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VERTI
LLING IN THE
MLLING
ME 0 K HOP
OP

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-'

VERTICAL MILLING
IN THE
HOME WORKSHOP
Arnold Throp

CJ)

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C.Eng . F.I.Mech .E.

(J)

ARGUS BOOKS

Argus Books
Books
Argus
Argus House
House
Argus
Boundary
Way
Bounda
ry W
ay
Hemel Hempstead
Hempstead
Hemel
Hertfordshire HP
HP2
7ST
Hertfordshire
2 7ST
England
Eng
la nd

CONTENTS
Chapter
Chap er One
One

EVOLUTION OF
12
OF THE
THE VERTICAL
VERTICAL MILLER
MILLER
12
Early history
strial m
achines:: milling
e
history off indu
industrial
machines
mill ing in th
the
early sma
ll lath
es : mi
lling attachmen
ts for
hes
small
lathes:
milling
attachments
for lat
lathes
20s: E.T,
estbu ry's experimental
ci
rca 19
19205:
E.T. W
Westbury's
experimenta l machine
mach ine
circa
1964:
e-Westbury m
achine 1968: cu
rre ntly
1964 : the Dar
Dore-Westburv
machine
curre
avail
able sma
nes and
ments,
available
smallll machi
machines
and attach
attachments.

Chapt
err Tw
o
Chapte
Two

MILLING FLAT
27
27
FLAT SURFACES
SU RFACES
Surf
aces paralle
Surface
parallell to
to table: simple fixed-radius
fixed -radius
f1flycutters:
ycutt ers: var
iab le-radius bor
utting:
ng head flyc
flycutting:
variable-radius
boriing
multiple
-tooth face m
ills: work hol
ding: m
ult ip le
multiple-tooth
mills:
holding:
mUltiplepass mi
it h table
milllling:
ng ' surfaces square
square w
with
table:: using
uSing side
of
mill.
of end
endm
lll.

Chapter Th
ree
Three

SLITTING
AND
35
D CUTTING
CU TTIN G
35
S LITTI N G AN
of slitting
saw for cutting
Use of
slit ing saw
cut ing through machinery
component bosses
bosses : eccentric sheaves and straps
straps::
mar ine type big ends of connecting rods.
marine

Chap te r Four
Chapter

KEYWAY
CUTTING
37
UTTI NG
K
EYWAY C
Endm ill ing round ended 'feath
keyways : keyways
Endmilling
feat er' kevways:
taper shafts : use of disc type
tvoe cutters for plain
on taper
\Noo druuff
ff keyways
keyways:' making
sunken keyways : Wood
workshop : table of
Woodruff cutters in the home
ome workshop:
suggested
\N oodruff keys and keyways
kevv vavs for
fo r
sugges
ed sizes of Woodruff
engineers,
model engineers.

Chapter Five
Fiv e
Chapter

FLUTING
COMPONENTS
OTHER
THAN
FL
U T ING CO
MP O NENTS OTH
ER T
HA N
TOOLS
43
TOO
LS
Correct form
form of
of flute
flutes ir
ir loco
loco connecting
connecting and
and
Correct
cou pling rods:
rod s: moun
mounting
rods against
against angleplate
anglepla te for
for
coupling
ing rods
flu ti ng:: paralle
parallell flutes:
flutes: taper
taper flutes
flutes:' preferred
preferred type
type of
of
fluting
cutting tool.
too l.
cUlting

First pub
published
1977
First
lished 1977
Second im
impression
1979
Second
pression 1979
Second
edition
1984
Sec
ond edi
ti o n 1984
Reprinted
1986, 1988
1988,1989,1990,1991,1993
Rep
rin ted 1986,
, 1989, 1990, 1991 . 1993
Books
Ltd 1977
1977
AArgus
rg u s Bo
o ks Ltd

All rights
may
r ights re~erved
reserved .. No part
p art of this publication m
ay be
rep
roduced
repro
d uced In
in any
any form
f o rm by
by print,
print. photography,
photography, microfilm
microfilm
or any other
othe r means
mean s without
wi thout written permission from the
th e
pub
pub lisher.
lisher.

ISBN
ISB N 085242
0 852 42 843
843

)<

Phototypesetting
Ph o t ot y p esetti n g by
by Performance
Perf o rm an ce Typesetting,
T y pesetting, Milton
Milton Keynes
Key n es
P~
i nted
Print
ed and
and bound
bound in
i n Great
G reat Britain
Br it ai n by
by
Biddies
n
Biddies Ltd
Ltd ,. Guildford
Guil d f o rd and
and King's
K in g 's Lyn
Lynn

Chapterr Six
Six
Chapte

BOR ING
45
BORING
45
Dealing with
with parts
parts too
too large
large to
to swing
swing in lathe:
lathe:
Dealing
trepanning large ho
holes.
les.

Seven
Chapter Seven

'JIG-BORING'
46
'J
I G- BORIN G'
46
the miller as a measuring
measuring machine : drilling
Using the
holes
one setting of
of work and precise cent
centres:
ho
les at one
res:
beam:
lash pr
precautions:
trip
gearr com engine
p gea
eng
ine be
am: bbackack-lash
ecaution s: tri
ponent
mUlti-hole
pon
ent : mu
lti-ho le boiler plates.

Chapter Eight
Eight

PROFILING
49
too large for
for lathe: loco frames
frames::
Curves on parts too
smokebox castings
castings:: machine pad
pad bolts: loco con
con-
necting
rodss and coupling rod
rods.
nec
ting rod
s.

Chapter Nin
Nine
e

END-ROUNDING
52
hardened ffiling
guides
Use of hardened
ilin g gu
ides deprecated:
mounting
rotary
standard
mou
nting work on rot
ary table: sta
nd ard size guide
plugs: anti-slip precau
precautions:
of feed for
for
plugs:
tio ns: direction of
external
surfaces.
exte
rnal and iinternal
nte rnal surfaces.

Chapter
Chap te r Ten

DIVIDING HEADS
54
Simple ungeared dividing
div iding heads:
heads : using change
wheels
a index plates:
off dividing
w
hee ls as
plat es: examples o
d ividing work
w or k :
hexagons,
squares, dog clutch teeth : avoiding odd
h exagons. squares.
numbers:
numbers : the Myford worm--geared
w orm -geared dividing head:
head :
avoiding back-lash errors
erro rs : packing block for
bringing to lathe centre height: universal
universa l steady
stand for
Myfo rd head: three further dividing heads.
fo r Myford

Chapter Eleven

DIVIDING HEADS
62
HEA DS AND GEAR-CUTTING
GE AR- C UTT IN G
Limitations to straight
strai ght spur
spu r gears : simple
sim ple head :
Myford
n
M yford worm-geared
worm -geared head: tooth
tooth cutting on
integral pinion
pi nion : use
use of home
home made f'vcutters:
Ilvcut ters:
Brown & Sharpe disc type cut
ers:: selec
ionn 0of
cutters
selectio
cutter to
to suit number
numb er of teeth
teet h : cutting a large
large
coarse
coa rse tooth gear:
gea r: anti-slip back-up devices.
de vices ,

Chapt
er Tw
elve
Twelve
Chapter

DIVI
DING HEADS
L MAK
ING
66
DIVIDING
HEADS AND
AND TOO
TOOL
MAKING
66
Fluting
Fluting taps
taps:: example
example 5-flute
5-flute Acme
Acme tap
tap:: producing
producing
a small
th milling
ith ball
small fine
fine too
tooth
milling cutter w
with
ball end
end : use
use
e
of
of table
table stop blocks:
blocks: combination
combination of
of rotary
rotary tabl
table
with ma
in table
ree coun
main
table movement: large 60 deg
degree
coun te
rsink fluting
tersink
fluting..

Chapter Thirt
een
Thirteen

DIVIDING
UATED
DIV I DING HEADS AND GRAD
GRADUATED
SCALES
7711
Cutti
ng graduation marks : use of
avi ng'
Cutting
of rotary 'engr
'engraving
cutters
n-r otating plani
ng ttype
ype tools : use
cutters:: use of no
non-rotating
planing
ooff table
table stops to contro
contrqll line
line lengths
lengths:: graduating
cyli
ndr ica l scales: gradua
ting flat angular scales
cylindrical
graduating
scales::
checking correct way of
of figuring when stamping
scales
scales,

Chapter Fourt
een
Fourteen

CUTTER SPE
EDS FOR VERTICAL MILLERS 74
SPEEDS
Speeds affect titime
me occupied on job: speeds too
too
high may cause
cause excessive cutter wear and chatter
chatter::
rigi
di ty of work, cutter and mac
hine inferior as a
rigidity
machine
rule to iindustrial
ndu st rial condi
tions, dry cutting inst
ead of
conditions.
instead
lubricated
e III gives speeds for cutters in
lubricated:: Tabl
Table
different kinds of tas
ks : m
achi ne speeds may
tasks
machine
may no
nott
alwa
ys be suitable .
always

Chapter Fifteen

WORK
-HOLDING
WITH
D IFFICULT
WORK-HOLDING
DIFFICULT
SHAPES
78
scale engineering
engi neering : use of
Comparison with full scaie
of
chucki ng pieces on components:
components : thin components
chucking
ad hesives : advisability of making fixtures
and use of adhesives:
fo r difficult
difficul t pieces:
pieces : threethree -ssided
ided angleplates.
angleplates.
for

Chapter Sixteen

81
CHUCKS FOR MILLING CUTTERS
81
tools or chucks without
Never use taper shank tools
drawbar: chucks for screwed
screw ed shank selfself -tightening
drawbar:
tightening
Clarkson
Dsborn Titanic chuck:
collets : Cl
arkson chuck : Osborn
tee -headed locking cutters: Clare
Chucks for tee-headed
withou t
use of small end mills and D-bits without
chucks : use
locking features : phi
ph ilosophy
't hrow - aw ay '
losophy of 'throw-away'
cutters.

List of Illustrations
Fig..

Fig
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
111
1
12
13
14
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
22
23
24
4
25
25
26
26
27
27
28

wood
m illing
attachment
the 19
1920s
Ab w
oo d mi
llin g attac
hme nt of the
2 0 s

E. T. Westbury's
millln
E.
W estb ury 's m
ill ing m
achine
machine
Dore-Westbury
achine
Dore-W
estbu ry m achine
Dare-W
estbury M
Mkk II
11 machine
Dore-Westbury
Rodney attachm ent
Rodneyattachment
Rod ney m ach
ac hine
Rodney
in e
Amo
mentt
Am o lco attach men
Amolco
machine
A
mol co m
achine
Mentor
machine
M
ent or mach
in e
Maximat
attachmen
M
aximat attach
me n t
Astraa m
mCtchine
Astr
ach ine
Twin
machine
Tw in machi
ne
Senior
achin
e
Sen ior m
mach
i ne
fl ycu tt ers
Set of three flycutters
Flycutting
Flycu
tt ing a bracket
Flycutti
ng connecting rod ends
Flycutt ing
Flycutting
mater;a
Flycutti
ng ttapered
apered bar mat
eria l
cylinde
soleplatee
Flycutting cy
linde r soleplat
Facem ililll
Milling
flyw heel joint face
M
illing flywheel
Milling
crosshead
Mi
ll ing crosshe
ad slide
Milling
bearing
bedplale
M
illing bear
ing jaws
jaw s in bedpl
at e
Slitting boss
sting
boss of ca
casting
Milli
ng feath
er kevw
av
Milling
feather
keyway
M
illing feath
er keyw
ay on tap
ered shaft
Milling
feather
keyway
tapered
Mil
ling keyway wi
th slitting
Milling
with
sl'tting saw
saw
Se
Sett of four Woodruff keyway cutters
M
ill ing W
oodruff kkeyway
evwav
Milling
Woodruff

13
13

14
14

15
15

16
16

17
17

18
18

19
19

20
20

211

2
23
23

21
2

22

22
26
26

28
2
8

28
28

29
29

29
29

30
30

31
3

31
31

32
32

33
33

35

35
3
7

37
38

38
39

39
39

39
41
1

29
3
0
30
311
3
32
33
34
3
4
35
35
36
36
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
4
2
4
3
43
44
44
45
45
46
46
47
48
49
50
5
511
52
53
54
55
55
56
5
7
57
58

Fluting
locom
con
nect ing rod
Fluti
ng loc
omootive
tive co
nnect
Drawing
steam
Draw
ing of stea
m hook (lever)
Photograph
stear.1
Phot ograph of st
eam hook
Profiling
bolt
Profilin
g pad bo
lt
Profiling coupling rods
with
tablee
End-rounding wi
th rotary tabl
Cutting
dog
partt
Cutti
ng tteeth
eeth in do
g clutch par
Drawing
of st
steady
Myford
dividing
Draw
ing of
eady stand for Myfo
rd div
id ing head
Steady
cutting
St
eady in use on a gear cutti
ng operation
opera tic
Throp
dividing
Thro
p divid
ing head
Thomas
versatile
dividing
Th
om as versat
ile divid
ing head
Kibbey/M
dividing
Kib
bey/M .E.S. dividl
nq head
Close-up
flycutter
pinion
ter and pi
nio n
Clos
e-up of flycut
Gearcutting
Brown
Sha rpe cutter
Gearcu
tt ing w ith Brow
n & Sharpe
Flycutting
d.p.
Fly cutt ing 10 d
.p, gearwheel.
gearwh eel. front view
F
10 d.p.
d.p. gearw
gea rwheel.
view
Flyycutting
cu tt ing 10
hee l. rear view
Flut'lng
Acme
Flut
ing A
cm e thread tap
Culling
ball-end
cutter
Cutt
ing teeth of ba
ll-end cu
tt er
Close- up of ball-end cu
Close-uD
c tte
tterr
Gashing
countersinking
Gashin g flutes in large count
ersinking tool
iew showing stead
Rear vview
steadyy stand in use
Cylll'\drical
machine
component
graduated
Cyli
nd rical m
achine compone
nt being grad
uated
Close-up
previous
operat
Close
-up of prev
ious ope
rat ion
Graduating part-ci
part -ci rcul
ar arcua t e scal
e on flflat
at surface
surfa ce
rcular
scale
Tape -he ld w
orkpiece being
bein g flycut
flyc ut
Tape-held
workpiece
Hern
inpwav three-side
d anglep
late
Yerringway
three-sided
angleplate
Tw
o of the th
ree sizes of Herninqwav
leplates
Two
three
Hemlngwa~' ang
angleplates
Clare mi ll ing chu
ck
chuck
Clark
son mi ll ing chu
ck
Clarkson
chuck
Osborn mill
rrill iinng
g chuc
chUCKk

44
4
4

4
7

47
48
48

50
50

50
50

53
53

5
5 5

56
56

58
58

58
5
8

59
59

60

60
63
63

63
63

64

64
65
6
5

66
66

67
67

68
68

69
69

70
70

72
72

72
72

73
73

79
79

79

79
80

80
82

82
82

82
83

83

Preface
In th
e eng
ineering in
dustry the
ic al
the
engineering
industry
the vert
vertical
y used
nly for
miller is very
very widel
widely
used . no
nott oonly
batch product
lorrbu t also
king
production:bu
also for tool ma
making
and the
the 'one
'one--off'
off' jobs whi ch are so
common
inee ring. In
commo n in
in general eng
engineering.
In the
the
home worksho
p. w
her e most job
s are
workshop.
where
jobs
e machi
ne
'one-o
ff' th
e ve
rsatility of
'one-off
the
versatility
of th
the
machine
makes
m port ant comp
anion to the
makes it an iimportant
companion
the
lathe. Thi
crib es many of
Thiss book des
describes
of the
the
er ation s wh
ich
infinitely
i nfinite ly wid e range o
off op
operations
which
can be done. and all those described are
illustrated by photographs
photographs so that under
underst
anding of th
e methods is assured
standing
the
assured.. These
cove
mot ives.
coverr work on part
partss of
of model loco
locomotives.
stationary
machi
nery . cutting
stationary engines
engine
machinery,
too
ls. gea
rs, clutches,
ion
tools.
gears.
clutches. etc. Full informat
information
is given o n the machine accessories wh
ich
which
are
requi red,. suc
h as var
ious types of
are required
such
various
cu tters and tthe
he chucks
chuck s needed
heir
cutters
needed for
fo r ttheir
mounting on the m
achi ne spind
le.. The
machine
spindle
The use
of cheap
chea p hom
e- m ad e cutters
cutt ers iiss shown
home-made
and encouraged.
encouraged. Guidance is also given
give n
th e work- holding devices
dev ices such as
on the
clamps. packings.
packings, vices.
vices. angle
plates,
clamps.
angl e plates.
heads. rotary
rot ary table s.
s, and which
w hich of
dividing heads.
thes e are needed for particular
part icular kinds of
these
w ork .
work.

CHAPT ER 1
CHAPTER

[},'\

Evolution of the
Vertical Miller
ng machine evolved
evo lved
Th e horizontal mi lllliing
natura
fr om tthe
t he first
fi rst or
he lathe in the
na
tura lly from
seco nd decade of t he nine
tee nt h century.
second
nineteenth
Elii Whitney
W hitney (U
(U.S.A.)
said
t o have
have had
El
.SA) is sa
id to
18 . and in Tools for
one in use about 18 18,
the
unt ed how
the Job the lat
latee LTC
L.T.C . Rolt reco
recounted
how
the yo ung eng
engineer
yth (later
{later
ineer J ames Nasm
Nasmyth
to become famous as the inventor
inven tor of the
th e
stea
m ham
mer and ot
her app
steam
hammer
other
applliances
iances)l
fixed one
illed the fla
ts on
one up and m
milled
flats
hundreds of tiny hexagon nuts for a model
of a Mauds
lay marine eng ine.
hile
Maudslay
ine . w
wh
ile
working
uds lay . Draw
ings of
working fo
forr Henry Ma
Maudslay.
Drawings
of
the
ly hori
zont al mill
the ear
early
horizontal
mi ll ers show
show suc
suchh a
resemb
th es of
resemb lance to t he la
lathes
of that period
period
that almost
nly they
al most certai
certainly
th ey were in fact
fact
lat hes w
hich
ed to mil
wh
ich had been adapt
adapted
millling.
ing .
The
re really files.
Th e cutters we
were
fil es. made by
by the
th e
fifille
akers of the tim
es, using
he 'hand
e m
makers
times,
usi ng tthe
'handcu
tt ing ' methods
er and a
cutting'
meth ods (really
(real ly a hamm
hammer
spec ia
hic h we
iall chisel)
ch isel) w
which
werre the only
only
practice available
e.
at that tim
time.
ava ilable at
The evolution
rti ca l m
iller
evolu tion ooff the ve
vertical
miller
came nat
ural ly afte
he ho
rizo nt all
naturally
afterr tthe
horizonta
m
achi ne. I have not
machine.
not found any
any reliable
rel iable
refe
rence
hic h the
ical
refere
nce to a date
date by w
which
th e vert
vertical
m iller
ad appeared in
industry, thoug
though
ille r hhad
in industry
this
ust have
0.
this m
must
have been we
wellll before 190
1900.
W
he n model
ineering sta
rted to
When
mode l eng
engineering
started
to
beco
m e an esta
bl ished hobby at
urn
become
established
at the
the tturn
of
ll
of th
th e century
ce ntury quite
quite a variety
va ri ety ooff sma
small
12
12

lath es were
we re provided by different
di fferent makers.
makers.
lathes
ver satili
ty of the
th e lathe
il ity
and the great versat
it self a tendency
te ndency to make the
created in itself
lathe do every operation
opera tion that arose . This
wa
enhan ced by the
th e fact that
th at many
ma ny
wass enhanced
with very
modellers were working men
en wilh
litt
le cash to spend o
little
onn their hobby. Many
M any
we re the inge
nious attachment
ingenious
at achmentss devised
to enable the
he to carry out work itit had
the lat
lathe
never
never been intended to do
do.. Such makers
as Drum
m ond Brothe
rs modified their
Drummond
Brothers
lathes wit
h tee-slott
ed boring tables to
with
tee -slotted
help in this work . and even bro
ughtt out
brough
out
tthe
he famous ro
h
r und - bed lat he. wh ic
ich
-price market.
although int
ended for a cut
intended
cut-price
market .
also had bu
ilt into itit the
lity to do
built
the abi
ability
do a lot
lot
more than
just simple turning . But
But as the
than just
years wen
wentt by it
it became ever more
appa
rent somet
hing better was
apparent
something
was needed
ffor
or mi
lling operations
ne of
milling
operations.. No
None
of the
the small
mille
rs produced by the mac
hine tool
millers
machine
industry we
re oriented towards the home
were
w
orkshop,
workshop.
T
hen in
Then
in the
the 1920s the
the Abwcod
Abwood Tool
Tool
l
and
neeri ng Co. produced an
a'n exce
exceland Engi
Engineering
lent
tachmen t fo
lent vertical mi
mi lling
l ling at
attachment
forr
mounting on
lly the
on smal
smalll lathes. especia
especiall~'
he
in.
m ond . though
popula
in . flat bed Drum
Drummond
popularr
adjustable
adjustable features
features made
made itit applicable to0
othe
hes too
otherr lat
lathes
lOO.. ItIt had
had a No. 11 Morse
Morse
tape
to the
taperr arbor
arbo r which
which fitted
fi ted in
into
the lathe
lathe

3t
3t

Fig.. tr Abv/ood
Abll'lood milling
milling attachment
attachment of
of the
the
j:ig
19205
1920s

13
13

spindle,
and bevel
bevel gear
gears
with keywa
keywayed
spindl
e. and
s with
yed
took the
the drive
drive up
up to
to the
the vert
vertical
shafts took
shafts
ica l
spindle.
le, w
which
had aa No.
No. 11 M
Morse
cu tter
cutt
er spind
hic h had
orse
were
equall
internal
taper, AAll
the gears
gears w
inte
rna l taper.
ll the
ere equa
rotated
at
ratio
mititre
bevels.
so the
the cutter
cutter ro
rat
io m
re beve
ls. so
t at ed at
as th
the
lathe
spindle,
and
same
speed as
tthe
he sam
e speed
e lat
he spi
ndle . and
all tthe
six speeds
speeds of
of the
the lathe
lathe were
were usable.
usable.
all
he six
work
was
mounted
on the
the lathe
lathe
The w
The
or k wa
s mounte
d on
boring
table, and
and po
power
feeding in
in one
one
bo
ring table.
wer feeding
direction ca
came
from the
the lathe
la th e screwcut
screwcutdirection
me from
ng gear.
gear. A
A phot
pho tograph
of this
this uni
unitt set
set up
up
ograph of
ttling
Myfor Super
Super 77 is
is show
shown
in Fig.
Fig. 1. ItIt
on a Myford
n in
was
unfortunately
low-volume,
labourr
wa
s unfort
una tely aa low
-vol um e. labou
intensive
unitt w
with
vee slides
slides needing
needing
int
ensive uni
it h vee
hand scrapi
sc raping
was
sell in g in 19
1930
ng ., but w
as selling
30 for
gu ineas,
about aa quar
quarter
of the
the cost
cost of
of
77 guin
eas. about
ter of

the Dru
Drummond
lathe.
he. AAlthough
of
the
mmo nd lat
lt ho ugh oout
ut of
production
for ma
many
years
n w., itit was
was in
in
producti
on for
ny year
s now
time aa co
courageous
effort
but be
belonged
its time
its
urage ous effo
rt ., but
lo nge d
to the
the age
age w
when
most home
home lathes
lathes were
were
to
hen most
driven by
by fla
flatt belt
belt fro
from
treadle
or cou
coundriven
m aa tread
le or
n
tershaft,
and the
the cost
cost of
of electric
electric mot
motors
tars
haft. and
ors
made th
the
ind
ependent
motor
drive
made
e in
d ep
enden t m
o to r drive
uneconomic
ic in
in ho
home
hobby
applications.
uneconom
m e hobb
y appli
cati ons.
Butt th
the
need for
for aa handy
handy vertica
verticall
Bu
e need
miilli
lling
ng ma
mach
ine had
had been
been recogn
recognised,
and
m
chine
ised. and
in the
the ear
early
1 9660s
that very
very good
good friend
friend of
of
in
ly 19
0s that
model engineers.
engineers, Edgar
Edgar T.
T, W
Westbury,
model
est bury .
completed
an ex
experimenta
ma
com
plete d an
pe r im en ta l m
acchine,
hi ne.
which
described
with
drawings and
wh
ich he desc
ribed w
it h drawings
photog
raphs
Model Eng
Engineer
pho
t og rap
h s in tthe
he Model
ineer
dunng 19
1964.
That
too wa
was
very labou
labourr
during
64 . T
hat too
s a very

ig, 3 D
ore- W est bury machine
Fig.
Dore-Westbury

Fig.
T. Westbury's
Fig. 22 E,
E.T.
Westbury 's
milling
milling machine
machine

14
14

inte
nsive machine
ith vee slides,
intensive
mac hi ne w
with
slides, and the
main castings were
w ere much
m uch ttoo
oo big to be
be
th e average
ave rage ho
mee workshop.
workshop.
machi ned in the
hom
A t that time
ti m e he was
w as unable
una ble to find any
At
engi
neering
fir m willing
wi lli ng to take
take it over and
en
gine
ering firm
manu facture
ev en to do
do the
th e machinmachin
manuf
cture it. or even
such a price
price as
as it
ing on a contract basis at such
m odel enginee
engi neers
be
was thought model
rs would be
wl llinq to pay.
p ay.
willing
T hree years
years later I found myself with
Three
the opportunity
opportunity to
to take
tak e a fresh
fresh look
loo k at this
th is
the
desig n, which
whi ch he had
had discussed
di scussed with
w ith me
me
design.
evolved
during the
the experimental
experim ent al period.
pe riod . I evolved
during
new set
set of
of drawings
d rawi ngs for
for aa similar
sim ilar
aa new
machi ne, but
but using
using flat
flat slideways
slideways more
more
machine,
economically constructed.
constructed. aa reduction
reducti on
economically
speeds , hollow
hollow
gearr for
f or lower
low er bottom
bottom speeds.
gea
spindl e for
for aa drawbar,
draw bar. and
and other
othe r changes
changes
spindle

ies or
prove
int
ended to
intended
to make
make econom
economies
or im
improve
the
rformance . This
new design
design was
was
the pe
performance.
This new
discussed
ith Edgar.
ho agreed
discussed w
with
Edgar. w
who
agreed to
to the
the
use
tburv ' , the
of the
the name
name 'Dore-Wes
'Dore-Westbury,
the
use of
machi
ne to
i
machine
to be
be sold
sold as
as aa kit
kit of
of sem
semififinished
nished compone
nts by
m
components
by my
my existing
existing fir
firm
Dore
nee ring, II was
e to
ce th
e
Dare Engi
Engineering.
was abl
able
to pla
place
the
m
achi ning ooff the
nen ts w
ith aa
machining
the compo
components
with
number
read y kno
w n to
number of
of firms
firms al
already
known
to me
me.. and
and
the
rst sets
erials began
the fifirst
sets of
of mat
materials
began to
to go
go ou
outt
mers early
nce that
to
to custo
customers
early in
in 1968.
1968. Si
Since
that
n
ttime
im e m
any hundreds
many
hundreds ooff sets
sets have
have bee
been
distributed
rld .. and
distributed., all
al i over
a er the
the wo
world
and are
are still
still
be
ing made
iti es by
being
made in
in ever
ever grea
greate
t err quant
quantities
by
M
o d e l En
g i ne e r in g S
er v i c e s ., ooff
Mode
Engineering
Services
Chest
erfield . w
ho too
k itit over from
Chesterfield,
who
took
from me
me in
nted ,. on
unt
19
7 1, w
he n II wa
1971,
when
wanted
on acco
accou
nt ooff age
age,,
to red
uce m
y comm
it men ts ,
reduce
my
commitments.
Castin
gs to
na ll design
Castings
to the
t he origi
origina
design are,
are.
howeve
r, st
ill available
m Waking
however,
still
available fro
from
Wokin Pre
Preccision
is io n M
od els ooff 16
Models
16 Dovecot
Dovecot Park
Park .,
A
berdour. Fife.
Aberdour.
Fife , Scotland KY3 OTA
OTA.. and a
machine
m these
w n in
machine fro
from
these is
is sho
shown
in Fig.
Fig. 2.
The
re-W estbu ry
hi ne is
The Da
Dore-Westbu
ry mac
machine
is depicted
depi ct e
in Fig.
ila rity be
twee n the
m
he sim
similarity
between
them
Fig . 3 and the
wi
ren t.
Du
ring ititss
willll be
be at
at onc
oncee appa
apparen
t.
During
entire
the Dar
en tire life
life the
0 ree-Westbury
-Westbury has
has been
been
un
dergoi ng sma
provement s. and th
thee
undergoing
smallll im
improvements,
present
supplie rs have
ided that
that
present suppliers
have now
now dec
decided
he
o d i f i c a t io
i o ns
ns a
re ss uffi
u ff ic
n t ly
tt h
e m
m odificat
are
c ie
i e nt
ly
st abilised for
for the
the present
presen t version
ve rsion to
t o be
stabilised
be
titled the
the Mark
M ark 11
II model.
model. Fro
From
now on
on all
all
titled
m now
ma chines supplied
supplied will
w ill be
be of
of this
this form
form ..
machines
though still
st ill subject
subject to
to certain
certain optional
op tional
though
vari ations which
which customers
custome rs w
w ill
ill be
be able
able to
to
variations
select as they
t hey wish
wi sh..
importan t changes
chang es include
incl ude an
an
T he more
more important
The
in crease in
in the
t he qu
quill
travel from
from 2f
2i in.
in. to
to
increase
ill travel
4-1- in.
in . Extra
Ext ra pulley
pull ey steps
ste ps with
with aa new
new type
ty pe
4-}
of belt
be lt extend
extend the
the speed
speed range
rang e slightly
sligh tly
of
fro m 32
32 to
to 1880
1880 r.p.m.
r.p.m. with
w ith more
more interint er
from
m ediat es. providing
provid ing for
for boring
boring head
head flyfl y
mediates,
cutting on
on large
large radii
radii right
right through
th ro ugh to
to
cutting
keyw ay cutting
cu tt ing with
with 1/16
1/ 16 in
in.. cutters.
cutters. The
The
keyway
reduction gear
gear system
system now
now fitted
fi tt ed has
has
reduction
helical gears
gears which
w hich run
run In
in an
an oil-bath,
oil-bath.
helical

15
15

Opposite, Fig. 4 The Oore- Westbury Mkll

16

Fig. 5 Rodney Attachment

17

Rodne ymachine
ma chine
Fig. 66 Rodney
Fig.

sealed
hen incli
sealed against
against leakage
lea kage even
even w
when
inclined
ned
away
an
away from
from the
the vertical,
vertical, and
and is
is Quieter
Quie ter th
than
former
ly. AA large
r table
formerly.
larger
table,, 20
20 in.
in. by
by 66 in.,
in., can
can
be
terna tive to
as an
an optiona
optionall al
alternative
to the
the
be had
had as
in.
n and
norm
al 16
16 in.
in. by
by
in. The
The co
colum
lumn
and
normal
cros
s tube
cross
tube are
are steel.
steel. as
as always,
always, but
but now
now tt
in.
rmously st
iff.
in.
in. thick
thick and
and eno
enormously
stiff.
in.
diamete
r
m
icro
m
et
er
d
ials
are
now
diameter m icrometer dials are now

5t
5t

standa
rd. Th
e down-feed
orm has
standard.
The
down-feed w
worm
has for
for
conveni
convenience
ence been
been transferred
transferred to
to the
the right
right
hand
rser pitch
of the
the head,
head, aa coa
coarser
pitch rack
rack
han side
side of
is
. and
e are
is now
now used
used,
and ther
there
are aa numbe
numberr of
of
oth
er m
ino r im
provements.
other
minor
improvemen
ts.

2t
2t

18
18

Opposite,
chm ent
Opposite, Fig.
Fig. 77Amolco
Amolcoatta
8tt8chment

19
19

Although co
colleg
ll eges
and commercial
commercial
Although
es and
workshops wil
willl probably
probably wish
wish to
to use
use the
the
workshops
all-over
belt
guard, itit may
may be
be ddebatable
-over be
lt guard,
eba ta ble ifif
all
the
cos
of this
this is
is justified
justified fo
forr the
the so
sollititary
th
e co
stt of
ary
mature
ure m
mode
alone
his
home
mat
ode lllleerr alo
ne iin
n hi
s home
workshop. An
An alternative
alternative belt
belt gua
guard
which
ich
workshop.
rd wh
pulley only
only and
and do
does
covers tthe
spindle
es
covers
he spi
nd le pulley
not im
impede
belt chang
changing
so mu
much
is
not
pede belt
ing so
ch is
shown on
on the
the M
Mark
available
il able and
and is
is shown
ark IIII
ava
machine in
in Fig.
Fig . 44..
machine

No do
doubt
the most
most importan
importantt iimproveNo
ubt the
m pro ve
ment is
is the
the (optional)
(optionall provision
provision of
of po
power
ment
w er
feed fo
for
the lo
long
movement of
of the
the table.
table. AA
feed
r the
ng movement
motor
with
4- step pul
pulley
and
small m
ot o r wit
h aa 4-step
ley and
small
worm
reduction gear
gear provides
provides
enclosed
enc
lose d w
o rm reduction
feed rates
rates of
of .5
.5., .62
.62., .85
.85 and
and 1.1
1. 1 inches
inches
feed
perr mi
minute.
pe
nute.
number
of attachm
attachments
similar in
in
A num
ber of
ents similar
A
concept,, though
though much
much different
different in
in
general concept
general
detail.
to tthe
old Abwood
Abwood.. have
ha\'e com
come
on
e on
de
ta il. to
he old

<,
Fig
.Fig.. 9 Menror machine, now superseded by
by th
thee
FB2 and Maximal
F82
Maximat attachment

rn a rk e t in recent years
year s . Tew
tthe
he marke:
M achlnerv produce the
t he '.Rod
ney' to suit
su it
Machinery
Rodney'
th e Myford
Mvfo rd V1
M L7 and Super 7 lathes.
lat hes. and
the
Myfords . It is shown in
:hi s is
:his
s marketed by Myfords.
t he complete vertical
vertica l miller
m ill er
Fig. 5 and the
atta chme nt is that
th at shown i n
ba sed on this
t his attachment
based
Fig. 6.
6.
Fig
A not her attachment,
attachment, t he 'Amolco'
'A m o lco is
Another
N. Mole
M ole & Co
Co. Ltd . and
supp lied by N.
supplied
it s own
ow n motor
motor
appears in Fig.
Fig. 7 This
appears
his has its
and attaches to
t he top of the
t he lathe
lath e bed
bed
and
0 the
made as
as aa complete
compl ete machine,
ma chi ne.
also. IIIt is made
also.
snown In
in Fig.
Fig. 8.
8.
snown
Fig.
Fig. 88 A
A molco
mateo machine
machine

20
20

Fig. 1, rt Ascra
A stra machine
machin e
Fig.

22 11

Fig. 12
12 Twin
Twin machine
machine
Fig.

Elliot machine
m achine Equipm
Equipment
supp
a
Elliot
ent su
ppllied
ied a
continental mac
hi ne,, the
th e ''Mentor'
M entor' wh
ich
continental
machine
which
was
available bo
th in
ench and
was available
both
in b
bench
and floor
floor
m
ounted forms
Th e bench
achine is
mounted
forms.. The
bench m
machine
is
shown
shown in
in Fig.
Fig. 9.
9. They
They also
also have
have the
the
'M
axim al' attach
he of
'Maximal'
attach ment
ment to
to suit
suit the
the lat
lathe
of
the
e,, whi
ch fit
the same
same nam
name
which
fitss on
on the
the back
back of
of
the
e bed
otor
the lath
lathe
bed and
and has
has independen
independentt m
motor
drive
). This
lable as
drive (Fig,
(Fig. 10
10).
This is
is also
also avai
available
as aa
floo
achi ne,, the
floorr m
machine
the FB2
FB2 ..
Ot
m plete
achin es inclu
de the
Other
her co
compl
ete m
machines
include
the
'Astra'
ed by
uhart, w
hic h
which
'Astra ' suppli
supplied
by Scot
Scat Urq
Urquhart,
is
all m
iller
ra
Is really
really a horizont
horizonta
mill
er w
w itithh an
an ext
extra
ver
tical spindle
s own
tor . Made
vertical
spindle with
with itits
own mo
motor.
Made
in
w n in
in several
several sizes,
sizes. the
the smal
smalll one
one is
is sho
shown
in
Fig.
Fig . 11.
11 .
Twi
n Engin
Twin
Engineering
eering Co.
Co. introduced
introduced aa
bench
chine illus
trated in
bench ma
machine
ill ustrated
in Fig.
Fig . 12
12 and
and
also
ounted machi
ne of
ilar
mounted
machine
of sim
similar
also aa floo
floorr m
size
htly di
ff erent desi
gn.
size but
but slig
lightly
different
design.
Fina
lly the
Tom
Finally
the old
old established
established firm
firm ooff Tom
produce
their
Senior
Ltd
.
now
Senior Ltd. now produce their type
type EE

mach ine which


w hich isis floor
floor mounted
mounted and
and
machine
in Fig.
Fig, 13.
13.
shown in
shown
So itit will
will be
be seen
seen that
that there
there are
are now
now
So
many machines
machines and
and attachment
attachme nt s which
which
many
are of
of suitable
suit ab le dimensions
dimensions for
for inclusion
inclusion in
in
are
ed space
sp a c e of
o f most
m o s t home
home
t h e lim
l i miitted
the
w ork shop s. ItIt wou
would
be useless
useless to
to give
give
workshops.
ld be
any details
deta ils of
of prices
prices in
in aa book
book of
of this
this kind
kin d.,
any
as such
such information
info rmation would
would probably
probably be
be
as
was
incorrect by
by the
t he time
ti me the
the book
boo k was
incorrect
printed, and
and readers
readers are
are th
therefor
recom-
printed.
erefo ree recom
mended to
t o enquire
enquire of
of the
th e various
various adveradve r
mended
tisers.
tisers.
summ ary of the
the leading
leading particular
particulars of
of
A summary
these mach
m achines
etc. is
is given
given in Table
Tab le 11
all these
ines etc.
again specifications
specificat ions are
ame nded by
by
but again
re amended
m akers as
as time
t im e goes by,
by, and it can be nno
makers
m ore than
tha n a general
general gu
guide
more
ide..
fore ign
w o rd m ust be sai
said about foreign
A brief word
mac hin es. particularly
part icularly those coming from
machines,
countries. It
I t would
wo uld ap
appear
Far Eastern countries.
pear
th ere are several factories
facto ries producing
there
mac
hine tools
tool s and acce
ssories. Some
machine
accessories.
app
ear to be quite good
appear
good., bu
butt others are
definitely not good,
e personal
good. and I do hav
have
exp
erie nce o
ese. I have not
experience
off some of
of th
these.
not
had the
ing
the chance to see one
one of the mill
milling
ma chines
ing,. but
chi nes work
working
but those I have
have
inspect
ed iin
n exh
ibi tions have some
inspected
exhibitions
some che
che ap
and
ur es, although the mai
and nasty feat
features.
mai nn
item
s suc
h as spind
les, bear
ings , and
items
such
spindles,
bearings.
and
slideways
ay be
t. Some
he
slideways m
may
be excellen
excell ent.
Some of
of tthe
machines
machines are
ar more
more suitable
su itable for
for com
com-
merci
all fact
orie s th
an home
mercia
factories
than
home workshops
workshops
but
ere ar
e oothers
thers of
dest dimen
but th
there
are
of mo
modest
dimening buying
sions.
sions. To
To anyone
anyone contemplat
contemplating
buying
on
ese on
e ca
ly suggest
onee of
of th
these
one
cann on
only
suggest that
that aa
close
ld be
close inspect
inspection
ion shou
should
be made
made by
by aa
kno
w ledg eab le engineer
knowledgeable
engineer., and
and that
that aa
wo
str at ion should
working
rking demon
demonstration
should be
be
requested
e actua
requested,. of
of th
the
actuall machine
machine which
which isis
to
t.
to be
be bough
bought.
Fig. 10
10Maximar
Maximat ettscbrnent
attachment
Fig.

22
22

23
23

.,.

t>..l

TABLE
TABLE 11

Makeor
orsupplier
supplier
Make

Machineoor
Machine
r
attachment
attachment

Tab
le sisize
ze
Table

Sp
indle speeds
Spindle
speeds

Spindle
Spindlenose
nose

Commen
ts
Comments

Woking Preci
Prncision
Woking
sio n
Models
Co.Ltd
Ltd.
M
on els Co.
.
16 Doveco
Dovecot
Park
16
t Park
Ahernollr,
Fife.
srdou r. Fifp..
Ab
Scotl!fI1d
land
Scot

Westbury'
W
estbury'
benchmach
machine
bench
ine
parts.
kitofofparts.
kit

14
14 xx 66

6650,
50 . 11
2 0. , 18
50.
1120
1850,
50
31
3150

22MT
M Tp1
1l~
plus

M
Myforn
yford ththread
read

Unmachined castings
Un-machined
castings
only
onlysupplied
supplied
Head
ivels.
Head sw
swivels.

Model
Fngineering
M
ode l !'ngin
eering
SStlrvicel;,
ervices .
6 . Ken
Kennel
Vale,
6.
net Vale,
Brockwcll,
Broc
kwel l.
ChestertiFlld.
Ches
lJou1ie lrt.

'Dare
W estbury'
' Do
ra Wp.
~tb llry
bench m
machine
bench
ach ine
kit uf
of parts
parts
kit
Westbury
Dore
Do
re W
est bury
Mk.11l
Mk.l
bench machi
machine
bench
ne
kit of
of parts.
parts.
kit

16
16 xx 55~~

334~,90,
4~ .90 . 188
188
304
. 7790.
9 0 . 16
50
304,
1650

22M
l pl uss
MTplu
M
y fo rd thread
Myford
thread

Now
Now superseded
superseded
by
11
Mk.11
by Mk.

16
t
16 xx 55t
(20
(20 xx 66
option)
op
tio n ]

3322- 18
80
1880

22MTn
M T plus
lus
M
y ford thread
Myford
thread

Comp
lete kikitt o01
f parts.
pans.
Complete
AAll
ll machining
ne
machining do
done
that
ul d be
ifficu lt
that wo
would
be ddifficult
in
me w
o rk shop.
in ho
home
workshop.
Head
ive ls.
Head sw
swivels.

22MTplus
M T plus
M
yford thread
Myford
th read

Rigid
Rigid head.
head.

2
T p lu~
2M
MTplus

Rigid
Rigid head
head..

Tew M
Machinery
I td.
Tew
aChin ery ltd
Manor
Works
M
an o r W
o rks
Church SI.
SI.
Church
Coggcmhoc,
Cogg
cnh o c,
Nonh;Jmrton.
Northampton.
N. Mule
Mole &
& Cu.
Co. Ltd.
Ltd .
N.
5 . Tulp
Tolpits
alltl.
5.
il s II line.
WilI!md
HHrlS.
WH
l t",d . HHrtS.

'Rodney'
'Rodney'
ent.
aattachm
tta chm ent.
plus'
''Rodney
Rodney plus'
floor rnachinc.
machine.
floor
'Amolco'
'Amolco

Myford
For My/o
rd Dri
ven from
For
Driven
from
M
L7 anrt
Ml7
and
lathe
in dl e
lathe sp
spindle
57
7 lat
hes.
S77
lathes.
32
0, 450,
0,
15 xx 4
4-!15
320,
450, 61
61O,
8850,
50.1040,1
490,
1040, 1490,
750
22190,
19 0 . 22750

Oench m
miller.
Oench
iller.

Fo
Forr Myfurd
Myloru
& Ao
xfor dd
Hoxlor
tat
hes.
lilthes.
15 xx 66
15

Mutur
riv e.
Motor ddrive.
44 speeds,
speeds, 325
325
to 16
00
1600
325 -11600
600

Mllchine
M ll c h in e or
attachment
atta ch m en t

sizt!
T able size
Table

c<lIachml:!lll.
i:t1l8
<:l lII Ulfl l.

M
yf o rd th
read
Myford
lhread
22MT
MT pl
us
plus
Myfurd
Myloru thread
thread

Rigid
Rigid head
head..

2
M Tpi
ll s
2MT
plus
M
yf or d tthread
hread
Myford

Rigid
d.
Rigid hea
head.

spe eds
Sp indle speed8
Spindle

no se
Spindle n08e

Comments
Comments

1I ABI
ABI F.
F1
1 (continued)
(continued)
Milk!!
or lIupplier
Ma klllH
supp lter
Cllio
Cllio lllt M
M Achine
nc:hlne
Equipment.
F.'1,Jipm ent.
U.l.C
U.LC. HOtlHH,
HnllHH,
Vic\orlfl
ViClu ,iH Rd
Hrl,,
LOI1lJoll
0 6NY
London ,. NW
NW 110
6NY

'Mentor'
' M ento r
mtlchinp.
rtlHch il1p.
Bench
B.1nch and
an d
floor.
f loo r.
F02
FS2 Maxim
M axim at
at
attachrntlrH
attach me nt ~1r
nr
floor
floor machine
machine

x{
20t xi

3 50 ,,640
7 80 .
350
640,. 780,
14 50
1450

2MT
2MT

Swive ll ing head.


head.
Swivelling

2 4 t xx 66
24t

120-2000
120-2000
(six)
(six)

2 MT
2MT

Swivelli ng head
haad
Swivelling

Scnl
Scot Urquhilrt
Urquhart Ltd
Ltd.,..
317.
3iJ , Earlsfitlltl
3 17. 33 //:~,1
Earl sfield Rd.,
Rn ..
Earlsfitlld.
Earl sfie ld .
DO
Lonnon
l ondo n SW18
SW18 3300

'Astra
'A str a''
bench
bench ann
anrt
floor
floor
machines
Il1sch in()l';
Hor.
Hor. with
with ven.
v ert .

13 xx 44~
13
~

62 0 .90 0 .
620.900.
12 0 0 . 1850
18 50
1200,

2MTT
2M

M o torised
sed head.
head .
Motori

ht!8d.
head.

N
(J1

Twill
T wi ll 1:r19.
en!'!.Co.
Co.
Ci!)(lOnWay,
eelxton Way.
Holywclllnd
Est .
Ho ly we ll i nd . Est.
Watford,
Harts.
W atf or u. Herts.

Twin'
'Twin '
bench
bench machine
machine
and
and floor
floor
machine.
machine.

20 xx 66
20

52 0 . seo.
520,960.
165 0 .2
8 80
1650.
2880

2 M T plus
plus
2MT
M yf or d threa
thread
Myford
d

head .
Rigid head.
Rigid

20 xx 66
20

3 80, 640.
380,640,
10 0 . 19
1900.
00.
11100,
31 0 0
3100

2MT plus
2MTplus
thread
M yford
rd thread
Myfo

Swive l head.
head .
Swivel

Tom
, Ltd
Ltd ,.,
To m S(lnior
Senior.
Atlas
A tl asWorks
W or ks.
Hightown
Heights.
Hig hto wn Heights,
Liversedge,
Liversedg e.
West
W estYorks
Yor ks.

'Senior
'Seni o rtype
type E'E'
floor
lIoor machine.
m achine.

25 xx 4t
4t
25

480. 950,
50 .
480,9
16 4 0, 2 7 6 0
1640,2760

2MT
2MT

Swivel head
head
Swivel

CHA
PT ER 22
CHAPTER

Milling Flat Surfaces

Surfaces
Of
al-w o rking operations
Of all
all m
met
etal-working
operations the
the
production
aces is
production of
of true
true flat
flat surf
urfaces
is perhaps
perhaps
one of
st di
fficult ifIf rel
iance has
of the mo
most
difficult
reliance
has to
to
oo ls
be placed on
on han dd ttoo
ls and
and ha
ha nd
nd
methods. for
jus t abo
ut com
for it depends
depend Just
about
com pl et
ely
ete
ly on
on the persona l sk
skii ll ooff the
workm
an. But a poi nt offse
workman.
offsett from the
the
spi
le c en
t re of
rt ica l mill
ing
spi nd
ndle
entre
of a ve
vertica
milling
machine
m achine must when rotated
ro tated describe a
fla t plane in
i space if there is no axia l
movement. Therefore
Therefore.. provided the
the
le. an
spind le is truly square to
t the tab
table.
t ool must generate a flat
offset cuttin g tool
w ork- piece attached
att ached to the
surface o n a worktabl e. Model engineering , iust
just th e same as
table.
th e producproduc
fullll size eng ineering. demands the
fu
tion of a great many flat surfaces. so th
the
of the machine to perform this
th is task
ability of
in a simple
simple way,
way, without
without expensive
in
tooling,, is
is extremely
extremely im
important
to the
the
tooling
portan t to
home worker.
work er.
home

Fig.
Fig. 13
13 Senior
Seniorm8chine
machine

26
26

FlYC UTTERS
FlYCUTTEAS
The ccheapest
tool for
for the
the purpose
purpose is
is the
th e
The
eapest tool
flycutter. usual'"
usua ltv consisting
consisting of
of aa small
small
flycutter.
toolbit
set in
in some
some kind
kind of
of holder.
holder. There
There
oolbit set
are commercially
co mmercially made
made holders
ho lders available.
avai lable.
are
but 'itt is
is quite
quite easy
easy to
to make
make satisfactory
satisfactory
but
holders at
at home.
home. and
and they
they serve
serve just
jus t aas
holders
well Three
Three home-made
ho me- made flycutters
flycutters are
are
well

shown
shown in
in Fig.
Fig. 14.
14. Each
Each is
is jus
Justt aa Morse
Morse
tape
ith an
taperr arbo
arborr w
with
an enlarged
enlarged head
hea having
having
aa sla
nti ng hole
ille d in
er
slanting
hole dr
drilled
in itit to
to take
take aa cutt
cutter
bit
h aa screw
bit (t
(t inin.. inin these
these samples)
samples) wit
with
screw to
to
iameters are
t
lock
ace. The
lock itit in
in pl
place.
The head
head ddiameters
are 11-k
in..
e face
in .. q
1}. in.
in. and
and 2t
2t in.
in. so
so th
the
face ss that
that can
can
bbe
e mac
hin ed at
machined
at one
one pass
pass are
are roughly
ro ughly tin.
tin .
to
e. They
ere
to 1t inin.. wider
wider in
in each
each cas
case.
They w
were
m
ade by
ring through
made
by bo
boring
through short
short pieces
pieces of
of
st
eel of
steel
of these
these sizes
sizes to
to suit
suit th
thee parallel
parallel
parts
of Morse
M or se taper
taper arbor
s. It
parts of
arbors.
It is
is not
not
pe rhap s wid
ely enough
enough known
that
perhaps
widely
known th
at tool
tool
merch ants can,
can. if
if th
th ey
ey will
will ., su
supply
M orse
merchants
pply Morse
taper arbors
arbors of
of this
this kind,
ki nd. which
w hich are
are a
a stock
st ock
taper
pr oduct of
of the
the large
large drill
dri ll makers.
m akers. Thi
This
product
s
m et hod of
of fabricating
fabricating flycutters
flycutt ers by
by usin
using a
a
method
ready made
made arbor
arbor with
wi th aa head
head Loctited
Loct ited on
on
ready
saves aa good
good deal
deal of
of time
time and
and some
heavy
saves
om e heavy
st eel. The
The effectiveness
effectiveness of
of tools
to ols made
made in
in
steel.
this way
way is
is beyond
beyond question.
question . Fig.
Fig. 115
this
5
shows aa brack
bracket
et cllamped
amp ed against
aga inst aa larg
large
shows
e
anglepl ate and
and being
being m
milled
with one.
on e.
angleplate
illed with
Fig. 16
16 shows
shows one
one working
workin g on
on aa steel
steel
Fig.
connecti ng rod
rod which
which has
has to
to be
be red
reduced
uced
connecting
from aa circular
circular section
section at
at each
each end.
end. The
The
from
rod is
is about
about 99 in.
in. long.
lon g. so
so itit is
is held
held in
in two
tw o
rod
vices
at
the
same
time.
and
each
end
is
vices at the same time, and each end is
down to
t o fin
finished
ished size
size before
b efore itit isis
taken down
taken
tumed over.
over. Packings
Packings are
are used,
used . different
diffe rent
turned
at each
each end
end to
to ensure
ensure the
the finished
finished-surface
surface
at
jaws,
to
avoid
cutting
is
above
the
vice
is above the vice jaws. to avoid cutting

27
27

of three flycutters
flycullers
Fig. ' 4 Set of

into
these
packings
ensure
the
int
o them , and the
se pa
ck ings en
sure the
rod
right
attitude
ing
ro
d is at tthe
he ri
gh t att
itu de fo r keep in
g t he
mill led surf
surfaces
para
to the ax
axis
aces pa
ra lllel
le l to
is ,.
mi

Owning
Ow
ning
tthought
ho ugh t
soon
as so
on

Flycu((ing
bracket
Fig. 15
'5 Fly
cu tt ing a brack
et

28

two
vices
alike
may
tw
o vi
ces ali
ke m
ay at fifirst
rst
see m somet
something
luxury,
see
hi ng of a luxu
ry , bu t
long
articles
have to
to be deal
dealtt
as lon
g art
icles have

Fig
Fig.. 16
16 Flycutting connecting rod
rod ends

with the
e at once apparen
t.
the benefit
benefitss ar
are
apparent.
Ano
t her flycutting
flyc u ttin g operation is shown
Another
in Fig . 17 wh
ere a steel ba
ing
where
barr is be
being

reduced t o a ttapered
apered sec
tio n tto
o cu
section
cutt up into
into
wedge
cks for
nnec t in g ro
ds or
wedge blo
blocks
for co
connecting
rods
of the
e pr
evio us picture. Thes
e wedge
type in th
the
previous
These

Fig.
Fig. 17 Flycutting tapered bar
bar material

29

Fig. 19 Facemill
Facem ill

Fig. 18 Fl
ycu tt ing cylinder soleplate
Flycucting

off to th
thee same projection.
ground off
pro jec tio n. and
sharpened to a diameter of
of approx. 2* in.
shown mill
milling
the
off
In Fig. 2 0 it is shown
ing th
e face o
half-flywheel
model
a half
-flyw hee l iro n cast ing for a mo
del

2t

bloc
ks are needed for adjusting
blocks
adjus ing the
beari ngs in the rod ends
ngular
ends.. The
Th e rec
recttaangular
sect
io n bar is held in
ng
section
In a vice on a tilti
tiltin
ang le-p
late whi
ch has b
een set att 6
which
been
le-plate
de
grees to
thee mil ler
le r with a
degrees
t o th e table
t able of th
St
ar rett com bin
ro trac to r. Th
Starrett
bi n atio
ati o n p
protractor.
Th e
ta
pe red form w
wilil l be seen on th
thee end of
of
tapered
tthe
he co
m p l e t ed piec
e llyi
y inn g on
ompleted
piece
on th
th e
anglep
lat e.. This is an easy w
ay of getti
ng
way
getting
angl eplate
a speci
al section which cannot be bo
ug ht,
special
bough
t,
and wh
whiich
ch would,
woul , to
to say
say the
th least.
leas t. be
tediou
to make by filing.
filing.
tediouss to
er hol
ders do
w
Th ese
ese flycutt
flycutter
holders
do not allo
allow
m
uch adjust
meent
nt of the radius off the
much
adjustm
cutte
it h some
kes ooff bo
ring
cutte r bit,
bit. but w
with
some ma
makes
boring
head there
meent.
nt . For
lott of
of adjust
adjustm
Fo r
there is quite
quite a lo
exam
ple the
rmits of
example
the Dare boring head
head pe
permits
of
n, dia
m . ba r at any
usi
tt er in a f
usi ng a cu
cutt
i iin.
diam
in.,
ingg th
e
rad
ius up to
radius
to
In .. and
and by
by sett
settin
the
saddle in
or out
out on the
the slide
slide body
body the
the
in or
radius
unts to
radius can be
be adjusted
adjusted by
by fine
fin e amo
amounts
to
suit any
b w
ithin the range. Fig. 18
any jo
job
within
18
shows
ring head
shows an
an old
old type,
type . pre-wa
pre-warr bo
boring
head

2t
2t

30
30

be
ing used to face a cy
linde r sole-p
late fo
being
cylinde
sole- plate
forr
a slide valve
va lve engine mode
modell of 2~ in.
in. stroke.
stroke.

2t

ing is suppor
su ppor-
stationary
st ationary engi ne. The cast
casting
of fifixture,
xture.
plate typ
typee of
ted by a spec ial angle plate
th e patte
pa tt ern
wh
ich w
was
made
rn for w
hich
as m
ade in an
hour.
opera
ti on
th e ope
ration
ho
ur. W ithout this fixture the

Fig. 20 Milling flywhee l joint face

FACE MILLS
Of cou rse, mu
lt i-cuttting-edge
ing-edge face mi
lls
multi-cul
mills
perm
hinin
g a surface
na
perm it mac
machi
ning
su rface quicke
quickerr tha
than
singl
e point t ool
single
ool can
ca n do,
do. and with less
less
snat
ch and
m mercia lly
snatch
and jerki ng,
ng. but
bu t co
commercially
m
ade they are very expens
ive ,. and in the
made
expensive
the
hom
e workshop
e greate
home
workshop th
the
greaterr productivity is
no
uch conseq uence.
nott usuall y of
of m
much
uence. Never
Neverthel
ess, for anybod
y w ill ing
theless,
anybody
ing to spend
spend the
the
tim
e needed th
ey can be made in the
ti me
they
the
ho
me w
orkshop , w
ts
home
workshop.
wiith
th several cutte
cutterr bi
bits
mounted in oone
ne m ild
ild steel
steel body
body.. Fig. 19
19
show
s a face m
ill of
his kind
shows
mill
of tthi
kind ,. which
which was
m ade
y to screw on the spind le
ad e originall
originally
le of
of
a M
yf ord lat
Myford
lathe to
to do
do some repetitive
mi
llin
g of
mill
ing
of a fa irly
irl y heavy
heavy nature
nature., now
now no
no
ll a good
longe
longerr required,
required . but
but itit is
is sti
still
general
rpose too
general pu
purpose
to l.I. It
It has
has 12
12 tool bits
bits :l
in. di
am .. set
diam
set into
into flat
fla t bottomed
bottomed holes,
holes, all
all

31

Fig . 21
2 ' Millmg
Milling crosshea
crosshead
slide
Fig.
d slide

wo u ld be
so me
w ha t diffic u lt. If th
wou.ld
be so
m ewhat
diffic ult. If th
par
alle l passes w itith
h an
uc h
paralle
an end
end mi
mi llll m
much
cas
ting was
w as held
the t able the
ca~tlng
held in
in a
a vice
vice on
on the table the
th
an
the
face requ
ired
.
Apar
narrower
narrowe
r
tha
n
t
he
requ
ired. Apartt
point
a long way fro m
pOint of
of cutting
cutti ng would
would be
be a lon g way from
fro
m taki
ng mor
e time
th
an aa too
ith aa
fr~m
taking
more
ime
than
too ll w
with
th
e holding
ho ld ing point.
vem en t o f th e
the
point, and
and mo
movem ent of th e
wid
e sweep.
e ridges te
nd to
be
Wide
sweep , m inut
inute
tend
to be left
left
casting
o f cu tti ng
casting under
under the
the pressu
pressu re
re o f utting
w
here the passes overlap.
and
these
m
ay
where
overlap
,
and
these
may
wou
ld be
prevent.
Vibra
tio
n
would
be no
nott easy
easy to
to preve nt. Vibratio n
have
removed
lat
er by
filin
g
have. to
to be
be
remove
d
later
by fil ing or
or
and
ter w
ou ld be
likely. It very
and chat
chatter
would
be more
more likely. It very
scrapin
g.. So
w
hile this
meth
od is
scraping
So
while
this
method
is feasible
feasible
ofte
n happens
only wa y to ge t a
oftr:m
happens that
that the
the only way to ge t a
the flyc
the
utter
ring head
tte r
flycu
tter or
or bo
boring
head is
is be
better
satis
fac cto~
to ry jo
b is
som e equip
satlsfa
job
is to
to make
make some equipw
he re the
re is
wher
t~ere
is room
room to
to use
use it,
it, and
and the
the
ment
specia
lly
for
it.
This
is
no
t
usuall
y
ment specia lly fo r it. This is not usu lIy
cutter
ill ss and
cut~er bits
bits are
are cheape
cheaperr than
than endm
endmill
and
wasteful.
especia
ll
y
jf
a
d
uplic
ate
co
m
po
wast~f ul , especia lly if a duplica t e compo easily
he too
l.
easily sharpened
sh arpened like
like any
any lat
lathe
tool.
nent
red., bu
t t he equipme nt is
nen t is
ISever
ever requi
require
but
the equ ipment is
However.
example
of
work
wh
ere aa
Howeve r. an
an
example
of
work
where
usually
some o ther
usually found
found adaptable
adaptab le for
for some other sma
smallll Cutte
rr and
successive
pas
ses mus
cutte
and
success
ive
passes
mustt
job
al cutti ng by 'knife
job later.
later: Doing
DOing met
metal
cutting by 'knife - be
used
is
shown
in
Fig.
221
1 wwhere
here aa flat
be
used
is
shown
in
Fig.
flat
and-fork'
Soon lead to
a~d-fork method
methodss can
can soon lea
to bedplat
de for
e crosshead
bedplatee sli
slide
for th
the
cross head on
on aa
disaste
r.. The
other
half of the w heel
disaster
The
other
half of t he
.
h ee I mo
.
model
de l sta
t ion ary
ne isis be
ing m
illed.
station
ary engi
engine
being
milled.
cast
ing. " wit
h th e cast- in teeth forw the
cast~ng
Wlt~ the cas t-i n teeth for th e
The
ce being
The surfa
surface
being cut
cut isis inin aa recess
recess tin.
i- in.
barring
'rack',
can
be
seen
in
the
bo
tt
om
barnng rack , can be seen in the bottom deep
t be
lt wwith
it h
deep and
and the
the Corners
corners canno
cannot
be dea
dealt
half
of
th
e
picture.
The
w
heel
is
9f
in.
h~lf of the picture . The whee l is 9 1 in
by
ol l cutting
full
Width.
as
the
by a.a totoo
cutting the
the
full
width,
diamete
r
and
has
96
teet
h.
as
the
diamete r and has 96 teeth.
4'
ld be
e ththe
e
radius
radiUS left
left wou
would
be too
too great.
great. Not
Note
some
flat
surfaces
can
be.
and
. Broad
Broad flat surfaces can be , and some- stop
r bo
ththe
e table.
Accura
tely
stop ba
bar
~olted
l ted to
to
table.
Accurat
titme
s
have
to
be,
produ
ced
by
Success
ive
ely
Imes have to be ,pro d uced by success
ive squared
ithththe
bl e ititprovides
squaredwwi
the tatable
providesnot
notonly
only

32
32

corre
ct tlocation
correc
locationfor
for the
the casting
casti ng(which
(wh ichwas
was
fol
lowed
e
others) but
but also
also insuranc
insurance
follo
w ed by
by others)
agai
nst slipping
against
slipp ing, .
InIn the
the full
fu ll sized
sized engines
engi nes these
these slides
slides
we
werere always
always planed
planed,, and
and every
every engineeng ine
building
build ing shop
shop had
had planers
planers for
for this
thi s kind
ki nd of
of
wo
work.
rk. In
In the
the one
one where
wh ere II worked
w ork ed there
there
were
we re several
seve ral of
of differen
diHere ntt sizes.
sizes. and
and the
the
largest.
built by
by Joshua
Joshua Bucklon
Buckt on of
of Leeds,
Leeds.
arqest, built
could
auld plane
plane any
any casting
cast ing up
up to
to 20
20 ft.
ft. long
long.,
12
wide and
and 12
12 ft.
ft. high.
high . ItIt was
w as said
said at
at
12 ft.
ft. wide
tha
re ,.
thatt time
time to
to be
be the
the largest
largest in
in Yorkshi
Yorksh ire
and
y itit often
and certainl
ce rtainly
often did
did castings
castings for
for other
o ther
irm s. Cutting
bot h direcdirec
firms.
Cutti ng could
could be
be done
done in
in both
tio
tions
ns of
of the
the table
tab le travel
travel at
at equal
equal speeds
speeds,. or
or
in
in one
one directio
directionn with
with aa quick
qui ck return
return the
the
oth
er way.
heads ha
o ther
wa y. Each
Each of
of the
the four
four tool
too lheads
had
power
ndent of table
pow er operatio
operat ionn indepe
independent
tab le
movem
ent , so
mo ve ment,
so that
that cross-p lanin g cou ld
bE'
be done
done through
through bearing
bearing recesse
recessess,. etc.
etc.
One
hawss th
is operatio
n
One of
of the
the pictures
pictures show
this
operation
on
on a
a model
model being
be ing done
do ne by m illing
ill ing. Each

head could also be swivelle d so that


head co uld also be swive lled so t hat
angular faces could be planed also.
ang ula r faces could be planed also .
Afte r the planing of crosshe ad slides
After the planing of crosshead slides
they were tackled by th e fitter and
they we re tackled by the fillers and
scraped to a portable surface plate . This
scraped to a portable surf ace plate. Thi s
was coated sparingl y with a mixture of
was coa ted sparing ly with a mixture of
lamp black and oil . slid to and fro on the
lam p black and oil. slid to and fro on the
slide, lifted off, and then all the black
slide . li ft ed off. and then all the black
marks scraped away . The surface plate
marks scraped away. The surfa ce plate
was then put on again and a fresh lot of
w as then put on aga in and a fresh lot of
marks made , which in turn were scraped
marks mad e. w hich in turn w ere scraped
away. This work went on for many hours,
away. This work went on for many hours,
indeed on a big slide two men could
indeed on a big slide tw o m en cou ld
spend two or three ays. For such work
spend two or th ree days. For such work
the surface plate would be so large th at
the surface plate wo uld be so large th at
twO men could not lift it without the use
two men cou ld not lift it wit hou t the use
of the shop crane . Eventua lly after a long
of the shop crane. Even tuall y afte r a lon g
time the fini sh obta i ned would be
t ime t he fi nish obta ined wou ld b e
regarde d as accepta ble. It then consiste d
rega rded as acce ptab le. It then consisted
of a very large n Im er of extreme ly
o f a very large num ber of extre me ly
shallow depress ions betwee n the marks,
shal low depressions bet w een the marks .
and each of th ese proved to e an oil
and each of these proved
to be an oi l

Fig. 22 Milling bearing jaws in bedplate


Fig . 22 Milling bearing
j aw s in bedp la te

33
33

pocket. When the engine was


was eventually
putt to work, with the
the cross-head having
pu
hav ing
treatment, the resu
result
was that
lt was
had similar treatment.
the crossthe
cross - head ran to and fro on a film of
lubricant
wearr to a very
lubr
ican t which reduced wea
amount.
mills
small amou
nt. Engines in textile m
ills
would run 60 years and at the end you
would find
find the scraper marks still there
there..
was continuously renewed by
The
T
he oil was
brass
brass combs attached to the crosshead
which picked up oil from a well at each
engine
ru nning night
end of the slide . An eng
ine running
day, as many of
of them did
did.. with a
and day.

of about 80 r.p.m. would make


make
speed of
approx. 3600 million cross-head strokes
Nott a bad performance?
in that time! No
When flat surfaces have to be produced
right
angles
at rig
ht ang
les to the table
table it is necessary
of an endm ill
ill.. Th
This
the side of
to use the
is may be
quite unavoidable on some components,
components.
such
engine
suc
h as the model eng
ine bedplate shown
in Fig. 22 . There is not much choice about
for the crankshaft
milling out the jaws for
which
bearings. This
This is an operation wh
bearings.
ich the
the power drive
big planer used to do with the
heads of the cross
cross-rail.
on the heads
-rail.

CHAPTER
CH
A PT ER 3

Sitting and Cutting


Slitting
It is common practice to des
design
machinery
ign mac
hinery
sp litt bosses w
v-:hich
components with spli
hich can
be contracted with a screw for tightening
purposes. The slitting can be do
ne with
?one
wit~ a
hacksaw. bu
butt if done in unskilful fashion
completed .
will not look good when completed
Slitting saws and many other disc
disc type
t~pe
cutters
readily
cu
tters can be readi
ly used on the vertical
millerr by mounting tthem
Morse
mille
hem on a Mo
rse taper
for the
arbor having a pa
rallel portio
parallel
portionn for

cutter. and a nut to secure itit.. Its


Its a good
good
cutter,
pair of
of flats on
on the arbo
arborr to
thing to put a pair
hold it by when turning the
the nut. Fig.
Fig. 23
23
saw in use cutti
cutting
shows a slitting saw
ng
of the boss of one of
of the
through one side of
parts of the Quorn grinder. On that
t hat
several components
machine there are several
with
w ith this feature, so time will be saved if
cut th
through
they are all collected
col lected and cut
rough
while the saw
saw and vice
vice are in position.

of casting
Fig. 23 Slitting boss of

34
34

35

M any other
o th er jobs
jo bs of
of similar
simila r nature
nature will
w il l
Many
co me to
to mind,
m ind, such
suc h as
as engine
engi ne eccentric
eccent ri c
come
sheaves,, and
and especially
especia ll y eccentric
ecc ent ric straps
straps ,.
sh~aves
wh ich can
can be
be cast
cast in
in one
one piece
pi ece and
and then
the n
which
two surfaces
surfaces that
that
cut through
thr oug h,, leaving
leavi ng two
cut
with aa file
fi le to
to remove
rem ov e
need only
only aa touch
to uch with
need

burrs to
to enable
enable them
th em at
at once
on ce to
to be
be bolted
bolted
burrs
together. Not
Not only
on ly are
are castings
castings involved
inv olved
together.
but also
also parts
parts made
ma de from
from bar
bar materia
material.
but
l.
Ma rin e type
type connecting
connecting rod
rod ends
ends are
are an
an
Manne
method can
can also
also be
be
example. and
and this
this method
example,
used for
for producing
producing bearings
bearings in
in halves,
halves.
used

CHA
PTER
CHAPT
ER 4

Keyway Cutting
Cutting

Keys
Keys and keyways are
are a very
v ery common
co m mo n
fea
ture of machinery
feature
machi nery and naturally of
models
mod els too
too.. The
Th e common
comm on round-ended
ro und-e nded
kflyway
keyw ay.. for a 'feather'
'feather' key,
key . is easily
produced on a parallel shaft
sha ft by holding
hol di ng the
sha
ft in the vice and using a small
ill ,
shaft
sma ll endm
end mill
-flute
'slot-drill'
showss the
or two
two -f
lute 'slot
-drill'.. Fig.
Fig . 24
24 show
for this ope
operation
setup
set
up for
ratio n..
Various parts of
of car and motor cycl
cyclee

engines,
machiinery
nery
engi nes. gearboxes
gearboxes,, and other mach
components
compone nts in the past have had wheels
whee ls
mounted
mount ed on
on tapered
tapered shafts
shafts with
wi th the
the
keyways
following
owin g the
th e slope of
o f the
th e taper.
taper.
keyw ays foll
Modelling
M odellin g one
one of
of these
these would
w ou ld involve
involve
following
fo llo wi ng the same procedure.
proce du re. One
One way in
which
this can
is shown
shown in
in Fig.
Fig .
wh ich this
can be
be done
done is
25.
vice holdi
holding
the sha
shaft
is set
set on
on a
a
2
5. The
The vice
ng the
ft is
tilting
angleplate so
so th
that
top o
off the
the
tilting angleplate
at the
the top

Fig. 24
24 M
Milling
feather
keywayy
Fig.
illing Ieet
her keywa

36
36

37
37

Fig.
Fig. 26
2 6 Milling
M illing ic.eyway
keyway with
w ith slitting
sli tt ing saw
saw

Fig. 25
25 Milling
Millin g feather
fe at her keyway
ke yway on
on tapered
tap er ed shaft
sha l t
Fig.

es pa
ralle l w
it h the
tapered part
pa rt com
tapered
comes
parallel
w ith
the
m
achinne
e ttable.
ab le. The
he
machi
The shaft
shaft show
shownn in
in tthe
pictu
re
is
a
sim
ple
on
e
and
q
uit
e
short
picture is a simple one and quite short ..
ust ttililted
he vice
and
and could
could have
have been
been jjust
ted in
in tthe
vice
like
t
hat
of
Fig.
24
.
But
in
a
set-up
in a set-up like th at of Fi g. 24 . But aa long
long
shaft
ig ht well
ull th
e tt able
s low
er
well fo
fou
the
able at
at itits
lower
shaft m
might
which
t
he
ang
lepl
at
e
end
so
t
he
elevation
end so the elevation which t he angleplate
gi
ve s co
uld in
ase prove
ial.l.
gives
could
in such
such aa ccase
prove essent
essentia
o ls at
Sma
ll endm
ill ss are
Small
endmill
are rather
rather frail
frai l to
tool
at
sc
best
able to
best and
and liliable
to easy
easy breakage
breakage.. The
The di
disc
er is
ust and
ll ecti ion
on
ty
pe cutt
type
cutter
is more
more rob
robust
and aa co
collec
of
of these
these acquired
acquired either
either as
as the
the need
need fo
forr
crops
up
,
o
r
bo
ug
ht
cheaply
seco
nd

one
one crops up, or bought cheaply secondurse th
e ddisc
isc
hand,
o rt h while
hand, isis wworth
while.. Of
Of co
course
the
cu tte r canno t always go clos e to a
cutter cannot always go close to a
shou lder o n t he shaft , and copying a
shou lder on t he shaft, and copying a
pro
totype may
ut .
prototype
may in
in some
some cases
cases rule
rule itit oout.
For
e wwork
o rk do
ne inin tthe
he hom
e workshop
done
home
workshop
For th
the
t he re is no need to insist on the rel ativel y
there is no need to insist on the relatively
expe nsive side - and -face cutt ers, (t hose
expensive side- and-face cutters, (those
with te et h on t he f aces as w ell as th e pe ri
with teeth on the f aces a we ll as the periphery ) because the sli tting saw , w ith te eth
phery) because the slitting saw, with teeth
ite wel
o nly on t he periphery, wwill
do qu
quite
well.l.
only on the periphery, il l do
TThese
hese are
e inin aa very
reat va
riety of
are mmad
ade
very ggreat
variety
of

38
38

hicknesses , an
are always
ng on
tthicknesses,
an d
d are
always co
co mi
m ing
on
t he surp
lus m arket at low prices. One
surplus
On of
tt hese
6 m
illi ng an
hese is
is shown
shown in
in Fig.
Fig . 2
26
milling
an
ord
inary sunk
en keyw
ay, th
e shaf
ng
ordinary
sunken
keyway,
the
shaftt bei
being
held in a vice
th eno ugh
rha ng t o
vice wi
with
ugh ove
overhang
he cutt
er ttou
ou chi
ng tt he
avoid
avoid tthe
cutter
ching
he vice.
vice .

For a sta
start
he key itself
rt tthe
of ro
round
off from
fro m a piece of
und
sil ver st
steel.
diiam
ameter
silver
eel. So itits
sd
eter

can be part ed
milld
d st
stee
mi
eell orr
is sett
se ttled
led w itith
h

accu
ac
c u racy
racy
thi kness
thi ckness
comes
off
com
es off

e b
ba r.
he
ff ro
ro m
m th
t he
b right
ri ght ba
r. T
T he
needs ca refu l control, but if it
need s careful co nt ro l, but if it
ab
bit
oo tthick
it can
can be
be rubbed
rubbed
a
it tt oo
hick it

Fig. 27
27 Set
Set 01
of four
four W
Woodruff
keyway
cutters
Fig.
oodruff ke
yw ay cutters

WOODRUFF
WOODRUFF KEYS
KEYS
The
d ruff key
ew
ly used
The Woo
Woodruff
key is
is on
one
w ide
idely
used in
in
e off
ind
ust ry . This
industry.
This is
is in
in effec
effectt aa slic
slice
off aa roun
roundd
ba
r, cut
lf and
to tthe
bar,
cut in
in ha
half
and set
se t in
into
he shaft
sh aft in
in aa
ng
recess
ad e by
ia m
eter slitti
recess m
made
by aa sma
smallll ddia
meter
slitting
plified
saw
er an
saw.. Th
This
is isis rath
rather
an oversim
oversimp
lified
ll serve
h
des
cr iptio n ,, but
description
but itit wi
will
serve we
wellll enoug
enough
as
rod uct io n to
ood ru
ff key
r
to the
th e W
Wood
ruff
key fo
for
as an
an int
introduction
thos
e inin ho
me wworkshops
o rks h op s wwi it
t hou
t
those
home
hout
perien c e. Se
riou
sly . , th
e
ind
ust ria l l ex
i ndustria
experience.
Ser
iously
the
h I I tth
hink
W
ood ruff key.
Woodruff
key, wwhic
hich
ink was
was of
of
AAmmerican
ig in,
e ve
ry real
erica n or
origi
n, has
has som
some
very
rea l
e mmass
ass pr
o d u cti on
ad
v an t tag
es for
advan
ages
for ththe
production
ind
ust ry , and
me of
hes e are
industry,
and so
some
of t these
are of
of just
just as
as
rkshop
gr
eat im
po rt ance inin t the
he home
great
importance
home wo
workshop
and
he fifield
eld ofoflig
ht en
gineerin g.
andt the
light
engineering.

39

39

on a flat file
file.. ItIt needs
needs tto
cutt in
down on
o be cu
two
on a lin
line
which
diameter.
tw
o on
e w
hich is nearly a dia
me te r,
the cut edge
edge can
can readily be filed
filed to
to
but the
bring
to fina l shape
shape.. Th
The
keyway
br
ing itit to
e keyw
ay is made
like a slitting saw,
saw, of
of the
by a simple cutter like
diameter as the
the ba
barr from wh
which
same diameter
ich the
same

key is ma
made,
an int
integral
of pre
prekey
de, with an
egral shank of
some sta
standard
diameter
which
can
ferably some
nda rd di
ame t er w
hich can
in a collet on the mi
miller.
So the
the
be run true in
ller. So
of the
the keyw
keyway
profile
and its
its
shape
shap
e of
ay pro
fi le - and
width
settled by
by tthe
cutter
form.. The
w
idt h - is settled
he cu
tter form
cutting
partt of
of the
the cutter is set
set in line
line w
with
cutti
ng par
ith

TABLE II11
TABLE

G~

the
tra l liline
ne of
n th
e
the diame
diametral
of the shaft.
shaft, the
then
the
cutt
er is fed
cutter
fed in by
by a predetermined
predetermined
amount.
ng keyw
ay is deep
h to
The resulti
keyway
deep enoug
enough
resulting
give
ld , so that it cannot
give the
the key a good ho
hold,
roll over, and yet
yet the shaft
shah is no
nott unduly
wea
kened. Norm
all y th
e ttop
op ooff the key
weakened.
Normally
the
key is
just clear of
of the
the keyway in the
the wheel or
or
lever wh
ich is being secu
red , itits
s purpose
which
secured
bei
ng to provi
de eit
her tor
qu e or
being
provide
either
torque
or angular
locat
io n, and some mea
ns such
location,
means
such as a grub
screw may have to be used
nt
used to
to preve
prevent
endwise
end wise movement.
W
ood ruff cutters are not
eap ,
Woodruff
not very ch
cheap,
but they
they can easily be made
made in the home
workshop,
workshop , from silver steel.
steel. The
The process is
really
ite sim
ple. A blank
quite
simple.
blank can be turned ,
rea lly qu
mak
ing a shank to sui
nda rd
making
suitt some
some sta
standard
shank
collet , then with the sha
collet.
nk held in the
colle
e working part
collett th
the
part of the cutte
cutterr can be
turned to ititss diam
eter, and th
ickness. The
diameter,
thickness.
sides
uld be very
tly undercut
sides sho
should
very sligh
slightly
undercut by
by
setting a kni
fetool
knife
tool a little off square. Using
a sim
ple un-gea
red dividi
ng head th
simple
un-geared
dividing
thee

teet
h can be cu
rations using
teeth
cutt in
in two
two ope
operations
an ordinary
ll ; the
re is no
mill
there
no need for
for
ordinary end
end mi
angu
lar cu
tters. as tthe
he ddiagram
iagra m on
angular
cutters,
on the
the
opposit
e page
ber of
number
of
opposite
page indicates. The num
nt, but six is a co
nteeth is
Is no
nott importa
important.
con
ven
ient numb
er for
number
for small cutters
cutters.. ItIt is
venient
possible to
have
to file
file the teeth ifif you
you do
do not have
access
iding head.
to a div
dividing
head , as the spacing
access to
is not
not at
at all critical
critical., but it's a little more
difficult. Fig.
Fig, 27
27 shows a batch of
of cutters
made
made to the
the sizes in Table
Table II11 and
and Fig. 28
shows a keyway being cu
t . There seems
cut.
seems
to be no place
place where sizes of
of Woodruff
keys
rs are disp
layed for m
odel
keys and cutte
cutters
displayed
model
's H
andbook giv
es
engi
neers . Machinery
engineers.
Machinery's
Handbook
gives
sizes wh
ich are used in ind
ustry. but the
which
industry,
shee
sheerr range of sizes is itself
itself confusing,
confusing. and
and
of cou
rse tthe
he tables are libe
rally sprin
kled
course
liberally
sprinkled
wit
h to
lerances that model
lers cou
ld
with
tolerances
modellers
could
neither follow no
nt . I have therefore
norr wa
want.
picked
ich I think wi
outt a few sizes wh
which
willll
picked ou
serve
rpo se. and as we
't have
serve ou
ourr pu
purpose,
we don
don't
to provide interchange
ability in our
interchangeability
products, if anybod
yw
ant s tto
o depa
rt a bit
anybody
wants
depart

Fig. 28
ay
28 Milling Woodruff keyw
keyway

33",
F
~ "ZO
x20 B,S.F.
B.S.F. FOR
OSeORN CHUCKS.
CLARKSON &,
Be. OSBORN

WOODRUFF
KEYS
& KE.YWAYS
K E.YWAYS
KEY
S &

A
~
~
44

~6
3-'8
~

40

B
I

0
D

CUTTERS

-109
'10 9 '073 '037 '1
'100
00
0 4 '037
.6 140 '/'104
'03 7 '104
'/04
'172 '/23
'123 '053 '129
-/ 29
%2 "112
-203 "155
'155 '053 -187
~ 2 '203
-1 87
-(,
-(6
.%
16

%a

%2

G
-030
'030

'037
-045
'04 5
-060
'0 60
41

from tthese
dimensions
certainly
hese di
mensions he can certai
nly do
writing
ritin g I have not seen
so. Up to date of w
specification
Woodruff
any spec
ifica tion of W
oodruff keys in
metric
met
ric sizes.
The cutters shown
shown in Table II hav
havee
Clarksonn and
screwed sha nks to suit Clarkso
Osborn
which
collets
ich have colle
ts that
th at
Osbo
rn chucks, wh
shankk through
close on the cutter shan
throug h end
nst the
th
rust exerted by the
thrust
th e cutter agai
against
making
inside of the chuck. If you are maki
ng
for use in a Clare chuck or just to
cutters for
3-jaw
threads
use in a 3
-j aw ., these thr
eads are not
It may be noticed that
needed. It
that the cutters
cu tters

shown
wiith
th thei
theirr
sho
wn in Fig. 27 are stamped w
detai
It is a goo
good
set
size de
tai ls. It
d plan to have a set
of small stam
stamps,
in.. character
characters,
of
ps. say 1;16
1/1 6 in
s.
ropriate identity can
ca n be mar
marked
so that app
appropriate
ked
homee m
made
tools, jigs.
jigs, etc as we
wellll as
on all hom
ade tools.
components.
holes
drilled
model co
m po nents. The hol
es dr
il led in
cutters
conthese cu
tte rs were provided fo r the co
n
hardener.
venience
venien
ce of the har
dener . They were
hardened
uid-
harde
ned for me by a firm where liq uid
bathss are used fo
forr heat ing and
salt bath
que
nching tools. A sma ll hole enables
enables the
q
uenching
too l to be hung
hu ng on a w ire in the bat
baths
tool
hs
without
edges.
w
ith out da mage to cutting edg
es.

CHAPTER
CH
APTER 5

Fluting Components
other than Tools
Fluti ng of locomotive con necti ng rods and
simila
coupli ng rods is an operation very sim
ilarr
cutting
farr as tthhe
remova
keyw ay cu
tto
o keyway
tting so fa
e rem
ova l of
meta
concerned , bu
butt the le
ngth
of the
me
ta l is concerned.
leng
th of
usually greater, and th e lengt
le ngth
of
flutes is usually
h of
the
pieces de
demands
somee we
arran ge
the pieces
man ds som
w ellll arrange
holdi
ng m ethods.
ethods . One occasiona
occasionally
ho
lding
ll y sees
rods which
w hich hav
havee been fluted w ith an
endm illll by tthe
he same
sa me metho
method
endmi
d as show n in
24, giving rou nd
nded
Fig. 24.
ed end flutes
flute s like a
fea
th er keyw ay. Thi s is ent
entirely
feath
irely wrong ., no
thi s w ay. They
full size rods w ere ffluted
luted this
rou nded int
inteernal
rnal corne
corne rs
have flutes w ith rounded
bottom,
w ith
rin the bot
tom . and wi
th swept out tteer
minations
w hich
ch is done to
m
ina tio ns at the ends, whi
avoid
th e notch fatigue
fatig ue cracks w hic
hi ch
ca n
avo
id the
h can
propagate
from
sha rp co
corne
rs. Fortunately
Fort unately
propaga
te fr
om sharp
rners.
quite
produce
whichh are
itit is qui
te easy to produ
ce flutes whic
accorda
wi th full size practice.
pract ice, and
in acc
ordannce
ce with
not
miillll ing
not even necessary to have a fancy m
cutteer.
r. A simp
sim ple
bit. gro
ground
likee
cutl
le tool bit,
und rather lik
p rting
tool,l. wi
with
a partin
g too
th the corners rounded
rou nded
off, is put
pu t into a ttransverse
ransverse ho
hole
tt er
le in a cu tler
off.
mounted
miller.
bar,, and m
bar
ounted in a chuck on tthhe
e mil
ler.
Thee rod to be dealt
dea lt with
w ith is fixed edgewa ys
Th
up
es in the loco
rably
up,, as it go
goes
loco,. prefe
preferably
aga
inst a long
against
long ang leplate
leplat e,. and th e rotat
rotatiing
ng
cutle
ood ruff cutler
cutterr is fed in like a W
Woodruff
cutter
wou ld be.
en in to proper depth.
be. Wh
When
depth,
usually Quite
quite shallow, the ta
ble move
ment
table
movement
is started
started and th
thee flute is then
then made

42
42

along
t he
leaving
rogressively
p rogress
ive ly alo
ng th
e rod , leav
ing
behin the
t he swe
swept
Where
ere the cut
behind
pt end . Wh
finisshhes
t here is als
also
swe p t en
end
fini
es there
o a swep
d,,
au tomatica
Coup liling
usually
atica lllly.
y. Coup
ng rods usua
lly have
autom
flutes that are parall
parallel
ed,, and so do
el sid
sided
of Canadian
Canadia n and Am eric
ericaan
n
some ttype
ypess of
connecting
rods.
ese case
casess a single
con
nec ting rod
s. In th
these
pass with a cutle
cutterr th
thee right w
width
wiillll
idt h w
l ete t h e jo
job.
Mosstt Br
B r iitis
om p lete
b. Mo
t i sh
ccomp
otives,. on th e ot
other
hand,, had
locom otives
her hand
tapered
connecting
wi th parallel
para ll el
tape
red con
nec ting rods wi
flanges.. l.e.
i.e. tapered flutes,
flanges
flutes. For these two
tw o
passes are needed
this
passes
need ed., and th
is can be
ach ieved in a very simpl
simplee way.
achieved
w ay.
In Fig
Fig.. 2
29
9 the rod of a Canadi an engi ne
angleplate.
eachh
is seen fixed on the
th e ang
leplate. In eac
end is a screw
screw with a head tu
turned
rne d to the
th e
hole
size of the ho
le in the rod end
end.. This
Thi s is a 12
long
with
slots, as hol
holes
in. lon
g angleplate
angl eplate wi
th no slots.
es
tapped
wherever
are drilled and ta
ppe d just w
herever they
are needed for each job.
ill be many
job, It
It w
will
years before it is so perforated as to be no
further
fur
ther use. The two ho les for the locating
screws are tthhe
same dista nce from the
the
screws
e same
location
table. and they only provide the locati
on .,
the rod being secured
he cu
tting
cutting
sec ured agains
againstt tthe
forc
es by two sma
forces
smallll clamps as shown.
shown. For
rod s the set
-up is
set-up
this rod and for coupling rods
exac
tly as shown. But
exactly
But for British type
rods
rods,. the screw in the big end is made
smaller
smalier than the hole in th
thee rod by the
the
4
433

CH APTER
APT ER 6

Boring

ec ting rod
Fig. 29 Fluting locomotive conn
connecting
amou
nt of the taper (at th e hol
amount
holee centres)
cen tr s)
and for
for the first operation
operation th
thee rod
ro can
ca n be
allowed to dro
p down o
le
d rop
onn the
th screw
screw whi
while
the fifirst
rst cut is t aken. Th en for th
thee second
cut
ed up as fa
farr as th
cut the rod is lift
lifted
thee screw
w
ed.. and a
wililll let it go
go.. and re-c tarnp
lamped
seco
nd cut taken,
second
taken . The rod w ill
il l now
now finish
fi nish
w ith a taper flu
te and
flute
an two parallel
para ll I flanges.
Th
Thiiss fluti
flutinng
g is a very
very simple ope ration
rat ion..
The angleplate
ly rigid.
extremely
rigid. The
angleplate is extreme
mach
ine in the pi
cture is happily provided
machine
picture
wi
th a t in. w
ide keyw
ay alo
ng the
with
wide
keyway
along
th e centre
of the table. only
onl y t in.
in. deep
deep.. but a it in.
in .

square
opp ed int
o it. That
square ba r can be dr
dropped
into
enables fixtures to be instantly lin
ed up
lined
w it
ab le
ithh th
thee ttab
ie movemen t . in
incc lud ing
in g
dividing heads
hea s as we
wellll as ang lep lates. The
thrust of the cutte
cutterr in this example tends
to move the
ate awa
y from the bar
th e ang
an lepl
leplate
away
bar,.
but it is secured w ith tw
o good bo
lts in
two
bolts
th
e t ab
l e slot
s. no
isi b le i n tthe
he
he
able
slots.
ott vvisible
tt en
pho
tograph. It sho
photograph.
shouuld
ld not be forgo
forgotten
that locomotive rods w hich
ted at
hich are flu
fluted
all m
ust
th sides. but wi th
th a
mu
st be done on bo
both
setup li ke this the
le it
set-up
th job is so simp
si mple
w
ou ld be a pity
wou
pi ty not to have it righ t.

It is not uncom
mon to
s in
uncommon
t o have bore
bor e hole
holes
com ponents which
much
o
w hic h are m
uch too large tto
swing
arou nd in tthe
he lath
lathees tthat
hat are fou
nd
sw ing around
fo und
e workshops. But th
ere is no
in most
mo st ho m
me
there
need in m
any cases
ca ses t o resort to hand
ha nd
many
holes
where
cy
toolls.
s. even for ho
too
les w
here great accura
accuracy
IS not needed
The
verti ca l mil ler can be
is
needed.. Th
e vertical
bo rin g (w
(with
used for boring
it h a trepanning tool in a
boring
head) such th
thin
gs as firefi re-hol
e
bo
ring head)
ings
hole
doors
boiler
pla tes. bosses o
on
ca st ings
do
or s in bo
iler plates.
n castings
such
levers, and many o
other
suc
h as lon g levers.
ther
ob
jec ts. In
der tto
o rnot
ori se a shaper I
order
motorise
objects.
I n or
to bore
ore a hole throu
th rough
had to
gh t in . o f cast
mount
redu ction gearbox .,
iron tto
o mo
unt a worm reduction
to be a true round hol
hole.
and tthis
his had to
e. It
was do
done
fixiing
ng t he cast
casting
i n. long
was
ne by fix
ing (15 in.
direction
f rom
th e centre o
off the
in one direc
tion fro
m the

ng a cu
tter
ho le)
le) on the mi
milller
ler table
tabl e and usi
using
cutt
er
head . W ith the w
worm-act
uated
in a boring head.
orm- actuat
ed
dow n feed.
e bo
m spe ed of th e
feed. and th
the
bottto
tom
Dore-Wes tbu ry machine
rpm
Dare-Westbury
m achine., 3 4 t rp
m . an
exce ll en t hole wa s obtained four inch es
s
excellen
diameter.
ith ou th
these
fa ci lities th
e work
diame
ter. W ithout
ese facilities
t he
w
wouuld
ld have been sent ou
outt to some
som e
engineeri ng firm
firm.. The
ampler
e
engineering
Th e am
pler space on tthhe
lin g machines.
machi nes . com
compared
with
tables of m il ling
pared w
ith
wha
get on a lathe
lath e saddl
sa ddl e w
wiith
th
w
hatt one can get
anglep
late.. makes
m akes the
th e miller
mi ller invaluable
an angle
plate
work
thiss ki nd and of cour
course
for w
ork of thi
se by
doing
turnin
wit
h a boring
bo rin g head
do
ing externa l tu
rnin g w
ith
ca n dea l w
with
registeers
rs as we ll
one can
ith male regist
holes.
simple
operation
too;;
as hol
es. This is a simp
le op
eration too
one
turn s the cutt
cutting
tool inw
inward
on
e just turns
ing tool
ard
outwa
rd .
instead of outw
ard.

44
44

45
45

CHAPTER 7
.

t\

46

6+

=::--...,."

J
ig-Boring
Jig-Boring
term
like
ly tto
The ter
m 'j'jig-boring'
ig-boring' is lik
ely
o be
unfamiliar
many
book,
unfa
m iliar to m
any readers of this boo
k,
they may thi nk tha
and they
thatt w hateve r it
meanss it m
must
long
mean
ust be a lon
g way removed
from model engineering.
engineeri ng. This is no
nott so, for
making
plenty
ari se
in model m
aking pl
enty of operations arise
that
ca n be don
done
'jig-boring'' to adva
advanth at can
e by 'jig-boring
n
tage.
Basically
on ly means fixi ng a com
com-
t age. Basicall
y it only
ponentt to t he m
machine
tab le and th en
ponen
ach ine tab
screwss as measuring
using the table
tab le screw
spindle
over any
devices
dev ices to position
positio n the spindl
e over
thee com
componen
part of th
ponen t tha
thatt is desired
In m
many
drilli
before dr
illi ng or boring a ho le. In
any
method
ways tthis
his m
eth od is better than m arking
measuring
witt h a rule,
rule , then centre
centreout, measu
ring wi
ing on a drilli ng
pu
nch ing fo llowed by drill
punching
drilling
one thing the
workpiece
machine. For one
th e wo
rkp iece is
firml
held,, tthe
are
fi
r m lyy held
he ttab
ab l e screws are
reasonably
d measuri
ng devices,
reasonab ly goo
good
measuring
devices. and
ca n be m
made,
of any diameter
manyy ho
holes
man
les can
ade, of
needed, without losing
losing the att
attiitude
tude of
of the
needed.
table, or
or on
onee hole to another.
piece to the table,
another.
Let's take a fairly com
common
mon componen t,
Let's
eng ine .
ing of a mode
the beam cast
casting
modell bea m engine.
severall holes to
to be dri lled ,
This will have severa
usual
ly along one straight line.
usually
line, and rather
rathe;
impo
rtan
t. all these shou ld be parallel
th
import
ant,
paral lel wi
with
ne is to run
one another ifif the finished engi
engine
smoothly. There
le at each
There will be one
one ho
hole
end
end,, and a main trunnion ho le at the
middle,
for the links of
middle, plus one or more for

~--"

paralle
pum p rods,
rods, etc. The
the pa
rall ell motion, pump
casting
ca n be cl
clamped
e table
casti
ng can
am ped tto
o th
the
ta bl e qu ite
firm
ly, resting
resting on packag
pack aging
reason able
fir mly,
ing of reasonable
does
thickness
thic
kness so that a penetrati ng drill do
es
not dip in
into
to the
the ttable.
able. A t this
th is stage all
ca n be faced w ith an end m ill
ill,,
bosses can
Thee
even ifif they are at differen t levels. Th
line
he cast
casting
centre lin
e of tthe
ing should have
t h the line of
of the tab
le
been
parall ell wi
bee n set paralle
w ith
t able
movement.
Put tthe
he drill chuck in the
movem
ent . Put
spind
ith a fine point
ed du
m my dri ll
s~ i~d le.
le , w
with
poin ted
dummy
Simiilar
lar to a ce
centre
punch,
brin
sim
ntre punc
h. and br
ing this
he first
fi rst boss cen tre
tre.. The
Then
over tthe
n wind on
thee table the amou
amount
th
nt tto
o tthe
he next hole and
comes
rightt place
check if the point com
es in the righ
ove
that
overr th
at boss. W ind on again to th e next
and so on check
checking
If all
ing at each boss. If
co me
central
welll.. If
If one or mo
more
com
e cen
tra l., all is wel
re
don 't, then an allo
allowance
don't.
w ance w ill have to be
compromise.
Make
note
off
made
m
ade as a co
m prom ise. Ma
ke a not
e o
is, re-start
re-sta rt at the begin ning,
ni ng , and do
wha t it is.
another run
ru n till you are satisfied you have
another
got tthe
right
starting
got
he rig
ht starti
ng point for the best
re sults. If yo
youu happen to tu
turn
le
results.
rn the tab
ta ble
bitt ttoo
screw a bi
oo far at one of the stopping
points,
n't worry, but do
n' t turn it back a
poin ts, do
don't
don't
bit as a correc
tion , because that
th at way
correction
way you
cou
ld introd
uce an error thro
ug h back
lash
could
introduce
through
backlash
(lost mo
tion due
motion
due to slackness) in the
screw and nut. Go back
back to the very start
and com
comee at it again.
again. It's a good thing

,..38
,..,38

I~
~ ~:

-+-......-'005
-+--II--005

.L
.l

~: 7
r

.l..
.J.

/6
16

- I

steam
(lever)
Fig. 3 0 Drawing of
of stea
m hook
hoo k (l
ever)

doiing
ng an exercise o
off tthis
his kind
kin d to
w hen do
pencil
rite
have a paper and pen
cil handy and w rit
e
icrometer
dow n the m icrom
et er dial readings w hich
stopping
points. This redu
reduces
he
are th e st
opp ing points.
ces tthe
ch ances of acciden
t al erro
r. It is a method
accidental
error.
whho
o are engaged
ngaged
used by men in industry w
delicate
momentary
on delica
t e w ork w here a mom
entary
interrupti
in
t erru pti on ca n be disastrous.
disast rou s. I have
myself
for m any year
years.
Att th is
my
self used it for
s. A
stage
dri ll ing
now
stag
e drillin
g can no
w start
sta rt . Each hol e
should be centred w
with
grou nd
it h a D-bi lt groun
d to
about 1 18 degrees, foll
ow ed by the
followed
appropri
atee dri ll.
ll , thoug
though
thee larger holes
hol es
app
ro priat
h th
drill
putting
throug h first
first..
may need a pilot dr
ill put
ting through
eachh hole is finished
ith reami
reaming
As eac
fi ni shed., w ith
ng ifif
needed , move on to the next hole by the
needed,
table wi
nd, and go th
through
procedure
table
wi nd.
ro ugh the procedu
re
with th
at. too.
od all the holes
that.
too. By this
th is meth
method
oles
w
ht distance apar
t , and w ill all
wiillll be the rig
right
apart,
be pa
ralle l to
o plane
s. It
to one another in tw
two
planes.
parallel
w
ill be clear that
th at if any holes are wanted
will
which are no
ain centre line,
nott on the m
main
line , it is
a simp
le m
at t er to
t o drill these in an off-set
sim ple
matter

position
usi ng tthe
he table cross-screw to
positio
n by using
providee the amount
amo unt off th e m
main
provid
ain line.
When
holes
finished
bea m
W
hen all the ho
les are fin
ished t he beam
illed
can be turned
tu rned over and the bosses m ill
ed
oth er side.
on the other
side .
The
just
Th
e beam eng ine casting is ju
st one
example of
of ho
how
ort of ttask
ca n be
w tthis
his sort
ask can
drawing
com
pohandled. Fig. 30 is a draw
ing of a co
mpo
gearr of a model steam
nent of th e ttrip
rip gea
engine,
hich
to be
engin
e. and the holes w hic
h have to
onss w
which
would
drilled are in posi ti
tion
hich w
ou ld not be
attained
com
mon marking
markingeasily att
ained by the co
m mon
centree punching proces
process.
out and centr
s. Fig
Fig.. 31
shows one of the
th e finished
finishe d pieces w itithh one
part-made
show th
thee me thod
only part-ma
de , to show
On e inch diame
diamete
wass used
used,.
adopted. One
t err bar wa
that gives th e outside profile needed.
as that
Set true
fo ur- jjaw
ck itit was
aw chu
chuck
true in th e fourbore
d 9/ 16 in.,
n set out of
bored
in ., the
then
of true
true by
le re-bored to the same
same
.047 in
in.. and the ho
hole
setting
setting.. Next it was set well off centre to
dril
drilll the No. 38 drill
dri ll hole.
hole. Th e correc
correctt
setting was established by measurements
47
47

taken off
off the
the outside
outside surface
surface of
of the
the 11 in.
in .
taken
bright
bar.
With the
th pi
piece
sti ll held.
held , the
the
bri
ght ba
r. With
ece still
was
removed from
from tthe
lathe
nd
chuck w
chuck
as removed
he lath
e and
bolted
on the
th e m
milling
illing mach
machine
table.
bolt
ed on
ine tabl
e. AA
number 338
drill
running
truee chuc
chuck.
number
8 dr
ill ., ru
nning iin
n aa tru
k.
'picked up'
up ' th
the
existing hol
hole
and the
the
tthen
hen 'picked
e existing
e and
both screws
screws of
of the
the ta
table
dia
readings
on both
di
all readin
gs on
ble
noted
(and w
written
down!.
Th e drill
drill
were
w
ere no
ted {and
ri tten do
wn !' The
was chan
changed
for aa very
very sho
shorrtt stiff
stiff 1/
1/ 16
16 in.
in .
was
ged for
drill , the
the tta
bl e screw
screws
were ro
rotated
to
drill.
able
s were
t ated ., to
in.. hol
hole
position
under
bring
th e first
firs t 1/16
1/ 16 in
bri
ng the
e pos
it io n un
der
thatt hole
ho le then
th en dr
drill
ed . Further
Further
and tha
itit and
illed.
of th
the
screws
broug ht in
in turn
turn
rotation
rota
tio n of
e scre
ws brought
each of
of the
the oother
holes into
into pos
position
and
each
ther holes
ition and
drilling wa
was
qu ickly com
comp
leted. The
The
the drilling
the
s quickly
pleted.
huck was
was then
the n re
returned
to the
the lathe.
lathe. Th
Thee
chuck
turned to
rst boss
boss around
aro und the
the No.
No. 338
hole was
was
fifi rst
8 hole
turned and
and tthe
he piec
piece
parted off.
off, care
care bei
bei ng
ng
turned
e parted
t ken to
to leave
leave the
the shallow
sha llow boss
boss on
on the
th e
taken
parting
side. Then
Then the
the second
seco nd bos
boss
was
part
ing side.
s w
as
turn ed ., anot
another
parti ng off
off,. and
and the
the two
two
turned
her parting
co m po
pone
nt ss w
were
through
part of
of the
th e
com
nent
ere th
rough tthat
hat part
process. It
It rem
rem ained
ined only
only to
to cut
cut the
the
process.
out of
of the
the ring
ring and
and file
fi le up
up
desired piece
piece out
desired
the two
two ends
ends tto
round d profile.
profil e. By
By
the
o tthe
he rounded
a compone
nt of
of a
a rather
ra th er
th ese met
methods
these
hods a
com po nent
complicated
was
produced und
under
com pli cated shape
shape w
as produced
er

complete
con
tro l and
and exactly
exactly as
as specifi
specifie
co
mplet e co
ntrol
edd
drawing.
on the
the drawi
on
ng.
There are
are m
ma
ny oother
articles
in model
mode l
There
any
ther artic
les in
engineering
which
lend them
themselves
selves very
ery
engi
neering wh
ich lend
well11 to
to th
the
jig-boring techn
technique.
Locomow
e jig-boring
ique. Locom
o
tive boiler
boiler tube
tu be plates
plates w
with
ith aa large
large num
n mbe
tive
berr
of holes
holes can
ca n be
be do
done
this w
way.
and
of
ne this
ay. and
of the
the hol
holes
may
be J in.
in. or
or
because
some
becau
se som
e of
es m
ay be
even mo
more
in di
diameter
is vita
vitall to
to have
hav
even
re in
am eter itit is
the
met
eta
lamped
ped do
dow
avoid
th
e m
all cclam
w nn ttoo avoi
d
personal
injury,. as
as copper
copper is
is not
not one
one of
of the
the
pe
rsonal injury
kindestt of
of m
materials
for machi
machining.
But ifif
kindes
at erials for
ni ng. But
clampe
on packi
packings
the m
miller.
iller, any
any
cl
ampe dd on
ngs oon
n the
wh
ich dr
drills
are not
not avail
avai llarge holes
holes for
fo r w
large
hich
ills are
able can
ca n still
sti ll be
be dealt
dea lt w
w ith
ith by
by using
using aa
able
head . IfIf aa large
large drill
d rill is available.
ava il able , and
and
boring head.
machin
low enough
eno ugh spee
speed
the
th
e m
achinee has a low
d ttoo
w ill be
be no
no 'three
'th reeavo id chatte r.
r, there
th re w
avoid
cornered ' holes
holes ma
made
cause em
emb
rrasscornered'
de to cause
barrass
ment
hen fittin
fittin g flue
fl ue tubes
tu bes and silver
si lverm
ent w hen
so ldering th
the
m at a later st
stage.
soldering
em
age. It w ill be
found
fa m iliarity w itith
vert ical
fo
und that as fam
h th e vertical
mi ller dev
deve
lops,
examples
wi ll aris
arise
mi
elop
s. other exam
pl es wi
e
r ally
high-sou
in w hich this highsounnding
di ng but really
quitte
e simple technique
te chnique can be bo rrowed
qui
from
in ust
ustri
pract
ice , w
with
grea
ith g
re a t
fr o m ind
rialI p
ract ice.
benefits.
benefit
s.

Fig.
hook
Fig. 31
3 1 Photograph
Photograp h of
of steam
st eam hook

48
48

CHA
PT ER 8

CHAPTER
8

Profiling

Profiling
ItIt is
nentts to
is not
not unusual
unusua l for
for large compo
componen
to
have
rti ons w hich
rcular
portions
hich are ci
circu
lar arcs ,.
have po
Loco m oott i ve
m e s a r e co
m mo
ve ffrr aam
com
m on
exam
ples. w
it h cut
-aw
ays t o cl
ear bogie
with
cu t-a
ways
clear
examples,
whe
eces are m
uch too large to
wheeels.
ls. Such pi
pieces
much
to
sw
ing in th e lat
he. and wh
swing
lathe,
wh ile
il e the
th e bandsaw
ba ndsa w
ifif available
o relieve
availa ble can do a lot
lo t tto
reli eve the
tedium
ng. hack
saw ing and filing.
drilling,
hacksawing
fili ng .
ted ium of drilli
the
the miller
m ill er can do a lot
lot mor
mo ree.. Using a
trep
anniin
ng
trepann
g cutt er in a boring head it can
take aw
ay the unwa
nt ed metal in a single
away
unwanted
si n le
operation
opera
tion to finished size on any arc.
A lte
rnatively w
it h a boring
bor ing type
typ e tool it can
Al
ternatively
with
follow
th e bandsaw and ju
just
ll ow the
st avoid th e
fo
filing.
filing.
Smokebo x ca
castings
locom otives
Smokebox
sting s for locomotive
tractio n engines,
eng ines. how ever,
eve r, often
oft en have
have
and traction
circ ular arcs to
t o fit
fit the boile
boilerr she llll., and the
circular
nohelp with
wit h these.
these. But if
bandsaw can be no'help
they are
are set up
up on the
th e miller,
mi ller. the
th e radiu
radi us
they
s
can
de ter mine
sett ing of a
ca
n be
e determ
inedd by the setting
bo rin
head cu
cutt
er. and trave rse
rse across
across
ngg head
tter.
bori
wo rk provided
provided by
by the
th e downfeed
downfeed of
of the
the
the work
spindle
ndl e., eve
eve nn tho
t houg
th is
is 's
is usually
us u all y
spi
ughh th
m anual.
Th at feed
feed length
lengt h may
m ay not
no t be
be
ma
nual. That
eno ug h to
to cover
cover the
t he face
face width,
wid t h, but
but aher
aft er
enough
going as
as far
far as
as th
thee spindle
spindle wi
w illll move
move.. aa
going
second cut
cu t ca
can
be taken
taken by
by rese
resetting
th e
n be
tting the
second
head of
of the
th e machine.
mach ine .
head
In m
maac
n erryy de
de ta
t aiils
l s th
t hee same
s a me
In
c hhiine
probl ems an
arise.
Fig. 32
32 shows
shows aa pad
pad bol
bo lt
problems
se. Fig.

for
ng tw
o ma
chine parts
r.
for locki
locking
two
machine
parts togethe
together.
s of
e pad
hich are
Th
e two
The
two part
parts
of th
the
pad bolt
bolt w
which
are
being
fil ed tto
o suit
umn
su it aa rou
rou nd
nd col
colu
mn we
were
re
bei ng pro
profiled
made
m one
ece of
from
one pi
piece
of steel.
steel, and
and cut
cut
made fro
apart
e profilin
g.. A
ove can
apar afte
ahe rr th
the
profiling
A gro
groove
can be
be
seen
her e tth
hee separating
where
sepa ra ti ng cut
cu t wa
wass to
to be
be
see n w
taken.
err in
ing bar
as set
in the
the bor
boring
bar w
was
set
taken. The
The cutt
cutte
to
shed radius.
to tt he
he fini
finished
ra di us. Only
Only the
the cross-feed
cross-feed
of
of the
the tt able
abl e was
was used
used (to
(to put
put the
the cut
cu t on
on
bi
ked. The
bi tt by
by bit)
bit) th
thee other
other slide
sl ide being
being loc
locked.
The
tool
down feed.
feed. It
It is
is
too l w
w as
as tt raversed
raversed by
by the
th e down
no
sible to
the full
ountt of
nott pos
possible
to tak
takee the
full am
amoun
of
metal
remov al in
in a
job like
like
in a singl
si nglee pass
pass in
a job
metal removal
t his, but
but with
w ith successive
succe ssive cuts
cuts a
a pe
perf
job
this,
rfeecctt job
is assu
assured.
Sim
hol es for
for such
such pad
pad
is
red. Si
m ililarly
arly tthe
he holes
bol t s are
are 'part
'part holes'
ho les' and
and could
could not
not be
be
bolts
drillled
led in
in the
the second
second stage
st age to
to full
full si
size
dri
ze
w ith ou t guide
gui de bushes
bus hes for
for the
the drill.
dril l. But
But
without
drill ing undersize
under size and
and th
th en
en open
open ing
ing out
out
drilling
with aa boring
bo ring head
head gets
get s th
there
t he
with
ere jjust
ust the
same
bit less
less qu
qu ickly.
ickly.
sam
e,, aa bit
Prof iling
loco motiive
ve connecting
connec ting rods
rods
Profi
ling locomo
and coupling
coup ling rods
rods can
can be
be aa somewhat
somew hat
and
t iring operation
operation ifif one
one has
has to
t o do
do itit by
by
tiring
sawi ng and
and fil
filing.
Trying to
to do
do this
this work
w or k
sawing
ing . Trying
on the
the borin
bo ring
table of
of the
th e lathe
lathe with
wi th
on
g table
vertica l slide
slide or
or angleplate
angleplate is
is not
not very
very
vertical
happy either.
eith er. Usually
Usually the
the cross-slide
cross- slide travel
travel
happy
is much
mu ch too
too short
short to
to complete
co mp lete the
the length
length
is
i n one
one pa
p ass.
so tthhat
a t re
re-setting
- se tt i n g is
is
in
ss , so
necessary . and
and the
th e la
lath
doe s not
not have
have
necessary,
thee does

49
49

th
lities needed.
rally
thee in-feed
in-feed faci
facilities
needed . Gene
General
ly
with
nt at
hich
with aa vertical
vertical slide
slide the
the poi
point
at w
which
cutt
ing is
ing done
s of
cutting
is be
being
done at
at the
the end
ends
of aa long
long
ay fro
m th
rod
rod is aa very
very long
long w
way
from
thee place
place
where
de is
where the
the sli
slide
is secured,
secured , so
so that
that apart
apart
from
e pi
ece there
'spring'' of
of th
the
piece
there is dange
dangerr
from 'spring
of
ing ttaking
aking pla
ce with
astr ous
of slipp
sli pping
place
with dis
disastrous
result
s. Com
pare such
ith the
results.
Compare
such attempts
attempts w
with
the

setw n in
e aa pair
set-up
up sho
shown
in Fig
Fig.. 33.
33, w
w her
here
pair of
of
co
up ling rods
ith 'chucking
coupling
rods,. w
with
'chucking pieces'
pieces' ooff
extra
ta l at
ed on
metal
at each
each end
end,, are
are clamp
cl amped
on
extra me
packings
packings in
in aa safe
safe and
and rigid
rigid set-up
set-up..
Generally
e di
am et er of
ill used
Generally th
the
diameter
of end
end m
mill
used
can
uss
can be
be arrange
arrang dd to
t o give
give the
the right
righ t radi
radiu
where
hee rod jo
in s the
where the
the body
body of
of tth
joins
boss
es.
bosses.

bolt
Fig. 32 Profiling pad bolt

Fig. 33 Profiling coupling rods


rods
Fig.

50

51
51

CHAPTER 9

End-Rounding
EndRounding
fulll sized machinery
machinery,,
In model work, as in ful
su ch as crank
cra nk webs,
com ponents
many comp
on ents such
connectin g and cou pling
pl ing rods
rods., m
machine
connecting
achi ne
rou nded
ends.
links, etc. have to have rounde
d end
s.
produ ced by fili ng, and
nd th
the
These can be produced
e
of hardenerd
ha rde nerd steel
steel collars
coll ars and roller
ro llers
use of
s
guides
often
recommended
for gu
ides has oft
en been reco
m m ended
thee not-sa-good
not- sa-good
in Model Engineer t o help th
to achieve
achi eve a good
g od appe
appearance.
fil r to
file
arance. Even
with
these,
li ng dema
demands
wi
th th
ese, this kind of fifiling
nds a
wh ich many
ma ny modellers
modell rs jus
justt do not
skill wh
wi ll never
neve r acqu
acquire,
have (and wi
ire, for wa nt of
practice , if nothing
noth ing else)
else ) so for
fo r th
that
reaso n
practice,
at reason
al one
met
alon
e it is not a good m
et hod. But it is
now
also rathe
ratherr seve
severe
on
hi ch are now
re o
n fi les, w hich
quite
expensive
tools,
unli ke ly ever ttoo
qui t e expe
nsive too
ls, and unlikely
cheaper.
get che
ape r.
where
ilSo w
avail
here there
t here is a vertica
vert ica l miller ava
right
able , why
able,
w hy not
not do the job the
th e rig
ht way,
w ay. as
it wou ld be
be done in comme
com me rcia l engineereng ineer
tablee..
ing?
ing ? It means
me ans investing in a rotary
ro tary tabl
but these
th ese can
can be bought
bo ug ht in kit form as well
we ll
as
d if
us e. an
and
as complete
co mp le t e ready
read y for u
machined
mach ined and assembled by the
the hom e
worker himself. are not terribly expe
nsive.
expensive.
Presumi
ng tha
Presum ing
th att the component
com ponent has a
round ho le at one end . a plug is
is needed in
the
the table
ta ble so as
as to locate
loc at e by that
th at hole.
hol e. I
have
ll rotary
have a sma
sm all
ro tary table
table with
w ith a it W hit.
hit.
hole
ho le in the
the centre
cent re and
and have a number of
plugs
plug s of standard
sta ndard sizes
sizes to fit
fi t that.
tha t. But
Bu t
52
52

anott her t able wh


which
possesses
ano
ich I have poss
esses a
rborss
taperr centra
centrall hole and arbor
No. 2 M orse tape
for loca
locattion.
ion . It is.
is, in fact
fact.,
can be put in this for
Eng ineerin g Services Type RT3
a Model Engineering
whiich
ch does
oes not have a ttee-slotted
tab le ,
wh
ee-slo tt ed table,
sp indle screwed lik
like
yford
but has a spindle
e the M yf
ord
lathes and will accept any chucks or
facepla te s from the lathes. This ma kes it
faceplates
to turn
turn., say,
say. a cy
cylilinder
nder cover
cover and
an d
feasible to
transferr it to a rotary tab
table
li ng the
th e
transfe
le for
fo r dririllling
bolt
wi thou
thoutt losing the accur
accuracy
bo
lt hol es wi
acy of
Butt th
thaatt is not
not a featu
feature
impor
setti ng
ng., Bu
setti
re of impor
endin g operat
operations.
io ns. I have
tance for round ending
fo r a numb
number
engine
used it for
er of engi
ne cranks in
shown
the
nn er show
th e ma
manner
n in Fig. 34.
34 . Each crank
was located on the arbor but also cla
clam
m ped
was
w ith a slot plate resting
resti ng on Picador
Picado r
of these being
stepped
step ped packing
packings,, a pair
pa ir of
be ing
also under
cutterr is a
unde r the crank itself. The cutte
t inin.. end m ill cutting
itss side.
cutt ing on it
side .
In all rotary
ro tary mill
m illiing
ng of this kind
kin d where
w here
the cutter is working
work ing on
on the
the outside
outs ide of
o f the
th e
component
com ponent it is
is vitally
vit ally necessary
necessa ry to feed
the table
n from above
ta ble clockwise
cl ockwis e see
seen
abov e.. All
normal
e same
no rma l milling
m illing cutters
cu tt ers rotate
rot at e th
the
way
ide of
w ay as a twist
twist dri
dfl llll,. so wh ichever
ich ever side
the
the work the
the cutter
cutte r is touching.
touching, the work
w ork
must
the cutte
cut te r. and that
t hat means
mu st meet the
l. Otherwise
clockwise rotation
ro tation is
is essentia
essenti al.
Oth erwi se
if the
cutt er is going
goi ng the
the same way
w ay at
at th
the
the cutter
surface as
as the work it is certain
certa in to grab

Fig. 334
4 End-roun
dinq with rotary table
En d- roun~ing
hold and tha
thatt mean
meanss at least spo iled
il ed work.
work.
probab
ly a brok
en cu
tt er. and a lot
rief.
cutter.
I t of g
grief.
probably
broken
But
orki ng on an int ern al pro
file,
But if one is w
working
profil
e.
such as trimmin
g the ins
ide of th
e rim of
trimming
inside
the
of a
flywh
eel.. th en
flywheel
n th e forces are reversed
reverse and
th
ork needs rotat
ing ant
i-clockwise.
thee w
work
rotating
anti-c
lockwise.
No
w the threads of th
nd le are
Now
thee RT3 spi
spind
like th
yf ord lathes. righ
thee M
Myford
rightt hand
han , so
wh
en one is do
ing insid
ck or
when
doing
insidee work a chu
chuck
facepl ate is tight
ened
e
faceplate
tighten
d by the tthrust
hrust o
off thhe
w hen do
ing the. perhaps.
perh ap s, more
dOing
cutter. But when
no
rm al m ilillling
ing on tthe
ou ts ide of a piece.
piece,
normal
he outside
cutt er thrust
th rust te
tends
un do the
th e
the cutter
nds to undo
faceplate.
work
facep
late. and unless
un less the wo
rk is very light
cuttit ing
ng.. thi
this
w hat w ill cer
cert ainly happen.
happen.
cu
s is what
T he only satisfactory answer to thi s
drill and tap a hole
hol e throug
thro ug h
problem is to drill
th e boss
bo ss of the faceplate.
faceplat e. m ake
ake a coned
the
di mp le in the
th e t able
able spindle at the same
sam e
dimple
spot, and insert a screw with a cone
co ne po int
spot.
dimple.
No t a diffi cul
cultt matter
mat ter
that fit s the dimp
le. Not
all. But if you are going to use a chuck
chu ck
at all.
sam e table
table for the
th e same
sam e kin
kind of
of
on the same
work, then
the n make
m ake a pencil
penci l mark
m ark to show
work.
wh ere the
the dimple
dim ple is
is for
for th
the faceplate
faceplat e,. and
where

drill the chuck boss w


ell aw
ay fr
om th
is,
well
away
f rom
this.
so th
at you have tw
o positive
ly sepa
rated
two
positively
separate
that
dimp
les, each for
accessory..
dimples.
for its own accessory
I have used a 5/ 16
et grub
16 in.
in. BSF sock
ocket
screw
se. with a po
int
screw for this purpo
purpose.
point
modified (in tthe
he lathe)
ger co
ne..
lathe) tto
o a lon
longer
con
Bu
und th
dinary
as
Butt I fo
found
thee or
ordi
nary hexagon
hexago n key w
was
no t really
ent
rea lly long enough to be conveni
conve nient
with a standard
s. Myford faceplate.
st andard 7 in
ins.
faceplate .
So I cu
cutt o
off
end of th
ff th
thee shor
shortt bent en
thee key
ed tthe
he Ion
long part to an extension
exte nsio n
and fitt
fitted
made
in.. bright
brigh t mi
ld steel.
This was
was
} in
mild
steel. Thi
m
ade of 1
drilled
3/ 16 in. deep with
w it h a
dri
ll ed in the
the lathe 3/16
No . 16 d ririllll which
wh ich is about the acrossacro ss
No.
corne rs size of the
th e hexagon.
hexagon , then 7/ 116
in .
6 in.
corners
further with
w it h a No.
No. 22 drill wh ich
ic h is about
about
the across-fl
across-f lats
size. The
The two
tw o pieces were
w ere
th
ats size.
th en pressed together
togethe r in a big vice ., the
then
squared-ooff
ff en
end of the
the hexagon cutting
cutt ing its
its
squaredway down
down the
t he hole
hole in
in the
t he m ild steel.
steel. A
in.. cross pin
pin was
w as fitted. Loc
Loctit
ed in.
in,
5/32 in
ti ted
and now II have
have a Tee
Tee wrench
w renc h long enough
enou gh
reach the screw in the boss without any
to reach
difficulty. It took only
on ly five
fiv e minutes to make
m ake
is a conve
convenience
there for ever.
and is
nience there
53

CHAPTER 10

Heads
Dividing Heads

dividiing
ng
For m any products the use of a divid
absolute
Ma
ny ho
home
head is an absolut
e necessity. M
any
me
without
workers, especia lly those w
it hout any
them
engineering experience,
experienc e, rega
regard
rd th
em as
mostt myst
mysterious
devices,
bordermos
eriou s devic
es. almost border
0 cult,
with
out reall
really
ing on the occ
ing
ult, and say wi
thout
y
thinking,
'O h. I cou
could
thinki
ng, 'Oh.
ld never use one of
Wellll,, a dividing head is really no
those !'.
I'. We
with
spindle
more than a headstock w
ith a spind
le on
whi
ch the wo
work
mounted,
ith some
som e
w
hich
rk is mou
nt ed, w ith
off turn
turn ing it through po
positive
ans o
m eans
sitive
angularr amou
amounts,
angula
nts , and holding itit there
wheen
n each movement
move m ent has been made.
made .
wh
Naturally
there
dividi
Nat
urally th
ere are m any types of div
idi ng
t he years
years many de
designs
head and over the
signs
have appeared
appear d in M
Model
od el Engineer for
which
made
heads w
hich can be m
ade in the home
workshop.
eaa t dea
deall o
off qu
quite
w
o rksho p. A g r e
ite
satisfactory
with
it h a
sat
isfactory work can be done w
simple
typee shown in Fig.
Fig . 3
35
sim ple head of th e typ
5..
On the spindl
spi nd le,, provision is made for
mounting
wheel.
pringmou
nting a lathe cha nge w
heel. A spring
er wit
withh a conica
loaded plun ger
conic all poin
poi ntt drops
into th
thee gap between two
tw o teeth of tthe
he
wheel.
w heel, and then the spindle is locked by a
screw bearing
main
bearin g on a pad inside the ma
in
bearing. IItt is advisable not to rely on tthe
he
plunger
holding
spindle
against
d i ng the spi
ndl e agai
nst
plu nger hol
rotation
rot ation when screwing
scre w ing on chucks of
when
w hen fixi ng a component
co mponen t on an arbor by
mea
ns of a nut. If the spindle
me ans
spind le turns, the
t he
54

teeth
wheel
may
ba Iy
teet
h of tthe
he change w
heel m
ay be badly
da maged.
I n fac
factt w hen do ing th is sort o f
dama
ged. In
fixing I alw
always
di sengage
the
plu nger.
ays diseng
age th
e plunger,
the n ifif the
t he screw
screwpad
does
nott hol d.
d, no
pad doe
s no
done..
damage is done
selecting
suitable
change
By selec
ti ng a suit
able ch
ange w hee l it
quite
division s
possi
is pos
sibble
le to get quit
e a lot o f divisions
easily. For example a 60 toot
tooth
wh
el
very easily.
hw
heel
wiillll gi
give
4,. 5.
5, 6.
6 , 10
10,. 12
12,. 15
15,. 20 or 330
w
ve 2 ., 3 , 4
0
divisions. It w
will
8,. but a 40
40 tooth
ill no t give 8
he I w ill do so. W
When
dividin g
w heel
hen doing dividing
with
thiss kind of device it is a go
good
thing
w
ith thi
od thin
g
tto
o have a bit of chalk handy and mark the
e plunge
plu nge r
appropriate
t ooth
appropriat
e toot
h gaps w here tthhe
0 have to drop in, before
be fore starting
is go ing to
cutt
to avoi
avoid
se ttings w
wh
ich
cu
ttiing
ng,, to
d iincorrect
nco rrect settings
hic
h
woulld spoi l the w
work.
examples
wou
or k. Ma ny examp
les of
which
simple
h ad of
m achinery parts to w
hic h a sim
ple head
th is kind
ki nd can be usefull
usefully
coulld
d be
this
y applied cou
given.. Suc
Suchh ititems
crankcase
drain
given
em s as cr
ankc ase dr
ain or
which
hexagons, square
filler plugs wh
ich need hexagons.
taps,
ends on shafts, tools like ta
ps, reamers,
reamers.
para
ll ell flflats
spaanne
nne rs on ro
round
pa
ralle
at s ffo
o r sp
und
articles,
these
formed
art
icles, all th
ese can be fo
rmed so very
with
physical
easily with an end mill,
mil l, w
ith less phy
sical
effort than fil
in g,, and w
it h an accu
racy
with
accuracy
filing
w
hic h enhances
enha nces th
th e
which
thee appearance o
off the
article
arti
cl e even if dimensiona
dim ension all accuracy as
suchh is not
suc
no t important.
im port ant.
But there are examples
where
examp les w
here accuracy
is fairly important,
im po rta nt, and one
on e which
w hich could
cou ld

hardly
e at
it h hand tools is
hardly be
be don
done
at all
all w
with
shown
5. This
ber
Fig . 335.
This is one half
half mem
member
shown in Fig.
h are bei
ng cut
of a dog clutch
clutch.. The 12 teet
teeth
being
cut
with a slitting saw
hich
saw w
wh
ich passes
passes across
across
er
the
the work right on the centre line. Aft
After
each cut
cut., the
th e locking screw
scr w was
was eased
eased,.
the plung
er lifted
e w
heel turned
plunger
lifted out,
out. th
the
wheel
teeth ., and t he plunger dropped in
five teeth
aga
in. The spindle
again.
spi ndle was
was then locked and
the
th gap cu
t. Really a very
the next
next too
tooth
cu.
simple
the r ha lf
si mple procedure. Now
Now on the oother
member of
he clutc
h the teeth have to
of tthe
cl utch
to
have pa
rallel sides, and the gaps
parallel
gaps them
themselves are t aper sided. This just involves
involves
sett
ing the cu tt
er with its
se tting
tter
its bott
bott om edge
above the
re lin
e by
ckn ess
line
by half
half the
the thi
thickness
t he cent
centre
of
he teet
h left
e first
of tthe
teeth
left upstanding
upsta nding in th
the
first
half.
ng right
ha lf. T he same procedu re of
of cutti
cutting
righ t
acr
oss is fo
llow ed ., and afte
afterr six passes th e
across
followed
job is co
m plete. It is feasible.
u are
complete.
fea si ble. if yo
you
wi
willling
ling to
to t ake the trouble.
trouble, to
to make a
clutch
cl utc h w ith all tooth side s ttaapered.
pered, so that
the two
ical. If maxim
um
two halves are ident
identical.
maximu
m

stre
ng th w
as needed to
was
to transmi
transmitt a lot of
of
strength
pow
er this mig
ht have to
ower
might
to be done.
done , but
but it is
lt and
a good dea
re difficu
deall mo
more
difficult
and would
rarely be w
orth the
u are
worth
the trouble. Unless yo
you
using a we
ll-es
tablished desi
gn for wh
ich
well
-established
design
which
draw
ings are available.
drawings
available . itit is advisable to
to
layout
ing
lay ou the tooth design on
on the draw
drawing
boa
rd , prefera
bly at an en
larged
board
preferably
enla
rged scale. to
to
verify
hic h w ill
verify the thickness ooff cutte
cutterrs w
which
produce th
e desired result. They may be
the
be
the same
th halves. bu
forr bo
both
butt
same thickness fo
maybe not
nd s on the
not,. it depe
depend
the thickness
th ickness of
of
too
th selected.
d thing
tooth
selected. It
It is also a goo
good
th ing to
avoid an odd
be r of tee
th.. bec
ause
od num
number
teeth
because
the curve of th
e cutt
er w
hen going
the
cutter
when
through
o the
chewiing
ng int
into
th roug h one side may be chew
met
al whi
ch has to
act on the
which
to be left
left int
intact
metal
opposite
e the
t h. If
oppo ite side to
to mak
make
th too
to oth.
If your
yo ur
des
ign can arrange for
n number of
design
fo r an eve
even
teeth this risk w
ill be eli
m inate
d.. A
notthe
herr
will
elim
ina ted
An
poi
ntt is to
k tthat
hat th
thee desired
desi red number
poin
to chec
check
of tteeth
eeth can
y be s ecured
t h the
ca n reall
really
ecu red wi
with
dividing head you int
end to
intend
to use.
use .

Fig. 335
5 Cutt
ing teet
h in dog clutch part
Cutting
teeth

55
55

3"

-Ic

./

:0
iO
I

1.
r,J.

16

~..j)(6

I
141. )( 43

~
~

3'
;5'

%x4

t--/
~lii
t

PIN

99

, 16
...1.."
I~

n3 2.

STE.ADY
STE A DY STAND
STAND fOR
fO R
MYFOR
MYFOR00 DIV'O'G
Dlv'O'G HEAD
HEAD

M
YFOORD
RD DIVIDING
MYF
DIVIDING HEAD
HEAD
The
The Myford
Myford dividing
dividing head
head isis an
an exce
excell
lent
ipment, wwith
ith aa very
ide
lent piece
piece of
of equ
equipment,
very wwide
ndle has
range
range of
of divisions.
divisions. The
The main
main spi
spindle
has aa
60
60 tooth
tooth worm
worm wheel
wheel on
on it.
it, and
and aa single
singlestart
ric
start worm
worm meshes
meshes with
with that.
that. Concent
Concentric
with
ion for
with the
the worm
worm there
there is
is provis
provision
for
mounting
ult i- holed division
mounting aa m
multi-holed
division plate
plate
which
which remains
remains stationary
stationary and
and does
does not
not
rotate
it h the
rm . On
rotate w
with
the wo
worm.
On the
the worm
worm
spindle
spind le is
is fitted
fi tted an
an arm
arm carrying
carrying aa spring
springloaded
unger wh
int of
loaded pl
plunger
which
ich has
has aa po
point
of
paral
rs holes
parallel
lel shape
shape that
that ente
enters
ho les in
in the
the
divi
sion plat
e .. This
division
plate
This arm
arm is
is slotted
slotted and
and can
can
be
ing the
be set
set to
to such
such aa radius
radius as
as w
w ill
ill br
bring
the
plunge
e right
plungerr in th
t he
rig ht place
place for any of
of the
the
row
s that
rowss of
of ho
hole
les
that are already drilled
drill ed in the
the
plate
aving set
plate.. H
Having
set the arm.
arm, if one
one tu rns
rn s the
the
w
orm one w
hole turn and drops the
worm
whole
plunger
o the same hole
plu nger bac
bac k int
into
hol e fro m
w
hich
ted , the m
ain spi ndle
wh
ich it star
started
main
nd le w
wililll
have rot
at ed one sixt
ieth o
rotated
sixtieth
off a turn.
tu rn. But if
on
es tthe
he w
o rm and
onee m ov
oves
worm
and arm
arm fiv e
comp
let e tu rns befo
re droppin
g in,
complete
before
dropping
in. the
ma in spindle will have turned
elft h
turn ed one tw
twelfth
rn. Basically.
Basically. tthat
of a tu
turn.
hat is all
al l there is to
getting any desired number of divisions.
divisions.
gettin
Hav ing got
got the rig
right
on the
Having
ht division plate on
m any turns.
turns,
head one moves tthe
he arm sso many
necessary, a certain
certa in number
num ber of
plus if necessary.
holes extra to the comp lete turns. A chart
holes
wit h the head gives
giv es all
all the
the availavail
supplied with
co mbinat ions. In
In order
order to accomplish
accomplish
able combinations.
all divisions
divisions up
up to
to 100
100 itit is
is necessary
necessary to
to
all
have 44 plates.
plates . but
but two
two of
of th
these
ese are
are needed
needed
have
some rather
rather outlandish
out landish numbers
numbers
on ly for
for some
only
with which
whi ch few
few model
mode l engineers
engineers will
w ill ever
ever
with
have to
to deal
deal., so
so the
the two
two normal
normal plates
plates will
w ill
have
serve.
almost everything
every thing. There
There is
is one
on e
se.
ve . almost
of practical
practi cal importance
imp ortance in
in using
using aa
point of
point

Opposite, Fig.
Fig. 36
36 Drawing
Drawing of
of steady
st eady stand
stan d for
for
Opposite,
M yforddividing
dividing head
head
Myford

56
56

wworm
orm gea
red dividi
ng head
n moving
geared
dividing
head.. Whe
When
moving
from
n to
fro m one
one positio
position
to the
the next.
next .always
always turn
turn
the
y, never
k. IfIf
the worm
worm the
the same
same wa
way,
never go
go bac
back.
he rig
ht hole
. of
by
by chance
chance you
you overshoot
overshoot tthe
right
hole.
of
but
go
we
ll
course
you
have
to
t
urn
back.
course you have to turn back. but go well
bac
k. way
nd the
back.
way beyo
beyond
the hole
hole you
you want
want by
by aa
good
n come
esh. IfIf
good margin
margin,. the
then
come up
up to
to itit afr
afresh.
you
ll have
r in
you fail
fail to
to do
do this
this you
you wi
will
have an
an erro
error
in
your
ng and
-piece.
your dividi
dividing
and aa scrapped
scrapped work
work-piece.
ll see
Our
y 'backlash' wi
Our old
old enem
enemy
'back-Iash'
will
see to
to that.
that.
But
it'
s
easy
enoug
h
to
avoid
th
is
kind
But it' s easy enough to avoid th is kind of
of
disaste
r. Th
ere is
disaster.
There
is provided
provided on
on the
the head
head aa
most
po rtant
rrect co
unti ng of
most im
impo
rtant aid
aid to
to co
correct
counting
of
the
henn turning
the number
number of
of holes
holes needed
needed w
whe
turn ing
the
o brass
the worm
worm.. Tw
Two
brass blades
blades are
are fitted
fitted
around
ion
aroun the
the worm
worm shaft
shaft.. above
above the
the divis
division
plate,
ive to
pi te, and
an these
t hese can
can be
be moved
moved relat
relative
to
one
her, by
one anot
another,
by loosening
looseni ng aa screw,
screw, and
and
set
brace
e num
ber of
set to
to em
emb
race th
the
number
of holes
holes
needed.
an afte
g w
it h the
needed. Th
Than
afterr lockin
locking
with
the
screwdrive
r, they
w
screwdriver.
they make
ma ke aa mask
mask to
to sho
show
nger sho
uld be
just
just where
where the
the plu
plunger
should
be dropped
dropped
in
fter each
en t you
in.. A
After
each movem
movement
you rotate
rotate them
them
titillll one
r,
one blade
blade comes
comes aga
aga inst
in st the
the plunge
plunger,
and
and yo
youu are
are the
thenn ready
ready (afte
(afterr doi
doi ng
ng the
the
cutting
rse) fo
the next
next move.
move. In
cutting of
of cou
course)
fo rr the
In
this part
pa rt of
of the
procedure the
this
the procedure
the two
two blades
blades
move together
together as
as if
if they
t hey were
were one
one piece
piece of
of
move
met al.
metal.

STEADY STAND
STAND
STEADY
have found
found in
in using
using the
the Myford
Myford head
head
II have
that itit is
is aa convenience
convenience to
to be
be able
able to
to set
set itit
that
at lathe
lath e centre
centre height
heigh t when
when fixed
fixed on
on the
the
at
wants to
to drill
drill cylinder
cylinde r
boring table.
table. If
If one
one wants
boring
covers and
and similar
simila r work
work the
the radius
radius of
of the
th e
covers
row of
of holes
holes can
can be
be readily
readily obtained
obtain ed by
by
row
and the
th e measure
measure
the cross
cross slide
slide screw
screw and
the
men t is
is direct.
direct. So
So II have
have aa packing
packing block
block
ment
of the
the right
right thickness
thi ckness which
whi ch II can
can place
place
of
under itit for
for this
th is purpose.
purpose.
under
There isis one
one minor
minor criticism
cr it icism of
of the
th e
There
Myford head
head which
which is
is nevertheless
never theless impor
impor
Myford
tant from
from aa practical
pra ctical point
po int of
of view.
view. The
Th e
tant
holds itit to
to aa machine
machin e
single bolt
bolt which
wh ich holds
single

57
57

tab
le or
ica l slide
table
or vert
vertica
slide, etc
etc.. does
does on
on
ng way from the poi
ntt
occa
sion come a lo
long
poin
occasion
whe re cu
tt ing is being
cutting
bei ng done
done,. and
and accor
accordi
ly there
nger of
t here is da
danger
of the work being
being
di ng
ngly
spo
ilt by the
ng. To ove
rco me
spoilt
t he head slippi
slipping.
overcome
this I have made up a st
eady stand from
steady
mi
ateria l wh
ic h bol
h
milldd stee
steell bar m
materia
which
bol ts
ts on tthe
tab
le ooff the m
ill er, and clamps on the
table
miller,
the 1 in
in..
overarm ba
and has a
barr of the head. The st
stand
vertic
all t in. ba r set
at base
ve rtica
set into a flflat
ba se with
wit h
slot
o-w
ay cla mp
two
-way
mp
slo t for a table bo lt. A tw
slides oon
n thi
ther
thi s vertical
vertica l bar, and ano
anoth
er t
in. bba
arr passes
ally. A
passes through
through it horizont
horiz ntally.
Att
the
plate
p
the end
end of
of this is a twotwo-p
late clam
clamp
ripping
h provision also
ripp ing the
th e t in.
in . ba r,
r. w itith

for
for gripp ing
ing the
the 1 in.
in . bar
bar ooff the
the head. The
various clamp
s can
ved separately
clamps
can be
be mo
moved
and
rsall fifitt
tt ing.
universa
ing. The
The
and make
make a pretty unive
wh
ng is
7.
wh ole
ole thi
t hing
Is shown
shown in use in Fig. 337
sign is
Th is fitting of
of my
my de
design
is no
nott on the
the
ma
rket , but
but itit has proved so useful
usefu l to
to me
market.
that I am giv
ng of itit in
giviing
ng a working drawi
drawing
Fig. 36 and anybody who likes
li ke s can make a
unit fo r hi
msel f.
himself.

OTHER DIVIDI
NG H
EADS
DIVIDING
HEADS
Since the last edition of this
this boo k was
printed
ee new
din
g heads have
prin ted thr
three
new divi
ivid
ing
appeared on th
e market. The first.
of my
my
the
first, of

Fig.
as Versatile
ividing H
ead
Fig. 39
39 The George H. Thom
Thomas
Versat ile D
Dividing
Head

Fig. 37 Steady in use on a gea


gearr cu
cutting
operation
tt ing operation

Fig. 338
for simple dividing hea
head
8 Author 'ss design for
d

\\

58

59

own desi
gn, rep
laces that shown in
design,
replaces
in Fig
Fig..
35
g out
35,, lon
long
out of
of production after the
the maker
die
d sever
al years
died
several
years ago.
ago. It is
is essentially
similar wi
t h detail im
provem ents. ItIt has
improvements.
ha a
w ith
ta ilstoc
k for
rt ing long sle
nde r
ilstock
for suppo
supporting
slender
piece
s, and
pieces,
and a pai
pai r of
of raising blocks which
bring the cent
re height
centre
height up to
to just
just ove
overr 3 t
ow fo r rotat
ing work up
in. and tthereby
hereby all
allow
rotating
up
to
to the size of
of the 77"" diamete r Myford
face
pl ate. It is shown in
8.
faceplate.
in Fig. 338
The second typ
o re
typ e is a m uch
uch m
more
elabo ra
d vversa
e r s a tit i le
r at e a n
nd
l e appliance
de
sig ned by Mr Geo
m as,, and
designed
Geo.. T ho
homas
suppl
ied, like tthe
he first one, by N.S. &
su pplied,
& A.
Hem
ingway , 30 Links
cre,
Hemingway,
Li nks View
View ,. Half A
Acre.
Rochdal
e.. In this head a 24-ho
le divisio n
Rochdale
24-hole
pplate
late p
rov ide s for simple
provides
sim ple dividing w ith
thos
e factor
ed w ith 24.
0
those
factorss associat
associated
24. A 4
40tooth worm w heel and w or
m ca n also
orm
Iso be
engaged,
h a si
x- row dri
engaged. w it
ith
sixdrilllled
ed-- ha
ho l
division plat
e, giving
ch fin
er di
visions.
plate.
giv ing mu
much
finer
divisions.
This
This plate can be rotated by a subsidiary
worm,
hereb y permi
tting very high
worm. tthereby
permitting

nu
m bers of
numbers
of divisions to
to be obtained
obtained.. Most
peop
le will need
ake tthe
he
people
need some help to
to m
make
full
est use
s device and
of thi
th is
and the
the book by
by
fullest
use of
n
Geo
as himse
lf on its
Geo.. Thom
Thomas
himself
its constructio
construction
and
duating , Ar
gus
and use, (Dividing and Gra
Graduating.
Argus
nd tthe
he best source
Books Ltd.) will be fou
found
of
m ation.
is head is also
e
of infor
informatio
n. Th
This
also ava ilabl
ilable
with tai lstock and raising
raising blocks,
blocks. but in
normal for
m is shown in Fig. 339
9.
form
The
The third head is
i supplied also in kit
kit
form by M
odel Enginee
rin g Serv
ices . and
Model
Engi neering
Services.
was desig
ned by
designed
by Mr Ron Kibbey. It
It uses
uses
sta
ndard Myfo
rd cha
ng e whee
ls as
standard
Myford
change
wheels
division plates, but
ed lock
ing
but has a fork
forked
locking
plu
ch can
er a to
oth as
plu nge
ngerr whi
which
ca n span
spa n ov
over
tooth
we
tw een
o ttee
eeth.
wellll as drop
dro p be
betwe
en tw
two
th . Th us the
the
num
creases to
ice the
num ber of
of divi sions in
increases
to tw
twice
number of teet
h in any w
heel. In
teeth
wheel.
I n addition
it has a mount
ing for a w
hee l- pa irr to m
esh
mou nting
wheel-pai
mesh
w
ith tthe
he spindle
ar ratio
with
spind le w heel. giving a ge
gear
to add to th e basic divisions. It is not at
at
present
ided with a tailstock or
present prov
provided
or raising
rais ing
bl
ocks. Th
ith ext
ra gea
blocks.
Thee head
head., w
with
extra
gearr pair
pair in
pos
itio n,, is show
n in Fig. 4
0.
position
shown
40.

Opposite, Fig. 40 The Kibbey


Kibbey dividing head
head

61
61

11
CHAPTER 11

Dividing Heads and,


Gearcutting
h ea~

The availability
av ailabi lity of
of a
a dividing
di vid ing head is
is again
again
The
essentia l for
for doing
doing gearc
gearcutti
ng on
on the
the
essential
utting
mill ing
m ach in
ine.
Of course
cou rse the re are types
milli
ng mach
e. Of
of gears
gears one
on e jjust
ust ca
cann
ot do,
do, but
bu t ordi
ordinary
of
nnot
nary
spur gears
gears can be done
don e perfectly we
wellll for
spur
m od el
el engi
engi neering
neeri ng purposes
ere
mod
purposes ,. wh
w here
nei
the r high speeds
neithe
speeds,. extre m
mee silence,
sile nce , nor
high
ansm ission are
high rate
ratess of
of pow
po w er
er tr
transmission
are
dem
anded.. The
s is
emanded
The design
design of
of gear
gears
is a
a
subj
ect outside tthe
he scope of
subject
of this
thi s book,
which is intended to
to deal with workshop
ope
rat ions. but
operations,
but there
there are
are plenty
plenty of
of sources
source s
of
orma t ion on
of inf
information
on gear design
design.. The simp
si mp le
ty
pe
idi ng head already illu
st rate d
typ
e of
of div
ividi
illustrated
w
ill serve
will
serve very
very w
w ell
ell ifif the
the gears
gears to
to be
be cu
cu tt
hav
e such a num
ber ooff teeth
have
number
tee th as the
th e
indexing
nge w
hee ls
th.
indexing cha
change
whee
ls can
can deal
deal wi
with.
Bu
e num
ber requ
ired cannot
Butt ifif th
the
number
required
cannot be
b go
gott
ing wh
eels,
from
from exist
existing
whe
els, tt hen
hen aa more
more
com
plex head
yfo rd. w
ill be
complex
head such
such as the M
Myford,
will
is in
ng
needed.
needed. Fig.
Fig. 37
37 shows
shows th
this
in use
use cutti
cutting
the
h are
gr al
the teeth
teeth of
of aa pin
pinion
ion w
w hic
hich
are inte
integral
with
e shaft.
with th
the
shaft. The blank
blank was
was turne
turned to
to tt
in.
met err on
o be
in. dia
diamete
on the
th e part
part tto
be held
held and
and this
this
was
rd Myford
was gripped
gripped in
in the
the sta
standa
ndard
Myford tt in.
in.
e com
po
coll
et. w
hi le the
collet,
while
the othe
otherr end
end of
of th
the
component
ng centred
ed by
nent bei
being
centred wa
wass support
supported
by aa
60
rarm fitt
ing.
60 degree
degree centre
centre in
in the
the ove
overarm
fitting.
w s the
eady bracke
This
This picture
pict ure sho
shows
the st
steady
brackett
descr
ibed in
described
in the
the last
last chapter
chapter in
in use.
use. The
The
cutt
er is
err in
cutter
is aa simple
simple flycutt
flycutte
in aa boring
boring bar
bar

co nven ienc e in a boring


bo ring head. IItt is
held for convenience
closeup in Fig
Fig.. 41 . Th
The
prof ile
shown in clo
se-up
e profi
le
establi shed by grinding
grindi ng to su
suit
w as established
it a
whee l of th
thee same
sam e pitch w ith sl
slightly
wheel
ightly mo re
teeth. The variation is so small
sm all as to be of
no importance,
im port ance. especial
the
especi alllyy as th
e pi nion
nio n
ro
es at only a lo
w speed.
rott at
ates
low
But if several
ade ., and
severa l gears
gea rs are to be m
made
ed
especia
lly if du plicat
es may be w ant
especially
plicates
anted
lat
er, it can be w orth
later,
orth whil e to invest in one
or more prope
ers of
properr disc
disc typ
typee gear
gear cu tt
tters
of
wha
th e
whatt is now universally
universa lly known as the
arpe' type,
ey
'Brow
n &
'Bro wn
& Sh
Sharpe'
type, because th
they
we
re deve
lop ed by
e famous fir
were
developed
by th
the
fir m of
Brown & Sharpe in U.S.A. m any years
ago.
ey are of
e now
ade by
ago. Th
They
of cours
co urse
now m
made
Britis
h firm
s as w ell.
th ers all
an by oothers
all ove
overr
British
firms
ell, and
th e w
orld . to
racy of
tern ational
world
to an accu
accuracy
of in
interna
iona l
st
and ards . far be
tter th
an anything
standards.
better
than
anythin g th
that
at is
i
needed fo
eering , and are
forr model engin
engineering.
prope
rly back
ed off
ellll as being
properly
backe
off as
as w
we
being made
ffrom
rom high speed ste
el. No
er
steel.
No single cu tttter
will properl
y deal
ber of
properly
deal with
with all num
number
of tee
teeth,
th.
so
hey are
s. ea
c ~ cutter
so tthey
are m
made
ade in
in set
sets.
eac~
cutter
dea
ling wi
th aa lilim
it ed range
dealing
with
mited
range.. and
and each
each
bea
rs an
ify ing num
ber. The
number.
The range
range
bears
an ident
identifying
runs
runs as
as fo
follows:
llows:
No.1
No. 1 135
135 to
to aa rack
ra ck No.5
No. 5 21
21 to
to 25
25
No.
2 555
5 to
No.
6 17
No.2
to 134
134
NO.6
17 to
to 20
20
No.33
5 t05
No.7
No. 3 35
to 54
No. 7 14
14 to
to 16
16
N
o. 44 26
No
No.
No..88 12
26 to
to 34
34
12 and
and 13
13

III

411 Close-up of flflycutter


pinion
Fig. 4
ycu t ter and pin
ion

Fig. 42 Gearcutting
Gearcutting with Brown & Sharpe cu tter
Fig.

63
63
62
62

Fig.
u tting 10 d.p . gearw
heel, fron
Fig. 43 Flyc
Flycutting
gear wheel.
frontt view

These cutt
ers can be bought
gly at
cutters
bo ug ht sin
singl
any tim
e fro m regular
ol merch
an ts and
time
reg ular to
tool
merchants
I doubt if any disco unt w
ould
en for
wou
ld be giv
given
fo r
buying a com
plete set o
ere is no
complete
off 8.
8 . So th
there
need to go to
0 the expense
expense of acquiring
acqui ri ng a
com
plete set
m ly kno
wn
complete
s t unless
unl ss it is fir
firmly
known
th
ere w
il l be a use for
2
there
will
fo r every
every one
one!! Fig. 4
42
shows one of th ese doing a sim
ilarr job to
simila
that depicted in Fig. 37
37.. The smoother
acti
on of the mul
ed cu
tter made it
action
multti-tooth
i- toothed
cutter
po
ssib le to dispe
possible
di pe nse with th
thee use of
of the
th e
ste
ady stand.
steady
stand , though
thoug h care was
was taken
take n not
to be too roug
th the
cially
roughh wi
with
th e feed.
feed , espe
especially
at th
e st
art of each cut.
the
start
Going now
m w
ha t m ight be called
now fro
from
wha
the sub
li me tto
o the ridiculous.
sublime
rid iculous. or at
at leas
leastt
from th
iniature to the
thee m
miniature
th e outsize . the next
next
photograp h shows the
uch
the cutting of a m
much
larger gea
r. act
ua lly 9 .600 in.
gear.
actually
in. p.c.d.
p.c.d. This
Th is is
a gu
nmeta
gun
metall gear
gear needed
need ed as par
partt of a metal
meta l
patte
rn from
hic h the
heel
pattern
from w
which
the flyw
ffywh
el of
of Fig. 20
was
6 in. thick
was made. ItIt is only
o nly 3/1
3/ 16
thick but
but the

64
64

tteeth
eet h are 10
10 d.p..
res.
.p. , approx. 5/ 16 in. cent
ce ntres,
so qu
ite a lot of met
al had to be rem oved
quite
metal
ne wi
th
at each too th. The cutting
cu tt ing w
waass do
done
with
a flycu
flvcuttter,
ter. grou nd up by hand to match a
si l ho
u e tte of a 1 0 d .p
oth in
ouette
.p.. t o
oo
M
achinery's H
andbook. using a m agnifier,
Machinery's
Handbook,
agni fier ,
g set in a boring
this
thi s cutter bein
being
bo ri ng ba
barr of
rather excessive length in a bo
ring head.
boring
head .
Tw
o cuts
ere ta
ken,, bu
hen there
Two
cu ts w
were
taken
butt even tthen
th ere
w
as a good deal
was
dea l of spring and noise. Th e
shape of the
nk casting wa
th e bla
blank
wass arranged
to provide for mo
untin g by 8 bo
lt s on the
mounting
bolts
large Myfo
rd faceplat
e. (9 in. diamete
r!
Myford
faceplate,
diameter)
and th
is wa
xed on the m
iller ttabl
able
this
wass fifixed
miller
e so as
to ov
erhang the side. Tha
ittgd fixi ng
overhang
Thatt pe rm
r mit~d
a sta
ndard ang
e on the table too.
standard
anglleplat
eplate
too,
just to
uchi ng the back ooff the facepl
at e,
touching
facep late,
which redu
ced tthe
he spring
iness of
reduced
springiness
of that.
that, and
provided a back
-s top against the da nger
back-stop
nger
of
ould have been asking
of slipping. It
It w
would
asking a lot
lot
of
di ng head to
of the single bolt
bolt of the divi
dividi
prevent movem
ent, und
er the co
nd it ions
movement
under
conditions

Fig.
Flycutting
d. p.. gearwheel, rear
rear view
Fig . 44
44 Fl
ycu tt ing 10 d.p

prevailin
g, but using this safeguard all
prev
ailing.
w
ent w
ell.
went
well.
keeping
mind
thee
It is well worth keepi
ng in m
ind in th
home
workshop
that
method
of
hom
e w
or kshop th
at th is m
ethod of
back-u p is wi
widely
ne ering
back-up
dely used in the engi neeri
ng
industry
ally
he
heavie
in
d u stry . espe c i al
ly iin
n th
e h
eav ie r
sections,
machines
ot her
sect
ion s, on planing m
achines and others
either
or hig
high
w here tthere
here is eit
her high thrust or
h
impact.'
sometimes
both , because
beca use it can
im
pact,' som
etim es both,

avoid
da mage to m achines and w o
ork,
avo
id damage
rk. as
well
possible
in jury. Fig.
Fig . 4 3 show
shows
w
ell as po
ssible injury.
s the
fro nt of th
thee gear disc. and in this
th is view the
th e
front
dividing
e. But in Fig. 44
divid
ing head is not visibl e.
both
th e ang leplat e and the
th e dividing head
bo
th th
see n. The gear
ge ar blank
bl ank w ould
o uld only just
are seen.
of the
th e M
Myford
lathe
swing in the gap of
yf ord lath
e so
without
ra ising block
blockss it repres
represents
w
ithout raising
ents about
th e largest job that can be tturned.
the
urned .

65

CHAPTER 12

Dividing Heads and


Tool Making
Tool
T here are many occa
occasions
in too
tooll making
sion s in
w hen dividing
divi di ng is necessa
nec essary
Multiple
when
ry.. M
ultiple
edged cu
cuttting
ing tools
too ls like taps,
taps. re
reamers,
amers,
cou nte rsinks.
et c. all reall
really
ng cutters,
cutters, countersi
m illi
ill ing
nks, etc.
y
need dividing
divi di ng devices
de vi ces to produce the
th e best
results,
n th
th ough
me
of th
th e
e simple
sim ple
results, eve
eve n
ough so
som
e of
cutters
made
filing
cutte rs can we
w ellll be m
ade by fil
ing or
free
inding.
r, th
th e
orm
free hand
hand gr
grindi
ng. Howeve
However.
e ffo
rm of
of
the
teet h or
etim
the teeth
or flut
fluteess som
so meti
m es
es settles
settl es that
that

ready
j ust w ill not do,
do.
rough and re
ady methods just
exam
ple th
the
and as in the next exa
m pl
e physical
di ffic ulty of
o f getti
getting
th e metal that has
difficulty
ng at the
taken
mo re or less set
settt les
to be ta
ken aw ay more
le s that
tha t
m echannical
ica l dividing
divi di ng m ust be em ployed .
mecha
show s tthe
utiing
ng of a long-thread
Fig. 4 5 shows
he fl ut
lo ng-thread
Acm e ttap
ap which
whi ch is held in a collet
coll et in the
spindle of
of a simple
simpl e dividing
dividi ng head,
head , using
us ing
change
heels
for the divid
in g. In order
ch ange w
wh
eels for
dividin
ord er to

Fig. 45 Flu
ting Acm
Fluting
Acmee thread tap

66
66

obtain
e maxim
um swa
obtain th
the
maximum
swa rfrf clea
clea rance
rance this
this
tap
tes. The
tap has
has five
five flu
flutes.
The head
head has
has no
no
tailstock
tailstock so
so the
the outboard
outboard end
end of
of the
t he tap
tap is
is
rested
rested on
on aa pa
pairir of
of Picador
Picador blocks
bloc ks and
and the
the
clamp
rests on
on another
anoth er pai
pai r.
r. These
These are
are
clamp rests
very
very usefu
usefu ll accessories
acce ssories for
for milling
mi lli ng operaopera
tio
ns. Of course
hat aa flute
tions.
course each
each tim
tim ee tthat
flute is
is
com
pl eted the
i ased
co mpleted
the clam
clam pp has
has to be
be re
released
before
d to
wo rk can bbe rotate
rot at ed
to the
the
bef o re the
th e work
posit
po sitiion
on for the next flute
flut e.. A suitable
suitable
tailstock,
il able, would
tailstcck. w
w ere
ere it ava
available,
woul d obviate
obv iate
the need for thi
s. The
th is.
Th e 5 flu tes are obtained
obt ained
by moving
mo vi ng 12 te eth
et h at a ti me
m e on a 60
tooth wh ee
l. T
he cutter
eel.
The
cutte r being used
use d is a
com merci
al tap-fl
uti ng cutter
m ercial
t ap-f luting
cu tte r pi
piccked
ked up
che
aply at a sale.
ade
cheaply
sale. These
These cutter
cutters are m
made
w ith
ew h at lop-sided
lo p- sided ro unded
un d ed
it h a som ewh
profil
prof ile specifically
speci ficall y for this duty,
duty, but if iit
had not been ava
il abl e, a flflycutt
ycutter
available,
er woul
w oul d
n ground
the profile
have bee
been
gro un d up to the
profil e of a
si
m il ar tap. The
Th e prof
profilile
e is not de
despe
ra tel
simil
sperat
elyy
important
small
erro r wou ld not
im
por t ant and a sm
all error
matteer.
r.
matt

A
Another
nother example
example of
o f the
the use
use of
of the
the
dividing
dividing head,
head, th
this
is time
tim e coupled
cou pled w
with
ith the
the
use
in
use of
of aa small
small rotary
rotary tab
table,
le, is
is shown
shown in
Figs.
46 and
and 47
47 .. The
The workpiece
wo rkpiece to
to be
be
Figs. 46
produced
ne tooth
produced was
was aa fifine
too th mill
milling
ing cutter
cutter
with
with aa round
roun d end
end for
for routing
routing or
or hand
hand
m
m illing
illing on
on the
the light
light alloy
alloy cy
cylinde
linderr head
head of
of aa
ca
e. The
carr engin
eng ine.
The commercially
co mmerc ial ly avai
avai lable
lab le
cutters
lls had
uch
cutters fo
forr use
use in
in electric
ele ct ric dri
drills
had such
coarse
eethh that
coarse teet
that once
once they
they touched
touched the
th e
su
rfac
e of
surf
ace
of t he alloy t hey
hey we re uncontrolluncontroll
able
able and
and pulled
pulled sideways
sideways so
so violently
vio lent ly that
that
damage
nder head
most aa
dama ge to
to the
the cyli
cylinder
head was
was al
almost
ce
nty.
utte
rs
fine pitch
pitch cut
t ers
ce rt
rt ai
ain
ty. So
So as
as fine
appea
appea red
red to
to be
be not
not purchasable
purchasable it
it was
was
decided
de cided to
to m
m ake
ake one
one.. The
The bla
bla nk,
nk, of
of a
a
arbon
ar to si
lver steel
carbo
n steel
st eel simil
sim ilar
silver
st eel but
so
mewhat
ade to
som
ew hat lowe
low err in carbon
carbon,, was
wa s m
made
hold in a coll
et and wa
s give n a sm all
collet
w as
rec
ess in
ng cutte
to
recess
in tthe
he end
end for
for the
the flu
fluttiing
cu tte rr to
run
into. The
The dividi
ng head
head ,, with
with a
a 50
run into.
div idi ng
50
tooth
ange w
w heel
heel an
on its
its spi
spi ndle
ndle,. was
to
ot h ch
change
was
m ount
ou nted
on a
a stee
steell plat
platee so
so that
that the
end
m
ed on
the end

Fig. 4 6 Cu
Cutting
teeth of
o f ball
ball-end
cutter
Fig.
t ting teeth
-end cu
tter

67
67

Fig. 4
477 Close-up
Close- up of ball-end cutter
Fig.

of th
thee wo
work-piece
eyond th
thee centre
of
rk- piece w as beyond
ha lf its diam
diameetter.
of the
t he rotary table
t able by half
er. In
words.
th e centre of the ba
ballll end
other w
ords , the
was
er tthe
he centre o
ary table
tab le..
off th
thee rot
rotary
was ov
over
The
of the work w
was
rotation
T
he axis of
as on the rot
atio n
centre
nott app
apparent
from
thee
cent
re.. This is no
arent fro
m th
photograph,
waass an essent
essential
pho
tog raph, but w
ial feature
set-up.
stop
block
wass clamped
of the setup. A sto
p blo
ck wa
unde rsid e of the m illing
ill ing m ach
achine
to th e underside
ine
tool
maker's
clamp,
visible
table
table with a to
olmaker
's clam
p, visi
ble in
hottoo g raph
raph,, to
to llimit
tth
h e p ho
i m i t tthe
h e ttaab
blle
e
moveme
nt po
positively
to thi
position.
move
ment
sitive ly to
thiss posit
io n. In
direction
movemen
the other direct
ion the mo
vemen t of the
table brought
brou gh t the cutt
er to a pa
rt of th
cutter
part
thee
tooll shank sm
smaller
thann the diam
diameter
too
alle r tha
eter at
the bottom of the flu
te s so th
at ind
exing
flute
that
indexing
with
thee cutte
cutterr in th
thee clear.
clear.
could be done w
ith th
The cutter used w
as a carbon steel
was
steel one
locom ot ive
made origi
nall y for producing locomot
originally
lubricator ratchet whee
ls, w
it h a 60
wheels,
with
degree single angle.
ith the axis of tthe
he
angle . W
With
work parallel to the tabl
tablee a cut was
started at the requ
ired full depth
required
depth., and the
the

68

table traversed
tra ve rsed alon
along
bringi
ng the cutte
cutterr
table
g br
inging
into
operation
thee cy
cylilindrica
ndrica l
int
o op
eration cutting along th
port
io n. Wh
en the tabl
portion.
When
tablee was
was arrested
arreste by
temporary
the te
mporary stop
sto p block, the rotary table
worm
wa s turned by means of itits
sw
or m , so tthe
he
cutter
continued
cutting
dovetail
dovet
ail cutt
er co
ntin ued cuttin
g round
ro und
th e ball end of th e work.
he n the
cutter
the
w o rk. W hen
th e culler
recess, the feed
fe ed w
was
ran into the recess,
as reversed
with
rotary
table, then
withh the
th the ro
t ary table,
then wit
fi rst wi
thee st
starting
point,
main ttable,
abl e, back to th
arting poi
nt ,
where
thee cu
cutter
was
clear
of th
thee w
work
w
her e th
tt er w
as cl
ear of
ork
shank
The
dividing
head
sha
nk ,. T
he d
ivid ing h
ead was then
wheel,
indexed one tooth on the w
heel. and a
Eventually
new cut started
st arte d,. Eventua
ll y all 50 cuts
were
47
7..
we
re completed
co mp leted as shown in Fig. 4
working'' diamete
diameterr of this tool is f
The working
tillere are 50 perfect teeth.
te et h. The tool
too l
in. and tlgere
w
as hardened and tem
pered, and w
hen
was
tempered,
when
put to use in an electric dri
nd to
drillll was fou
found
to
com
b
ire ly satisfactory.
sat isfac tory, It worked combee ent
entirely
pletel
y chatter-free,
cha tt er-free, wi
th no tendency
ten dency to
pletely
with
to
run away,
fin e and
away, and in spite of
of its fine
sha llo
w tteeth
eeth , removed metal at a very
ll ow

Fig. 48 Gashing flflutes


ut es in large countersinking tool

gratifying
rate.
The
thee ports
po rts in
gr
ati fyin g rat
e. Th
e w ork on th
th e alloy head wa
wass co
com
eted
mppllet
ed tto
o the great
sa
tisfaction of the user, leaving a beau
tiful
satisfaction
beautiful
surface
smooth surfa
ce for the gas flow.
flo w .
Another
example
An
other exam
ple of cutting tool
to ol making
shown
Figs. 48 and 49.
is sho
w n in Figs.
4 9. A large 60
degree count
countersink
needed
ersi nk w as need
ed for a
commerci
al operati
operation
th e
com
mercial
on on steel tubes, the
tool
in. diam
diameter.
wass
to ol being about 2 -!- in.
ete r. It wa
made with an interna l fo
form
identical
with
rm ide
nt ical w
it h
the M
Myford
fro m a carb on
onthe
yford lathe spindles
spi ndles from
manganese
chrome
alloy
of known
ma
nga nese ch
rom e all
o y of
uent hardening
identity, so th at subseq
subs equent
could
without
ri sk of failure in a
coul
d be done w
ith out risk
co
mmerc ia l
e
s t ab li s hm en t
wit
h
commercial
establishment
with
this
steel.
I n tthe
knowledge of th
is st
eel. In
he pictu re it is
shown
mounted
Myford
sho
w n moun
ted on the M
yford dividing
divid ing
head hav
ing tthhe
e flut
es cu
th a specia
head
having
ffutes
cutt wi
with
specia l
ang
le form
fo rm di
sc type cutt
er. Beca
use of
angle
disc
cutter.
Because
of
th e pec
uliar
es w
hich are invol
ved it
the
pecu
liar angl
angles
which
involved
was necessary to be able
ab le to set the head
head
with ititss axi
nat ion to the table,
axiss at an incli
inclination
table.
and it proved that the simp lest way to do

2t

this w
was
ve rtical sli
slide.
was
this
as to use a vertical
de. There was
quit
metal
qu
itee a lot of me
ta l to be ttaken
aken out of the
thi s de
decidedly
tough
steel , and
an
25 flutes in this
ci ded ly toug
h steel
usuall th e cutt
cutting
long
wayy fro m
ing was
wa s a lo
ng wa
as usua
anch orage point,
po int. so the st
steady
the anchorage
eady stand
bro ught int
into
was brought
o use at the back of t he
head , as it proved too
difficult
se t it at
head,
too diff
ic ult tto
o set
the sam
samee side as tthe
cutter.
However,
he cutt
er. Howe
ver, it
te w
well
served qui
quite
ell in th at position and
he re
was
never
suggestio
of
t her
e w
as n
ev er any su
ggest ionn of
insecurity.
Thee m
maain
in gashes fo
forr the flut
flutes
were
Th
es w
ere
cutss dow
down
taken out first, with
w ith two cut
n each
wass til
tilted
new
flu tte.
e. Then the head wa
ted to a new
angle
takenn to
angl
e and another series of cuts take
accomplish
reliief.
ef. Because of the
accomplis
h the rel
coni
rtical
coniccal
al shap
shapee of the work the ve
vert
ica l slid
slidee
had to have ititss base set at an ang
le to the
angle
miller table. A
th ese appa
ren tly co
m
Allll these
apparently
complicated setti ngs had to be established
experi
mentally (t
houg h possibly
pos sib ly w
ith a lot
experimentally
(though
with
ht have been calcul
at ed)
of effort they mig
might
calculated)
sired for
m of the cutt
ing
to give the de
desired
form
cutting

69

CH
A PT ER 13
CHAPTER
13

Dividing Heads and


Graduated Scales

49 Rear vie
view
showing
teady
stand in use
Fig. 49
w showin
g s tea
d y stand

edges of
of the
the count
counteersink
rsink and the rake
small
all
angles desired in two directions. The sm
which
division plate
pla te in use is one wh
ich had
previously
been made some titime
m e pr
eviously for doing
125
division
icrom eter dial
dial s. for w hic
hich
12 5 div
isio n m icrometer
h
unfortunately
th e st
standard
Myford
platess
unfo
rt unatel y the
andard M
yford plate
do not provide
provide., or did no
nott at tthat
ha ttime.
ime.
However,
th thi
set-up
too
How
ever, wi
w ith
th iss set
-up and not too
work
i proved possible
possib le with
many hours w
or k it
home
quipm nt to produce a
ho
me workshop equipme
very
w hich
very suitable
suitable specia
specia l countersink which
would inevitably
inev itably have cost
cost a small fortune

70

mercial
if itit had had to be made in a com m
ercial
factory.
It is ho
hoped
these
examples
of
ese exampl
es of
ped that th
tooll m
maki
willll enco
encourage
alll who need
too
aki ng wi
urage al
who
know of
of no
standard
ools,
non- stan
dard t oo
ls, and wh
o know
that
o uld take them on, or are
firm th
at w ould
rred by the
the high cost
labourdet erred
co st of labou
r
ve spe
specials.
intensi
int
ensive
cials. Who kn ows.
ow s, somebody
workshop
in a home
home works
hop might
m ight ttake
ake on th e job
of hel ping out
ou t some tool
too l fact
factory
o ry that
would
w ould no
nott wa nt to be diverted from its
norma
norm all w ork
or k by jobs
job s of this kind?

In the
nstructio n of
achine
the co
construction
of sma
smallll m
mach
in tools
and access
ories
fte n de
sira ble to
accesso
ri es it is ooften
desirable
to
have grad ua
d sca
uatteed
sca les
les fo
forr the
th e co n ve
nience of
en ts, and
of precise measurem
measurements.
venience
the
ical m icrometer dia
ub
the cy
cyllindr
in drical
diall is undo
undoubtedly the com
moonest
nest type
ng on
comm
type.. Depe ndi
ndin
the number of graduation
uired the
graduat ion s req
required
eng rav
ing of
of the li nes can be
raviing
ng or cutt
cutting
done
her a simp
le head or
done w ith eit
either
sim ple
or the
worm gea
red type . There is a choice
geared
be
tween usin
g a non-rotati
ng cutte
between
using
non-rotating
cutte r of
of the
th e
ing type,
g a
pla
ning or slott
planing
slotting
type. and usin
using
rot at ing cutt
er like tthose
hose employed on
rotating
cutter
pantograph
achiines.
nes. In each
engraving m
mach
pa ntograph engraving
case
ividing
ca
se the work is mounted on th
thee d
dividing
head and tthe
he table screw is used to
t o move
the work against
too l. It is advisable to
gainst the tool.
clamp
table . if the mac
hine
cla mp stops to the table.
machi
ne
op devices built
stop
bu il t in . so as
does not have st
the table
t abl e movement an
mit the
to positively lilimit
li nes th
the
co rrect length. Where
W he re
keep the lines
e correct
are li nes of more
mor e than one
one length on
there are
sam e dial
di al,. one or more slips
slip s of sheet
she et
the same
ca n be
be inserted in
in front of the stop
metal can
obtai n the short
sho rt lines.
lines . The
The cutting
cu tting tool
to obtain
can be ground
gro un d to an included angle of
can
degrees, Few modellers
mode lle rs have
about 50 degrees.
gr inder.
nder.
access to an engraving cutter gri
ideal machine
m achine for
for grinding
grindi ng the
which is the ideal
conica l end which
w hich
D-bit type cutters with conical
are needed
neede d.. but they
t hey can in
in fact be
be ground
are

on the Quorn g rinde


r. w
hic h is becom
ing
rinder.
which
becoming
more and more popular wi
th model
with
engi
nee rs. Those w
ho do no
ssess one
engineers.
who
nott po
possess
one
of
hines
of these
these versatile mac
machi
nes may have
some friend w
ho can hel
p ou
ng
who
help
outt by grindi
grinding
an occa
siona l cutter.
efer
occasional
cutter. For my par
partt I pr
prefer
the rotating cutte
cutterr bu
butt then I do have the
the
ithout this a
machine to grind them. W
Without
slo tting
tt ing tool
tool can easily be ground and
an if
rigid
ly held w ill also
rigidly
Iso do
do a good job,
job.
Fig. 50 shows a cy
lindrica l scale
ing
cylindrica
sca le be
being
eng raved on the
ill er w ith a rot
ating
miller
rotating
th e m
too
llar, the scale is
tool.l. This is no
n t a loose co
collar.
on the co mpone
ually
par t of a
m ponenntt itself. act
actua
ll y part
Quo
rn grinde r,
llar wou ld
Quorn
r. but
bu t a separate co
collar
ed on an arbor and treat
ed
mounted
treated
just be mount
in tthe
he same way.
way. Fig. 51
51 is a close- up of
th
is operation .,
this
Some articles
art icles need the sca le on
on a flat
surface but sstiillll in a curve
curve,. One of these is
needed on the
the Quorn
Ouorn gri nder.
nder, and Fig
Fig,. 52
tab le on
shows this set on a rotary table
n the
miller and being dealt with by a rotating
rot at ing
cu tte r as
as the last example.
examp le. The
The M
M..E.S.
E.S.
cutter
table in the
the picture
pict ure has a 90 tooth
too th worm
w heel. so one revolution
revolut ion of the
the worm
wheel.
gives 4 degrees movement and each
division
16- line micrometer collar
ivision on its 16-line
gives one quarter
quarte r of
o f one degree.
degree , The scale
eng raved is
is one specified
sp ec ified iin
being engraved
n
degrees, as
as it is an
an angleang le-setting
degrees.
setting scale.

71
71

Fig. 50
50 Cylindric
Cylindrical
machine
component
graduated
al ma
ch ine com
p onent being graduate
d

Fig. 5
51T Close-up
Close -up of
of previous
Fig.
previous operation
operatio n

72
72

Fig.
circular arcuat
e scale
on fla
Fig. 52
52 Graduating
Graduating partpart-circular
arcuate
scaleon
flatt surface
surface

Conic
al mi
cro me teerr collars
etim es
Conical
micromet
co ll ars are som
sometim
requ
ired , bu
butt they are more d
diff
ult to
required,
iffiiccult
prod uc e and should be avoided in th
the
produce
e
desig ning
all possib
possible.
graduat
ing
le. For gradu
<lting
designin
g if at all
these the
woul d need
nee d
one of these
th e dividing head would
to be tilte d after
aft er the
th e fa
fashion
th at in Fig .,
sh ion of that
48., but possibly
poss ib ly in the ot
o ther
48
her direction.
irection ,
dependi ng on the actual
actua l design
de sign of the
depending
co llar.
coll
ar.
On e po
po in
intt in making
ma king scales of any kind.
One
T he figuring
fig uring should
should always
always be done
done so
so
The

th
the right
ay up
as
th at
at th
th e
e figures
fig ure s are
are the
right w
way
up as
seen
scale . The
ay
seen in
in using
using the
the scale.
The figures
figures m
may
need
to have
risin g va
value
. . . 10,
10 , 20
20 ,, 3
0
have rising
lue ...
30
need to
the riright
hand
from tt he
he zero
zero m
ark,
.. .. .. to
to the
ght ha
nd from
mark,
butt quite
quite possibly,
possib ly, depe
depe nd
nd ing
ing on
on circu
circ um
mbu
sta
nces tthey
may
need to
to be
be the
the opposite
opposite
st
ances
hey m
ay need
way. It
It is
is as
as we
w ell
t o get
get this
this th
thoroughly
way.
ll to
roughly
sorted out
out before
before starting
starting to
to use
use marking
ma rking
sorted
punches to
to put
pu t the
the figures
figures in,
in. because
because itit
punches
can
be very
very difficult
di fficu lt to
t o rretrieve
th e situa
situaca
n be
trieve the
tion if
if the
th e start
start was
was made
made the
the wrong
wrong way.
wa y.
tion

73
73

CHAPTER 14

Cutter Speeds for


Vertical Milling
a~
am

In general
gene ral I
af raid mode l engineers
eng ineers do
afraid
no t have very clear ideas about how
ho w fast
not
they should run t heir lathes,
lath es, drills or
mi lling machines.
m achines. To run too
t oo slowly
milling
extends the working
w or king time unnecessarily,
but to
t oo fa
st will soo
to ru n too
fast
soonn blunt a cutter
and may
ork finish
may also cause poor w
work
tter. The wear on m ililling
lin g
through cha
chatter.
cutters (apart from
uttersl is quite
from flyc
flycutters)
impo
rta nt because of tthe
he trouble of
important
of
sharpening t hem
n cut
ters can
hem,, and broke
broken
cutters
be qu
ite an expe
nse.. The pri
nciples w
quite
expense
principles
whhich
ich
govern the speeds
speeds of
of cutting metal in
othe
hines such as the
otherr mac
machines
the lathe and dri ll
can
ul guide,
e
ca n be taken as a usef
useful
guide , in
in tthhe
sense tthat
hat any speed which an a particular
pa rticular
materia
materiall w
wiillll blunt a lathe tool
too l or
or drill wil
wi lll
likewise blunt a m
ill ing cutter. But on tthe
he
milling
vertical m
iller there are other problems
miller
problems
too. Generally tthe
he point of
uch
of cutting is m
much
furth
err from the
ort than that
furthe
the supp
support
t hat of
of the
the
y co
mlathe ttool.
ool. ItIt wi
willll also
also be aa long
long wa
way
com
pa
ratively fro
m the spind
le bearings.
paratively
from
spindle
bearings. The
work may
uch furthe
may be m
much
furtherr from the
the
slideways than
than itit wou ld
ld be
be from the
the bed
bed of
of
th
e lathe. Th
e cutt ing
the
The
ing tool is normally
unsupport
ed at
s cuttin
g end,
s
unsupported
at itits
cutting
end, and
and itits
own elasticity is
is added
added to
to that of
of the
chuck,
chuck, spindle ,, work, etc
etc.. So
So speeds
speeds
which
he may
which might be
be feasible
feasible on
on the
the lat
lathe
may
h on
ller.
well
nd much
well be
be fou
found
much too
too hig
high
on the
the mi
miller.

74
74

exampl e, tturni
2 0 wi ll
As an example,
urni ng back to Fig. 20
show how elevated
eleva ted the surface
surfac e of
o f the
w
or k is fro
f rom
t able slides, and in th is
work
m the table
exam ple lo
w speeds
speed s were essential
esse ntial to
to
example
low
obtai
n a reas
onably
goo d fi nis
h.
obtain
reaso
nably good
nish.
Th
dept h of
cutt
Thee rat
ra t es of
of feed and dept
of cu
w
hich are com
co m monp
which
mo np lace on industrial
mach
ines are quite
machines
quite out of
of order in the
home worksho
p. N
ot only are industria
workshop.
Not
ind ust ria l
machines
rk
machi nes heavy and rigid, so are the wo
work
holding dev
ices, and the work ititse
self
devices,
lf is
much more robust and rigid. Also, and th
is
this
app
lies particu larly when
applies
whe n cu tting
tt ing stee
steell,,
these machi
nes can
machines
ca n usually
usua lly flood
flood the
cutter with coolant
aki ng away the
coolan t , ttaking
the heat
gen
erated
he cutt
ing ope
ratio n,, and
generat
ed in tthe
cutting
operation
that is no
ally
nott norm
norma
lly possible on m achines
in tth
he
me wo
rkshop . So Table III
e ho
home
workshop.
II I has
been
piled to giv
e som
e gu
idance in
been com
compiled
give
some
guidance
the
the kind
kind of opera
opera tions
ti ons which have been
described in the
k. It is based on using
t he boo
book.
speeds w
hich wi
ess
which
wi ll conserve
conserve the
t he sharpn
sharpness
of
ly to
t
of the
the cutters like
likely
to be used. For
For flycu
flycutte
rs, commercially
lls . and
ters,
commercially made endrni
endmills,
and
Brown
he tools
Brown and
and Sharpe
Sharpe gear
gear cutters,
cutters, tthe
tthemselves wil
willl be properly
properly hardened high
high
speed
l. Fo
speed stee
steel.
Forr the
the Woodruff cutters
cutters itit is
based
e made cutt
ers
based on these
these being hom
home
cutters
duced from carbon stee
eell
pro
produced
steel or
or 'silver'
'silver" st
stee
(w
hich is
(which
is aa carbon
carbon stee
steell with
w ith about 1.2%
1.2%
carbon
o re than
carbon and
and no
no alloy)
alloy).. M
More
than one
one

article
Model Engineer
Engineer in
in years
yea rs past
past has
has
article in
in Model
described
descri b ed methods
met hods fo
fo r making
maki ng gear
gea r
cutters
the Brown
Brow n and
and Sharpe
Sharpe type,
type. and I
cutters of the
have
hav e some of
of these
these myself,
myself, made
mad e from
from
plain
plain carbon stee
st eell of about
abo ut 1% carbon .
Such
mo re slowly
slow ly
Such cutters m ust be run more
tha
n the high
com
than
high speed
spe ed steel cutters of commercial m ake,
le that
ake, but it is possib
possi ble
that a
w ider
s w ill
ide r variety
var iety of tool
tools
il l in future
fut ure be
made
e home work
shops,
ma de in
in th
the
w orkshop
s, as a bette
bett err
ng and th e conunderstanding
understa nding of tool
too l maki
making
con
tribution
he verti
ca l mill
er can
hic h tthe
vertical
m iller
t ribution w hich
provide
gnised
pro vid e comes
com es to
t o be
be reco
rec ogn
ised . The
The
cutting
it h su
ch tools
cutti ng speeds
sp eeds to
t o be used w
with
such
will
he tool
w ill need to be arranged to
t o suit
sui t tthe
materials
m ateri als and the w ork they are doing.
The proper mounti
ng of ttools
ools in tthhe
mou nt ing
e

miller
miller is
is a matter
matter of
of great
grea t importance.
im port ance.
Reference
Reference has
has already
already been
been made
made to
to tools
t oo ls
which
which screw directly
di rect ly on
on the
t he spindle
spind le nose
nose ,
and another
boo k will
w ill give
anothe r chapter in this book
descriptions of the milling chucks which
w hic h
are currently ava
il able
availab
le.
ers
It will be found
foun d that some of the m ill
illers
at present on offer have
have speed
spee d ranges
ranges
which
e
wh ich do not go low enough
enoug h to match
mat ch th
the
bottom
comm
ended speeds
botto m end of the re
recom
mended
on
e Ill.
te, but
on Tabl
Table
II I. This is unfort
un fort una
unate,
bu t it is a
fact of life, and one mu st do the
t he best one
on e
ca
n with
can
w it h it
it,, even it it means
me ans occasionally
occasional ly
borrowing
bor row ing the use
use of a friend's
friend 's machine.
Natura
lly it will
Naturally
w ill tend
t end to infl
in fluuence
ence the
decision
hinking of purchasing
decisio n w hen
he n tthinking
pu rchasing a
machine
machine..

75
75

TABLE III

TABLE
TABLE III (continued)
(continued )

FLYCUTIING . Flat surfaces


surfa ces as
as in Fig
Fig.. 16, H
H.S
.S. cutters, easily sharpened.
sharpened.
FLYCUTTING.
.S.S.
Dep th of cut:
cut :
Depth
Mild steel
.0 30 in
in..
.030
Brass
.0 4 5 in.
in.
.045
Brass
Light Alloy
A lloy
60 in.
..0
060
(inches)
Diam eter of
Diameter
cu tt ing :
cutting:
Speeds r.p.m
r.p.rn.::
Mi ld Steel
Stee l
Mild
Brass
Ligh t alloy

150
2 30
23
0
57 0
570

KEYWAY
CUTIING. With H.S.S.
H.S.S. dis
disc cutter Fig
Fig.. 26,
26 , or slittillg
slitting Fig.
Fig. 23.
23 .
KEYW AY CUTTING.
(inches)
(inc hes)

It
11

21
2 l2

31

4t

100
150
3 80
380

75
1 15
115
28 5
285

60
90
90
230

50
75
75
190

45
65
65
165

38
57
14 5
145

34
34
50
1255
12

30
46
1 15
115

Cutter diameter
diameter..
Speeds r.p.m .
Mild steel
stee l
Brass
Bras s
Light Alloy
Al loy

2t

31
3 2'

65
115
1 15
190

55
95
95
155
15 5

45
75
125

38
65
110
1 10

33
55
55
95

GEARCUTTING.
S. Brown
i in.
GEARCUTIING. Commerc ial H.S.
H.S.S.
Brown & Sharpe
Sharpe cutters 2
2~
in. diameter
di am eter. Fig
Fig.. 42.
42 .
Speeds
Speed s r.p.m.
r.p.rn.
48
M ild steel
ste el
80
Brass
110
Light
Light A lloy
11 0

Sp eeds may well be lim


it ed by the exten
sw arf throw n abou
abo u t the workshop can be
Speeds
limited
extentt that swarf
accepted.

'Hom e-m
e made'
produced
steel '.,
ade' cutters prod
uced from 'silver steel'

ENDMILLING . Sp
ute H.S.S.
ill s. Dept
h of
iame te r up
ENDMILLlNG.
Spiiral
ral flflute
H.S. S. endm
endmill
Dep th
of cu t up to
to ~ of cutter d
diameter
ter. Wid th of step be
ing cut
to 3/
3/1166 in., then up to -i- ooff diame
d iameter.
being
cu up to } o f d iameter.
iameter.
(inches)
(inches)
Cutt
er diam
et er
1/1
6 3/32
1/8
1/ 14
3/8
1/2
3/32
5/8
3/4
Cutter
diameter
1/ 16
1/8 3/16
3/ 161/14
3/ 8

Cutter
eter.
Cut
te r diam eter,
Speeds r.p.m
r.p.m..::
Speeds
M ild stteel
eel
Brass
Allllo y
Light A

Spee
dss r.p.m
.:
Speed
r.p.m.:
M
ild steel
Mild
Brass
Bra s
Ligh
Lightt alloy

18
0 0 15
0 0 12
00
800
1800
1500
1200
800 65
65 0
2500 2000 1600
160 0 11
50
850
1150
3500 30
00 2 500 17
00 14
00
3000
1700
1400

450
650
120
0
1200

2 50
350
8800
00

18
0
180
250
25 0
70
0
700

KEYWAY CUTIING
ted endm
s or
CUTTING.. H.S.S. spiral
spi ral flu
fluted
end m ill
ills
or slot
slot dr
driills.
ll . Fig.
Fig . 24
24..
(inches)
(inche )
W
idth ooff keywa
y
1/
1/
2
32
1/
8
3/
16
1/4
3/8
Width
keyway
1/ 16 3/
3/32
1/8
3/16
1/2

5/8

3/4

Depth of
of cut:
cut :
Mi
ld steel
Mild
stee l
Brass
Ligh
Lightt alloy

100
100
140
140
13
5
135

00
2200
250
300

2250
50
3300
00
3350
50

350
350
450
45
900
900

250
250
350
350
800
800

18
0
180
250
250
70
0
700

Speeds r.p.rn.:
r.p.m.:
M
M ild
ild steel
steel
Bras
s
Brass
Light
Light alloy
alloy

76
76

3350
50
450
00
9900

(thousand
ths of
of an inch)
(thousandths

10
10
12
15
15

15
17
17
18
18

180
0
1800
2500
2500
3500
3500

1500
1500
2000
2000
3000
3000

25
27
27
330
0

30
40
45

445
5
60
665
5

70
10
0
100
1110
10

450
120
0
800
0
450
1200
650
800 65
1600 11
50
850
650
1150
850 650
2500
0 0 140
0 1200
1200
1400
2500 17
1700

(inches)
(inches)

1.t
1t

1q2t

2t
2}

60
120
180
18
0

50
100
10
0
150

338
8
75
110

30
30
60
60
90
90

may be
be
I:ulters.
maade'
de' silver steel cu
KEYWAYS, Using 'hom e-- m
WOODRUFF KEYWAYS.
tters, Speeds may
cutters.
commercial
H. .S. cu
incr ased by one third
th ird for
f r co
increased
m me rc ial H,S.S.
tters.
(inc hes)
1/2
3/ 8
1/2
1/4
3/8
5/ 16
1/4
Cutter diamete r.
r.p.m.:
Speeds r.
p.rn .:
200
300
200
250
30
0
380
Mild
steel
M
ild steel
450
580
3350
50
700
70
0
Brass
650
650
1000
800
10
00
900
Light All
Alloy
Light
oy
Cast iriron
unless
exceptionally
har . may
may be cu t at th
the
same revs
'INS.. as mi
mild
steel,
Cast
on,, un
less excep
tiona lly hard,
e same
ld stee
l, but for
on carb
carbo
steell ('silve
('silverr stee
steel').
steels.
CUlling
stainless
work on
onn stee
l'). alloy stee
ls, and free CU
ll ing sta
in less reduce revs.
one third. For non
non-magnetic
stai nless
by half.
half.
by one
- magnetic stain
less reduce by

77
77

CHAPTER 15

Work-holding with
Difficult Shapes
Problems
arise from time to time
Pro
blem s do arise
regarding
th e m
met
reg
ardin g the
ethhods
ods o
off holding work in
the
milling
achine. In
I n fu ll sca le engi
engineerthe m
illing m achine.
neer
these
p ro blem s are not nea
nearly
s acut e
ing th
ese problem
rly so
components
more
clam ps
as compon
ents are m
or e solid and clam
can be app
lied w
ith out crus
hi ng the
applied
without
crushing
pieces. Often with
wi t h model
mode l parts it is
gett a hold sufficiently
rmly
diffi
culltt to ge
di
ff icu
sufficien tly fi rm
ly
withoutt m
mo
re or
or less mutil
muti lati
ng the
t h piece.
withou
ore
ating
One m eth
o d I ofte
n use bo
th for castin
gs
often
both
ca tings
ethod
materiall is to arrange fo
forr an
and bar materia
chucki
left on the
accurate chuc
ki ng piece to be left
component
operations
co
m p one nt unti l all operati
o ns are
co
o rem
co m p lete and th en tto
re m ov
ovee th is.
Generally
piece
made
of
Gener
all y this
this p
iece is m
ade to su it one of'
the M
yf ord coll
et s, from t in. diam
et er
Myford
collets.
diameter
downwards.
the co
collets
dow nw ards, since the
lle ts do hold the
with
accuracy. and after turn
turning
part w
it h great accuracy,
ing
transferred
operations it can be tra
nsferred to the
with
collet
placed
divi
ing
miller w
ith the coll
et pl
aced in a di
viding
done.,
head ; even if no indexing has to be done
the head act
tive vice.
actss as a very
very effec
effective
thin
presen
Som
So
meetimes
times thi
n compo nents prese
ntt
lems
holding
thee m
milli
ng
prob le
ms iinn ho
ld i ng on th
ill ing
m
ach ine. If one
e is already flflat
at one can
machine.
one sid
side
use do
ub le- side d sticky ta
pe, available
double-sided
tape.
ff ice supply shops and
from drawing o
office
so
me stationers. If tw
o or
some
two
or three strips can
be used
ly firm grip
used., an astonishing
astonishingly
ri p can be
obtained,
hich w
ill stand
obtained. w
which
will
stan up t o shea
shearr
forces induced by m illing.
illing. I have also in an

78

stuck
metal
industrial p lant stu
ck down m
et al which
way
across
had to be tooled
to oled all th e w
ay ac
ro ss th e
piece.
false
wiith
h woodw
woodworker'
p
iece, on a fal
se base w
ork er'ss
of new
new spaper.
paper. A
After
he
and a sheet of
glue and
fte r tthe
operations
leted
operation
s are comp let
ed a fine chisel is
knocked in betwee
n the
th e part
partss and tthe
he
be tween
pa perr ttears
ith in its
its thick
thickness.
0 the
pape
ears w ithin
ness, so
th e
apart
withh some pap
paper
rt wit
er
pieces come apa
sticking
ca n th en be washed
st
icking to each . This can
off w
with
water.
There
nothing
off
it h hot w
at er. Th
ere is not
hing very
orig
his,
origiinal
n al abo
abouut tth
is. of course,
course. it is an age
agepattern
m akers ' m
method
prod
ucing
old pa
t ter nrnakers'
eth od of pro
duc
ing a
pattern
which
patt
ern wh
ich has eve ntua lly to be in
hal
ves , but
t hod not
halves.
bu t it is a sound me
method
no nea rly
wel l known as it sho
should
Fig . 5
53
so well
uld be. Fig.
3
b ing faced
shows a light alloy casting being
ith
r. the
rig ht across w it
h a flycutte
flycutter,
th e cas ting
bei ng stuck to the t able wi
with
th sticky tape
nothing
else.
and no
th ing else.
However.
ariou
exam pl es give n
How
ever, tthe
he var
io uss exampl
th roughout th
the
should
throughout
e book shou
ld serve to show
o undert
unde rtake
of
how tto
ake a really wide range of
jobs.. A
Att the risk of seemi
seeming
repettitive
itive I
jobs
ng repe
wo uld agai
again
stress
that
worth
would
n st
ress th
at it is often wort
h
w
hile to m
ak e a jijig
g fo
din g or loc
ating
while
make
forr hol
holding
locating
th
ake sure it can be held
thee work
work., j ust to m
make
fifirmly
rmly enoug
h without da mage
ht
enough
m age in the rig
right
attitude
nd of ji gs and
fixt ures
atti tude . The ki
kind
and fixtures
neede
d in m
od ellin
g se
seldo
m involve mo
r
needed
mode
ll ing
ldom
more
tthan
han a few
few mi
nu tes or pe
rhaps an hour
minutes
perhaps
hou r to
make,
rds the co
mpo make. and if this
this safegua
safeguards
compo

Fig. 53 Tape-held
workpiec
e being fly
flyccut
ut
Fig.
Tape- held w
orkpiece

angleplate
vee-blocks
Fig. 54 Three-face ang
leplate used to align vee-b
lo cks

79

CHAPTER
CHAPTER 16

16

Milling Chucks
Chucks for
for
Safe Cutter Holding

Fig. 55
55 Three-face
Three-face ang
ang lepla
leplates
used as
as m
main
p acking
acking
Fig.
tes used
ain p

nen
toolss and
nentt,, as
as well
w ell as
as the
t he tool
and machine
m achin e.. it
it
is
time
well
spent.
If
a
duplicate
is ti m e we ll spe nt. If a duplicate co
co mpom po
nent
nent is
is ever
ever needed
neede d tha
thatt wi
w i llll be
be produced
produce d
expeditiou sly w ithout risk t oo.
exp editiously w it hout risk t oo.
Angleplatas
A n gl eplates
s been
A
A new
new type
type of
of anglepl
angleplate
at e ha
has
been
introduced
by
Hemin
gway.
This
has
int roduced by Hemin gw ay. This has three
three
faces m achined at 90 degrees to on e
faces m achined at 90 degree s to one
anothe r. I have found over m any years
ano the r. I have found over many years
that
-in
th at cas
castin slots
slot s in
in anglep
ang leplates
lates never
never
seem
to
be
In
the
rig
ht
pla
ce
fo
seem to be in the righ t place forr any
any job,
job,
and
and itit seems
seems better
bet t er to
to just
just drill
drill aa hole
hole
where
wh ere itit happens
happens to
to be
be needed.
needed. These
Th ese

80
80

an gl
wh i c h a rree sent out
g l e p late
l a t e s,
s , whic
un
mach
ined in ligh
oy. are in three
unm
achined
lig htt all
alloy,
sizes
sizes very convenient
conve nient for use in
in ho me
me
workshops
wo rkshops and can easily be faced up on
late.
the Myford
M yford lathe
lathe bo ring
rin g table
t able or
o r facep
faceplat
e.
Fig
Fig.. 54
54 show
show ss one
on e of
of th
them
em se
sett across
across aa
mi
-b lockss in
milller
ler tabl
tabl ee ttoo loca
locattee the
the tw
twoo vee
vee-block
in
which
ti ng . Fig.
w hich the
th e work
w ork is
is res
resting.
Fig. 55
55 shows
show s
another
ed as
anot her pair
pai r uused
as main
main packings
packing s w
w ith
it h
Pica
dorr stepped
Picado
st epped blocks
blocks oonn top
t op to
t o give
give the
th e
he clam
last
ment
last bit
bi t of
of height
heigh t adjust
adjustme
nt for
for tthe
cl ampp
an y sizes
plates.
pl at es. So
So m
many
sizes are
are available
ava ilab le by
by
ecting different
sel
selecting
di ffer en t attitudes
atti tu de sof
of these
the seblocks
blocks
that
tha t they
they are
arevery
very usefu
usefull indeed.
indeed.

Th
e newcom
rtical
ng m
The
newcomerr to
to ve
verti
ca l milli
milling
may
ay
wo
nde r w
hy there
wonder
why
th ere should
should be
be any
any need
need for
for
special ch
ng cutters,
ch ucks
ucks for
for m
milli
illing
cutt ers , and
and
especially
especial ly w
w hen
hen he sees that
tha t these
these are
fairly expensive accessorie
s. may be
accessories.
tem
pte d tto
o make do w itho
ut one.
tempted
ithout
on e. But first
of
ssary to realise
at tth
he
of all itit is nece
necessary
re alise th
that
e
force
miilllling
ing cutters in use
forcess acti ng upon m
are generally
e diff
erent from those
generall y quit
qu ite
different
act ing on dr
il lss in a drilling
mach
acting
drill
dril li ng m
ach ine or
The
usually
subject
ed,, except
lathe. Th
e drill is usua
lly su
bje cted
m ent
com plet e penetrat
pe net ration
at the mo me
nt of complete
ion ., to
axial
fo rces only,
on ly , which
whi ch press
press it more
mo re and
axi
al forces
in to the
t he Morse
M orse t aper ho
hole
in
le in
m ore firmly int
the spindle.
spindle. Even
Eve n if it is
is held in a drill
drill
the
chuck
and has
has aa para
para lle
llell sha
shank,
t he same
sam e
chu
ck and
nk, the
thi ng applies.
applies.
thing
Butt the
th e mi
m illing
cutt er is
is subjected
subject ed to
to
Bu
lling cutter
transverse forces,
for ces, across
across th
thee axis,
axis , and
and
transverse
unless itit is
is screwed
screw ed on
on the
the spind
spindle,
these
unless
le. these
forces have
have aa componen
co m p on entt which
wh ich is
is
forces
pressing against
against the
t he in
inside
of the
the Morse
Morse
pressing
si de of
tap er ho
holle,
e, and
and thereby
thereby trying
try ing to
to cause
cau se the
the
taper
cutter to
to slide
slide ou
outt of
of the
the sp
spindle
Each
cutter
indle.. Each
ti me tthe
he spindle
spindle rotates
rota te s the
the pressure
pres sure isis
time
transferred to
to the
the opposite
opp osite side
side of
of the
the
transferred
hole,
e. and
this wagg
waggles
the tool
tool out
out of
of the
the
les the
hol
nd this
tool mounted
mounted
spind le.
So first
fi rst of
of all,
all , any
any tool
spindle
. So
by aataper
t apershank.
shank,whether
whether itit isisaachuck
ch uck or
oraa
by
MUST be
be
solid endmill
endm ill with
w ith taper
taper shank,
shank, MUST
solid

pro
vided w
ith aa drawba
with
drawbarr through
th rough the
the
provided
spindle
is ten
spi ndle to
to stop
stop th
this
tendency
ency to
to w
w ork
ork out.
out.
For cutt ing tools w hich in ope rat ion
For cutting tools w hich in ope rati on
prod
uce no
no end
end forces
forces that
that precau
precau tion
tion is
is
pro duce
suff
icient.
e spiral
suffici
ent . But
Bu t all
all th
the
spiral flfl uted
uted end
end m
mills
ills
and slot dr ills do gene rate end forc es,
and slot drills do generate end forces.
tending
e holding
to screw
screw tt hem
hem out
out of
of th
the
holding
tending to
device.
lies to
device . (Strictly
(Stri ctly speaking
speaking this
this app
applies
to
cutt
ers w
at ion, like
ith righ
ri ghtt ha
ha nd
nd rot
rotation.
like a
a drill,
drill,
cutters
w ith
and right
ha nd
luting
also like
like a
ri ght ha
nd fflutin
g,, also
a drill.
drill . But
But
and
as it
it w
w ould
ould be
be re
rem
ark able for
for any
othe
rs,
m arkable
any o
the rs,
as
tho
ugh
m
anuf
actured,
t
o
be
fou
nd
in
a
tho ugh manu factured, to be fou nd in a
home works
wo rkshop
thee others
others ca
can
we llll be
be
home
hop., th
n we
disregarrded.
ded.)) So
So spi
spiral
ed cutters
cutt ers w
w ill
ill
ral flflut
ut ed
disrega
try t o work ou t of a chuck, if parallel
try to w ork out of a chuck, if parall el
shanked, and m ust be fo rcibly prevented.
sh an ked , and mu st be fo rcibly preve nted .
It is
is not
not good
good enough
eno ugh to
to ho
hold
ld them
th em in
in aa
It
thre e-jaw
e-jaw lathe
lathe ch
chuck,
uck, especia
especiall
since
llyy since
thre
mo st of
of these
th ese exert
exert more
mo re pressure
pr essure at
at tthe
he
most
in ner end
end than
tha n the
th e outer,
out er, th
through
wear
inner
ro ugh wear
existing
in th
the
jaw slides
slides,, in
in effect
eff ect giving
givi ng
existin
g in
e jaw
them aa slig
slight
t aper.r.
them
ht tape
This isis where
w here th
thee specially
specially designed
des igned
This
mill
ing
chuc
k
com
es
int
o
its
ow
n. Ther
Th ere
milling chuck comes into its ow n.
are tw o bas ic types, but each is arranged
are two basic types, bu t each is arranged
to grip the cutte r firm ly on it s paral lel
to grip the cutter firmly on its para ll el
shank by a split coll et clo sed by a screw
shank by a split collet closed by a screw
thread forcin g the collet into a conica l part
th read forcing the collet into a conical part
of the chuck. In addition one typ e uses
of the chuck. In addition one type uses
cu tt ers formed with a specia l shap ed end ,
cutters formed with a specia l shaped end ,

81
81

Fig. 556
Clare milling
milling chuck
chuck
Fig.
6 Clare

and the
the ot
other
type
uses cu
cutttters
with
and
her typ
e uses
ers w
it h aa
of tthe
he
short
screw th
thread
at tthe
he end
end of
sho
rt screw
re ad at
shank. The
The first
first of
of these,
these, the
th e Clare,
Clare, has
has aa
shank.
forr the
th e cu
cutter,
and this
this
rectangular
end fo
rect
angular end
tt er, and
end is
is undercut
undercut by
by m
mill
ing. After
Aher passi
passing
end
illing.
ng itit
rectang
angu
lar slo
slott in
in the
the co
collet,
llet, the
the
through aa rect
through
ular
cutter is
is turn
turned
hrough
smal
angle, so
so
cutter
ed tthro
ugh aa sm
aill angle,
the pa
part
not und
undercut
overh angs the
t he end
end
the
rt not
erc ut overhangs
slide
out. The
The
of the
the co
colle
t, and
and cannot
cannot slid
of
ll et,
e out.

collet is
is no
nott only
only retained
retained in
in the
the ch
chuck
uck
collet
body by
by all
an int
intern
ally
screwed
capp w
w hich
hich
body
ernal
ly screw
ed ca
fi ts
on tthe
he bo
body.
is also
also closed
clo sed on
on the
the
fit
s on
dy , bbu
utt is
shank by
by it.
it. The co
collet
screws
intoo anot
another
shank
llet screw
s int
her
re ad in
in tthe
that it
th read
th
he cap, which en sures that
en requi
required,
small
spanner
loosens
lo
osens wh en
red, aa sm
all span
ner
being prov
provided
the m
makers
fo r tthi
being
ided by the
akers for
hiss
of chu
chu ck w ill in fact
purpose.
This type of
pur
pose. This
tters w
which
do not
not have the
the 'tee'
hold cu tters
hold
hi ch do

Fig. 5
57
7 Clar
Clarkson
milling chuck
chuck
Fig.
kson milling

Fig.
ill ing chuck
Fig. 58
58 Osborn
Osborn m
milling
chuck

end, and have jus


n rou
nd shank,
shank,
justt a plai
plain
round
rse the security fea
feature
tthough
hough of
of cou
course
t ure is
then non-exist
f orr sma
sm allll cu
cutt
ers
nt.. But fo
tters
non-existeent
ill serve
serv e very
very well.
we ll.
will
and light duty it w
The other type
type of ch
chuck,
m ad e both by
uck , made
Clarkson
Osb orn , uses only a screwed
Clarkso
n and Osborn,
shan k typ e of cu
cutt
er and cannot
can not be
be used
shank
tter
exc ep t with
w ith thi
this.
Th e screw thread
th read on
on the
th e
except
s. The
shan k, when
w hen subjected
subjecte d to the
the torque
shank,
orque
dr ive th e cutter,
cu tte r, provides
prov ides the
the
necessary to drive
and th ereby grip
gr ip
force to
t o close
clos e the
the collet and
force
the tool
t ool shank.
shank. A
A centre
cent re device
device inside the
t he
the
bod y engages
engag es with
w it h tthe
he centre
cen tre dimple
dimple in
in
body
the end
end of
of the
the cutter
cutt er to
to reduce
reduce friction
fr ic tion
the
force s that
that would
w ou ld hamper
hamper rotat
rot ation
of the
th e
forces
ion of
cutte r. TThhee Clarkson
Cla rkson chuck
chuc k needs
needs aa
cutter.
spanne r, provided
provided with
w it h the
th e tool
to ol., to
to release
release
spanner,
t he co
co llet
llet for
for ch
chang
ing cutters.
cu tt ers. The
T he
the
anging
Osborn e uses
uses aa finer
finer thread
thread on
on tthe
he
Osborne
sec ur ing
sleeve . ttoge
ogetthher
wi th som
some
lost
securin
g sleeve.
er with
e lost
motio n provisions,
provisions. and
and can
can be
be released
re leased by
by
motion

82
82

hand
w ithout
th e use
ner. There
ha nd w
itho u the
use of
of a
a span
spanner.
There
is
provision w
ith each
each of
hese for
for using
is provision
with
of tthese
using
't
hrow - away'
aw ay' cutters,
w hich
hich are
ade
'throwcutters, w
are m
made
to :l- in
in.. Th
These
have a
a
cheaply
sizes up
up to
ch
eaply in
in sizes
ese have
plain
shank. unscrewed,
unsc rewed, of
of
in .. diameter
di ameter
pla
in shank,
in
w hate ver the
the size
size of
of th
th e
e cu
cutt
ing
portion.
whatever
ttin
g portion,
w hich
has a
a sma
sma llll fla
flatt in
in one
one place.
place . They
They
wh
ich has
are set
set in
in an
an adaptor
adapto r w
w ith
ith a
a small
sm all screw
screw at
at
are
the side,
sid e, which
w hic h bears
bears on
on the
the flat,
fl at , and
and this
t his
the
is sufficient
suffic ient to
to prevent
preven t their
t heir working
working out
out of
of
is
the chuck.
chuck. The
The idea
id ea of
of these
th ese cutters
cutt ers is
is that
tha t
the
they are
are made
m ade so
so cheaply
cheaply that
that in
in aa comcom
they
m ercial engineering
eng ineeri ng shop
shop itit wi
wi llll cost
co st more
m ore
mercial
t o re-sharpen
re-sharpen one
one than
th an to
to replace
rep lace itit by
by aa
to
new one
one .. Whether
Whe ther or
or not
not that
t hat is
is rea
really
true
new
lly true
will depend
depend on
on the
t he parti
par t icula
establish
will
ularr establishment in
in wh
w hich
they are
are be
being
used,, but
bu t in
in
ment
ich they
ing used
the home
hom e workshop.
worksho p, ifif there
the re is
is aa Quorn
Qua m
the
grinder. itit will
will be
be feasible
feasible to
t o re-sharpen
re-sh arpen
grinder,
them
m at
at aa worthwhi
wort hwhile
cost in
in time
tim e and
and
the
le cost
t roubl e, for
for aa wh
w hile
until aa certain
cert ai n amount
amo unt
trouble.
il e,, until

83
83

of shortening
shortening has
has taken
taken place
place..
of
cutte rs with
with screwed
screwed ends
ends to
to
All the
the cutters
All
suit the
the Clarkson
Clarkson and
and Osborn
Osborn chucks
chucks have
have
suit
Whitworth form
form threads
threads 20
20 pe
perr inch
inch
Whitworth
irrespective of
of diameter.
diameter. On
On
in . shanks
shanks
irrespective
in.
conforms to
to B.S.W
B.S .W.. and
and on
on tt in.
in .
this conforms
this
shanks to
to B.S.F.
B.S.F . for
fo r both
both of
of which
which dies
dies can
can
shanks
readil
obtained . But
But for
fo r other
other
be read
i lyy obtained.
diameters, ifif one
one needs
needs to
to make
make aa special
special
diameters.
cutter in
in the
the home
hom e workshop. screwing aa
cutter
20 threads
threads per
per inc
inc hh is
is not
no t aa difficult
difficult
shank 20
shank
specia
for the Clare
task. Making the spec
iall ends for
cutlers is not quite so easy in my view. but
cutters
the Clare
Clare chuck
chuck has
has the
t he advantages
advantages of
of a
a
the
sho rt overhang and a smaller
sm aller diam
et er of
short
iameter
body, Th
This
is particularly
part icula rly useful
useful when
when
body.
is is
holding work
wo rk in
in a
a 3
3 or
or 4-jaw
4- jaw chu
chuck
on a
a
holding
ck on
dividi ng head
head ., when
when sometimes
some times it
is
dividing
it is
difficult to
to cl
clear
th e chuck
jaws. But
But all
all
difficult
ear the
ch uck Jaws.

84
84

recommended
these chucks
chucks can
can be
be fully
fu lly recommended
these
as being
be ing good
good pr
precision
tools
which
as
cision too
ls which
provide complete
complete security
security against
agains t cutte
cutters
rs
provide
worki ng out
out in
in use.
use. IfIf an
an accident
accident of
of that
tha t
working
not having
having aa security
security
kind happens
happens due
due to
to not
kind
chuck. aa spoil
spoiled
componentt is
is certa
certa in.
in, aa
chuck.
ed componen
broken cutter
Culler is
is possible
possible., and
and II hay
have seen
seen
broken
this happen
happen on
on a number
nu mbe r of
of occasions,
occasions, So
So
this
do be wa
w arned
don'tt think
think the
the cost
cost of
of
do
rn ed , and don'
chuck
too high
high to
to face.
a proper chu
ck is too
Pho t og rap hs of the three
t hree chucks
Photographs
men tion ed are shown
shown in
in Figs. 56 , 57
57 and
mentioned
shown
5 8 . The
The Clarkson Autolock
Autolock chuck shown
58.
as in pictures in the
the tex t, is
here, as we ll as
fitt ed wi
w ith
ring . After
A fter the
fitted
th a damping ring,
rse taper, tthis
the Mo rse
chuck is fixed in the
his riring
ng
can
be screwed
scr ewed up to con
conttact
act the end of
ca
n be
mach ine spi
spindle,
giv ing extra support
the machine
ndle, giving
upport
inst
vibrati on.
aga in
st vibratio
n.

A RNO LD THROP
T HRO P was
wa s an
an apprentice
apprentice then
the n
ARNO
Outside Erector with
w it h the
the famous
fam ous
an Outsid
engineer
Cole. Marchent & Morley,
Mo rley.
engi
neerss Cole,
Brad ford.
Produc t s:
s : compoun
compound
rd , Yorks. Product
d
Bradfo
Uniflows to
t o 1500
15 00 hp,
hp.
engines to 2500
2 50 0 hp,
hp , Uniflows
engines
Diesel
oi l engi
engines,
Di
sel oil
nes, condensers for largest
pow er sta
stations.
Lat er he held tech
t echnica
l
tions. Later
nica lpower
inist
rattiiv
st s in
i n high-tensio
hig h - t en sio n
adm in
istra
v e po sts
swi tc hqear.
mi ning ma
m achin
ery . st
ainless
swit
hgea r, mining
chinery,
stainle
ss
fabrication.
mac hine
fa
brication , machi
ne tools, and m arking
arki ng
devices. A
nt he was th
Att his retireme
retirement
thee
Dir
ector of
Ed w ard Pryor &
Director
of Engineering,
Engi neering , Edward
Son.
So n, Sheffield.
He has been an I.Me
ch .E. in mo
unting
I.Mech.E.
mounting
seniority
ing on several
se niority over 50 years,
ye ars, serv
serving
com m
itt ees and one of
mittees
of B.S.1.
B.S.I. He has read
.E. and the
me n
pap
ers
rs t o
0 I.Mech
I.Mech.E.
th e Newco
Newcomen
pape
Socie
ty of
hi ch he is a mem
ber.
e has
Soci ety
of w
which
membe
r. H
He
worked
worked for
for half
ha lf a doze n years as demon
dem onst
rator on
orkshop Stand of
E.E..
strator
on the W
Workshop
of S.M.
S.M .E.E
at
od el Engi ne
er Exhibit
at M
Model
neer
Exhibi t io
io n s, con
co ntributed articles
er fro
m
artic l s to
to Model Engine
Engineer
from
193
2,. and
an d having
having been
been in Sheff
Sheffield
1932
S.M
7 has been
s Presi
S.M.E.E.
.E.E . from
from 193
1937
bee n itits
President
s.
dent fo
for.r. some
some year
years.
Founding
633., he
Fou nding Dore
Dore Engineering
Engineering in
in 19
196
he
redesig
ned Edgar
's ve
rtic all
re designed
Edgar Westbury
Westbury's
vertica
m
e Dore-Westbury
as th
the
Dore-Westbury
mille
illerr and
and sold
sold itit as
unti
o Mod
el Engin
eering
unt ill tra
transfe
nsferr tto
Model
Engineering
Services
7 1.
Services in
in 19
1971.
His
tion ary
His present
present interests
interests are
are sta
stationary
ipment , gardening
eng
ines. wo
rkshop equ
engines,
workshop
equipment.
gardening
and
ot ography.
photography.
and ph
The author
author
The

86
86

87
87

Index
illin
g attachm
attac hmeent
nt
Abwood m
mill
ing
12
Amo
lco m
i ll i n g atta
chm e
nt an
ndd
Amolco
milling
attachm
en
machine
m
achine
21
A
ng leplat
es
Anglep
lates
80
A
ng leplate used as backst
op
Angleplate
backstop
27
, 29
27.29
tt ing saw
s and disc cu tters
Arbors for sli
slitting
saws
3
5
35
As
tra m
ng machin
e
Astra
mililliling
machine
22
22
Boring operation
s
operations
Bori
ng heads
Boring

45
3
0
30

Chuc
ks, Clare,
Cl arkson. Osborn
Chucks.
Clare. Clarkson,
Clutch
Clu tch teeth
tee th
Connecting rods
Crosshead slides
late
bedplate
slides., engine bedp

82

Divid
ing heads . de
s cr iption
Dividing
descr
i ption
principle
Plain typ
e. change
el
type.
change whe
wheel
indexing
Myford w
orm -geared
worm
geared type
type
Use of
ision plat
es
of div
division
plates
Use of
of locating blades
blades
Packing block for
for centre height
Steady stand for
for extra rigidity
Dividing head
s and
heads
and gear-cutting
Plain type
type
Pin
ion cutting
Pinion
Large gea
ng
gearr cutti
cutting

88
88

5
5
55
43
30
an
d
and
54
55
55
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
56
56
62
62
62
62
62
64

Dividing
Divi
ding heads and graduated scales
scale s
ing/slotting
Plan
Planing/
slotting and rotating too lls
Table
Tabl e stops
stop s and liline
ne length control
co ntrol
Cutting/engraving
le
ng/engraving cy lindrical sca
scale
Cutti
arcuate scale
sca le
Cuttiing/
ng/engraving
Cutt
engraving flat arcuate
micro
meter
Conical
Con
ical m
icro m
et er dials
Marking
res of
of scales
sca les right way
M arkin g figu
fig ures
Dividiing
ng heads and tool-m
tool - making
Divid
aking
screwing
Fluting screwin
g ttap
ap
Cu tting
ine tooth m ililliling
ng cutter
cutt er
Cutt
ing ffine
countersink
Cutting large co
unter sink
Speciall di
division
plate
Specia
vision pla
te.. 2 5 hole
D- bit
forr hol
hole
centring
drills
D-b
it fo
e cen
tri ng to start dri
lls
Dore-Westbu
ry m ill
il lin
gm
machine
Dor
e-W estbury
ing
achin e
End-round
End-ro
undiing:
ng :
Filing coll
collars
ro llers
Filing
ars and rollers
Using rotary tab
table
Using
le
for rot
rotary
Fittings for
ary table
Rounding engine cranks
Direction
of table rotation
Direc
tion of
Locking
precautions
external
Lo
ck ing pre
c auti on s ffor
o r ex
te rna l
work
Engine bedpl
bedplate
jawss
ate bearing jaw
Engine
cylinde
soleplate
Engi
ne cyli
nderr solepla
te
E olution
vertical
miller
Evolut
ion of ver
t ical mi
ller
Flut
ing op
era t ion s.. locom
ot iv e rods,
Fluting
operations
locomot
rods.
cor
rec t fflute
lut e form
correc
British
Rods for Briti
sh engines
Rodss for
for Ca
Canadian
American
Rod
nadian and Am
erican
engines

71
71
71
71
72
73
7
3
73
73
73
66
66
666
6
677
6
69
6
9
70
47
47
14
14

52
52
52
5
2
52
52
52
52
52
52
53
53
33
33
30
12

444
4
43
43
443
3

89
89

Flywheel
(i n halves) joint
joint face
Flywh
eel (in

3311

cutting
Gear cutt
ing
engravi ng cutlers
cutters and o
DGrinder for engraving
bits

62
62
71

fi cation of cutte
cutters
etc.. by mark
marking
Identi fication
rs etc
ing
made
whe n made

42
42

JJig-boring
ig-boring :
Measu
ri ng by table screws
Meas
uring
Written
record
of m
measu
remen
Wri
tten recor
d of
easurem
entts
s
for model eng
engine
Example of beam for
ine
leverot
mode l eng
engine
Trip gear lever
of model
ine
plates
Boiler tube pla
tes
errors
Avoidance of back-lash
back-l ash erro
rs
Jigs
milling
J igs for milli
ng operations
opera t io ns

46
47
47
47
47
48
4
8
48
4
8
46
46
78

Keyways for plain


pla in sunk keys
keys::
Endmilling feather keyways on plain
shafts
shahs
Keyways on taper
tilti ng
taper shafts
shafts wi thh tilting
angleplate
Disc cutter milling of keyways
Loctiting
Locti ting for permanent assembly
Long componen
t s, holding problems
com pone nts,
Machine
Machi ne specifications,
specifica tions. table
tab le of
Maximat
M axim at milling attachment
attachme nt

90

37
38
41

27
3 8,
8 . 49
49
24
22

ng ma
chine
Me
ntor mi
Mentor
mi lli
ll ing
mach
ine
Mill
ing cutters.
lti -tooth :
Milling
cutters, mu
multi-tooth
Early
e-cut' cutters
Early (19
(19tthh century
century)) 'fil
'file-cut'
Facemills
Endm
ills
End mills
Slitting saws
saws
Disc cutters
Woodruff cutt
ers
cutters
Brown & Sharpe
Sharpe cutters
Tap flut ing cutters
cu tters
A
ng le cutt
ers
Angle
cu tters
h:
M
illing cutters, single toot
Milling
tooth
Flycutters
Connecti
ng rod fluting cutt
er
Co nnecting
cu tter
Profi
led gear
rs
cutters
Profiled
gear tooth
tooth cutte
Engraving cutters
Milling operation
s:
operations:
surf aces parallel
Flat surfaces
to table
surface s squa
square
Flat surfaces
re
to table
cut ti ng
Slitting and cutting
Com ponent
flut ing
Compone
nt fluting
Tool fluting
End rounding
Gear- cutti ng
Gear-cutting
Keywaying
W oodruff keys
keys and
Woodruff
keyw ays
keyways
Bor ing
Boring
J ig-boring

22
22
12

30
338
8

3355
40
40
40
62
62
67
67
69
69
2
7
27
43
43
62
71

32
34

35
43
67

52
62
62
39
39

38

45
46
46
91
91

Profili ng
Profiling
Engraving
Engraving
Myford-Rodn ey milling
m illi ng attachmen
attachm entt and
and
Myford-Rodney
m ach ine
ine
mach
Myford collets
co llets
Myford
Myford dividing
dividing head
head
Myford
Profiling
Profiling::
Circular
Circu lar arcs
arcs
Locomotive
Locomotive frame
framess
es
Sm
okebox
and
linder saddl
Smokebox and cy
cylinder
saddles
Pad-bolts
Pad-bolts
Sma
ll ar
c s dder
er ii ved
rom ccurve
u rve ooff
Small
arcs
ved ffrom
end
mills
endmills
Quo
rn grinder
ning
Quorn
grinder for
for tool
tool sharpe
sharpening
Quorn
nder , parts
Quorn gri
grinder.
parts of
of

92
92

49
49
71
71
21
21
62
62
57
57
49
49
4
9
49
4
9
49
49
49
51
51

83
83
35
,71
35.71

Rota
ry tab
les
Rotary
tables
Rotary
e.. M.E.S.
Rotary tabl
table
M.E.S.

52
52
52
52

Senior
ng m
achine
Senior milli
milling
machine
Security
ill ing cutters
Security of
of m
milling
cutters::
Forces
ing upon
Forces act
acting
upon drills
drills and
and cutters
cutters
Use
Use of
of drawbars
drawbars in
in machine
machine spindles
spindles
Positive
ing of
Positive lock
locking
of screwed
screwed cutters
cutters in
in
ch
uck s
chucks
Posit
ive locking
Positive
locking of
of Tee
Tee cutters
cutters in
in
chucks
chucks
Slitting
cutting operations
operations
Slitting and
and cutting
Speeds
illing cutte
rs
of m
milling
cutters
Speedsof

22
22

Tapered
Tapered sections
Throw-away' cutters
cutte rs
Twin
Twin milling
mil ling machine
mach ine

29
29

Vices.
Vic es. use of two
tw o together
tog ethe r

27
27

Westbury.
Westbu ry, Edgar T.
Westbury m
milling
machine
illing m
achine
Woodruff keys
keys and
and keyw
keyways
Woodruff
ays
Work holding fo r difficu
difficult
lt shapes:
Use of
of chucking
chucking pieces
pieces lat
later
Use
er
discarded
tape fo
forr t hin art
articles
Sticky tape
icles
Glue and
and paper
paper for
for tthin
articles
Glue
hin articles
Specially
made jigs
jigs for
for di
difficul
Specia
lly made
ff icultt
shapes
shapes

14
14
14
14

83
83
22
22

38
38

78
78
78
78
78
78
78
78

8811
81
81

82
82
82
82
35
35
74
74
93
93

e"

et' the pressure's 0fJ


on

4" MODEL
-1

ENGINEER
ENGIN
ER
",on't
won't let

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Surrey
RHIIQS

RHI 10 .

Q
UCCIi S IW/ I'
Queenswul'

PRACTICESERIES
WOR HO PRACTICE
WORKSHOP
SERIES
1. IHardening.
Tempering and
and
1.
fardenmg, Tempermg
Heat Treatment
Treatment
Heat
Tubal am
din
Tubal
vertical Milling
Milling In
in the
the Home
Homo
22. Vertical
Workshop
Workshop
Arnold Throp
Th rop
Arnold

in the
the Lathe
Lathe
3J . Screwcutting
rewcutting m
Milflin Cleeve
Cleeve
Martin
4 . Foundrywor~
Foundrywork lor
tor the
the Amateur
Amateur
4.
B. T. A
Aspin
B.T.
pin
Milling Operation,
Operations In
in th
the Ldthe
Lathe
55. Milling
Tubal Cain
Cai n
Tubal
Measu ring dnd
and Marking
Ma rking Metals
Meta/~
6. Mea~urin8
LdW
Ivan Law
7. The Art of Welding
7
W.A. Vause
Vause
W.A

1II1 1I~I3'13I~1II'9525
111 1 1 1 ,11~11~1 1 ~111 W
111111
I I1I1~ 1 ~111 11001 111111 1117696
1 117696
illi
66
9525 001

8. heet
heet Meta!
Work
8.
felal Work
R.E
R.E. Wakcford
Wakeford
9 . Soldering
Soldering and
and BraZing
Brazing
9.
Tubal Cain
Cain
Tubal

Saws and
ami Sawmg
SawlI1g
O. Saw~
110.
Ian Bradl
Bradley
lan
y
Electroplating
11I . Electroplatmg
Poyner
JI. Poyner

onn

12
12.. Drill , T,lP;
is and
,md Die}
Dies
Tubdl Cam
Cain
Tubal

Wor kshop
Drawing
1I J . Work
hop Drawlnl{
Tubal Cain
Cain
14 . Making
Mak ing mall Work,hop
Workshop
Tool,
Tools
S. Bray

15.
15. Workholding
Workholding In
in the
the Ldthe
i.athe
Tuboll
Tubal Cam
Cain
16
16 . flectric
ElectricMOlOrs
Motor"
V.1.
V.1. Cox
Cox
117.
7 Gears
Gears and
and Gear
Gear Cutting
Cutting
I.I. Law
Law
18
work
18. BiHI<
B""ic Bench
Benchwork
Le
.. Oldridge
Les
Oldridge
19
prmg De"sn
\1dnutacture
19. Spring
De'ign dnd
and 1\
t.mutocture
Tubal
Tubal aln
ain
20 . Metalwork
Mt't,l/work and Machlnmg
Mac hining
Hmt
Hint dnd
and TIp;
Tip
lan
Ian Bradley
21
21.. Adhesive
Adhes ives and Sealants
Sea lants
Davld
Da vid Lammas
Lamm as

2. Vertical Milling in the Horn


Hom W orkshop
orksho
appearanc of vertic,
vertic I mil lin
ling
machines in model
The increasing appearance
g machines
work hops has
ha brou
brought
ver atil ityy of thi
thiss
engineers' and other small workshops
ght the versatilit
p t ntial
type of machine to the notice of a large and growing group of pot
users, but until the fifirst
published
1977
users,
rst edition of the book wa s publi
shed in 197
7 there
waas little easily available guidance
guidanc for the average am
amat
ur or small user.
w
ateur
third,, revi
revissed
d ed itio
ition
description of many of the very
v ry w
wide
This third
n incl udes descriptions
ide
range of op
erations possible, wi th photograph
ed examples, plus
operation
photographed
piu infor
informat
ion on machines, acce
cutters, chucks,
mation
acc sories,
ori ,cutter,
hucks, r quirement
quirem ntss and
methods of work-holdi
ng.
work-holding.
and successful engine
ngine ring
ring care r
Arnold Throp enjoyed a long and
steam and
and oil engines and including
including high tension
ten ion
very larg
large steam
starting with very
swit
hgear, mining
mining machinery
machinery and
and machine tool
tools.
hieved
sw
itchgear,
s. He has aa hi
eved over
55 years'
echanical
years' membership
member hip of
of the
the Institute of
of M
Me
hanical Engineers.
Engineer.

ISBN 0-8
0-85242-843-X
ISBN
5242-843-X

I
6.50
6.50 net
net UK
UK

IIII II1

9 78 085 2 428 436