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LINEAR MOTION EQUATIONS

In this part of the Lesson we will investigate the process of using the equations to determine unknown
information about an object's motion. The process involves the use of a problem-solving strategy which
will be used throughout the course. The strategy includes the following steps:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Construct an informative diagram of the physical situation.


Identify and list the given information in variable form.
Identify and list the unknown information in variable form.
Identify and list the equation which will be used to determine unknown information from known
information.
Substitute known values into the equation and use appropriate algebraic steps to solve for the
unknown information.
Check your answer to insure that it is reasonable and mathematically correct.

v (m/s)
v

v-u

Final
Velocity

u
Initial
velocity

0
Initial 0
Conditions

Final
Conditions

t (s)

Looking at the v/t graph it starts at some point up the velocity axis and slopes upwards after a period of
time. From the definition of acceleration:

vu
t

Transpose for

at

And the final velocity can be given by

----(1)

The area under the graph is the distance travelled. This consists of one triangle and one rectangle.


Area of the rectangle
Area of the triangle

Distance travelled

We also know that

v u at

Substituting for (v u ) into the above equation for distance gives:

----------(2)

By combining equation 1 and 2 we can obtain an equation relating velocity, acceleration and distance.
From equation (1)

vu
, substitute this into equation 2 and show that v 2 u 2 2as
a

The use of this problem-solving strategy in the solution of the following problem is modelled in Examples
A and B below.
Example A
Im a Hurryin is approaching a stoplight moving with a velocity of +30.0 m/s. The light turns yellow, and
Ima applies the brakes and skids to a stop. If Ima's acceleration is -8.00 m/s2, then determine the
displacement of the car during the skidding process. (Note that the direction of the velocity and the
acceleration vectors are denoted by a + and a - sign.)
The solution to this problem begins by the construction of an informative diagram of the physical situation.
This is shown below. The second step involves the identification and listing of known information in
variable form. Note that the vf value can be inferred to be 0 m/s since Ima's car comes to a stop. The initial
velocity (vi) of the car is +30.0 m/s since this is the velocity at the beginning of the motion (the skidding
motion). And the acceleration (a) of the car is given as - 8.00 m/s2. (Always pay careful attention to the +
and - signs for the given quantities.) The next step of the strategy involves the listing of the unknown (or
desired) information in variable form. In this case, the problem requests information about the displacement
of the car. So d is the unknown quantity. The results of the first three steps are shown in the table below.
Diagram:

Given:

determine:

u = +30.0 m/s

s = ??

v = 0 m/s
a = - 8.00 m/s2
The next step of the strategy involves identifying a kinematic equation which would allow you to determine
the unknown quantity.

v 2 u 2 2as
Once the equation is identified and written down, the next step of the strategy involves substituting known
values into the equation and using proper algebraic steps to solve for the unknown information. This step is
shown below.
(0 m/s)2 = (30.0 m/s)2 + 2*(-8.00 m/s2)*s
0 m2/s2 = 900 m2/s2 + (-16.0 m/s2)*s
(16.0 m/s2)*s = 900 m2/s2 - 0 m2/s2
(16.0 m/s2)*s = 900 m2/s2
s = (900 m2/s2)/ (16.0 m/s2)
s = (900 m2/s2)/ (16.0 m/s2)
s = 56.3 m

The solution above reveals that the car will skid a distance of 56.3 meters. (Note that this value is rounded
to the three significant figures.)
Example B
Ben Rushin is waiting at a stop light. When it finally turns green, Ben accelerated from rest at a rate of a
6.00 m/s2 for a time of 4.10 seconds. Determine the displacement of Ben's car during this time period.

Diagram:

Given:

determine:

u = 0 m/s

s = ??

t = 4.10 s
a = 6.00 m/s2

s ut

1 2
at
2

Once the equation is identified and written down, the next step of the strategy involves substituting known
values into the equation and using proper algebraic steps to solve for the unknown information. This step is
shown below.
s = (0 m/s)*(4.1 s) + 0.5*(6.00 m/s2)*(4.10 s)2
s = (0 m) + 0.5*(6.00 m/s2)*(16.81 s2)
s = 0 m + 50.43 m
s = 50.4 m
The solution above reveals that the car will travel a distance of 50.4 meters. (Note that this value is rounded
to three significant figures.)

FREE FALL
The application of these four equations to the motion of an object in free fall can be facilitated by a proper
understanding of a few conceptual characteristics of free fall motion. These concepts are described as
follows:

An object in free fall experiences an acceleration of -9.8 m/s/s. (The - sign indicates a downward
acceleration.) Whether explicitly stated or not, the value of the acceleration in the kinematic
equations is -9.8 m/s/s for any freely falling object.
If an object is merely dropped (as opposed to being thrown) from an elevated height to the ground
below, then the initial velocity of the object is 0 m/s.
If an object is projected upwards in a perfectly vertical directly, then it will slow down as it rises
upward. The instant at which it reaches the peak of its trajectory, its velocity is 0 m/s. This value

can be used as one of the motion parameters in the kinematic equations; for example, the final
velocity (v) after travelling to the peak would be assigned a value of 0 m/s.
If an object is projected upwards in a perfectly vertical directly, then the velocity at which it is
projected is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the velocity which it has when it returns to
the same height. That is, a ball projected vertically with an upward velocity of +30 m/s will have a
downward velocity of -30 m/s when it returns to the same height.
Example A

Luke Autbeloe drops a pile of roof shingles from the top of a roof located 8.52 meters above the ground.
Determine the time required for the shingles to reach the ground.
The solution to this problem begins by the construction of an informative diagram of the physical situation.
This is shown below. The second step involves the identification and listing of known information in
variable form. You might note that in the statement of the problem, there is only one piece of numerical
information explicitly stated: 8.52 meters. The displacement (s) of the shingles is -8.52 m. (The - sign
indicates that the displacement is downward). The remaining information must be extracted from the
problem statement based upon your understanding of the above principles.
Diagram:

Given:

determine:

vi = 0.0 m/s

t = ??

s = -8.52 m
a = - 9.8 m/s2

s ut

1 2
at
2

Once the equation is identified and written down, the next step involves substituting known values into the
equation and using proper algebraic steps to solve for the unknown information. This step is shown below.
-8.52 m = (0 m/s)*(t) + 0.5*(-9.8 m/s2)*(t)2
-8.52 m = (0 m) *(t) + (-4.9 m/s2)*(t)2
-8.52 m = (-4.9 m/s2)*(t)2
(-8.52 m)/(-4.9 m/s2) = t2
1.739 s2 = t2
t = 1.32 s
The solution above reveals that the shingles will fall for a time of 1.32 seconds before hitting the ground.
(Note that this value is rounded to three significant figures.)
Example B

Rex Things throws his mother's crystal vase vertically upwards with an initial velocity of 26.2 m/s.
Determine the height to which the vase will rise above its initial height.
Diagram:

Given:

Determine:
s = ??

u = 26.2 m/s
v= 0 m/s
a = -9.8 m/s2

v 2 u 2 2as
Once the equation is identified and written down, the next step involves substituting known values into the
equation and using proper algebraic steps to solve for the unknown information. This step is shown below.
(0 m/s)2 = (26.2 m/s)2 + 2*(-9.8m/s2)*s
0 m2/s2 = 686.44 m2/s2 + (-19.6 m/s2)*s
(-19.6 m/s2)*s = 0 m2/s2 -686.44 m2/s2
(-19.6 m/s2)*s = -686.44 m2/s2
s = (-686.44 m2/s2)/ (-19.6 m/s2)
s = 35.0 m
The solution above reveals that the vase will travel upwards for a displacement of 35.0 meters before
reaching its peak. (Note that this value is rounded to three significant figures.)
Check Your Understanding
1.

An airplane accelerates down a run-way at 3.20 m/s2 for 32.8 s until is finally lifts off the ground.
Determine the distance travelled before take-off.

2.

A car starts from rest and accelerates uniformly over a time of 5.21 seconds for a distance of 110
m. Determine the acceleration of the car.

3.

Upton Chuck is riding the Giant Drop at Great America. If Upton free falls for 2.6 seconds, what
will be his final velocity and how far will he fall?

4.

A race car accelerates uniformly from 18.5 m/s to 46.1 m/s in 2.47 seconds. Determine the
acceleration of the car and the distance travelled.

5.

A feather is dropped on the moon from a height of 1.40 meters. The acceleration of gravity on the
moon is 1.67 m/s2. Determine the time for the feather to fall to the surface of the moon.

6.

Rocket-powered sleds are used to test the human response to acceleration. If a rocket-powered
sled is accelerated to a speed of 444 m/s in 1.8 seconds, then what is the acceleration and what is
the distance which the sled travels?

7.

A bike accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed of 7.10 m/s over a distance of 35.4 m. Determine
the acceleration of the bike.

8.

An engineer is designing the run-way for an airport. Of the planes which will use the airport, the
lowest acceleration rate is likely to be 3 m/s2. The lowest take-off speed will be 65 m/s. assuming
these minimum parameters for the same plane, what is the minimum allowed length for the runway?

9.

A car travelling at 22.4 m/s skids to a stop in 2.55 s. Determine the skidding distance of the car
(assume uniform acceleration).

10. A kangaroo is capable of jumping to a height of 2.62 m. Determine the take-off speed of the
kangaroo.

11. If Michael Jordan has a vertical leap of 1.29 m, then what is his take-off speed and his hang time
(total time to move upwards to the peak and then return to the ground)?

12. A bullet leaves a rifle with a muzzle velocity of 521 m/s. While accelerating through the barrel of
the rifle, the bullet moves a distance of 0.840 m. Determine the acceleration of the bullet (assume
a uniform acceleration).

13. A baseball is popped straight up into the air and has a hang-time of 6.25 s. Determine the height to
which the ball rises before it reaches its peak. (Hint: the time to rise to the peak is one-half the
total hang-time.)

14. The observation deck of the World Trade Centre is 420 m above the street. Determine the time
required for a penny to free fall from the deck to the street below.

15. A bullet is moving at a speed of 367 m/s when it embeds into a lump of moist clay. The bullet
penetrates for a distance of 0.0621 m. Determine the acceleration of the bullet while moving into
the clay. (Assume a uniform acceleration.)

16. A stone is dropped into a deep well and is heard to hit the water 3.41 s after being dropped.
Determine the depth of the well.

17. It was once recorded that a Jaguar left skid marks which were 290 m in length. Assuming that the
Jaguar skidded to a stop with a constant acceleration of -3.90 m/s2, determine the speed of the
Jaguar before it began to skid.

18. A plane has a take-off speed of 88.3 m/s and requires 1365 m to reach that speed. Determine the
acceleration of the plane and the time required to reach this speed.

19. A dragster accelerates to a speed of 112 m/s over a distance of 398 m. Determine the acceleration
(assume uniform) of the dragster.