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Contact Type Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter Working Principle ...

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Contact Type Guided Wave Radar Level


Transmitter Working Principle

Guided wave radar (GWR) is also called time domain reflectometry (TDR) or
micro-impulse radar (MIR).
Basic principle
In a Guided Wave Radar installation, the GWR is mounted on the top of the tank
or chamber, and the probe usually extends to the full depth of the vessel. A low
energy pulse of microwaves, travelling at the speed of light, is sent down the
probe. At the point of the liquid level (air / water interface) on the probe, a
significant proportion of the microwave energy is reflected back up the probe to
the transmitter.
The transmitter measures the time
delay between the transmitted and
received echo signal and the onboard microprocessor calculates
the distance to the liquid surface
using the formula:
Distance = (Speed of light x time
delay) / 2
Once
the
transmitter
is
programmed with the reference
gauge height of the application
usually the bottom of the tank or
Probe Type Radar Level Transmitter Principle
chamber the liquid level is
calculated by the microprocessor.
The basic equation for measuring the tank level is
Level = Tank Height Distance

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Contact Type Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter Working Principle ...

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Because a proportion of the pulse will continue down the probe through low
dielectric fluids, a second echo can be detected from an interface between two
liquids at a point below the initial liquid level.

Contact Type Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter Working Principle


CLICK HERE TO SEE ANIMATION
This characteristic makes guided wave radar a good technique for measuring
liquid/liquid interfaces such as oil and water and measuring through some foams.
Guided wave radar can be used in vessels with tight geometry, in chambers, and
in tanks of all sizes. Advanced GWR also works well in low dielectric and
turbulent applications. Because it is not dependent on reflecting off a flat
surface, it works well with many powders and grains as well as liquids with
slanted surfaces caused by vortices.
Also See : Radar Level Transmitter Animation
Guided wave radar technology Benefits
No moving parts and no re-calibration minimizes maintenance

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Direct level measurement means no compensation needed for changing process


conditions (i.e. density, conductivity, temperature, and pressure)
Handles vapor and turbulence well
Suitable for small tanks, difficult tank geometry, and interfering obstacles
Allows for easy upgrade
Top down installation minimizes risk for leakages

Also See : Different Level Transmitters Working Animation


Advantages
Guided wave radar (GWR) provides an accurate and reliable measurement for both
level and interface, and can be used in a wide variety of applications.
It is a top-down, direct measurement as it measures the distance to the surface.
GWR can be used with liquids, sludges, slurries, and some solids.
A key advantage of radar is that no compensation is necessary for changes in the
density, dielectric, or conductivity of the fluid.
Changes in pressure, temperature, and most vapor space conditions have no impact on
the accuracy of radar measurements.
In addition, radar devices have no moving parts

So maintenance is minimal. GWR is easy to install and can easily replace other
technologies, such as displacer and capacitance, even while there is liquid in the
tank.
Limitations
While guided wave radar works in many conditions, some precautions need to be
taken with respect to probe choice. Several probe styles are available and the
application, length, and mounting restrictions influence their choice. Unless a
coax-style probe is used, probes should not be in direct contact with a metallic
object, as that will impact the signal. If the application tends to be sticky or coat,
then only single lead probes should be used. Some advanced GWRs on the
market have advanced diagnostics, with the ability to detect build-up on the
probe. Chambers with a diameter less than 3 in. (75 mm) may cause problems
with build-up and may make it difficult to avoid contact between chamber wall and
probe.

POSTED BY S BHARADWAJ REDDY


Instrumentation Professional Working in a reputed Oil & Gas Company.

6/4/2016 4:40 PM