybernetics combined with spreading use of computer
across all those fields have led to some unification and a more systematic view of the
concept.

Physical simulation

Interactive simulation

Computer simulation

7.2.1. Physical Simulation


It refers to simulation in which physical objects are substituted for the real thing
(some circles are use the term for computer simulations modelling selected laws of physics,
but this article does not). These physical objects are often chosen because they are smaller or
cheaper than the actual object or system.
7.2.2. Interactive Simulation
It is a special kind of physical simulation, often referred to as a human in the loop
simulation, in which physical simulations include human operators, such as in a flight
simulator or a driving simulator.

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7.2.3. Computer Simulation


It is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it
can be studied to see how the system works. By changing variables in the simulation,
prediction may be made about the behaviour of the system under study. Computer simulation
has become a useful part of modelling many natural systems in physics, chemistry and
biology as well as in engineering to gain insight into the operation of those systems.

7.3. SIMULATION OF DESIGNED SUSPENSION SYSTEM


Simulation can be performed by various methods at simulating software like
MATLAB. Simulation of the model of the designed suspension system is carried out in
Simulink by model based design.
The designed suspension system is modelled in Simulink as shown in the fig 7.1.

Fig.7.1: Model representation of the suspension system at MATLAB

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This Simulink model is an equivalent representation of the suspension system. The


exerted displacement or frequency amplitude on the base plate for various frequencies,
various vertical displacement of wheel can be simulated from this model.

7.4. SIMULATION FOR UNDAMPED VIBRATION


Mass of wheel arrangement or base plate (m1) = 50
Mass of main body (m2) = 250 kg.
Mass of secondary springs base plate or arrangement (m3) = 5kg
Primary spring stiffness (k1) = 12000 N/m
Equivalent secondary spring stiffness (k2) = 12000 N/m
Nominal length of each spring = 1m
Assuming mechanical loss of the system = 2% of input.
Input displacement at primary spring = 0.10 sin (t) metre
The secondary spring displacement= 0.98 input displacement.
Sample time = 2 min
Frequency = 10 radian/sec
In the designed system secondary spring displacement is opposite of primary spring
displacement. So the phase angle difference of secondary spring displacement with primary
spring displacement is 180 degree. Simulating of the Simulink model (fig : ) for these values
is obtained in analytical form as in fig
5

From the curve, maximum output amplitude= 7 10

Maximum amplitude reduction =

0.17 105
% = 99.1%
0.1

For damped vibration


1. For damping co-efficient of both spring system = 200 N-sec/metre
Output amplitude curve with respect to time is shown in fig.7.3.

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Fig.7.2: Output amplitude of undamped vibration at MATLAB

Fig.7.3: Output amplitude of damped vibration at MATLAB

33

6
Maximum output amplitude at undamped system = 1.1 10 m

7.5. RESULT COMPARISON


Comparing the results of simulation of undamped systems amplitude and practical
experimentation result we can determine the % of error.
Error=

( of amplitude reductionsimulation)( of amplitude reductionexperiment )


( of amplitude reduction simulation)

99.195.3
99.1

3.8

34

Chapter8

RELEVENCY OF THE SYSTEM IN ACTUALITY


8.1. INTRODUCTION
For a process to be relevant in practical sense, several aspects come into play to
determine whether it will be viable in the situations in question. A product needs to fulfil
certain basic and important criteria to be selected to go into the manufacturing process. The
process that has been developed is analysed considering few important factors and found
quite beneficial compared to other similar conventional processes. The facets have been
considered for perusals are cost, reusability and safety. These have been studied and
conclusions are derived from the details arrived at. Also, advantages and disadvantages of the
process need a special mention.
8.2. COST ANALYSIS
A comparative cost analysis of the system is discussed below.
Cost of available suspension system at market:
Available conventional semi-active and active suspension systems are very costly that
it cannot be used by common people.
Table No. 2: LIST OF COST OF DIFFERENT SUSPENSION SYSTEM
Name of the Suspension system
1. Boses active suspension system
2. Semi active suspension system used in Lexus 470
3. Passive suspension system used in standard cars

Market Price (approx.)


Rs. 6,00,000.00
Rs. 144000.00
Rs. 30000.00

Cost of the suspension system which we developed:


The cost of fabrication of designed suspension system for 800kg vehicle is shown in
the table no.3.

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Table No. 3: LIST OF COST OF DESIGN SUSPENSION SYSTEM


Name of the components used
Primary spring
Two secondary springs
Levers and fulcrum
Base plate and main body plate
Fabrication

Price (in Rs.)

Total
Approximate Total cost of the suspension system of the vehicle

800.00
1000.00
500.00
300.00
1000.00
3600.00
57600.00

with damper, antiroll mechanism, electromagnetic damping etc.

Thus from the above data of the cost of the developed suspension system, we can
clearly see that this is a much low cost suspension system which does the same work as the
semi-active suspension system which costs around 144000 rupees.
By further developing of the designed suspension system to fully active suspension
system by adding additional mechanism (i.e. antiroll mechanism, electromagnetic damping
etc.) the cost of the system will be doubled. In spite of that the cost of this system will be
around 90% lower than the existing fully active suspension system.

8.3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES


8.3.1. Advantages
The advantages of this system can be discussed as follows.

This suspension system is far more effective than other traditional system.

Amplitude of the frequency actuated by the main body is 1-10% of the exciting
frequency.

This system construction cost is far more less than conventional active system.

It will have negligible maintenance cost compare to conventional active system.

This system can also be used as amplitude measuring instrument

8.3.2. Disadvantages
36

There are some disadvantages in this suspension system too:

Rolling and pitching cannot be controlled by this system so it is termed as semi-active


suspension system.

Because of constant stiffness of the springs the range of frequency which can be
controlled is very small.

Shock remained.

Low response time.

CHAPTER 9

37

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE


9.1. CONCLUSIONS
The project encompasses several aspects of development of active suspension system.
Through the experiments conducted it has been determined that this new system of
suspension developed could be quite economical. In the new developed system the vibration
is reduced 90-95%, which is a great success to suspension system. It will bring new level of
comfort to automobile. The result could directly signify the fact that every automobile
industry could afford to use this and could provide vehicle with low cost.
The simulation of the system at MAT-LAB brings out a convincing result, showing
that the amplitude is reduced up to 98-98.9%.
The primitive prototype is ready and the results obtained from the experiments
conducted with it have been satisfactory to proceed with the future development,
modifications and usage of the process.

9.2. FUTURE SCOPE


The selection of proper stiffness of springs, lever length, damping co-efficient is
determined. The drawbacks are found out. The analysis of the system will be carried on at the
software MAT-LAB. These analysis will be help full to manufacture a real time suspension
system for automobile. The system will be tested with proper damper system which will
reduce existing shock. The primitive prototype is tested by an improper method but it will be
tested properly by using required instruments like vibra-meter, shake table etc. Frequency
generated by lever action is less than 10Hz, so it has to be tested on higher frequency. After
testing we can be determined whether this method can be used as vibra-meter. This system
can be converted to fully active suspension system which will balance rolling and pitching as
well. This can be achieved by adding additional mechanism (i.e. antiroll mechanism,
electromagnetic damping etc.)

REFERRENCES
38

[1]www.europeanforeignmotorworks.com/suspension/Suspension system.
[2] www.atzoline.com/ Passive suspension system.
[3]www.motor.com/Semi Active suspension system.
[4] Perri Eugenio and Martin Bruno (2014),Motor Vehicle Multilink Suspension system
including at traverse leaf spring, US9073400 B2.
[5]Robert Christian Lawson and Frederick Mark Deadrick (2003), Wheel Suspension System
having an integrated link, spring and antiroll bar, US6530587 B2.
[6]Jean Raymond (2014), Semi-independent Suspension systemfor a low floor vehicle,
WO2014005215 A1.
[7] MiyasatoEiko, TakakuwaYouji, YoshinagaKodai, Mita Tsuyoshi, MatsuzakiKouichi,
Minakuchi Toshio, Iida Kazuhiro and Kaneko Junya(2013),Bi-directionalshock absorbing
device, WO/2013/190960.
[8]Kyong, Hag Yoon (2014), Shock Absorber, Mando Corporation, Pyeongtaek-si(KR).
[9]Dieter Heitzer (2006),TRW active front steer helps tackle curves-Advance steering 1
[10] MichealHankel (2004), ZF Sachs goes mainstream with active damping, SAE 6/2004
Tech brief.
[11]Rajesh Rajamaniand J. Karl Hedrick(1995), Adaptive Observers for Active Automotive
suspension;(IEEE Transaction on Control System Technology, Vol. 3.No. 1).
[12]Daniel Fischer and Rolf Isermann(2004), Mechatronic semi-active and active vehicle
suspensions,(Control Engineering Practice, 12,pp. 1352-1367.)
[13] Ismenio Martins, Jorge Esteves, Gil D. Marquesand Fernando Pina da Silva,
(2006)Permanent-Magnets linear Actuators Applicability in Automobile Active Suspensions.
(Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions, Vol-55, Issue-1, pp. 86-94).
[14]https://www.khulsey.com

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