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Univversity of Aleexandrria

Facultyy of Enggineerin
ng
Electricaal Engineeering Depaartment
Commu unication & Electronnics Section
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Mob i l e W i MA X
Phyysical Layer
L I
Implem
mentatiion of Mobile
M e WiMA
AX
on DSP
D Ti TMS320C66416

                    
 
 
 
 
Under supervision of:
Prof. Ahmad Kamal Sultan Salem
July
J 2008

 
 
 
 
 
What you spend years building, someone may try to
destroy overnight. Build anyway because you had to give
the world the best you have, even if it may never be
enough; Give the world the best you have anyway.
When clocks reverse, time never runs back. So, hard work
had to be your way to face the world.
Wi Team
July, 2008
Presented by:
Abd Al-Rahman Mostafa Fekry
Ali Mohammad Alauldin Ali Salem
Ayman Abdo Solayman Ali
Ehab Kamal Al-din Ahmad Al-Sayed
Hossam Al-din Hasan Mahmod
Islam Mohammad Saad Hussin
Sherif Mohammad Saad Hussin
▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬
Acknowledgments
Thanks to Allah, first & foremost. For nothing is worth working for if it isn’t for
the sake of Allah. It is only due to Allah’s blessing that we reached this far.
We thank Allah for everything, especially for providing us with hope when we
were close to losing it, guidance he blessed us with to complete our work, &
people that Allah leads us to & made reasons for our success…

Prof. Ahmad, our supervisor, the light – hearted teacher & the kind father image
who guided us through all of our work and was very patient in hearing our
problems. He always provided us with easy, yet creative solutions for any
road blocks we ran into.

We also would like to thank the other groups for support throughout our work
and everyone has been participated in this project.
 
▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬
Content
Part (1): WiMAX Overview
1. Chapter (1): IEEE 802.16e Overview…………………………………….1
1.1. Introduction:……...…………………………………………………….1
1.2. Evolution of Broadband Wireless:…………………………….……….3
1.3. WiMAX Applications:………………………………………………....5
1.4. WiMAX versus other systems:…………………………………………5
1.5. WiMAX bands & broadband bands:…………………………..……….8
1.6. WiMAX challenges:……………………………………………………9
1.7. Quality of Service:…………………………………………………….10
1.8. Fractional Frequency Reuse…………………………………..……….11
1.9. Remarks………………………………………………………………..11
1.10. Bibliography……………………………………………………...……12
2. Chapter (2): Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing…...……...…14
2.1. Multicarrier Modulation:……………………………...……………….14
2.2. Orthogonality:…...……………………………………………………..15
2.3. IFFT & FFT:…………………………...………………………………15
2.4. Cyclic Prefix:……………………..……………………………………16
2.5. OFDM Symbol:……………………..…………………………………17
2.6. Peak – to – Average Ratio:…………………………………………….18
2.7. OFDMA:………………………………………………………………19
2.8. Resource – Allocation Techniques for OFDMA:…………….……….20
2.9. OFDMA Frame Structure:……………...……………………………..21
2.10. Sub–Channel & Sub–Carrier Permutations:…………………………..21
2.11. SOFDMA:………….………………………………………………….22
2.12. Bibliography:………………………………………………………….23
3. Chapter(3)Physical Layer:……………....……………………………….24
3.1. Transmitter:……………………...…………………………………….25
3.1.1. Randomizer:……………………..…………………………………….25
3.1.2. Frame Error Correction (FEC):……………………..…………………26
3.1.2.1. Concatenated Reed–Solomon–Convolutional Code:…………..….26
3.1.3. Interleaver:………………...…………………………………………..28
3.1.4. Symbol Mapping:……………………………………………………..29
3.1.5. Pilot Symbol:…………….………………………………………...….30
3.1.6. Training Sequences:……………..…………………………………....30
3.1.7. Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT):……………………………....31
3.1.8. Cyclic Prefix (CP):………………………...……………………….....32
3.1.9. RF stage:………………...…………………………………………….32
3.2. Channel:……………………………………………………………….32
3.3. Receiver:…………….………………………………………………...32
3.4. Bibliography:……………..…………………………………………...33
4. Chapter (4): MAC Layer:……..…………………………………………35
4.1. Convergence Sub–layer (CS):………………………………………...36
4.2. Common Part Sub–layer:…………...………………………………...36
4.2.1. MAC PDU Construction & Transmission:…………………………...36
4.2.2. Network Entry & Initialization:……………………………………....37
4.2.3. Power–Saving Operations:…………………………………………...38
4.2.4. Mobility Management:……………………………………………….38
4.2.4.1. Handoff Process & Cell Reselection:……...……………………...39
4.2.4.2. Macro Diversity Handover & Fast BS Switching:………….…….39
4.3. Security Sub–layer:…………………………………………………...40
4.3.1. Security Sub–layer Architecture:……………….…………………….40
4.3.2. Authentication architecture:………………...………………………...41
4.4. Bibliography:……………….………………………………………...42
5. Chapter(5): Advanced Techniques in WiMAX:………………………...44
5.1. Adaptive Modulation & Coding (AMC):…………………………….44
5.1.1. Modulation:………………….……………………………………….45
5.1.2. Coding:………….……………………………………………………46
5.2. AMC in Uplink & Downlink:…………….………………………….46
5.3. Performance of the AMC scheme:…………………………………...47
5.4. Channels:…………….……………………………………………….48
5.4.1. Propagation Characteristics of Mobile Radio Channels:……….........48
5.4.1.1. Attenuation:………..……………………………………………...48
5.4.1.2. Multipath effect (Rayleigh & Ricean Fading):………..………….48
5.4.1.3. Doppler Shift:………….………………………………………….50
5.5. Modeling of Channels:………….……………………………………50
5.6. Channel estimation:…………..………………………………………51
5.6.1. Preamble & Pilot:…………….………………………………………51
5.6.2. Pilot Signal Estimation:……………………………………………....51
5.6.2.1. Least Square Estimation:…………….…………………………....52
5.6.2.2. Linear Minimum Mean Square Error Estimation:………….……..52
5.6.3. Channel Interpolation:…………...…………………………………...52
5.6.3.1. Linear Interpolation:…………...………………………………….53
5.6.3.2. Spline & Cubic Interpolation:………….………………………….53
5.6.3.3. Low Pass Interpolation:…………………………………………...53
5.7. Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS):………….……………………….53
5.7.1. Spatial Diversity:………….………………………………………….54
5.7.2. Beam forming:…………...…………………………………………...56
5.7.3. Multiple–Antenna Techniques:……………...……………………….57
5.7.3.1. Channel Estimation for MIMO–OFDM:………………………….58
5.8. Bibliography:…………….…………………………………………...59
6. Chapter (6): WiMAX Network Architecture…...………………………61
6.1. Network reference model (NRM):……………...……………………61
6.2. The Access service network (ASN):…………..……………………..62
6.3. Connectivity service network (CSN):………….…………………….63
6.4. Reference points (RP):………….……………………………………64
6.5. Bibliography:…………………….…………………………………..65

Part (2): Simulation & Implementation

7. Chapter(7): System Simulation Using Matlab:...…….………………...69


7.1. Simulink:………………………………………………….…………69
7.1.1. Simple System:…………….………………………………………...69
7.1.2. MIMO System:……………...……………………………………….75
7.1.3. Special Blocks Configurations:……………………………………...76
7.1.4. IIR Filter:……………..……………………………………………...78
7.1.4.1. Testing the filter:……………….………………………………...79
7.1.5. Audio Reverberation:………………………………………………..81
7.2. Remarks:…………………....………………………………………..81
7.3. M–File:……………….……………………………………………...81
7.4. Additional Reading:………………...……………………………….81
8. Chapter(8): System Implementation:…………………………………..83
8.1. Introduction:…………………………………………………………83
8.2. Starting Code Composer Studio:…………………………………….85
8.3. System Model Implementation:……………………………………..86
8.4. VCP Progress:……………………………………………………….88
8.5. Troubleshooting errors:……………………………………………...88
8.6. Bibliography (Very Important Documents):………………………...89
System Parameters…………………………………………………...A
▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬
Figure
Figure 1.1 Evolution of 3G versus WiMAX.
Figure 1.2 Worldwide subscriber growth 1990–2006 for mobile telephony,Internet usage, &
broadband access.
Figure 1.3 Metropolitan Area
Figure 1.4 Possible scenarios for WiMAX deployment.
Figure 1.5 WiMAX fills gap between WLAN & 3G (Rate–Mobility tradeoff).
Figure 1.6 Net Throughput per Channel/ Sector.
Figure 1.7 Spectral Efficiency.
Figure 1.8 Fractional Frequency Reuse. F1, F2, & F3 are different sets of sub–channels in
the same frequency channel.
Figure 2.1 Multicarrier Modulation.
Figure 2.2 Subdivision of bandwidth, in MC transmission, into Nc sub–bands.
Figure 2.3 Spectrum of OFDM signal.
Figure 2.4 Cyclic Prefix.
Figure 2.5 Relation between cyclic prefix & delay spread.
Figure 2.6 Frequency domain representation of OFDM symbol.
Figure 2.7 A typical power amplifier response.
Figure 2.8 A peak cancellation as a model of soft limiter when γ =5dB.
Figure 2.9 OFDMA & OFDM.
Figure 2.10 OFDMA Frame Structure.
Figure 3.1 Basic system structure.
Figure 3.2 Functional Stages of WiMAX PHY Layer (Transmitter).
Figure 3.3 Transmitter of WiMAX System.
Figure 3.4 Randomizer.
Figure 3.5 Convolutional Encoder & tailbiting in IEEE 802.16e.
Figure 3.6 Turbo Encoder (Constituent Encoder) in IEEE 802.16e.
Figure 3.7 BPSK, QPSK, 16–QAM, & 64–QAM Constellations.
Figure 3.8 PRBS Generator for Pilots.
Figure 3.9 DL Preamble structure (PSHORT than PEVEN).
Figure 3.10 Receiver of WiMAX System.
Figure 4.1 WiMAX MAC Layer.
Figure 4.2 Segmentation and concatenation of SDUs in MAC PDUs.
Figure 4.3 WiMAX PDU headers: generic (on the top) & bandwidth request (on the button).
Figure 4.4 Network Entry & Initialization.
Figure 4.5 DL MOHO: combining.
Figure 4.6 UL MDHO: Selection.
Figure 4.7 Security Sub–layer.
Figure 4.8 Authentication architecture
Figure 4.9 PKMv2 key hierarchy.
Figure 5.1 Adaptive Modulation & Coding.
Figure 5.2 Adaptive modulation & coding block diagram.
Figure 5.3 Shannon capacity & modulation constrained Shannon capacity.
Figure 5.4 Throughput versus SINR, assuming that the best available constellation & coding
configuration are chosen for each SINR.
Figure 5.5 Multipath fading.
Figure 5.6 Rayleigh & Rice Distribution.
Figure 5.7 LOS vs. N–LOS
Figure 5.8 Channel Modeling Representation.
Figure 5.9 Receiver Diversity (on the top) & Transmitter Diversity
Figure 5.10 Average bit error probability for selection combining (on the left) & maximal
ratio combining (on the right) using coherent BPSK. Owing to its array gain,
MRC typically achieves a few dB better SNR than does SC.
Figure 5.11 Open–Loop 4–2 stacked STBC transmitter.
Figure 5.12 Closed–Loop Transmit Diversity.
Figure 5.13 Beam pattern using this weight vector (Null–steering beam pattern) with unity
gain for desired user & nulls at directions of interferers.
Figure 5.14 MIMO transmission.
Figure 5.15 MIMO & OFDM.
Figure 5.16 Training symbol structure of preamble–based & pilot–based
channel estimation methods.
Figure 6.1 Overview of WiMAX, UMTS & GSM combined network structure.
Figure 6.2 WiMAX Network Reference Model.
Figure 6.3 ASN security architecture & deployment models: integrated deployment model
(on the left) & stand–alone deployment model (on the right).
Figure 6.4 Functions Performed Across Reference Points.
Figure 7.1 Basic system structure.
Figure 7.2 Simple system structure.
Figure 7.3 Adaptive Modulation & Coding.
Figure 7.4 Sub–system.
Figure 7.5 S/ P, inserting pilots & DC null to the data.
Figure 7.6 OFDM symbol creation process.
Figure 7.7 rateID sub–block.
Figure 7.8 OFDM symbol creation process.
Figure 7.9 The Sub–block components.
Figure 7.10 Adaptive Demodulation & Decoding.
Figure 7.11 Sub–System.
Figure 7.12 BER Calculator System.
Figure 7.13 Input Data Calculations which is used for applying correct frame length for each
modulation scheme.
Figure 7.14 MIMO System structure.
Figure 7.15 IIR Filter structure.
Figure 7.16 Filter Design.
Figure 7.17 The testing model (multi–frequency sine wave bank).
Figure 7.18 Spectrum Output (The cutoff freq. is at 500 Hz), [On top,before filtering & after
filtering on the button].
Figure 7.19 Audio Reverberation Applied to an Audio Input Signal.
Figure 8.1 Functional block and CPU (DSP core) diagram.
Figure 8.2 L2 Architecture Memory.
Figure 8.3 Basic system structure.
Figure 8.4 VCP programming process.
▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬
Tables
Table 1.1 Hypothetical Metropolitan Area.
Table 1.2 Comparison of WiMAX with other standards.
Table 1.3 Summary of WiMAX bands.
Table 1.4 Technical design challenges summery to wireless broadband.
Table 1.5 Sample traffic parameters for wireless broadband applications
Table 2.1 OFDM parameters.
Table 2.2 OFDMA Rate–Adaptive Resource–Allocation Schemes.
Table 2.3 Sub–Carrier Permutations.
Table 2.4 Scalable OFDMA Parameters.
Table 3.1 Inner Convolutional Code with Puncturing Configuration.
Table 3.2 Mandatory Channel Coding per Modulation.
Table 3.3 Block Size of the Interleaver.
Table 4.1 Convergence Sub–layer of WiMAX.
Table 5.1 SNR required for each modulation, & bits/ Symbol.
Table 5.2 Modulation & Coding Supported in WiMAX (UL & DL).
Table 5.3 AMC Modulation & Coding Schemes.
Table 6.1 Functional Decomposition of ASN.
Table 6.2 WiMAX Reference Points.
Table 7.1 Sub–system component function.
Table 7.2 Sub–block component function.
Table 7.3 Sub–block component function.
Table 7.4 Sub–block component function.
Table 7.5 Sub–block component function.
Table 7.6 Sub–block component function.
Table 7.7 Puncturing array.
Table 7.8 Soft Decoding.
Table 8.1 Word width with Ti DSP’s.
Table 1 Different WiMAX Standard
Table 2 Fixed & Mobile WiMAX Certified Profiles.
Table 3 PHY–Layer Data Rate at Various Channel Bandwidths.
▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬
Preface
Broadband wireless sits at the confluence of two of the most remarkable
growth stories of the telecommunications industry in recent years. Both
wireless & broadband have on their own enjoyed rapid mass–market
adoption.
Internet grew from being a curious academic tool to having about a
billion users. This staggering growth of the Internet is driving demand for
higher–speed Internet–access services, leading to a parallel growth in
broadband adoption.
Due to the rapid changes in communication environment many
technologies have been developed to facilitate communication, like
wireless broadband systems.
Now, we may say thanks to Broadband wireless communication, the
world has become a small village.

All of the new advanced applications need powerful tools to carry the up
to life, which also required being economically to have their wide use.
So, digital signal processors, such as the TMS320 family of processors
was introduced by texas Instruments, are used in a wide range of
applications, such as in communications, controls, speech processing, &
so on. They are used in cellular phones, digital cameras, high–definition
television (HDTV), radio, fax transmission, modems, and other devices.
These devices have also found their way into the university classroom,
where they provide an economical way to introduce real – time digital
signal processing (DSP) to the student.
The TM320C6x processor, based on the very–long instruction–word
(VLIW) architecture. This new architecture supports features that
facilitate the development of efficient high–level language compilers.

This book has 8 chapters sorted into two parts. Part I has six chapters
which are concern on the WiMAX system.
Part II consists of two chapters, which have the Matlab simulations &
describes the architecture of the Digital signal processor TI
TMS320C6416 & how to program it in short. The project codes &
implementation are included on the CD provided with the book.
 
 

Part. 1 
 

WiMAX Overview
Chapter. 1 
 
 
  Chapter
1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IEEE 802.16e Overview
1.1 Introduction:

Broadband access today is delivered via Digital Subscriber line (DSL)


family “using telephone twisted pairs” or cable modem technology
“coaxial cables of TV” which offers high – speed Internet – access
services.
Growth of the broadband subscribers & wide varieties of applications
requires more reliable & flexible solutions, which can be carried out via
wireless systems.
We may consider that the first generation of those systems is the Wi–Fi
technology (802.11 family), but that family suffers from the small range of
coverage & limited number of users. So, the need for the better system in
coverage & number of served users was required. The second generation
appears under the name WiMAX (802.16 family). So, WiMAX take
wireless internet access to the next level.

Figure 1.1: Evolution of 3G versus WiMAX.

Now, what is wireless broadband?


Wireless broadband is about bringing the broadband experience to a


Page

wireless context, which offers users certain unique benefits and


Chapter. 1
 
 
convenience. There are two fundamentally different types of broadband
wireless services. The first type attempts to provide a set of services similar
to that of the traditional fixed – line broadband but using wireless as the
medium of transmission. This type, called fixed wireless broadband, can be
thought of as a competitive alternative to DSL or cable modem. The second
type of broadband wireless, called mobile broadband, offers the additional
functionality of portability, nomadicity, & mobility. 1
Mobile broadband attempts to bring broadband applications to new user
experience scenarios and hence can offer the end user a very different
value proposition.
What is WiMAX?
WiMAX is the abbreviation for Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access. It is based on Wireless Metropolitan Area Networking
(WMAN) standards developed by the IEEE 802.16 group & adopted by
both IEEE & the ETSI HIPERMAN group. The aim is to provide a
supplement respectively a substitution to fixed line broadband access
technologies as ADSL. Furthermore, later evolutional steps of WiMAX
cover full mobile technology features as provided by 3G.
Important of this system can be illustrated via following curve:

Figure 1.2: Worldwide subscriber growth 1990–2006 for mobile telephony,


Internet usage, & broadband access.

The metropolitan area composed of different densely populated regions


(highest densely populated area is the city center & decreasing outwards).

Page

1 Nomadicity implies the ability to connect to the network from different locations via different base stations.
Mobility implies the ability to keep ongoing connections active while moving at vehicular speeds.
Chapter. 1 
 
 

Figure 1.3: Metropolitan Area

Region Area Year 1 Population Population density


2
Dense Urban 100 km 800,000 8,000 /km2
Urban 200 km2 500,000 2,500 /km2
Suburban 500 km2 400,000 800 /km2
Rural & Open Space 700 km2 50,000 71 /km2
Metro Area 1500 km2 1.750,000 1,166 /km2

Table 1.1: Hypothetical Metropolitan Area.

What is WiMAX FORUM?


It’s an industry – led, non – profit corporation formed to promote & certify
compatibility & interoperability of broadband wireless products. It was
formed by equipment & component suppliers to support the IEEE 802.16
system by helping to ensure the compatibility & interoperability of
equipments which will lead to lower cost through chip – level
implementation.
What is WiSOA?
WiMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance is the first global organization
composed exclusively of owners of WiMAX spectrum without plans to
deploy WiMAX technology in those bands. WiSOA focused on regulation,
commercialization & deployment of WiMAX spectrum in the 2.3 – 2.5
GHz & the 3.4 – 3.5 GHz ranges. WiSOA are dedicated to educating &
informing its members, industry representatives & government regulators
of the importance of WiMAX spectrum, its use & potential for WiMAX to
revolutionize broadband.

1.2 Evolution of Broadband Wireless:


WiMAX technology has evolved through four stages:


Page
Chapter. 1
 
 
(1) Narrowband wireless local-loop systems (WLL):
They were quite successful in developing countries whose high demand for
basic telephone services could not be served using existing infrastructure.
(2) First – generation line – of – sight (LOS) broadband systems:
As local multipoint distribution systems (LMDS) band at 2.5GHz, 3.5GHz
& in millimeter wave frequency bands (24GHz & 39GHz). Later,
multichannel multipoint distribution services (MMDS) band at 2.5GHz.
Using high transmitted power LOS coverage to distances up to 35 miles &
required that subscribers install at their premises outdoor antennas high
enough and pointed toward the tower for a clear LOS transmission path.
(3) Second – generation non – line – of – sight (NLOS) broadband
systems:
Overcome LOS issue & provides more capacity using cellular architecture
& implementation of advanced – signal processing techniques to improve
the link and system performance under multipath conditions.
(4) Standards – based broadband wireless systems:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a group
called 802.16 to develop WMAN. Originally, this group focused on
developing solutions in the 10GHz to 66GHz band. The IEEE 802.16
group produced a standard that was approved in December 2001. This
standard, Wireless MAN – SC, specified a physical layer that used single –
carrier modulation techniques & a media access control (MAC) layer with
TDM structure that supported both FDD and TDD.
After completing this standard, the group started work on extending and
modifying it to work in both licensed and license – exempt frequencies in
the 2 – 11 GHz range, which would enable NLOS deployments. This
amendment, IEEE 802.16a, was completed in 2003, with OFDM schemes
added as part of the physical layer for supporting deployment in multipath
environments. 802.16a also specified additional MAC-layer options,
including support for OFDMA.
Further revisions to 802.16a were made and completed in 2004. This
revised standard, IEEE 802.16-2004, replaces 802.16, 802.16a, & 802.16c
with a single standard, which has also been adopted as the basis for high –
performance metropolitan area network (HIPERMAN) by ETSI.
In 2003, the 802.16 group began work on enhancements to the
specifications to allow vehicular mobility applications. That revision,
802.16e, was completed in December 2005 and was published formally as
IEEE 802.16e-2005. It specifies scalable OFDM for the physical layer and
makes further modifications to the MAC layer to accommodate high –
speed mobility.

The 802.16f/ g are future management plane for previous standards.


Page
Chapter. 1 
 
 
Note that IEEE developed the specifications but left to the industry the task
of converting them into an interoperable standard that can be certified. The
WiMAX Forum was formed to solve this problem and to promote solutions
based on the IEEE 802.16 standards.
 
1.3 WiMAX Applications:
Applications using a wireless solution can be classified as:
1. Point – to – Point.
2. Point – to – Multipoint.
And there are a lot of business models for WiMAX like:
ƒ BWA technology for rural areas where no fixed lines are available.
ƒ Coverage of cities with BWA in competition to fixed lines, as an
equivalent to WLAN with larger coverage.
ƒ Hot Spots / Hot Zones.
ƒ Backhauling of WLAN/ WiMAX Hot Spots.
ƒ Broadband 4G mobile technology with mobility up to 120km/h.

 
Figure 1.4: Possible scenarios for WiMAX deployment.

1.4 WiMAX versus other systems:


WiMAX system can be compared with respect to 3G family, IEEE 802.11
[Wi–Fi], & others as IEEE 802.20 [Mobile Broadband Wireless Access
(MBWA)] and IEEE 802.22 [Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN)].

Here is a brief comparison between some systems:


Page

 
Chapter. 1
 
 
Mobile 1x EV – DO
Parameters Fixed WiMAX HSPA Wi – Fi
WiMAX Rev A
IEEE 802.16d – IEEE 802.16e – IEEE 802.11
Standards 3GPP Release 6 3GPP2
2004 2005 (a/b/g/e/n)
46 Mbps (in 10
9.4 Mbps (in 3.5 MHz with 3:1
DL/ UL ratio 14.4 Mbps
MHz with 3:1
[FDD]). (using all 14 3.1 Mbps.
DL/ UL ratio
Peak DL data codes). Rev. B will 54 Mbps.
[FDD]). 32 Mbps (in 10
rate 7.2 Mbps support 4.9 More than 100
6.1 Mbps (in 3.5 MHz with 1:1
[TDD]). (using 10 Mbps. Mbps peak
MHz with 1:1
codes). layer 2
[TDD]). Using 2 × 2
throughput
MIMO.
using (n).
3.3 Mbps (in 3.5 7 Mbps (in 10
Both are shared
MHz with 3:1 MHz with 3:1
between Dl &
DL – to – UL DL – to – UL 1.4 Mbps.
Peak UL data UL.
ratio [FDD]). ratio [FDD]). Later, 5.8 1.8 Mbps.
rate
6.5 Mbps (in 3.5 4 Mbps (in 10 Mbps.
MHz with 1:1 MHz with 1:1
[TDD]). [TDD]).
3.5 & 7 MHz in
3.5 GHz band. 3.5, 5, 7, 8.75, 20 MHz.
Bandwidth 10 MHz 5 MHz. 1.25 MHz.
10 MHz in 5.7 initially. 20/ 40 MHz (n).
GHz band.
QPSK, 16 – QPSK, 16 – QPSK, 8 – BPSK, QPSK,
QPSK, & 16 –
Modulation QAM, & 64 – QAM, & 64 – PSK, & 16 – 16 – QAM, &
QAM.
QAM. QAM. QAM. 64 – QAM.
Multiplexing TDM. TDM/ OFDMA. TDM/ CDMA. TDM/ CDMA. CSMA.
TDD, FDD & TDD, FDD &
Duplexing Half – duplex Half – duplex FDD. FDD. TDD.
FDD. FDD.
800, 900, 1800,
2.3, 2.5, & 3.5 800, 900, 1800,
Frequency 3.5, & 5.7 GHz. 1900, & 2100 2.4, 5 GHz.
GHz. & 1900 MHz.
MHz.
< 100 ft
(indoor).
Coverage 3 – 5 Miles. < 2 Miles. 1 – 3 Miles. 1 – 3 Miles.
< 1000 ft
(outdoors).
Mobility Not applicable. Medium. High. High. Low.
Throughput &
Advantages Throughput & coverage area. Mobility & coverage area.
cost.
Interference (&
Disadvantages Interference. Expensive & low rates. Small coverage.
not mobile).

Table 1.2: Comparison of WiMAX with other standards.



Page
Chapter. 1 
 
 

Figure 1.5: WiMAX fills gap between WLAN & 3G (Rate–Mobility


tradeoff).

Figure 1.6: Net Throughput per Channel/ Sector.

Figure 1.7: Spectral Efficiency.


Page
Chapter. 1
 
 
1.5 WiMAX bands & broadband bands:
From a global perspective, the 2.3GHz, 2.5GHz, 3.5GHz, and 5.7GHz
bands are most likely to see WiMAX deployments. The WiMAX Forum
has identified these bands for initial interoperability certifications. A brief
description of these bands follows:

Designation Frequency Allocation Spectrum Notes


698 MHz – 746 MHz
(lower band). 3o MHz upper band & 48
UHF band 700 MHz Unlicensed.
747 MHz – 792 MHz MHz lower band.
(upper band).
1.710 GHz – 1.755 GHz.
Advanced wireless In USA, other countries
2.110 GHz – 2.155 GHz. 2 × 45 MHz (paired).
services (AWS) used in 3G services.
(Bands are paired)
Need licenses.
WiBro (South Korea)
uses this band.
Major constraint, tight
out – of – band emission
Wireless 2.305 GHz – 2.320 GHz. requirements enforced by
Paired (2 × 5 MHz) &
Communications the FCC to protect
2.345 GHz – 2.360 GHz. unpaired 5 MHz.
Services (WCS) 2.3 GHz adjacent DARS (digital
audio radio services)
band (2.320GHz to
2.345GHz) mobile
services difficult in the
sections of this band.
2.405 GHz – 2.4835 Unlicensed.
License exempt 2.4 GHz One block 80 MHz.
GHz. Mainly used by Wi–Fi.
Need licenses.
2.495 GHz – 2.690 GHz. Total 194 MHz which
Allow TDD, FDD.
consist of 8 slices 22.5
Broadband radio separation many countries make this
Mhz [16.5 MHz (DL)
services (BRS) 2.5 GHz between two blocks 10 band available &
paired with 6 MHz
MHz – 55 MHz. (UL)]. attractive for mobile
WiMAX.
Need licenses.
Allow TDD, FDD.
(3.65 GHz – 3.70 GHz
3.4 GHz – 3.6 GHz. Total 200 MHz mostly allocated for unlicensed
Fixed wireless access operation in USA).
3.3 GHz – 3.4 GHz. varies from 2 × 5 MHz to
(FWA) 3.5GHz Heavier radio
3.6 GHz – 3.8 GHz. 2 × 56 MHz (paired).
propagation losses,
difficult to provide
nomadic & mobile
services.
Unlicensed.
5.25 GHz – 5.35 GHz. 200 MHz available &

License exempt 5 GHz additional 255 MHz is Called unlicensed


5.725 GHz – 5.825 GHz. allocated. national information
Page

infrastructure (U – NII) is
Chapter. 1 
 
 
USA.
Note that lower band
have severe power
restrictions, extremely
difficult to provide
nomadic or mobile
services.

Table 1.3: Summary of WiMAX bands.

1.6 WiMAX challenges:


For WiMAX to be successful, it must deliver significantly better
performance than current alternatives, such as 3G & Wi-Fi. There are some
technical designs challenges like:
ƒ Developing reliable transmission & reception schemes to push
broadband data through a hostile wireless channel.
ƒ Achieving high spectral efficiency & coverage in order to deliver
broadband services to a large number of users, using limited
available spectrum.
ƒ Supporting & efficiently multiplexing services with a variety of QoS
requirements.
ƒ Supporting mobility through seamless handover & roaming.
ƒ Achieving low power consumption to support handheld battery –
operated devices.
ƒ Providing robust security.
ƒ Adapting IP – based protocols & architecture for the wireless
environment to achieve lower cost & convergence with wired
networks.

Service Requirements Technical Challenges Potential Solution


Mitigation of multipath fading &
NLOS Diversity, channel coding, etc.
interference.
Cellular architecture, adaptive
Achieving high spectral efficiency modulation & coding, spatial
multiplexing, etc.
Overcoming intersymbol
High data rate & Capacity OFDM, equalization, etc.
interference (ISI).
Adaptive antennas, sectorization,
Interference mitigation dynamic channel allocation,
CDMA, etc.
Supporting voice, data, video, etc,
Complex MAC layer.
on a single access network.
Quality of service (QoS) Radio resource management. Efficient scheduling algorithms.
IP QoS (as DiffServ, IntServ,
End – to – end QoS.

MPLS, etc).
Ability to be reached regardless of Roaming database, location update,
Page

Mobility
location. & paging.
Chapter. 1
 
 
Session continuity while moving
from the coverage area of one base Seamless handover.
station to another.
Session continuity across diverse
networks (as between WiMAX & IP – based mobility (Mobile IP).
Wi–Fi).
Power efficient modulation, sleep/
Reduce battery power consumption idle modes, low power circuits, &
Portability
on portable subscriber terminals. efficient signal processing
algorithms.
Protect privacy of user data. Encryption.
Security Prevent unauthorized access to
Authentication & access control.
network.
Provide efficient & reliable Adaptation of IP – based protocols
Low cost communication using IP for wireless & adapt layer 2
architecture & protocols. protocols for IP.

Table 1.4: Technical design challenges summery to wireless broadband.

As is often the case in engineering, solutions that effectively overcome one


challenge may aggravate another. Design trade – offs have to be made to find
the right balance among competing requirements.

1.7 Quality of Service:


QoS is a broad and loose term that refers to the “collective effect of
service,” as perceived by the user.
In addition to the application–specific QoS requirements, networks often
need to also enforce policy–based QoS, such as giving differentiated
services to users based on their subscribed service plans. The variability in
the QoS requirements across applications, services, and users makes it a
challenge to accommodate all these on a single–access network,
particularly wireless networks, where bandwidth is at a premium.

Interactive Streaming
Parameter Voice Data Video
gaming media
0.01 – 100
Data rate 50 – 85 Kbps. 4 – 64 Kbps. 5 – 384 Kbps. > 1 Mbps.
Mbps.
E – mail, web
browsing, IPTV, movies
Interactive Music, video instant download, peer
Example VoIP.
gaming. clips. messaging – to – peer
(IM), telnet, file video sharing.
download.
Real time Continuous, Non – real time,
Traffic flow Real time. Continuous.
(continuous). bursty. bursty.
< 1% (audio).
10 

Packet loss Zero < 1% Zero < 10 -8


< 2% (video).
Delay variation Not applicable. < 20 ms. 2 seconds. Not applicable. < 2 seconds.
Page
Chapter. 1 
 
 
Delay < 50 – 150 ms. < 100 ms. < 250 ms. Flexible. < 100 ms.

Table 1.5: Sample traffic parameters for wireless broadband applications

1.8 Fractional Frequency Reuse:


Mobile WiMAX support frequency reuse one, i.e. all cells/sectors operate
on one frequency channel to maximize spectrum utilization. However, due
to heavy interference in frequency reuse one deployment, users at the cell
edge may suffer low connection quality. Since in WiMAX, users operate on
sub–channels, which only occupy a small fraction of channel bandwidth,
the cell edge interference problem can be easily addressed by
reconfiguration of the sub–channel usage without resorting to traditional
frequency planning.
The sub–channel reuse pattern can be configured so that users close to the
base station operate on the zone with all sub–channels available. While for
the edge users, each cell/sector operates on the zone with a fraction of all
sub–channels available.

Figure 1.8: Fractional Frequency Reuse. F1, F2, & F3 are different sets of
sub–channels in the same frequency channel.

1.9 Remarks:
• For mobile WiMAX, the most significant challenge comes from 3G
11 

technologies that are being deployed worldwide by mobile operators.


Mobile operators are more likely to seek performance improvements
Page

through 3G evolution than to adopt WiMAX.


Chapter. 1
 
 
• CPE’s should kept simple by low transmitted power & simple efficient
digital signal processing) in order to keep small size, to have long life
battery (because it’s a limited source), & minimizing the cost.
• WiMAX allow Multimedia Broadcast/ Multicast Service (MBMS) –as
like TV services & so on–; because OFDM allows for high–efficient
Multicast/ Broadcast Single–Frequency Networking (MBSFN)
operation. So we have identical transmissions from set of tightly
synchronized cells which increased received power & reduced
interference.

1.10 Bibliography:
[1] Fundamentals of WiMAX for Jeffrey G. Andrews, Ph.D., Arunabha
Ghosh, Ph.D., Rias Muhamed.
[2] The Business of WiMAX for Deepak Pareek – Resource4Business,
India.
[3] Implementation of a WiMAX simulator in Simulink for Amalia Roca.
[4] Mobile WiMAX: The Best Personal Broadband Experience! June 2006
– WiMAX Forum.
[5] Fixed, nomadic, portable & mobile applications for 802.16 – 2004 &
802.16e WiMAX networks, November 2005, Prepared by Senza Fili
Consulting on behalf of the WiMAX Forum.
[6] Mobile WiMAX – Part II: A Comparative Analysis, WiMAX Forum.
[7] A Comparative Analysis of Mobile WiMAX Deployment Alternatives
in the Access Network, WiMAX Forum.
[8] Introduction into WiMAX, CHRISTIAN BAUER (Alcatel).
12 
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Chapter. 2
 
 
Chapter
2
Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a digital multicarrier (MC)


modulation scheme. Its basic idea is to divide the transmitted bit–stream
(high data rate) into many sub–streams (narrowband subcarriers – low data
rate), & then each of these on a different carrier frequency.

Figure 2.1: Multicarrier Modulation.


 
2.1 Multicarrier Modulation:
To overcome the ISI & distortion while achieving high data rates,
Multicarrier modulation is the solution. Basic idea of the multicarrier
modulation is to divide the available bandwidth (W) into a number (Nc) of
sub–bands, commonly called subcarriers. Each one of these subcarriers has
a width of ∆f=W/Nc. The symbol duration for a multicarrier scheme is then
Tsym=Nc/R.
14 

Figure 2.2: Subdivision of bandwidth, in MC transmission, into Nc sub–


Page

bands.
Chapter. 2 
   
 
2.2 Orthogonality:
In order to assure a high spectral efficiency, sub–channels waveforms must
have overlapping transmit spectra. Nevertheless, to enable simple
separation of these overlapping sub–channels at receiver, they need to be
orthogonal. Orthogonality is a property that allows the signals to be
perfectly transmitted over a common channel & detected without
interference. Set of functions are orthogonal to each other if they match
following condition:
T
⎧C i = j
∫ S (t ) ⋅ S
0
i j (t ) = ⎨
⎩0 i ≠ j

Figure 2.3: Spectrum of OFDM signal.

2.3 IFFT & FFT:


After the OFDM symbols are stacked up into the frame, it is then converted
to time domain using the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT). An
efficient way of implementing IDFT is IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier
Transform). IFFT is useful for OFDM because it generates samples of a
waveform with frequency components satisfying orthogonality conditions,
i.e., the IFFT modulates each Sub–channel onto a precise orthogonal
carrier. The IFFT of subcarrier X(k) is given as below:
N −1 2⋅π ⋅k n
1 j
X (n ) =
N
∑ X (k ) ⋅ e
k =0
N
, for n = 0,1,..., N − 1

And using FFT in the receiver to recover the subcarriers X(k):


15 

N −1 2⋅π ⋅k n
1 −j
X (k ) =
N
∑ X (n ) ⋅ e N
, for n = 0,1,..., N − 1
Page

k =0
Chapter. 2
 
 
2.4 Cyclic Prefix:
If successive OFDM symbols were sent one directly after another, in order
to keep each OFDM symbol independent of others after going through a
wireless channel, it is necessary to introduce a guard time between OFDM
symbols. This guard period, which is called the cyclic prefix (CP), is a
copy of the last part of the OFDM symbol.

Figure 2.4: Cyclic Prefix.

Where total length of symbol can be written as: Ts=Tg+Tb.


Ts: total length of the symbol in samples.
Tg: length of the guard period in samples.
Tb: size of the IFFT used to generate the OFDM signal, representing the
useful symbol time.
To completely avoid the effects of ISI & thus, to maintain the orthogonality
between the signals on the subcarriers, i.e., to also avoid ICI, a guard
interval inserted must be Tg≥  τmax, Where τmax is the maximum impulse
response of the channel. However, the length of the cyclic prefix has to be
chosen carefully. On one hand, it should be, at least, as long as the
significant part of the impulse response experienced by the transmitted
signal, it should be as small as possible because the transmitted energy
increases with its length, causing a loss in the SNR:
⎛ Tg ⎞
SNRloss = −10 log10 ⎜⎜1 − ⎟⎟
⎝ Ts ⎠
Moreover, the number of symbols per second that are transmitted per Hz of
bandwidth also decreases with the CP.
802.16 standards offer the following set of guard interval sizes (Tg/Ts):
1/4, 1/8, 1/16, & 1/32.
16 
Page
Chapter. 2 
   
 

Figure 2.5: Relation between cyclic prefix & delay spread.

2.5 OFDM Symbol:


The OFDM symbol structure consists of three types of subcarriers:
1. Data subcarriers for data transmission.
2. Pilot subcarriers for estimation & synchronization purposes (for
IFFT size=256, −88, −63, −38, −13/ +13, +38, +63, +88).
3. Null subcarriers for no transmission; used for guard bands (for
IFFT size=256, −128, −127... −101/ +101, +102... +127) & DC
carriers.
The number of these subcarriers will determine the required size for the
FFT (or IFFT) algorithm.

Figure 2.6: Frequency domain representation of OFDM symbol.

The transmitted baseband signal which is an ensemble of the signals in all


the sub–carriers can be represented as:
L −1
x(t ) = ∑ s[i ] ⋅ e −2⋅π ⋅ j ( Δf +iBc )⋅t 0≤t ≤T
i =0

s[i]: Symbol carried on the ith subcarrier.


Bc: Frequency separation between two adjacent subcarriers (subcarrier
B.W.).
Δf: Frequency of the first subcarrier.
17 

T: Total useful symbol duration (without the CP).


Page
Chapter. 2
 
 
Symbol Description Relation WiMAX
B Nominal bandwidth B= 1/Ts 10 MHz
L Number of subcarriers Size of IFFT/FFT 1024
G Guard fraction % of L for CP 1/8
Ld Data subcarriers L – pilot/ null subcarriers 768
Ts Sample time Ts=1/B 1 µsec
Ng Guard symbols Ng=GL 128
Tg Guard time Tg=TsNg 12.8 µsec
T OFDM symbol time T=Ts(L+Ng) 115.2 µsec
Bsc Subcarrier bandwidth Bsc=B/L 9.76 KHz

Table 2.1: OFDM parameters.

2.6 Peak – to – Average Ratio:


OFDM signals have a higher peak – to – average ratio (PAR) than single –
carrier signals. The reason is that multicarrier signal is the sum of many
narrowband signals in time domain. At some time instances, this sum is
large & at other times is small, which means that the peak value of the
signal is substantially larger than the average value. This high PAR is one
of the most important implementation challenges that face OFDM, because
it reduces the efficiency & hence increases the cost of the RF power
amplifier.

Figure 2.7: A typical power amplifier response.

To avoid such undesirable nonlinear effects, a waveform with high peak


power must be transmitted in the linear region of the HPA by decreasing
the average power of the input signal. This is called input backoff (IBO) &
results in a proportional output backoff (OBO). The input backoff is
defined as:
Pinsat
18 

IBO = 10 log10
Pin
Page
Chapter. 2 
   
 
Where Pinsat is the saturation power, above which is the nonlinear region, &
Pin is the average input power. The amount of backoff is usually greater
than or equal to the PAR of the signal.
In order to avoid operating the Power Amplifier (PA) in the nonlinear
region, the input power can be reduced by an amount about equal to the
PAR.
Clipping, sometimes called soft limiting, truncates the amplitude of signals
that exceed the clipping level as:
~ ⎧ A ⋅ e j∠x[ n ] If x[n ] > A
X L [n ] = ⎨
⎩ x[n ] If x[n ] ≤ A
~
Where x[n] is the original signal, & X L [n ] is the output after clipping.
The soft limiter output can be written in terms of the original signal & a
canceling, or clipping, signal as:
~
X L [n ] = x[n ] + c[n ], for n = 0,..., L − 1
Where C[n] is the clipping signal defined by:
⎧⎪ A − x[n ] ⋅ e jθ n If x[n ] > A
C[n ] = ⎨
⎪⎩0 If x[n ] ≤ A

Where θ[n]=arg(–x[n]); that is, the phase of C[n] is out of phase with x[n]
by 180°, & A is the clipping level, which is defined as:
A A
γ = =
E{ x( n ) }
2
εx

Figure 2.8: A peak cancellation as a model of soft limiter when γ = 5 dB .

2.7 OFDMA:
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access is the way that users share
subcarriers & time slots (resources) “this technique can be compared relative
to TDMA, FDMA, & CDMA – Multiple access techniques –”. OFDMA is
19 

the classical extension of the OFDM & essentially a hybrid of FDMA &
Page
Chapter. 2
 
 
TDMA; users are dynamically assigned subcarriers (FDMA) in different
time slots (TDMA).
One significant advantage of OFDMA relative to OFDM is its potential to
reduce the transmit power & to relax the peak – to – average – power ratio
(PAPR) problem.

Figure 2.9: OFDMA & OFDM.

2.8 Resource – Allocation Techniques for OFDMA:


Resource allocation algorithms aren’t specified by the WiMAX standard, &
all WiMAX developer is free to develop their own innovative procedures.
The idea is to develop algorithms for determining which users to schedule,
how to allocate subcarriers to them, & appropriate power levels for each user
on each subcarrier. Some of these algorithms are mentioned below: 

Algorithm Sum Capacity Fairness Complexity


Maximum sum rate
Best Poor & inflexible Low
(MSR)
Maximum fairness (MF) Poor Best but inflexible Medium
Proportional rate
Good Most flexible High
constraints (PRC)
Proportional fairness (PF) Good Flexible Low
20 

Table 2.2: OFDMA Rate–Adaptive Resource–Allocation Schemes.


Page
Chapter. 2 
   
 
2.9 OFDMA Frame Structure:

Figure 2.10: OFDMA Frame Structure.

2.10 Sub–Channel & Sub–Carrier Permutations:


Different ways of grouping subcarriers (tons) into channels called
permutations. Permutations are summarized in the following table:

Name Basic Unit Sub–Carrier Group Sub–Channel


FUSC Not applicable  Not applicable. 48 distributed subcarrier.
Cluster: 14 adjacent sub –
Cluster divided into
DL PUSC Carrier over 2 symbols with 4 2 clusters.
6 groups.
embedded pilot sub–Carriers.
Tile: 4 adjacent sub–Carriers
Tile divided into 6
UL PUSC over 3 symbols with 4 6 tiles.
groups.
embedded pilot sub–Carriers.
Tile: 3 adjacent sub–Carriers
Optional UL Tile divided into 6
over 3 symbols with 1 6 tiles. 
PUSC groups.
embedded pilot sub–Carriers.
Tile: 4 adjacent sub–Carriers
Tile divided into 6
TUSC 1 over 3 symbols with 4 6 tiles. 
groups.
embedded pilot sub–Carriers.
Tile: 3 adjacent sub–Carriers
Tile divided into 6
TUSC 2 over 3 symbols with 1 6 tiles. 
groups.
embedded pilot sub–Carriers.
6 adjacent bins over 6
Bin: 9 adjacent sub–Carriers consecutive OFDM symbol or
AMC over 1 symbol with 1 Not applicable. 2 bins over 3 OFDM symbols
embedded pilot sub–Carriers. or 3 bins over 2 OFDM
21 

symbols.

Table 2.3: Sub–Carrier Permutations.


Page
Chapter. 2
 
 
2.11 SOFDMA:
Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access allows adjusting
the number of sub carriers (FFT size) to the transmission channel
bandwidth. SOFDMA guarantees a higher spectral efficiency due to a
constant sub carrier spacing in different channel bandwidths. That is only
achievable if a different number of sub carriers are used for different
channel bandwidths. The number of carriers should be a multiple of 128.
So far there are 4 sets of sub carrier sets: 128, 512, 1024, & 2048.

Parameters Value
System Channel Bandwidth (MHz) 1.25 5 10 20
Sampling Frequency (Fp in MHz) 1.4 5.6 11.2 22.4
FFT Size (NFFT) 128 512 1024 2048
Number of Sub–Channels 2 8 16 32
Sub–Carrier Frequency Spacing 10.94 KHz
Useful Symbol Time (Tb=1/f) 91.4 µsec.
Guard Time (Tg=Tb/8) 11.4 µsec.
OFDMA Symbol Duration (Ts=Tb+Tg) 102.9 µsec.
Number of OFDMA Symbols (5 msec frame) 48

Table 2.4: Scalable OFDMA Parameters.

2.12 Bibliography:
[1] Fundamentals of WiMAX for Jeffrey G. Andrews, Ph.D., Arunabha
Ghosh, Ph.D., Rias Muhamed.
[2] Implementation of a WiMAX simulator in Simulink for Amalia Roca.
[3] 802.16 IEEE Standards for Local and metropolitan area networks.
[4] Introduction into WiMAX, CHRISTIAN BAUER (Alcatel).
22 
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Chapter. 3
 
 
Chapter
3
Physical Layer

Physical layer (PHY) of mobile WiMAX is based on the IEEE 802.16e–


2005 standard & was designed with much influence from Wi–Fi, especially
IEEE 802.11a. Although many aspects of the two technologies are different
due to the inherent difference in their purpose & applications, some of their
basic constructs are very similar. WiMAX is based on the principles of
orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) like Wi–Fi which is a
suitable modulation/ access technique for non–line–of–sight (N–LOS)
conditions with high data rates.
The IEEE 802.16 suite of standards (IEEE 802.16–2004/ IEEE 802–16e-
2005) defines within its scope four PHY layers, any of which can be used
with the media access control (MAC) layer to develop a broadband wireless
system. The PHY layers are:
1. WirelessMAN SC: a single–carrier PHY layer intended for frequencies
beyond 11GHz requiring a LOS condition.
2. WirelessMAN SCa: a single–carrier PHY for frequencies between 2GHz
& 11GHz for point–to–multipoint operations.
3. WirelessMAN OFDM: a 256–point FFT–based OFDM PHY layer for
point–to–multipoint operations in N–LOS conditions at frequencies
between 2GHz & 11GHz.
4. WirelessMAN OFDMA: a 2,048-point FFT–based OFDMA PHY for
point–to–multipoint operations in N–LOS conditions at frequencies
between 2GHz & 11GHz. In the IEEE 802.16e–2005, this layer has been
modified to Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA), where the FFT size is
variable and can take any one of the following values: 128, 512, 1,024,
and 2,048.
As any communication system, physical layer may be cut to three different
parts in order to group the functions done by each side. Simply the three
different parts are:
1. Transmitter.
2. Channel.
3. Receiver.
24 
Page
Chapter. 3 
   
 

 
Figure 3.1: Basic system structure.

Figure 3.2: Functional Stages of WiMAX PHY Layer (Transmitter).

3.1 Transmitter:

Figure 3.3: Transmitter of WiMAX System.

3.1.1 Randomizer:
As described in the standard, the information bits must be randomized
before the transmission. Randomization process is used to minimize the
possibility of transmissions of non–modulated subcarriers. The process of
randomization is performed on each burst of data on the downlink &
uplink, & on each allocation of a data block (sub–channels on the
frequency domain and OFDM symbols on the time domain).
25 
Page
Chapter. 3
 
 

 
Figure 3.4: Randomizer.

3.1.2 Frame Error Correction (FEC):


WiMAX define many types of encoders as:
1. Concatenated Reed–Solomon–Convolutional Code (RS–CC)
[Mandatory].
2. Block Turbo Coding (BTC) [Optional].
3. Convolutional Turbo Coding (CTC) [Optional].
4. Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) [Optional].

3.1.2.1 Concatenated Reed–Solomon–Convolutional Code:


Concatenated Reed–Solomon–convolutional code (RS–CC) as a mandatory
channel encoder for the system.
The Reed–Solomon encoding shall be derived from a systematic RS (N =
255, K = 239, T = 8) code using GF(28), where:
N: number of overall bytes after encoding.
K: number of data bytes before encoding.
T: number of data bytes which can be corrected.
The following polynomials are used for the systematic code:
g ( x ) = ( x + λ0 )( x + λ1 )( x + λ2 )...( x + λ2T −1 ), λ = 02 HEX
Field Generator Polynomial:
p( x ) = x 8 + x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + 1
For the binary convolutional encoder, which shall have native rate of 1/2,
constraint length equal to 7, & shall use the generator polynomials:
G1 = 171OCT FOR X
G2 = 173OCT FOR Y
Puncturing process is done in order to change the code rate of the encoder.
26 
Page
Chapter. 3 
   
 

Figure 3.5: Convolutional Encoder & tailbiting in IEEE 802.16e.

Code Rate
Rate 1/2 2/3 3/4 5/6
dfree 10 6 5 4
X 1 10 101 10101
Y 1 11 110 11010
XY X 1Y 1 X1Y1Y2 X1Y1Y2X3 X1Y1Y2X3X4X5

Table 3.1: Inner Convolutional Code with Puncturing Configuration.

Uncoded block size Coded block size Overall coding CC code


Modulation RS code
(bytes) (bytes) rate rate
BPSK 12 24 1/2 (12, 12, 0) 1/2
QPSK 24 48 1/2 (32, 24, 4) 2/3
QPSK 36 48 3/4 (40, 36, 2) 5/6
16–QAM 48 96 1/2 (64, 48, 8) 2/3
16–QAM  72 96 3/4 (80, 72, 4) 5/6
64–QAM  96 144 2/3 (108, 96, 6) 3/4
64–QAM  108 144 3/4 (120, 108, 6) 5/6

Table 3.2: Mandatory Channel Coding per Modulation.


27 
Page
Chapter. 3
 
 

Figure 3.6: Turbo Encoder (Constituent Encoder) in IEEE 802.16e. Note


that it contains interleaver, so when using it, there are no need for the
interleaver.

3.1.3 Interleaver:
Data interleaving is generally used to scatter error bursts & thus, reduce
error concentration to be corrected with the purpose of increasing
efficiency of FEC by spreading burst errors introduced by the transmission
channel over a longer time. Interleaving result is that burst of errors in the
channel after interleaving becomes in few scarcely spaced single symbol
errors, which are more easily correctable.
All encoded data bits shall be interleaved by a block interleaver with a
block size corresponding to the number of coded bits per the allocated
subchannels per OFDM symbol, Ncbps. The interleaver is defined by a two
step permutation. First ensures that adjacent coded bits are mapped onto
nonadjacent subcarriers. The second permutation insures that adjacent
coded bits are mapped alternately onto less or more significant bits of the
constellation, thus avoiding long runs of lowly reliable bits.
The first permutation is defined by Equation:
⎛ N cbps ⎞ ⎛k ⎞
mk = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⋅ k mod(12 ) + floor ⎜ ⎟ k = 0,1,..., N cbps − 1
⎝ 12 ⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎠
28 

The second permutation is defined by Equation:


⎟ + [mk + N cbps − floor(12 ⋅ mk / N cbps )]mod( s )
⎛m ⎞
jk = s ⋅ floor⎜ k k = 0,1,..., N cbps − 1
Page

⎝ s ⎠
Chapter. 3 
   
 
Ncbpc: number of coded bits per subcarrier, i.e., 1, 2, 4 or 6 for BPSK,
QPSK, 16–QAM, or 64–QAM, respectively.
K: index of the coded bit before the first permutation.
mk: index of that coded bit after the first & before the second permutation.
jk: index after the second permutation, just prior to modulation mapping.
s = Ceil (N cbpc / 2 )

(Default)
8 sub–channels 4 sub–channels 2 sub–channels 1 sub–channels
16 sub–channels
Ncbps
BPSK 192 96 48 24 12
QPSK 384 192 96 48 24
16–QAM 768 384 192 96 48
64–QAM 1152 576 288 144 72

Table 3.3: Block Size of the Interleaver.

3.1.4 Symbol Mapping:


After bit interleaving, the data bits are entered serially to the constellation
mapper. BPSK, Gray–mapped QPSK, 16–QAM, & 64–QAM.

29 

Figure 3.7: BPSK, QPSK, 16–QAM, & 64–QAM Constellations.


Page
Chapter. 3
 
 
3.1.5 Pilot Symbol:
Pilot symbols can be used to perform frequency offset compensation at the
receiver. Additionally, they can be used for channel estimation in fast
time–varying channels. Pilot symbols allocate specific subcarriers in all
OFDM data symbols. These pilots are obtained by a pseudo–random binary
sequence (PRBS) generator that is based on the polynomial X 11 + X 9 + 1 .

Figure 3.8: PRBS Generator for Pilots.

3.1.6 Training Sequences:


In WiMAX systems, preambles, both in DL & UL, are composed using
training sequences. Although three types of training sequences are
specified. All preambles are structured as either one of two OFDM
symbols.
For DL transmissions, the first preamble as well as the initial ranging
preamble consists of two consecutive OFDM symbols. The first symbol is
a short training sequence, PSHORT, used for synchronization. The frequency
domain sequence for this first DL preamble is defined in following
equation:
⎧⎪ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ conj (PALL ( k ) ) k mod( 4 ) = 0
p SHORT ( K ) = ⎨
⎪⎩ 0 k mod( 4 ) ≠ 0
The second OFDM symbol uses a long training sequence, necessary in the
receiver for channel estimation. It is called PEVEN. The following equation
defines the frequency domain sequence for this long training:
⎧⎪ 2 ⋅ (PALL ( k ) ) k mod( 2 ) = 0
PEVEN ( k ) == ⎨
⎪⎩ 0 k mod( 2 ) ≠ 0
30 

In both equations, a factor of 2 representing a boost of 3dB appears.


Page

Furthermore, there is an additional factor of 2 in PSHORT which has the


Chapter. 3 
   
 
aim of equating the root–mean–square (RMS) power with the power of the
data symbols.
Another training sequence shall be used when transmitting space–time
Coded (STC) downlink bursts. Because the STC scheme achieves diversity
by transmitting with two antennas, a preamble has to be transmitted from
both transmit antennas simultaneously. Thus, the first antenna transmits a
preamble using PEVEN & preamble transmitted from the second antenna is
set according to the sequence PODD.
⎧ 0 k mod( 2 ) = 0
PODD ( k ) == ⎨
⎩ 2 ⋅ (PALL ( k ) ) k mod( 2 ) ≠ 0

Figure 3.9: DL Preamble structure (PSHORT than PEVEN).

3.1.7 Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT):


IFFT is used to produce a time domain signal, as the symbols obtained
after modulation can be considered the amplitudes of a certain range of
sinusoids. This means that each of the discrete samples before applying the
IFFT algorithm corresponds to an individual subcarrier. Besides ensuring
the orthogonality of the OFDM subcarriers, the IFFT represents also a
rapid way for modulating these subcarriers in parallel, and thus, the use of
multiple modulators & demodulators (multi crystal oscillators) spend a lot
of time & resources to perform this operation, is avoided. Furthermore, the
FFT (or IFFT) should be of length 2r (where r is an integer number) to
facilitate the realization of the algorithm. For this reason, the FFT length is
given by:
N FFT = 2 ceil (log2 [H data ])
& OFDM symbol can be written as:
L−1
x (t ) = ∑ s[i ] ⋅ e −2πj⋅(Δf +i⋅BC )⋅t 0≤t ≤T
i =0
s[i]: symbol carried on the ith subcarrier.
Bc: frequency separation between two adjacent subcarriers (subcarrier
bandwidth).
Δf: frequency of the first subcarrier.
31 

T: total useful symbol duration (without the cyclic prefix).


Page

 
Chapter. 3
 
 
3.1.8 Cyclic Prefix (CP):
As mentioned before [Ch. 2], robustness of any OFDM transmission
against multipath delay spread is achieved by having a long symbol period
with the purpose of minimizing the inter–symbol interference (ISI).
Sometimes it’s called guard time or guard interval & usually its 1/4.

3.1.9 RF stage:
The Previous stages were the baseband processing of the system. After
that, the radio frequency stage (RF) completes the job. It consists of D/A &
oscillator having the system frequency. Resultant signal is at the operating
frequency.

3.2 Channel:
When communicating over a wireless radio channel, received signal can’t
be simply modeled as a copy of transmitted signal corrupted by additive
Gaussian noise (AWGN). Instead, signal fading & other channel effects
[Ch. 5], caused by the time–varying characteristics of propagation
environment, appears which lead to a phenomenon known as multipath
propagation. The time dispersion in a multipath environment causes the
signal to undergo either flat (easy to compensate) or frequency–selective
fading (OFDM solve its problem). Furthermore, time dispersion is
manifested by the spreading in time of the modulated symbols leading to
inter–symbol interference (ISI), & cyclic prefix compensate it. In addition,
root–raised cosine (RRC) filters, usually used for band–limiting the
transmitted signal distort the signal.

3.3 Receiver:

Figure 3.10: Receiver of WiMAX System.


32 
Page
Chapter. 3 
   
 
Receiver carries out the reverse operations of the transmitter. It starts by a
filter to limit the noise, than down conversion of the frequency by RF stage
to the intermediate frequency (IF) to be ready for the baseband processing.
The first step of the baseband processing is to remove the cyclic prefix,
than FFT, removing null sub–carriers & taking pilot symbols to be used
later in channel estimation, than signal enters the symbol de–mapper, after
words it goes to the de–interleaver & channel decoder, after words data
goes to the higher layers.
The WiMAX de–interleaver performed in two steps too.
The first permutation is defined by Equation:
m j = s ⋅ floor( j / s ) + ( j + floor(12 ⋅ j / N cbps )) mod( s ) j = 0,1,..., N cbps − 1
The second permutation is defined by Equation:
k j = 12 ⋅ m j − ( N cbps − 1) ⋅ floor(12 ⋅ m j / N cbps ) j = 0,1,..., N cbps − 1
Noting that the convolutional encoder decoder is the viterbi decoder which
may operate in different modes like:
1. Unquantized operation.
2. Hard decoding (decision) which takes samples of the received signal,
determines whether each sample is over or under a given threshold and
thus decides whether the incoming signal represents a ‘1’ or a ‘0’.
3. Soft decoding (decision) which keeps distance of a sample value from
the decision threshold is measured, and then used to enhance the
decoding process & overcome the losses of data done by hard decoding
–soft decoding shows better performance by 3dB [shows the same BER
& lower 3dB SNR] by dividing the incoming signal into many levels
within its incoming range & represent level using multi–bit–.

3.4 Bibliography:
[1] Fundamentals of WiMAX for Jeffrey G. Andrews, Ph.D., Arunabha
Ghosh, Ph.D., Rias Muhamed.
[2] 802.16 IEEE Standards for Local and metropolitan area networks.
[3] Implementation of a WiMAX simulator in Simulink for Amalia Roca.
[4] Essentials of Error–Control Coding, for Jorge Castiñeira Moreira.
33 
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Chapter. 4 
   
 
Chapter
4
MAC Layer
Media Access Control (MAC) layer, which resides above the PHY layer,
is responsible for controlling & multiplexing various such links over the
same physical medium.

Figure 4.1: WiMAX MAC Layer.

Some of the important functions of the MAC layer:


• Segment or concatenate the service data units (SDUs) received from
higher layers into MAC PDU (protocol data units), the basic building
block of MAC–layer payload.
• Select the appropriate burst profile & power level to be used for the
transmission of MAC PDUs.
• Retransmission of MAC PDUs that were received erroneously by the
receiver when automated repeat request (ARQ) is used.
• Provide QoS control & priority handling of MAC PDUs belonging to
different data & signaling bearers.
• Schedule MAC PDUs over the PHY resources.
35 

• Provide support to the higher layers for mobility management.


• Provide security & key management.
Page
Chapter. 4
 
 
• Provide power–saving mode & idle–mode operation.

4.1 Convergence Sub–layer (CS):


The various higher–layer protocol convergence sub–layers –or
combinations– that are supported in WiMAX are:

Value Convergence Sub–layer


0 ATM CS
1 Packet CS IPv4
2 Packet CS IPv6
3 Packet CS 802.3 (Ethernet)
4 Packet CS 802.1/ Q VLAN
5 Packet CS IPv4 over 802.3
6 Packet CS IPv6 over 802.3
7 Packet CS IPv4 over 802.1/ Q VLAN
8 Packet CS IPv6 over 802.1/ Q VLAN
9 Packet CS 802.3 with optional VLAN tags & ROHC header compression
10 Packet CS 802.3 with optional VLAN tags & ERTCP header compression
11 Packet IPv4 with ROHC header compression
12 Packet IPv6 with ROHC header compression
13–31 Reserved

Table 4.1: Convergence Sub–layer of WiMAX.

4.2 Common Part Sub–layer:


4.2.1 MAC PDU Construction & Transmission:
SDUs arriving at the MAC common part sub–layer from the higher layer
are assembled to create the MAC PDU the basic payload unit handled by
the MAC & PHY layers. Based on the size of the payload, multiple SDUs
can be carried on a single MAC PDU, or a single SDU can be fragmented
to be carried over multiple MAC PDUs.
36 
Page

Figure 4.2: Segmentation and concatenation of SDUs in MAC PDUs.


Chapter. 4 
   
 
Each MAC PDU consists of a header followed by a payload & a cyclic
redundancy check (CRC). The CRC is based on IEEE 802.3 & is
calculated on the entire MAC PDU (header & the payload). WiMAX has
two types of PDUs, each with a very different header structure:
1. Generic MAC PDU: carries data & MAC–layer signaling messages.
2. Bandwidth request PDU: used by the MS to indicate to the BS that more
bandwidth is required in the UL, due to pending data transmission. A
bandwidth request PDU consists only of a bandwidth–request header,
with no payload or CRC. Note that BS indicates this allocation to the
MS, using the DL–MAP message.

Figure 4.3: WiMAX PDU headers: generic (on the top) & bandwidth
request (on the button).

WiMAX also defines five sub–headers that can be used in a generic MAC
PDU:
1. Mesh sub–header.
2. Fragmentation sub–header.
3. Packing sub–header.
4. Fast-feedback allocation sub–header.
5. Grant-management sub–header.

4.2.2 Network Entry & Initialization:


Network entry & initialization process done by the CPE’s is illustrated
using following flowchart:
37 
Page
Chapter. 4
 
 

Figure 4.4: Network Entry & Initialization.

4.2.3 Power–Saving Operations:


The IEEE 802.16e standard introduces several new concepts related to
mobility management & power management. Power management enables
MS to conserve its battery resources, a critical feature required for
handheld devices. The power–management features of a WiMAX network:
1. Sleep Mode.
2. Idle Mode.

4.2.4 Mobility Management:


Mobility management enables MS to retain its connectivity to the network
while moving from the coverage area of one BS to the next.
In order to be aware of its dynamic radio frequency environment, the BS
allocates time for each MS to monitor & measure the radio condition of the
neighboring BS’s. This process is called “scanning”, & the time allocated
to each MS is called “scanning interval”.
During a scanning interval, MS measures the received signal strength
indicator (RSSI) & the SINR of the neighboring BS & can optionally
associate with some or all the BSs in the neighbor list, which requires the
MS to perform some level of initial ranging with the neighboring BS.
38 

Three levels of association are possible during the scanning process:


1. During association level 0 (scan/ association without coordination).
Page
Chapter. 4 
   
 
2. During association level 1 (scan/ association with coordination).
3. Association level 2 (network assisted association reporting).

4.2.4.1 Handoff Process & Cell Reselection:


Handoff process is defined (in WiMAX) as the set of procedures &
decisions that enable an MS to migrate from the air interface of one BS to
the air interface of another & consists of the following stages:
1. Cell reselection.
2. Handoff decision and initiation.
3. Synchronization to the target BS.
4. Ranging with target BS.
5. Termination of context with previous BS.

4.2.4.2 Macro Diversity Handover & Fast BS Switching:


WiMAX also defines two optional handoff procedures:
1. Macro diversity handover (MDHO).
2. Fast base station switching (FBSS).
In order for FBSS or MDHO to be feasible, BSs in the diversity set of an
MS must satisfy the following conditions:
• BS’s involved in FBSS are synchronized, based on a common timing
source.
• DL frames sent from BS’s arrive at the MS within cyclic prefix interval.
• BS’s involved in FBSS must be on the same carrier frequency.
• BS’s involved in FBSS must have synchronized frames in DL & UL.
• BS’s involved in FBSS are required to share all information that MS &
BS normally exchange during network entry.
• BS’s involved in FBSS must share all information, such as SFID, CID,
encryption, & authentication keys.
39 
Page

Figure 4.5: DL MOHO: combining.


Chapter. 4
 
 

Figure 4.6: UL MDHO: Selection.

4.3 Security Sub–layer:


Security sub–layer provides subscribers with privacy, authentication, or
confidentiality across mobile broadband wireless network. It does this by
applying cryptographic transforms to MPDUs carried across between
connections between SS & BS. In addition, security sub–layer provides
operators with strong protection from theft of service. The BS protects
against unauthorized access to these data transport services by securing
associated service flows across network.
Security sub–layer employs an authenticated client/ server key
management protocol in which BS, server, & controls distribution of
keying material to SS.
Additionally, basic security mechanisms are strengthened by adding
digital–Certificate–based SS device–authentication to the key management
protocol.

4.3.1 Security Sub–layer Architecture:


Privacy has two component protocols as follows:
a) An encapsulation protocol for encrypting packet data across the BWA
network. This protocol defines:
1. Set of supported cryptographic suites, i.e., pairings of data encryption
& authentication algorithms.
2. Rules for applying those algorithms to a MAC PDU payload.
b) A key management protocol (PKM) providing secure distribution of
keying data from BS to SS. Through this key management protocol, SS &
BS synchronize keying data; in addition, the BS uses the protocol to
enforce conditional access to network services.
40 
Page
Chapter. 4 
   
 

Figure 4.7: Security Sub–layer.

4.3.2 Authentication architecture:


EAP methods run between the terminal & the home AAA (EAP for device
authentication may eventually terminate in the visited network).
Underlying protocols are:
• RADIUS or DIAMETERS (Both will be supported by the solution)
between the WAC & the home AAA.
• PKMv2 protocol on the air interface.
• A signaling protocol between BS & the authenticator located in the
WAC.
EAP exchanges include messages between the WAC & MS (e.g.
authentication triggering) & messages between AAA & MS (typically
those conveying authentication exchanges). The supplicant, the
authenticator & authentication server of the EAP model are respectively
the terminal, the WAC and the AAA server.
Termina l BS WAC Home network

AAA
HLR
EAP method (e.g. TTLS/ CHAP, TLS, SIM etc.) SIM/ MAP

EAP EAP
41 

CHAP
CHAP/ RADIUS AAA
PKMv2- EAP BS- WAC signaling protocol RADIUS or DIAMETER
Page

Figure 4.8: Authentication architecture


Chapter. 4
 
 
MSK: Ma ster Session Key
MSKd (512) MSKu (512)
PM K: Pa ir wise Ma ster Key
EIK: EAP integrity key
Trunk Trunk
AK: Authentica tion Key
SSID: SS Identity
PMKd (160) PMKu (160) MSID: MS Identity
MAC: Messa ge Authentica tion Code
Dot16KDF(PM Kd, PMKu, MSID, BSID , # )
CMAC: Cipher M AC
HMAC: Ha sh MAC
AK (160)
UL/ LD: Uplink / Downlink
KEK: Key Encryption Key
Dot16KDF (AK, M S MAC @, BSID, # ) GKEK: Group wise KEK
TEK: Tra ffic Encryption Key
GTEK: Group wise TEK
CMAC- Key- UL (128) CM AC- Key- DL (128) KEK (128) GD: Group wise Downlink
# : Dot16KDM opera tion identifier

GKEK (128) TEK (128) { GKEK, TEK}


protected by KEK

Dot16KDF(GKEK, # ) { GTEK}
GTEK
protected by GKEK

CM AC- Key- GD (128)

Figure 4.9: PKMv2 key hierarchy.

4.4 Bibliography:
[1] Fundamentals of WiMAX for Jeffrey G. Andrews, Ph.D., Arunabha
Ghosh, Ph.D., Rias Muhamed.
[2] 802.16 IEEE Standards for Local and metropolitan area networks.
[3] Security in WiMAX, Alcatel solution.
42 
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(This page is left blank)
Chapter. 5
 
 
Chapter
5
Advanced Techniques
in WiMAX
WiMAX support many advanced techniques in order to improve the
overall system performance as AMC in order to increase the spectrum
efficiency, & use advanced antenna solutions like Multi–layer transmission
(MIMO), Diversity & Beam–forming to improve Capacity, Coverage &
provide very high data rates.

5.1 Adaptive Modulation & Coding (AMC):


WiMAX supports a variety of modulation & coding schemes and allows
the scheme to change on a burst–by–burst basis per link, depending on
channel conditions. Using the channel quality feedback indicator, the
mobile can provide the base station with feedback on the downlink channel
quality. For the uplink, the base station can estimate the channel quality,
based on the received signal quality. The base station scheduler can take
into account the channel quality of each user’s uplink & downlink and
assign a modulation & coding scheme that maximizes the throughput for
the available SNR.
AMC significantly increases the overall system capacity, as it allows real–
time trade–off between throughput & robustness on each link.
44 

Figure 5.1: Adaptive Modulation & Coding.


Page
Chapter. 5 
   
 

Figure 5.2: Adaptive modulation & coding block diagram.

5.1.1 Modulation:
For each transmission step, several bits are coded on each subcarrier. For
example when clear line of sight exists between sender & receiver over short
distances, 64–QAM is used, which codes six bits on a single subcarrier
(Symbol), Under harsher conditions, less demanding modulation schemes like
16–QAM, QPSK & BPSK are used, which code fewer bits on a subcarrier per
transmission step.

Figure 5.3: Shannon capacity & modulation constrained Shannon capacity.

Modulation Scheme Required SNR Description


6 bit’s/ Symbol.
64–QAM 22 dB
(LOS & very short distance).
16–QAM 16 dB 4 bit’s/ Symbol.
QPSK 9 dB 2 bit’s/ Symbol.
45 

1 bit/ Symbol.
BPSK 6 dB
(Very robust, used with harsh environments).
Page

Table 5.1: SNR required for each modulation, & bits/ Symbol.
Chapter. 5
 
 
5.1.2 Coding:
The coding rate is the ratio between the number of user data bits & the
number of error correction & detection bits sent over the air interface. The
lowest coding rate is 3/4. Where three user data bits are encoded in four
bits, which are then sent over the air interface. This coding rate can only be
used for exceptionally good signal conditions. For less favorable conditions
coding rates of 2/3 or 1/2 are used. 1/2 coding basically cuts the data rate in
half.

Figure 5.4: Throughput versus SINR, assuming that the best available
constellation & coding configuration are chosen for each SINR.

5.2 AMC in Uplink & Downlink:


In uplink, base station can change modulation & coding used by a
subscriber station at any time by assigning a different burst of an uplink
sub–frame. The decision is based on the reception quality of previous
MAC packets at the subscriber station.
For the downlink, base station has no direct information about the change
in reception quality over time for a subscriber station using a certain
modulation & coding scheme. Thus, it is the client’s device responsibility
46 

to request a change in the modulation or coding scheme if required. This


can be done by the subscriber station.
Page
Chapter. 5 
   
 

Downlink Uplink
BPSK (optional for OFDMA–PHY), QPSK, BPSK, QPSK, 16–QAM, & 64–QAM
Modulation
16–QAM, & 64–QAM. (optional).
Mandatory: Convolutional codes at rates 1/2, Mandatory: Convolutional codes at rates 1/2,
2/3, 3/4, & 5/6. 2/3, 3/4, & 5/6.
Optional: Convolutional turbo codes at rate Optional: Convolutional turbo codes at rate
Coding
1/2, 2/3, 3/4, & 5/6 & repetition codes at rate 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, & 5/6 & repetition codes at rate
1/2, 1/3, & 1/6 LDPC, RS–Codes for OFDM– 1/2, 1/3, & 1/6 LDPC.
PHY.

Table 5.2: Modulation & Coding Supported in WiMAX (UL & DL).

A bank of seven encoders & mappers, each one with a fixed AMC scheme,
is set up so that transmitter can switch from one AMC scheme to another
based on the feedback information.

AMC Modulation RS code CC code rate Overall code rate


1 BPSK (12, 12, 0) 1/2 1/2
2 QPSK (32, 24, 4) 2/3 1/2
3 QPSK (40, 36, 2) 5/6 3/4
4 16–QAM (64, 48, 4) 2/3 1/2
5 16–QAM  (80, 72, 4) 5/6 3/4
6 64–QAM  (108, 96, 6) 3/4 2/3
7 64–QAM  (120, 108, 6) 5/6 3/4

Table 5.3: AMC Modulation & Coding Schemes.

5.3 Performance of the AMC scheme:


A good performance of AMC schemes requires accurate channel
estimation at receiver & a reliable feedback path between that estimator &
the transmitter on which the receiver reports channel state information
(CSI) to the transmitter. To perform a good implementation we needs
following:
1. Channel estimation of the expected channel conditions for the next
transmission interval.
2. The choice of the appropriate modulation & coding mode to be used in
the next transmission.
3. Feed back the selected mode to the transmitter.
And there are some challenges that face AMC as following:
1. Knowledge can only be gained by prediction from past channel
estimations (delay between quality estimation & actual transmission).
2. Mobile channel is time – varying, & thus, the feedback of the channel
information becomes a limiting factor.
Therefore, the adaptive system can only operate efficiently in an
47 

environment with relatively slowly–varying channel conditions. Where in


Page
Chapter. 5
 
 
this way, there will be no delay or transmission error that can occur in the
feedback channel.

5.4 Channels:
When communicating over a wireless radio channel the received signal
cannot be simply modeled as a copy of the transmitted signal corrupted by
additive Gaussian noise. Instead, signal fading, while caused by the time–
varying characteristics of the propagation environment, appears. In this
way, short term fluctuations caused by signal scattering of objects in the
propagation environment lead to a phenomenon known as multipath
propagation.

5.4.1 Propagation Characteristics of Mobile Radio Channels:


5.4.1.1 Attenuation:
Attenuation is the drop in the signal power when transmitting from one
point to another. It can be caused by the transmission path length,
obstructions in the signal path, and multipath effects.

5.4.1.2 Multipath effect (Rayleigh & Ricean Fading):


Wireless channels can be characterized with tap coefficients that are
complex valued gaussian random variables. A channel model where
there are only non line–of–sight (N–LOS) communications is
characterized by a rayleigh distribution. On the contrary, if dominating
paths are present, the channel coefficients are modeled by a ricean
distribution.
48 
Page

Figure 5.5: Multipath fading.


Chapter. 5 
   
 
As already mentioned, rayleigh distribution is normally used to model
N–LOS communications. It is statistically characterized by a fading
amplitude α(t), modeled with a rayleigh probability distribution, which
has zero–mean gaussian components. Furthermore, the phase Ф(t) is
uniformly distributed over the interval (0, 2π). The fading amplitude is
described by the probability density function (pdf):
⎧a ⎛ −α2 ⎞
⎪ 2 ⋅ exp⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ α ≥ 0
f Rayleigh (α ) = ⎨ σ ⎝ σ ⎠
⎪0 α <0

On the other hand, when the components of α(t) are Gaussian with non–
zero mean values & the phase is also non–zero mean, the amplitude is
characterized statistically by the rice probability distribution. In this
case, the channel presents multipath propagation with some dominating
paths i.e. representing a major part of the channel energy. The (pdf) of
the ricean fading amplitude is given by:
⎧ a ⎛ − (α 2 + ρ 2 ) ⎞ ⎛ α ⋅ ρ ⎞
⎪ ⋅ exp⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⋅ I o ⎜ 2 ⎟ α ≥ 0
f Rice (α ) = ⎨ σ 2 ⎝ σ2 ⎠ ⎝ σ ⎠
⎪0 α <0

Where ρ2 represents the power of the received non–fading signal
component, & Io is the modified Bessel function of first kind & order
zero.
α2
k=
2 ⋅σ 2

49 

Figure 5.6: Rayleigh & Rice Distribution.


Page
Chapter. 5
 
 

Figure 5.7: LOS vs. N–LOS.

5.4.1.3 Doppler Shift:


When a signal source &/or receiver are moving relative to one another,
received signal frequency will change. When they are moving away,
frequency of received signal decreases & vice versa for approaching.
v
Δf d = ± f o ⋅ ⋅ cos(α )
c
Δf: is the change in frequency of the source seen at the receiver.
fo: the frequency of the source.
v: the speed difference between the source & transmitter.
c: speed of light
α: angle between transmitter–receiver & direction of travel of mobile.

5.5 Modeling of Channels:


Received signal r(t) over a fading multipath channel can be represented by:

r (t ) = ∫ h(τ , t ) ⋅ s(t − τ )dτ
−∞

s(t): transmitted signal.


h(τ, t): channel impulse response at delay τ & time instant t. In discrete
form:

r(n) = ∑ h (i ⋅ T , n ) ⋅ s ( n − i ⋅ T )
i = −∞
s s

Ts: symbol duration.


N: represents the sampling index.
Compact notation for time varying channel coefficients in the form:
hi ( n ) = h (i ⋅ Ts , n )
Form of received signal suggests impulse response of fading multipath
channel which can be modeled as a tapped delay line filter (finite impulse
response filter) with tap spacing Ts & time varying coefficients hi(n)
50 

characterized as random processes.


Page
Chapter. 5 
   
 

Figure 5.8: Channel Modeling Representation.

5.6 Channel estimation:


Received signal is additionally affected by the multiple reflections due to
multipath transmission. Thus, receiver must determine from received signal
which of all possible messages was the transmitted one. On the other hand,
detection algorithms at the receiver require knowledge of the channel
impulse response (CIR) which can be provided by performing channel
estimation.
Usually, channel estimation is based on known sequences of bits, which are
unique at the transmitter & repeated in every transmission burst. This way,
the channel estimator is able to estimate CIR for each burst separately by
exploiting the known transmitted bits & the corresponding received
samples.

5.6.1 Preamble & Pilot:


There are two ways to transmit training symbols: preamble or pilot tones.
Preambles entail sending a certain number of training symbols prior to the
user data symbols. In the case of OFDM, one or two preamble OFDM
symbols are typical. Pilot tones involve inserting a few known pilot
symbols among the subcarriers. Channel estimation in MIMO–OFDM
systems can be performed in a variety of ways, but it is typical to use the
preamble for synchronization & initial channel estimation and the pilot
tones for tracking the time–varying channel in order to maintain accurate
channel estimates.
51 

5.6.2 Pilot Signal Estimation:


Page

Channel can be estimated at pilot frequencies by two ways:


Chapter. 5
 
 
1. (LS) Estimation.
2. (LMMSE) Estimation.

5.6.2.1 Least Square Estimation:


Idea behind least square (LS) is to fit a model to measurements in such
a way that weighted errors between measurements & model are
minimized.
min 2
H ls = Y − X ⋅ Hˆ

The LS estimate of the attenuations h, given the received data Y & the
transmitted symbols X is:
Y (k )
H ls = X −1 ⋅ Y =
X (k )

5.6.2.2 Linear Minimum Mean Square Error Estimation:


Linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) estimate has been shown
to be better than the LS estimate for channel estimation in OFDM
systems based on block type pilot arrangement. Idea of LMMSE
estimation is to min square of different between real value & estimated
value.
min 2
H ls = ⋅ E H − Hˆ , Hˆ ( k ) = W H ⋅ Y

Then the channel estimated will be:


( )
Hˆ LMMSE = RHH ⋅ ⎡⎢ RHH + σ 2 ⋅ X ⋅ X ⋅ X ⋅ Y ⎤⎥
H −1 −1


Superscript (.) denotes hermitian transpose function & RHH=Σ(H HH).
H

5.6.3 Channel Interpolation:


After the estimation of the channel transfer function of pilot tones, the
channel transpose of data tones can be interpolated according to adjacent
pilot tones.
We consider the following interpolation schemes:
1. Linear Interpolation.
2. Spline Interpolation.
3. Cubic Interpolation.
4. Low Pass Interpolation.
52 
Page
Chapter. 5 
   
 
5.6.3.1 Linear Interpolation:
In linear interpolation algorithm, two successive pilot subcarriers are
used to determine the channel response for data subcarriers that are
located in between the pilots. The linear channel interpolation can be
implemented by using digital filtering such as Farrow–structure.
For data subcarrier k, mGI < k < (m+1)GI, the estimated channel
response using linear interpolation method is given by:
⎛ l ⎞ ˆ l ˆ
Hˆ ( k ) = Hˆ ( k ⋅ m ⋅ GI + l ) = ⎜1 − ⎟ ⋅ H (m) + ⋅ H ( m + 1)
⎝ GI ⎠ GI

5.6.3.2 Spline & Cubic Interpolation:


Spline & Cubic interpolations are done by using (interp1) function of
matlab. Spline & Cubic interpolations produce a smooth & continuous
polynomial fitted to given data points. Spline interpolations works
better than linear interpolation for comb pilot arrangement.

5.6.3.3 Low Pass Interpolation:


The low pass interpolation is performed by inserting zeros into the
original sequence & then applying a low pass FIR filter that allows the
original data to pass through unchanged & interpolates between such
that the mean–square error between the interpolated points & the ideal
values is minimized.

5.7 Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS):


The 802.16(e) standard includes sophisticated antenna technologies to
enhance broadband service distribution. WiMAX needs Adaptive Antenna
System (AAS) to increase the throughput of a mobile network system or to
increase the coverage range respectively decrease interference derives from
the high frequency reuse & the high path loss in NLoS environments
(improved link budget). Moreover, broadband systems use sophisticated
modulation schemes, which require a high CINR (Carrier to Interference +
Noise Ratio).
To achieve this, smart antennas are used in three different applications:
1. RX / TX Diversity.
2. Beam Forming.
3. MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).
53 
Page
Chapter. 5
 
 
5.7.1 Spatial Diversity:
Spatial diversity employs multiple antennas, usually with the same
characteristics, that are physically separated from one another. Depending
upon the expected incidence of incoming signal, sometimes a space on the
order of a wavelength is sufficient (correlated). Other times much larger
distance is needed (to be uncorrelated).
The advantages of diversity are:
1. Increase signal to noise ratio (extend coverage & increase capacity).
2. Decreased Error Rate.
3. Increased Data Rate.
Diversity could be applied at receiver which increases the SNR, or it could
be applied at the transmitter as it has particularly attractive for the
downlink but processing will be required at both transmitter & receiver.

   

   
Figure 5.9: Receiver Diversity (on the top) & Transmitter Diversity (on the
button), where h1, h2 … & hNr represent the different channels response.

We can do this by one of the following:


1. Selection combination (SC):
Nr
1 ⎛ 1 1 1 ⎞
γ SC = γ ⋅ ∑ = γ ⋅ ⎜⎜1 + + + ... + ⎟
i =1 i ⎝ 2 3 N r ⎟⎠
2. Equal gain combination (EGC):
Nr 2

ε x ⋅ ∑ hi
γ EGC = i =1
Nr ⋅σ 2
3. Maximum gain combination (MGC):
54 

Nr 2

ε x ⋅ ∑ hi Nr
= ∑γ i
Page

γ MRC = i =1
σ 2
i =1
Chapter. 5 
   
 

Figure 5.10: Average bit error probability for selection combining (on the
left) & maximal ratio combining (on the right) using coherent BPSK.
Owing to its array gain, MRC typically achieves a few dB better SNR than
does SC.

Diversity may be classified into two main categories:


1. Open–Loop Transmit Diversity:
Code is known to the receiver is applied at the transmitter. Alamouti
code or orthogonal space/ time block code (OSTBC) is used as they are
easy implementation & defined for in WiMAX standard.

Figure 5.11: Open–Loop 4–2 stacked STBC transmitter.

2. Closed–Loop Transmit Diversity:


Feedback is added to the system, the transmitter may be able to have
knowledge of the channel between it & the receiver. It is used at high
mobility as the channel changes quickly.
Transmit selection diversity (TSD) is the simplest form of closed–loop
transmit diversity, only a subset of the available antennas are used at a
given time. The selected subset typically corresponds to the best
55 

channels between the transmitter & the receiver.


Page
Chapter. 5
 
 

Figure 5.12: Closed–Loop Transmit Diversity.

The closed–loop diversity shows better performance than open–loop


diversity but it needs larger spectrum allocation (additional band for
feedback channel).

5.7.2 Beam forming:


In contrast to the transmit diversity techniques, available antenna elements
can instead be used to adjust the strength of the transmitted & received
signals. This focusing of energy is achieved by choosing appropriate
weights for each antenna element with a certain criterion.
The advantages of beam forming:
1. Extended coverage.
2. Increase capacity (better link quality & higher modulation scheme).
3. Reduce interference by null steering of side lobes towards strong
interferer’s → less interference applied to other users.
There are two principal classes of beam forming:
1. Direction of arrival (DOA) which is viable only in LOS environments
or in environments with limited local scattering around the transmitter.
2. Based beam forming & Eigen beam forming.
56 

Figure 5.13: Beam pattern using this weight vector (Null–steering beam
Page

pattern) with unity gain for desired user & nulls at directions of interferers.
Chapter. 5 
   
 
5.7.3 Multiple–Antenna Techniques:
Multiple antenna systems –sometimes called multi–layer transmission or
MIMO– are the systems which have several transmit & receive antennas,
or several transmitting antennas, for a single receiving antenna –MISO, for
single transmitting antenna –SIMO–, & for single transmitting & receiving
antenna –SISO–. When increasing the number of the transmitting &
receiving antennas, it improves the performance but practically, there are
some limit that after it increasing the number of antennas doesn’t improve
the performance.
The advantages of Multiple–Antenna Technique:
1. Theoretically n–times capacity with n TX antennas.
2. RX does not necessarily need more antennas (but it is better for the
SNR).

Figure 5.14: MIMO transmission.

Figure 5.15: MIMO & OFDM.

MIMO could be performed as an open–loop MIMO & closed–loop MIMO,


each of them have several techniques for detection. For optimum decoding
there are two techniques which are:
1. Maximum–Likelihood Detection.
57 

2. Linear Detectors.
Page
Chapter. 5
 
 
5.7.3.1 Channel Estimation for MIMO–OFDM:
When OFDM is used with a MIMO transceiver, channel information is
essential at the receiver in order to coherently detect the received signal &
for diversity combining or spatial interference suppression. Accurate
channel information is also important at the transmitter for closed–loop
MIMO.
Channel estimation can be performed in two ways:
1. Training–based channel estimation where known symbols are
transmitted specifically to aid the receiver’s channel estimation–
algorithms it has better convergence speed & estimation accuracy.
2. Blind channel estimation where receiver must determine the channel
without the aid of known symbols; higher–bandwidth efficiency can be
obtained in expanse of system complexity.
Training–based channel–estimation techniques are supported by WiMAX
standard. The estimated channel coefficients are calculated for each receive
antenna by using two long training sequences, PEVEN & PODD when
applying MIMO transmissions. There are two ways to transmit training
symbols: preamble or pilot tones.
Preamble are used for synchronization & initial channel estimation while
the pilot tones are used for tracking the time–varying channel in order to
maintain accurate channel estimates.

Figure 5.16: Training symbol structure of preamble–based & pilot–based


channel estimation methods.
58 
Page
Chapter. 5 
   
 
5.8 Bibliography:
[1] Fundamentals of WiMAX for Jeffrey G. Andrews, Ph.D., Arunabha
Ghosh, Ph.D., Rias Muhamed.
[2] Communication Systems for the Mobile Information Society for Martin
Sauter.
[3] Implementation of a WiMAX simulator in Simulink for Amalia Roca.
[4] Essentials of Error Control Coding for Jorge Castiñeira Moreira &
Patrick Guy Farrell.
[5] Multi Carrier and Spread Spectrum System for K.Fazel & S. Kaiser.
[6] 802.16 IEEE Standards for Local and metropolitan area networks.
[7] Channel estimation in OFDM systems for kamran arshad.
[8] Space–Time Processing for MIMO Communications for A. B. Gresham
& N. D. Sidiropoulos.
[9] Adaptive space–frequency coding for MIMO–OFDM systems for
Antonius D. Valkanas.
[10] Introduction into WiMAX, CHRISTIAN BAUER (Alcatel).
[11] WiMAX’s technology for LOS and NLOS environments, WIMAX
Forum.
[12] Wireless Communications for Andrea Goldsmith.
[13] Multicarrier Techniques for 4G Mobile Communications for Shinsuke
Hara, & Ramjee Prasad.

59 
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Chapter. 6 
   
 
Chapter
6
WiMAX Network
Architecture
Network architecture deals with interoperable network architecture
framework that deals with the end–to–end service aspects such as IP, session
management, security, QoS & so on.
WiMAX Forum’s Network Working Group (NWG) has developed &
standardized these end–to–end networking aspects that are beyond the scope
of the IEEE 802.16e–2005 standard which had to support loosely coupled
interworking with all existing wireless networks (3GPP, 3GPP2) & wire
networks.

Figure 6.1: Overview of WiMAX, UMTS & GSM combined network


structure.

4.1 Network reference model (NRM):


NRM divide the system into three logical parts:
1. Mobile stations (MS)
2. Access service network (ASN).
61 

3. Connectivity service network (CSN).


Page
Chapter. 6
 
 

Figure 6.2: WiMAX Network Reference Model.

4.2 The Access service network (ASN):


The ASN functions are:
• IEEE 802.16e–based layer 2 connectivity with the MS.
• Network discovery & selection of the subscriber’s preferred
CSN/NSP.
• AAA proxy: transfer of device, user, & service credentials to
selected NSP AAA.
• Relay functionality for establishing IP connectivity between MS &
CSN.
• Radio resource management (RRM) & allocation based on the QoS
policy.
• Mobility–related functions, such as handover, location management,
& paging.
Within the ASN, the security architecture consists of four functional
entities:
1. Authenticator.
2. Authentication relay.
3. Key distributor.
62 

4. Key receiver.
Page
Chapter. 6 
   
 

Figure 6.3: ASN security architecture & deployment models: integrated


deployment model (on the left) & stand–alone deployment model (on the
right).

The NRM defined three profiles for the ASN Shown below:

Functional
Function ASN Entity Name
Category
Profile A Profile B Profile C
Authenticator ASN–GW ASN ASN–GW
Authentication relay BS ASN BS
Security
Key distributor ASN–GW ASN ASN–GW
Key receiver BS ASN BS
Data path function ASN–GW & BS ASN ASN–GW & BS
Handover control ASN–GW ASN BS
Mobility
Context server & client ASN–GW & BS ASN ASN–GW & BS
MIP foreign agent ASN–GW ASN ASN–GW
Radio resource Radio resource controller ASN–GW ASN BS 
management Radio resource agent BS ASN BS 
Paging agent BS ASN BS 
Paging
Paging controller ASN–GW ASN ASN–GW
Service flow authorization ASN–GW ASN ASN–GW
QoS
Service flow manager BS ASN BS

Table 6.1: Functional Decomposition of ASN.

4.3 Connectivity service network (CSN):


CSN functions are:
• IP address allocation to the MS for user sessions.
• AAA proxy or server for user, device & services authentication,
authorization, & accounting (AAA).
• Policy & QoS management based on the SLA/ contract with the user.
• Subscriber billing & interoperator settlement.
• Inter–CSN tunneling to support roaming between NSPs.
• Inter–ASN mobility management & mobile IP home agent
functionality.
63 

• Connectivity infrastructure & policy control for such services as


Internet access, access to other IP networks, ASPs, location–based
Page
Chapter. 6
 
 
services, peer–to–peer, VPN, IP multimedia services, law enforcement,
& messaging.

4.4 Reference points (RP):


The WiMAX NWG defines a reference point (RP) as a conceptual link that
connects two groups of functions that reside in different functional entities
of the ASN, CSN, or MS. A brief illustration of reference points are
illustrated below:

Reference Points End Points Description


Implements air–interface (IEEE 802.16e) specifications.
R1 MS & ASN R1 may additionally include protocols related to the
management plane.
For authentication, authorization, IP host configuration
management, & mobility management. Only a logical
R2 MS & CSN
interface & not a direct protocol interface between MS
& CSN.
Support AAA, policy enforcement, & mobility –
management capabilities. Also encompasses the bearer
R3 MS & CSN
plane methods (e.g. tunneling) to transfer IP data
between ASN & CSN.
A set of control & bearer plane protocols originating/
terminating in various entities within the ASN that
R4 MS & ASN coordinate MS mobility between ASN’s. In release 1.
R4 is the only interoperable interface between
heterogeneous or dissimilar ASN’s.
A set of control & bearer plane protocols for
R5 MS & CSN
internetworking between the home & visited network.
A set of control & bearer plane protocols for
communication between the BS & the ASN–GW. The
Bearer plane consists of intra–ASN data path or inter–
ASN tunnels between the BS & the ASN–GW. The
R6 BS & ASN–GW control plane includes protocols for mobility tunnel
management (establish, modify & release) based on MS
mobility events. Also R6 may serve as a conduit for
exchange of MAC states information between
neighboring BS’s.
An optional set of control plane protocols for
ASN–GW–DP & ASN–GW–
R7 coordination between the two groups of functions
EP
identified in R6.
A set of control plane message flows & possibly bearer
plane data flows between BS’s to ensure fast & seamless
handover. The bearer plane consists of protocols that
allow the data transfer between BS’s involved in
R8 BS & BS handover of a certain MS. The control plane consists of
the inter–BS communication protocol defined in IEEE
802.16e additional protocols that allow controlling the
data transfer between the BS involved in handover of a
certain MS.

Table 6.2: WiMAX Reference Points.


64 
Page
Chapter. 6 
   
 

Figure 6.4: Functions Performed Across Reference Points.

4.5 Bibliography:
[1] Fundamentals of WiMAX for Jeffrey G. Andrews, Ph.D., Arunabha
Ghosh, Ph.D., Rias Muhamed.
[2] Recommendations & requirements for networks based on WiMAX
Forum certified TM products. Release 1.5, April 27, 2006.
[3] WiMAX end–to–end network systems architecture. Stage 2:
Architecture tenets, reference model & reference points. Release 1.0, V&V
Draft, August 8, 2006.
[4] WiMAX end–to–end network systems architecture. Stage 3: Detailed
protocols & procedures. Release 1.0, V&V Draft, August 8, 2006.
[5] Introduction into WiMAX, CHRISTIAN BAUER (Alcatel).
65 
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Part. 2 
 

Simulation &
Implementation
Chapter. 7 
   
 
Chapter
7
System Simulation
Using Matlab
Matlab is a very powerful tool that supports researchers & engineers in
their fields. Matlab can be used for simulations, simple programming.
In our project, the main tool box was used is the communication tool box
which consists of simulink blocks & MATLAB functions to simulate the
physical layer of the Mobile WiMAX. The used copy to carry out this
simulations is Matlab R2007b (7.5).
The simulation was based on the simple system structure as following:

 
Figure 7.1: Basic system structure.

1. Simulink:
As mentioned before [Ch. 3], the system parameters are used to configure
the system blocks.

7.1.1 Simple System:

69 

Figure 7.2: Simple system structure.


Page
Chapter. 7
 
 
1. Binary generator: used to generate a sequence of random bits with
number of samples per frame equal 864 & output type (Boolean) to be
able to operate the soft viterbi decoding.
2. Coding & Modulation: this sub–block consist of FEC, interleaving &
modulation techniques which contain different coding rates &
modulation schemes [adaptive modulation & coding]. The sub–block
structure:

Figure 7.3: Adaptive Modulation & Coding.

And one sub–system (for example, QPSK 3/4) structure:

Figure 7.4: Sub–system.

Select bits Divide the bit stream to smaller frames of bits


Zero pad tail byte Insert 8 zero bits for each frame
Convolutional encoder Insert a redundancy bits for FEC
70 

Interleaver Interleave the data streams with known order


Modulator Modulates the data with a known modulation technique
Page

Table 7.1: Sub–system component function.


Chapter. 7 
   
 

For enabling sub–systems, rateID is used which will be illustrated later.


3. IFFT input & backing: sub–block is used for sub–channelization & Pilot
and zero insertion. And the sub–block structure:

Figure 7.5: S/ P, inserting pilots & DC null to the data.

4. IFFT: this sub–block performs IFFT process, adding guard band,


preamble & cyclic prefix. The sub–block structure:

Figure 7.6: OFDM symbol creation process.

Insert Preamble Insert the preamble sequence used for channel estimation process
Add Guard Band Add 28 zeros upper guard band and 27 zeros for the lower guard band
IFFT Execute the IFFT algorithm for the OFDM technique.
Add cyclic prefix Repeat the last sequence of bits in the sequence beginning.
P/S Parallel to serial.

Table 7.2: Sub–block component function.

5. AWGN & rateID: AWGN sub–block simulate the real communications


71 

channel (noisy environment), & the rateID sub–block calculate the


related rateID for the SNR which have following structure:
Page
Chapter. 7
 
 

Figure 7.7: rateID sub–block.

Constant Define the SNR in dB


RateID calculator Calculate the rateID for the applied SNR
1/invdB Transfer the SNR from dB to AWGN variance
rateID (Goto) Send the output rateID to the AMC blocks

Table 7.3: Sub–block component function.

RateID is a m–File as following:


function y = fcn(u)
% This block supports the Embedded MATLAB subset.
if u <= 4;
y = 1; %BPSK 1/2
elseif u <= 10;
y = 2; %QPSK 1/2
elseif u <= 12;
y = 3; %QPSK 3/4
elseif u <= 19;
y = 4; %16QAM 1/2
elseif u <= 22;
y = 5; %16QAM 3/4
elseif u <= 28;
y = 6; %64QAM 2/3
else u > 28;
y = 7; %64QAM 3/4
end

6. FFT: this sub–block performs FFT process, & removing cyclic prefix.
The sub–block structure:

Figure 7.8: OFDM symbol creation process.

S/P Serial to parallel


Remove cyclic prefix Remove the cyclic prefix inserted in the IFFT block
FFT Apply the FFT algorithm

Table 7.4: Sub–block component function.


72 

7. Extract data carriers: this sub–block perform channel estimation process


using the preamble bits, & remove pilot & zero sub–carriers. The sub–
Page

block structure:
Chapter. 7 
   
 

Figure 7.9: The Sub–block components.

Separate data & guard bands Remove the lower and upper guard bands from the data
Select training/data Separate the data and preamble
Channel estimation Estimate the communications channel using LS algorithm
Separate data & pilots Remove the pilots and zero sub-carriers from the data
P/S Parallel to serial

Table 7.5: Sub–block component function.

The channel estimation block is an M–File estimate the communications


channel using the LS estimation algorithm as following:
function estimated = fcn(pilots, data)
% This block supports the Embedded MATLAB subset.
x=complex(ones(201,1));
h_est=pilots./x;
estimated = data./h_est;

8. Demodulation & Decoding: this sub–block reverse the coding &


modulation operation & the sub–block structure is:

73 
Page

Figure 7.10: Adaptive Demodulation & Decoding.


Chapter. 7
 
 
As mentioned in FEC, one sub–system (for example, QPSK 3/4) structure:

Figure 7.11: Sub–System.

Demodulator Demodulates the modulated data streams with the convention modulation techniques
Deinterleaver Rearrange the interleaved data with the WiMAX parameters
Quantizer Used to quantize the bit streams to apply the soft decoding
Viterbi decoding Decodes the data and detect and correct error

Table 7.6: Sub–block component function.

9. Error rate calculation: because of the adaptive modulation & coding, we


need special system to calculate the BER. The system structure is:

Figure 7.12: BER Calculator System.


74 

Figure 7.13: Input Data Calculations which is used for applying correct
Page

frame length for each modulation scheme.


Chapter. 7 
   
 
And the error rate calculations calculate the bit error rate between input–
output data streams & display number of errors & BER.
10. Constellation: used to obtain the constellation diagram of the
modulation & showing the AMC.

7.1.2 MIMO System:

Figure 7.14: MIMO System structure.

System is similar to the old one, but the communication channel take into
consideration the Rayleigh fading effect in this system.
To modify simple system to support MIMO, We use (2-1) Alamouti code.
Transmitter M–File:
function [ant1, ant2] = stbcenc(u)
% STBCENC Space-Time Block Encoder
% Outputs the Space-Time block encoded signal per antenna.
ant1 = complex(zeros(size(u)));
ant2 = ant1;
% Alamouti Space-Time Block Encoder, G2, full rate
% G2 = [s0 s1; -s1* s0*]
for i = 1:size(u,2)/2
s0 = u(:, 2*i-1); s1 = u(:, 2*i);
ant1(:, [2*i-1 2*i]) = [s0 s1 ];
ant2(:, [2*i-1 2*i]) = [-conj(s1) conj(s0)];
end

In receiver we use the reverse operation where the preambles are divided
into Podd & Peven [Ch. 3]. Receiver M–File:
function z = stbcdec(preamble, data)
% STBCDEC Space-Time Block Combiner
75 

chEst1_bef=complex(zeros(200,1));
chEst2_bef=complex(zeros(200,1));
Page

chEst1_before=[preamble(1:2:99) preamble(103:2:201)];
chEst2_before=preamble(2:2:201);
Chapter. 7
 
 
for i=1:100
chEst1_bef(2*i-1)=chEst1_before(i);
chEst1_bef(2*i)=chEst1_before(i);
chEst2_bef(2*i-1)=chEst2_before(i);
chEst2_bef(2*i)=chEst2_before(i);
end
chEst_last1=[chEst1_bef chEst1_bef];
chEst_last2=[chEst2_bef chEst2_bef];
chEst1=chEst_last1./complex(ones(200,2));
chEst2=chEst_last1./complex(ones(200,2));
dat=[data(1:100,:);data(102:201,:)];
N = 2; M = 1;
z = complex(zeros(size(dat)));
z0 = complex(zeros(size(dat,1), M)); z1 = z0;
% Space Time Combiner
for i = 1:size(dat,2)/2
z0(:, M) = dat(:, 2*i-1).* conj(chEst1(:, 2*i-1))+conj(dat(:,
2*i)).* chEst2(:, 2*i);
z1(:, M) = dat(:, 2*i-1).* conj(chEst2(:, 2*i-1))-conj(dat(:,
2*i)).* chEst1(:, 2*i);
z(:, [2*i-1 2*i]) = [z0 z1];
end

7.1.3 Special Blocks Configurations:


1. Convolutional encoder:
• Trellis structure: poly2trellis(7,[171 173])
• Operation mode: Truncated (reset every frame).
• Puncture vector:
Code rate Puncture code
1/2 [1]
2/3 [1 1 1 0]
3/4 [1 1 0 1 1 0]

Table 7.7: Puncturing array.

Note that the frame size must be divisible by the code rate.
2. General block interleaver & deinterleaver:
• Elements: int_PBSK_1_2’ (M–File name).
The M–File:
Ncbps=1152; %the number of input bits to the Interleaver.
Ncpc=6; %the power of 2 for each modulation ex:
%for (BPSK=1),(QPSK=2),(16QAM=4),(64QAM=6).
k = 0:Ncbps-1;
mk = (Ncbps/12)*mod(k,12)+floor(k/12);
s = ceil(Ncpc/2);
jk = s*floor(mk/s)+mod(mk+Ncbps-floor(12*mk/Ncbps),s);
[x, intTable] = sort(jk); % per symbol
76 

3. Modulators (BPSK, QPSK, 16–QAM, 64–QAM), from baseband


modulators. For QAM, use rectangular QAM.
Page

• Input type: bits.


Chapter. 7 
   
 
• Constellation ordering: Gray.
• Output data type: double.
• For BPSK, Phase offset (rad): 0.
• For QPSK, Phase offset (rad): pi/4.
• For 16–QAM, M–ary number: 16.
• For 64–QAM, M–ary number: 64.
• Normalization method: Min. distance between symbols
• Min. Distance: 2.
Note that Hint you must choose the input frame size to be divisable by
Power of two of modulation number.
4. Subchannel Selector: used to add pilots & DC null, preamble & guard
bands added by the same way.
• Select: Rows.
• Indices to output:
{[1:12],[13:36],[37:60],[61:84],[85:96],[97:108],[109:132],[133:1
56],[157:180],[181:192]}.
• Invalid Index: Generate Error.
Hint: we can use the switch or merge block to do the same operation.
5. IFFT & FFT:
• IFFT [of size 256] needs to add a gain after it with the value of
sqrt(256)×sqrt(256/200) to work correctly.
• The gain unit is added before FFT block [of size 256] with value
of 1/(sqrt(256)*sqrt(256/200)) to reverse the gain effect in IFFT
sub–system.
6. Demodulation: as modulation, so we will talk about the modifications to
the blocks to apply the soft decoding on the Viterbi decoder.
• Decision type: Log–likelihood ratio.
7. Decoding: applied by viterbi decoder. For soft decisions decoding, we
need quantizer as following:
¾ Quantizer: to quantize the data bits into integers various from 0 to
2b–1 where (b: the number of soft decisions bits).
¾ Viterbi decoder:
• Trellis structure: same convolutional encoder.
• Puncture vector: same convolutional encoder.
• Decision type: Soft decision.
• Number of soft decision bits: 3.
• Traceback depth: 50.
• Operation mode: same convolutional encoder.
• Data type tab: Boolean –for correct operation by
77 

Viterbi in the soft decision mode–.


Page
Chapter. 7
 
 
Number of soft decision is 3 bits, so input varying from (0 to 7) with
different probability of certainty, see next:
Input value Interpretation
0 Most confident zero
1 Second most confident zero
2 Third most confident zero
3 Least confident zero
4 Least confident one
5 Third most confident one
6 Second most confident one
7 Most confident one

Table 7.8: Soft Decoding.

Note that from decision type, it can be changed to unquantized or hard


decision.

7.1.4 IIR Filter:

Figure 7.15: IIR Filter structure.

This model transfer the analog voice to digital samples & then filter
samples digitally by IIR filter then transfer it back to analog speaker to hear
the filtered voice.
1. From wave device & uniform encoder: these blocks receives the analog
voice & convert it to digital samples.
ƒ Uniform Encoder:
• Peak: 1.
• Bits: 8.
2. Uniform decoder & to wave device: reverse the operation of from wave
device & uniform encoder convert, so the digital samples converted into
analog sound & speakers output the sound. Blocks use same parameters
as from wave device & uniform encoder convert.
3. Digital Filter:
78 
Page
Chapter. 7 
   
 

Figure 7.16: Filter Design.

7.1.4.1 Testing the filter:


To see the performance of the IIR filter we use the model shown below:

Figure 7.17: The testing model (multi–frequency sine wave bank).

Steps of performance testing:


79 

1. We enter 5 different sine waves with known frequencies to the filter


(only two are active, 300 & 1000 Hz).
Page

2. Get the frequency domain spectrum before & after the filter.
Chapter. 7
 
 
80 

Figure 7.18: Spectrum Output (The cutoff freq. is at 500 Hz), [On top,
before filtering & after filtering on the button].
Page
Chapter. 7 
   
 
7.1.5 Audio Reverberation:

Figure 7.19: Audio Reverberation Applied to an Audio Input Signal.

This model encodes the audio signal & then adds this signal with delayed
version of itself with gain less than one then decode these signal so that the
output audio signal is reverberated.

7.2 Remarks:
Important Notes:
1. Using buffers & unbuffers blocks causes error rate so it’s better to use
pad & submatrix blocks.
2. We face problems in channel estimation with puncturing codes.
Goals to be achieved:
1. Apply more sophisticated channel estimations algorithms like
“LMMSE”.
2. Solving the problems appears in the channel estimation with the
puncture code in the simulation process.
3. Applying the MIMO concept to improve the bit error rate of the system.
Applying OFDMA, SOFDMA.

7.3 M–File:
System may also be implemented using Matlab functions, so the final
program looks like a written text not a block diagram as Simulink.
The transmitter & receiver M – Files are included in the CD.

7.4 Additional Reading:


[1] Simulink Communications Toolbox [Modeling, Simulation,
Implementation] User’s Guide Version 2 for Weizheng Wang.
[2] Communications Toolbox 4 User’s Guide, Matlab.
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Chapter. 8 
   
 
Chapter
8
System
Implementation
8.1 Introduction:

TMS320C6416 is a fixed point digital signal processor that have a great


properties & it’s a power full kit. This kit is mapped to the famous family
C6400. The kit model is provided below:

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Figure 8.1: functional block and CPU (DSP core) diagram.


Chapter. 8
 
 
The kit contains TCP (Turbo Co–processor), & VCP (Viterbi Co–processor)
which carries out the the turbo & viterbi decoder algorithms.
Also, the kit contains RTDX (Real Time Data Exchange) which helps to
exchange the data between the computer (Matlab) & the kit via USB port.
Kit contains A/ D & D/ A to exchange data between analog speaker &
microphone.
Simply the memory architecture are:

Figure 8.2: L2 Architecture Memory.

The different between the fixed point & floating point are that floating point
have greater accuracy in the expanse of the processing speed, the fixed point
DSP’s own high processing speed (TMS320C6416 reach 1 GHz) on the
expanse of the received value accuracy.
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Chapter. 8 
   
 

Table 8.1: Word width with Ti DSP’s.

The programs have to be installed within a certain order as following:


1. Code composer studio 3.1.
2. Flash burn.
3. Drivers for C6416.
4. Matlab (R2006b “7.3”).
Note that the Matlab R2006b is only the compatible version with the code
composer studio 3.1.
The implementation as the simulation was based on the simple system
structure as following:

 
Figure 8.3: Basic system structure.

Note that the project files are included in the CD.

8.2 Starting Code Composer Studio:


At first we wanted to use Simulink to build the whole system , it all went
well until we got to the Viterbi decoder, it just didn’t work .Also the FFT
from C6000 library in Simulink didn’t work too, so we had to write the
code ourselves.
To start writing code using CCS:
1. Create a new project.
2. Save the code files in the folder of your project, and add them to the
project (right click on project→Add files to project...).
85 

3. Click “Build All” to build the project.


4. If no errors occurred, load the output file to the DSP memory
Page

(File→Load file…).
Chapter. 8
 
 
5. Click “Run” to start the program.

8.3 System Model Implementation:


This part concerning about the construction & implementation steps on the
DSP starter kit.
In our implementation we concentrated on the encoding/ decoding,
interleaver/ de–interleaver, symbol mapping/ de–mapping, & IFFT/ FFT
stages. We will discuss each part in implementation separately.
1. Encoder/ Decoder:
We used a simple code to encode data with generating polynomials of our
choice. To decode the data we use the VCP (Viterbi co–processor) as this
algorithm is very complex and needs a lot of processing so the VCP saves
processing time & resources.
To run the VCP in our implementation, we used the VCP testing code
provided by Texas Instruments (TI) & modified it to our needs.
2. Interleaver:
We used the WiMAX block interleaver equations. In this code, the element
with index “intlv2” will be saved at its new index (i). The de–interleaver
makes the reverse operation to restore the original data.
3. Mapper:
The mapper is a simple BPSK mapper, with (0→1) & (1→–1). We didn’t
need a Demapper as the Branch Metrics are calculated from the mapped
data.
• Transmitter:
System operates as follows: Data (32 bits) is first encoded with code rate =
1/2 (64 bits output), & then interleaved with a frame size of (96 bits), then
its input to a 128–point IFFT stage. Cyclic prefix is then added to the
output of the IFFT.
• Receiver
Cyclic prefix is removed, than signal is input to the FFT stage & then is
de–interleaved.

Now we are ready to calculate the Branch metrics. There will be 2 branch
metrics for every 2 samples(code rate=½).Then each 4 branch metrics are
concatenated to form a 32–bit word then it is fed to the VCP, with the right
parameters, the output of the VCP will be the reversed version of the input
data.
The flow chart of operating the Viterbi Co–processor are shown below:
86 
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Chapter. 8 
   
 
  Convolutional Encoder
 
  Rate ½

  Block Interleaving

  Mapping
BPSK
 

 
IFFT
@ 128 Points
 
+ Cyclic Prefix
 

 
AWGN
 

  Remove Cyclic Prefix


 

  FFT
@ 128 Points
 

 
Deinterleaver
 

  Branch Metrics
calculation
 

 
Viterbi Decoding
  (VCP)

Figure 8.4: VCP programming process.


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Chapter. 8
 
 
8.4 VCP Progress:
This is what we’ve done with the code provided by TI:
• Removed all users’ data and VCP parameters and only kept one user.
• Branch metrics was input to the VCP from an .asm file, we changed it so
we can input the Branch metrics from an array from the previous stage in
system.
• EDMA channels initialization and starting was used as is from the TI
code.

8.5 Troubleshooting errors:


• “Undefined symbol- symbol referencing…” errors:-
Check the files included, make sure all .h files and all used libraries
needed are included.
Most needed libraries:
9 rts6400.lib
“../CCStudio_v3.1/C6000/cgtools/lib/”
9 rtxd.lib, rtdx64xx.lib
“../CCStudio_v3.1/C6000/rtdx/lib”

• “#error NO CHIP DEFINED” errors:-


Add “-dCHIP_6416” to (Project→Build options→Compiler).

• If there is too many errors “>100”, check the first error, it’s most likely to
be a syntax error.

9 To Do:
• Use Turbo coding and TCP (Turbo co-processor).
• Add more modulation schemes, Adaptive modulation & code rates.
• Add scalability to the FFT size, pilot and zero insertion.
• Interface two kits as transceivers.
• Optimize code to meet the WiMAX frame processing time constraints
(TDD).
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Chapter. 8 
   
 
8.6 Bibliography (Very Important Documents):
[1] TMS320C6414, TMS320C6415, TMS320C6416 fixed point digital
signal processors.
[2] Using TMS320C6416 Coprocessors: Viterbi Coprocessor (VCP), TI.
[3] TMS320C6416 Coprocessors and Bit Error Rates, TI.
[4] Comparing Fixed & Floating Point DSPs. Does your design need a
fixed- or floating-point DSP? The application data set can tell you, TI.
[5] TMS320C6416 Coprocessors and Bit Error Rates, TI.
[6] Digital Signal Processing Selection Guide, TI.
[7] TMS320C64x DSP Viterbi-Decoder Coprocessor (VCP) Reference
Guide, TI.
[8] TMS320C6416T DSK Technical Reference, TI.
[9] TMS320C6000 Instruction Set Simulator Technical Reference Manual,
TI.
[10] Help documents in Code composer studio.

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▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬
System Parameters

Table 1: Different WiMAX Standard


 
Table 2: Fixed & Mobile WiMAX Certified Profiles.


 
Table 3: PHY – Layer Data Rate at Various Channel Bandwidths.


 
▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬
Acronyms

3GPP 3G Partnership Project


3GPP2 3G Partnership Project 2
AAA Authentication, Authorization, & Accounting
AAS Adaptive Antenna System Also Advanced Antenna System
AMC Adaptive Modulation & Coding
ARQ Automated Repeat Request
ASN Access Service Network
ASP Application Service Provider
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise
AWS Advanced Wireless Services
BER Bit Error Rate
BLAST Bell Labs Layered Spaced Time
BLER Block Error Rate
BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying
BS Base Station
BTC Block Turbo Code
BW Band Width
CC Convolutional Codes
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CID Advanced Wireless Services
CINR Carrier To Interference + Noise Ratio
CIR Channel Impulse Response
CP Cyclic Prefix
CPE Customer Premises Equipment
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CSI Channel State Information
CSN Connectivity Service Network
CTC Convolutional Turbo Code
DL Down Link
DoA Direction Of Arrival
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
DSP Digital Signal Processor
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
EGC Equal Gain Combining
ETSI Advanced Wireless Services
EVDO Evolution Data Optimized Or Evolution Data Only
FBSS Fast Base Station Switching
FCH Frame Control Header
FDD Frequency Division Duplexing
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
FEC Frame Error Correction
FEC Forward Error Correction
FEQ Frequency Equalizer
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
FIR Finite Impulse Response
FWA Fixed Wireless Access
HDTV High–Definition Television
H–FDD Half-Frequency Division Duplex
HIPERMAN High-Performance Metropolitan Area Network
HPA High Power Amplifier
HSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSPA High-Speed Packet Access
IBO Input Backoff
ICI Inter Carrier Interference
IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
IEEE Institute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers
IF Intermediate Frequency
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IM Instant Messaging
IP Internet Protocol
ISI Inter Symbol Interference
ISP Internet Service Provider
LDPC Low Density Parity Check
LMMSE Linear Minimum Mean Square Error
LOS Line Of Sight
LS Least Square
MAC Media Access Control Layer
MAN Metropolitan Area Network
MBMS Multimedia Broadcast/ Multicast Service
MBSFN Multicast/ Broadcast Single–Frequency Networking
MBWA Mobile broadband wireless access
MC Multicarrier
MDHO Macro Diversity Handover
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output
MISO Multi Input Single Output
MMDS Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Services
MPDU MAC Protocol Data Unit
MRC Maximal Ratio Combining
MRT Maximum Ratio Transmission
MS Mobile Station
MSE Mean Square Error
MSR Maximum Sum Rate
NAP Network Access Provider
NLOS Non–Line-Of-Sight
NRM Network Reference Model
NSP Network Services Provider
NWG Network Working Group
OBO Output Backoff
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
OSTBC Orthogonal Space/Time Block Code
PAPR Peak-To-Average-Power Ratio
PAR Peak-To-Average Ratio
PDF Probability Density Function
PDU Protocol Data Units
PHY Physical Layer
PKM Key Management Protocol
PKMv2 Privacy And Key Management Version 2
PRBS Pseudo–Random Binary Sequence
PUSC Partial Usage Of Subcarriers
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RF Radio Frequency
RMS Root–Mean–Square
RP Reference Points
RRC Root–Raised Cosine Filters
RRM Radio Resource Management
RS–CC Concatenated Reed–Solomon–Convolutional Code
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator
SC Selection Combining
SDUs Service Data Units
SFID Service Flow Identifier
SIMO Single Input Multi Output
SINR Signal-To-Interference-Plus-Noise Ratio
SISO Single Input Single Output
SNR Signal-To-Noise Ratio
S–OFDMA Scalable OFDMA
SS Subscriber Station
STBC Space/Time Block Code
STC Space/Time Code
SVD Singular-Value Decomposition
TDD Time Division Duplexing
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TSD Transmit Selection Diversity
TUSC Tile Usage Of Subcarriers
UHF Ultrahigh Frequency
UL Uplink
UMTS Universal Mobile Telephone System
U–NII Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
VLIW Very–Long Instruction–Word
VPN Virtual Private Network
WAC Washington Administrative Code
WCS Wireless Communications Services
WiBro Wireless Broadband
Wi–Fi Wireless Fidelity
WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability For Microwave Access
WiSOA WiMAX Spectrum Owner Alliance
WLL Wireless Local Loop
WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network
WRAN Wireless Regional Area Network