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Examples of use of Galvanized

Reinforcement
in Coastal and Marine Exposure

Floating precast concrete marinas

Townsville, North Queensland

Production of precast cells

The marina employs a high density polystyrene flotation cell encased in a reinforced
concrete shell. All reinforcement was hot dip galvanized, as were the steel supporting
columns. After more than 20 years operation, the marina was redesigned in 2008. All
cells were removed and inspected. Though a number of black steel reinforced elements
around the marina needed to be replaced, the galvanized reinforced flotation cells were in
such good condition that all of them were re-located in the new layout of the marina.
June 2007

Stormwater outfall, Sydney

Marina wall, Townsville

Seawall, Brighton Yacht Club

Footbridge, Yarra River, Melbourne

ANDOC North Sea Oil Platform


2000t of galvanized steel reinforcement was
used in the roof of the seabed crude oil
storage tanks (caissons). The caissons are
104 m x 104 m x 32 m high and consist of 81
cells each 11 m x 11m. The primary
concern was to the temperature difference
between the seawater at 5C and crude oil
which is cooled from 75C to 35C. The
temperature difference causes expansion
and contraction of the inner and outer
surfaces of the caisson which may
propagate cracks leading to corrosion of
unprotected reinforcement. The cost of
galvanizing was only 0.12% of the total
project cost. Had all the reinforcement been
galvanized, the cost would not have been
more than 1%.
June 2007

Piers and Pontoons

Onimichi Pier, Japan

Lillholmens Pontoon Bridge, Finland

Galvanized reinforcement has been widely


used in many docks, jetties, pontoons and
buoys.
Galvanized wire or mesh is also very
commonly used in ferro-cement
construction for marine buoys,
yachts and small vessels.
June 2007

Lamma Island Pier, Hong Kong

Coastal Structures

Security wall

Treatment works, Newcastle

Perimeter wall, Long Bay

US Coast Guard Barracks

Sydneys Deepwater Ocean Outfalls


Galvanized steel reinforcement was used in the
construction of linings for three deepwater
ocean outfall tunnels at North Head, Bondi and
Malabar in Sydney. The tunnels were bored
through coastal cliffs and the seabed to a
distance of about 3 km offshore. The tunnels
were lined with a combination of precast panels
and insitu concrete, all of which were galvanized
reinforced for long-term corrosion protection.

Pouring the tunnel lining

Mechanical bar connectors

Seawater cooling channels

Galvanized reinforced seawater cooling water ducts installed at a power


generation station at Spijk in the Netherlands. The galvanizing provides corrosion
protection should the concrete crack due to thermal effects allowing chlorides to
penetrate the concrete.