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BRAZIL
AND

The Brazilians
PORTRAYED

IN

HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE


SKETCHES.

BY

REV.

JAMES

C.

FLETCHER

AND

REV.

D. P.

klDDER,

D.D.

Illustrated by One Hundred and Fifty Engravings.

NINTH EDITION.
REVISED and brought

down to

date.

Mo..

BOSTON
LITTLE, BROWN,

AND COMPANY.

1879.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1878, by


J.

C.

FLETCHER,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Cambridge

Press of John Wilson and Son.

PREFACE TO THE NINTH EDITION.

The demand

for a ninth edition of this

that the reading public, in

work

is

an index

America and England, takes a deep

interest in the subject of Brazil

and that the authors,

in their

attempt to prepare an acceptable book on the leading country of

South America, have not labored in vain.

The eighth edition had become exceedingly scarce copies


commanded three times the original price and standing orders
for the book, both in London and New York, for four years
;

resulted in obtaining but a single second-hand volume.

Upon

was found

to con-

inquiring into the reason for this scarcity,

it

the fact (1) that the historical portion of " Brazil and
the Brazilians " gave the book a permanent place in both public

sist in

and private

libraries

United States, by the

and (2) that the interest aroused in the


statistics published in this work, which

showed the increasing importance of


point of view, caused this volume to fall
who never send their books to what
i

Brazil in a commercial
into the

hands of parties

are termed

n America

" antiquarian book-stores."

In this ninth edition there has been no abridgment of the


descriptions of nature in Brazil,

the people
say, in

its

descriptions
review of the

and the manners and customs of

which led the London Athenceum


first

to

edition, that " Brazil was never

before so fully, so faithfully, so artistically photographed."

The
is in

historical portions

no

have been brought down to date.

spirit of boasting,

but

it

is

It

only in accordance with

Preface to the Ninth Edition.

iv

truth to say, that " Brazil and the Brazilians " contains the

only continuous general history of the Empire in any language.

Southey's great book on the history of Brazil,


rare, does

not even conclude with the

now

exceedingly

quarter of this cen-

Armitage's continuation of that history only reaches the

tury.

period of the Regency,


ago,

first

and

work

this

in point of

is

time nearly a half century

In the Portu-

altogether out of print.

guese language the late Visconde do Porto Segnro (Varnhagen)

amassed and published a vast amount of material for future


historians,

but he treated mainly of the Colonial Period.

Pereira da Silva

is

now

publishing at Rio de Janeiro what he

Although

purposes to be an exhaustive history of his native land.

many volumes have

Sr.

appeared, the last only comes

down

to 1840,

the epoch of the abolition of the Regency, and of the accession

Dom

of

Pedro

II.

to the full

exercise of his prerogatives as

Emperor.

The data in regard to the commerce of Brazil have been brought


down to 1878, as will be found on page 195, in Chapter xxvni.,
and

in the latter half of

Appendix F.

The American

will be

astonished to find that Brazil annually exports six times as


to the

much

United States as she imports from the Great Republic

that his country

is

only sixth in the trade with Brazil

will not be astonished at

one of the reasons for

may deem undue preponderance

this,

and he

(which he

commerce of Brazil with


when he learns that Europe maintains steamship
annually make three hundred round trips to Brazil,
of the

the old world,)


lines that

while the United States has to meet this competition with one
line of steamers,

Many

making yearly twelve round

trips.

important events are treated of which have occurred

since the issue of the eighth edition, e.g. the successful close of
the Paraguayan war (pages 352-353); the Emancipation Act and
the subject of slavery (pp.

triumph of the

civil

132-139 and Chapter xxvni.) the


over the ecclesiastical law in 1874 and 1875

(referred to in Chapter ix. and

Emperor
fore

to

Appendix A)

the tours of the

Europe and America (Chapter xxvni.)

the world

at the

Centennial Exposition in

Brazil be-

Philadelphia

Preface to the Ninth Edition.


(Chapter xxvni.)

and the enterprise (pp. 456, 457)

for develop-

ing the resources of Western Brazil and Bolivia by a railway

around the Falls of the Madeira, and by the navigation of the

Marmore.
while this

Apropos of this last subject, the authors learn that


work is passing through the press, the hindrances

(referred to in Chapter xxni.) to this great enterprise for opening

up the remote portions of Brazil and Bolivia have disappeared.


The large trust fund of four millions of dollars deposited by the
company in England " has been decided," says a recent issue of
the New York Herald, " by three irrevocable decrees of the British
Court of Chancery, to be available for the payment of the contractor's certificates, and places the Madeira and Marmore Company above the reach of those who would gladly ruin it. To
the indefatigable energy of Colonel Church, and the business
ability and pluck of the Messrs. Collins, are due the success that
has attended this grand scheme for developing the resources of
Brazil and Bolivia."
The facts on pages 424-425, concerning Gomes, the Brazilian
musical composer,

who

has achieved fame in Europe, will be

new

to

first

musical composer of the western Continent should come

most readers.

It is

an interesting coincidence that the

from the land where repose the remains of Marcos Portugal,


the composer of the famous " Portuguese

every Christian land.*


dix

D)

will

The

article

Hymn,"

a tune sang in

on the yellow fever (Appen-

have a new interest for the medical reader, in view

of the recent ravages of that disease in North America.


* It is astonishing to find amongst the English and American compilers of
Hymnals," " Sacred Songs," and " Church Melodies," that they all fall into the
error of attributing that grand and beautiful tune (called in England and America
the "Portuguese Hymn ") to Redding, an English composer, who was born in the
latter part of the seventeenth century, and died a century and a half ago.
Marcos
Portugal, who composed that tune for church music, died at Rio de Janeiro fortyfive years ago.
He composed much sacred music and several operas the latter
were often played in the first quarter of this century, in Portugal and in Italy.
**

Some

try to explain the

name

("

Portuguese

Hymn ")

by saying

that the elder

Novello, in London, arranged Redding's (?) composition for the services of the
Portuguese Chapel. Marcos Portugal, who was Chapel-Master of the King of Portugal, composed the tune to the words beginning " Adeste fideles
during the offertory in the Roman Catholic Church.
J. C. F.

"and

it

was sung

Preface to the Ninth Edition.

vi

Several full-page illustrations have been added, which cannot

but enhance the value of

this edition.

the Emperor, engraved on steel,

is

The new

from the

portrait of

last portrait

taken

was sent by him, with


While Dom Pedro II. is
his autograph, to the junior author.
an exceedingly healthy and energetic man, his hair and beard
are prematurely gray, and give him the appearance of a person
of His Majesty in Europe, in 1877, and

He was

of greater age.

on Dec.

fifty-three years old

and has ruled, either by regents or

The

a longer period than any other living monarch.


the

1878,

2,

in person, forty-eight j^ears,

portrait of

Emperor when he was twenty-eight, has been retained

a matter of histor}r

Amongst

the illustrations are the portraits of the Visconde do

Rio Branco, an eminent Brazilian statesman,


premier

as

who

has often been

Saldanha Marinho, the well-known advocate,

of Sr.

deputy, and Grand-Master Mason of Brazil; and of Sr. Carlos

Gomes, the composer of the G-uarany, which


esteemed one of the

finest leading operas

is

at

present

on the Continent of

Europe.

The

of the Visconde

likenesses

xxviii.), and

of Saldanha

do Rio Branco (Chapter


Marinho (Chapter x.), are given

because they are representative

men

conservative and

in the

liberal parties.

It is almost needless to

been prepared for

The experience

add that an entirely new Index has

this Edition.

of the authors in Brazil,

and

also in Portugal,

extends over a long period, and they have endeavored conscientiously

and impartially

to give their

views of the country and

They have had no motives to do


they have not spared what they deemed

people.

religion, slavery, or other matters,

when

due, and

it

to bring out the

chants in Brazil

otherwise.
faults,

While

whether in

they have not withheld praise

has not been from intention

good points of the Brazilians.

who have been

its

if

they have failed

To

foreign mer-

unsuccessful, or to travellers

hastening through the country, ignorant of the Portuguese and

French languages, and never associating with the inhabitants,

Preface to the Ninth Edition.


the descriptions of those

who have

vii

resided long in the Empire,

or have travelled extensively through

seem overwrought.

it,

One must always bear in mind the origin of the Brazilians, their
newness among the nations of the earth, and the fact that the
only true mode of comparing Brazil is not to measure her progress

with the United States, England, or France, but with the

whose inhabitants are of the Latin

countries of America

To have

race.

detailed with only an ordinary degree of minuteness

the changes and progress of Brazil for the last ten years, would

alone require a large volume.

As

there have been, of the

it is,

emendations, by additions, by notes and by appendices, nearly

one hundred pages,

if in

the ordinary text, of

In some cases, letters and itineraries are retained,

in this edition.

irrespective of date, because they illustrate

toms that remain in


tropical nature,

The thanks

which

is

ever beautiful and unchanging.

of the authors are especially

to Dr. J. C. Roclrigues, a Brazilian

resides in

New

manners and cus-

statu quo. while they give descriptions of

rections, in preparing this edition,

who

new matter printed

York, and

who

and

due for aid and

for

many

cor-

other favors,

gentleman of great worth


is

the editor and proprietor

two most important and earnest papers in Portuguese, the


Novo Mundo and the Revista Industrial; to Mr. Hitch, a partner

of

in the

house of Henry Forster

&

Co.,

Pernambuco

to

Mr. O.

C. James, of Rio de Janeiro; and to E. F. Hodges, M.D., of

Boston, Mass.

New York.

Jan.

1, 1S7^>

PREFACE.
The popular
to

a certain

notion of Brazil

is,

extent, delineated

in

the accompanying side-illustrations.

Mighty

rivers

and virgin

forests,

m-trees and jaguars, anacondas

and

alligators,

and screaming
revolutions,

howling

parrots,

monkeys

diamond-mining,

and earthquakes, are the com-

ponent parts of the picture formed in the


mind's eye.

It is

probably hazarding no-

thing to say that a very large majority of


general readers are better acquaint-

ed with China and India than with


Brazil.

How

few seem to

be aware that in the distant


Southern Hemisphere
stable

constitutional

is

mon-

archy, and a growing nation,

occupying a territory

of greater area than that


of the United States, and
that the descendants of the
3

Preface.
Portuguese hold the same relative position in South America
as the descendants of the English in the northern half of the

New World!

How

few Protestants are cognizant of the

Reformed

fact that in the territory of Brazil the


first

religion

was

proclaimed on the Western Continent!

The following work, by two whose experience


zilian

Empire embraces a period of twenty

in the Bra-

years, endeavors

faithfully to portray the history of the country, and,

rative of incidents connected with travel

land of the Southern

and residence

make known

Cross, to

by a narin the

the manners,

customs, and advancement of the most progressive people

south of the Equator.

While "Itineraries"

relating to journeys of a few

various portions of the

months

in

Empire have been recently published,

no general work on Brazil has been issued in Europe or

America

since the "Sketches" of the senior author, (D.P. K.,)

which was most favorably received in England and the United


States,

but has long been out of print.

Although the present volume

is

the result of a joint effort,

the desire for greater uniformity caused the


to

place

his

contributions

junior colleague,
to

use the

(J.

name

the hands of his

in

C. F.,) with the

the

of

pen

each

permission

former in the third

The amount

person singular.

senior author

is,

of matter from

however,

nearly equal than at

first

more
sight

would appear.

The
ed

authors

every

French,

important

consult-

work

in

German, English, and

Portuguese,
light

have

that

could

throw

on the history of Brazil,

Preface.

and likewise various published memoirs and discourses read


before the flourishing
at Rio de Janeiro.

" Geographical

For

statistics

and Historical Society

"

they have either personally

examined the Imperial and provincial archives, or have quoted


directly

from Brazilian state papers.

The numerous

illustrations are, with

photographic views taken on the spot.

few exceptions, either from sketches, or


All have been faithfully as well as

skil-

by Messrs. Van Ingen & Snyder, of Philadelphia. The accompanying


map, prepared by Messrs. G. W. & C. B. Colton & Co. is probably the best ever published of an Empire which has never been surveyed. In 1855 the junior author
fully executed

travelled
as

more than three thousand miles

in Brazil,

making corrections of

this

map

he journeyed.

Note for

1879.

By a slip of the graver, Tabatinga, on the Amazon, in Brazil, has been made on
map to belong to Peru. The error was not discovered until the edition of the
otherwise very correct map was worked off.
the

NOTES FOR THOSE GOING TO BRAZIL.

The

Portuguese language

a distinct tongue

is

universally spoken in Brazil.

It is not a dialect of the Spanish,

the Court languages.

but

is

Portuguese and French are

as Yieyra says, it is the eldest daughter of the Latin.

One-sixth of the population of large cities and towns speak French.

acquainted with the French. Italian, or Spanish easily acquire the Portuguese.

English

is

Those
taught

The best work for conveying a true knowledge of English and American
and Portugueeeis the *j Chrestomathia da Lingua Inglesa " by Sr. J. C. Rodrigues
(A. S. Barnes & Co., New York).
While Messrs. Triibner & Co. in London, and the Messrs. Appleton,
in New York, have published manuals for learning the Portuguese, it may be of advantage to state
that if an Englishman or Anglo-American can give to the vowels the Continental sound, learn the
contractions, accents, &c, and the peculiarities of two or three consonants, he will find the Portuguese the easiest of all foreign tongues. The termination ao is pronounced almost like oun in the
English word noun. Words ending in oes are pronounced as if an n were inserted between the e and
the 5. Thus, Camoes, English Camoens. Terminations em and im are very nearly pronounced like
eng and ing in English e.g. Jerusalem is pronounced Jerusaleg-. X has the force of Sh ; thus, one
of the great affluents of the Amazon, Xingu, is pronounced Shingu.
The word Dom. (dominus,) which always precedes the name of the.Emperor, is not used indiscriminately like the Don of the Spanish, but is a title applied by the Portuguese and their descendants
only to monarchs, princes, and bishops.
One milreis, (a thousand reis,) about fifty-six cents, or two shillings and sixpence English. The
Brazilian unit-coin is always represented by the dollar sign after the mil
thus, 5$500 are five mil and
five hundred reis,
about three dollars. A conto of reis is little more than 112.
Clothes, of course, should be of a character adapted to the tropics
but always take some woollen
garments, for in the interior, and south of Bahia, the thermometer often indicates 60 Fahrenheit
It
hardly need be added that a dress-coat is indispensable for those going to the palace. All personal
effects, like wearing apparel, are admitted duty free
but the traveller would do well to remember
that he should not be overstocked with cigars. There are many drawbacks at the custom-house in
in all the

higher schools.

literature to Brazilians

favor of goods belonging to emigrants, as agricultural implements, machinery,

&c

&c. (vide page 333

and the concluding chapter of this work.)


As to the Patent Laws, mode of obtaining certain

privileges for inventions, &c. William V. Lidgerwood, Esq., (United States Charge d'Affaires in 1865-66,) can give more information than any other
person in Brazil. The Lidgerwood Manufacturing Company (of which Mr William V. Lidgerwood is

a member) manufactures and imports plantation and agricultural machinery for all parts of Brazil.
Undoubtedly the strongest and oldest established American house in Brazil is that of Henry Forster
& Co., of Pernambuco. Messrs. J. M. Wright & Co., and Messrs. Wright & Co., of Rio de Janeiro,
are the largest commission

and exporting American merchants at the

the representative of American commerce on the Amazon.


Mr. 0. C. James, the sucoessor of Messrs. Fales & Duncan,

is

capital.

At Para, Mr. Bond

the agent of the Novo

Mundo

is

at Rio

and executes general commissions, including railway plant. Gamier at Rio de Janeiro
and Guelph de Lailhacar at Pernambuco keep English and American standard works.
Hotels in Brazil are not equal to those in Europe or the States.
At Rio all have high prices,
ranging, according to room, from ten shillings English to 1. The Exchange Hotel and
Hotel dos
de Janeiro

Estrangeiros are the best English hotels in the capital.


Hotel d'Europa is the best French hotel.
Bennett's, an hour from Rio, is the most comfortable place in Brazil. In Bahia, Hotel Furtin
is a good
restaurant, and convenient to those arriving from sea. At Pernambuco, the Hotel
Universel has the
same recommendations. The hotels of Bahia and Pernambuco are small, compared with those of Rio.

The

and 296) are from one-third to one-half higher


which place are several good hotels.

prices of 1856 (pages 295

Pctropolis, at

in 1866,

except

at

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER

I.

Historic Reminiscences First Sight of the Tropics


Entrance to the Harbor Night-Scenes Impressions of Beauty and Grandeur
Gardner and Stewart The Capital of Brazil Distinction of Rio de Janeiro

The Bay

PAGE

of Rio de Janeiro

CHAPTER

13

II.

Hotel PharouxNovel Sights and Sounds The Palace Square Rua


Exchan ge The " Team" Musical Coffee-Carriers Custom-House
Lessons in Portuguese, and Governor Kent's Opinion of Brazil Post-Office Dislike of Change Senhor Jose Maxwell Rua do Ouvidor Shops and FeatherNarrow Streets and Police-ReguFlowers The Brazilian Omnibus can be
relieve Broadway, New York Passeio Publico Bralations A Suggestion
zilian Politeness The " Gondola" The Brazilian imperturbable Lack of Hotels
First Night in Rio de Janeiro

Landing

Direita

full

to

CHAPTER

24

III.

Past Glory of Portugal Coligny's Huguenot Colony The Protestant Banner


unfurled in the New World Treachery of Villegagnon Contest between
the Portuguese and the French Defeat of the Latter San Sebastian founded

Discovery of South America Pinzon's Visit to Brazil Cabral Coelho Americus


Vespucius The Name " Brazil" Bay of Rio de Janeiro Martin Affonso de Souza

first

Cruel Intolerance

Reflections

46

CHAPTER

Attacks

IV.

Improvements under the Viceroys


Rapid Political Changes Departure of
John VI. The Viceroyalty in the Hands of Dom Pedro Brazilians
with the Mother-Country Declaration of Independence Acclamation of

Early State of Rio

of the French

Arrival of the Royal Family of Portugal

Dom

dis-

satisfied

Dom

Pedro as Emperor

61

CHAPTER

Instructions

V.

of the Emperor to the Constituent Assembly Dom


Assembly by Force Constitution framed by a Special Commission Considerations of this Document The Rule of Dom Pedro I. Causes of
The Emperor abdicates in favor of Dom Pedro II
Dissatisfaction

The Andradas
Pedro

I.

dissolves the

73

Contents.

CHAPTER

VI.

PAGE

The Praia do Flamengo The Three-Man Beetle Splendid Views The Man who
cut down a Palm-Tree Moonlight Rio " Tigers " The Bathers Gloria Hill
Evening Scene The Church Marriage of Christianity and Heathenism A Sermon in Honor of Our Lady Festa da Gloria The Larangeiras Ascent of the
Coreovado The Sugar-Loaf

CHAPTER

86

VII.

Hospital of San Francisco de Paula The Lazarus and the Rattlesnake Misericordia Sailor's Hospital at Jurujuba Foundling-Hospital Recolhimento for Orphan-Girls New Misericordia Asylum for the Insane Jose
d'Anchieta, Founder of the Misericordia Monstrous Legends of the Order Friar
John Almeida Churches Convents

Brotherhoods

d'

CHAPTER

107

VIII.

Police Gambling and Lotteries Municipal Government Vaccination Beggars on Horseback Prisons Slavery
Brazilian Laws in favor of Freedom The Mina Hercules English Slave-Holders
Slavery in Brazil Doomed
124

Illumination of the City

Early

to

Bed

CHAPTER

IX.

The Corruption of the Clergy Monsignor Bedini Toleration among the


Brazilians The Padre Festivals Consumption of "Wax The Intrudo Processions Anjinhos Santa Priscilliana The Cholera not cured by Processions

Religion

CHAPTER

140

X.

Brazilian Houses The Girl The Wife The Mother Moorish


Jealousy Domestic Duties Milk-Cart on Legs Brazilian Lady's Delight Her
Troubles The Marketing and Watering Kill the Bixo Boston Apples and Ice
Family Recreations The Boy The Collegio Common-Schools Highest Academies of Learning The Gentleman Duties of the Citizen Elections Political
Parties Brazilian Statesmen

The Home-Feeling

CHAPTER

161

XI.

San Domingo Sabbath-Keeping Mandioca Ponte de Area View


from Inga The Armadillo Commerce of Brazil The Finest Steamship Voyage
the World American Seamen's Friend Society The English Cemetery EngChapel Brazilian Funerals Tijuca Bennett's Cascades Excursions
Botanical Gardens An Old Friend Home

Praia Grande

in

lish

CHAPTER

The Opening of

XII.

History of Events
Constitutional
Reform Condition of Political Parties before the Revolution of 1840 Debates in
the House of Deputies Attempt at Prorogation Movement of Antonio Carlos
Deputation
the Emperor Permanent Session Acclamation of Dom Pedro's

The Campo Santa Anna

succeeding the Acclamation of

to

Dom

the Assemblea Geral

Pedro

II.

The

Regency

187

Contents.

Assembly's Proclamation Rejoicings New Ministry Public


Real State of Things Ministerial Programme Preparations
the Coronation Change of Ministry Opposition come into Power Coronation
postponed Splendor of the Coronation Financial Embarrassments Diplomacy
Dissolution of the Camara Pretext of Outbreaks Council of State Restoration of Order Sessions of the Assembly Imperial Marriages Ministerial Change
Present Condition
Majority

The

Congratulations

PAGB

for

CHAPTER

211

XIII.

His

Remarkable Talents and Acquirements New York


Historical Society
The First Sight of D. Pedro II. An Emperor on Board an
American Steamship Captain Foster and the " City of Pittsburg" How D. Pedro
II. was received by the " Sovereigns"
An Exhibition of American Arts and Manufactures
Difficulties overcome
Visit of the Emperor
His Knowledge of American
Authors Success among the People Visit to the Palace of S. Christovao Longfellow, Hawthorne, and Webster
231

The Emperor of Brazil

CHAPTER

XIV.

The Journals of Rio de Janeiro Advertisements The Freedom


Effort put down Bible-Distribution Failure National Library
Museum Imperial Academies of Fine Arts Societies Brazilian Historical and
Geographical Institute Administration of Brazilian Law Curious Trial

Brazilian Literature

of the Press

Its

to

251

CHAPTER XV.

Its Superiority to other Tropical Countries Cool Resorts


Brazilian Jupiter Pluvius The Mulatto Improviser Sydney
Smith's " Immortal" Surpassed A Lady's Impressions of Travel An America:
Factory A Yankee House The Ride up the Organ Mountains Forests, Flowers,
and Scenery Speculation in Town-Lots Boa Vista Height of the Serra dos
Orgoes Constancia The " Happy Valley" The Two Swiss Bachelors Youth
renewed Prosaic Conclusion Todd's " Student's Manual" The Tapir The
Toucan The Fire-Flies Expenses of TravellingNova Fribourgo Canta G-allo
Petropolis
268

The Climate
Trip to

of Brazil

Alexio

St.

CHAPTER

XVI.

Passengers Ubatuba

Judgment of Foreigners Vincente Order of Exercises My Cigar Paranagu&


H.B.M. "Cormorant" and the Slavers Mutability of Maps Russian Vessels in
Limbo The Prima DonnaAn English EngineerArrive at San Francisco do Sul

Preparations for the

Eagerness

Voyage

to the

Southern Provinces

The

The

Routine on Board Aboriginal Names San


Sebastian and Midshipman Wilberforce Santos Brazilians at Dinner Incorrect
to obtain Bibles

S.

CHAPTER

303

XVII.

Parana Message of its First President Mate, or Paraguay Tea


Its Culture and Preparation
Grows in North Carolina San Francisco do Sul
Expectations not fulfilled Canoe-Voyage My Companions not wholly carnivorous A Travelled Trunk The Tolling-Bell Bird Arrival at Joinville A New

The Province

Settlement

of

Circular on Emigration to Brazil

320


Contents.

10

CHAPTER

XVIII.
PAGE

Colonia Donna Francisca The School-Teacher The Clergyman A Turk BibleDistribution Suspected A B C The Fallen Forest The House of the Director
A Runaway The Village Cemetery Moral Wants Orchidaceous PlantsCharlatanism San Francisco Jail The Burial of the Innocent, and the moneymaking Padre The Province of Sta. Catharina Desterro Beautiful Scenery
Herds and
Shells and Butterflies Coal-Mines Province of Bio Grande do Sul
Herdsmen The Lasso Indians Former Provincial Revolts Present Tranquil334
lity assured by the Overthrow of Rosas and of the Paraguayan Lopez Jr...

CHAPTER

XIX.

to San Paulo Night-Travelling Serra do Cubatao The Heaven of the


Frade Vasconcellos Ant-Hills Tropeiros Curious Items of Trade
Ypiranga City of San Paulo Law-Students and Convents Mr. Mawe's ExpePaulo The Visionary
rience contrasted Description of the City Respect for

Journey

Moon

S.

354

Hotel-Keeper

CHAPTER XX.

Terrestrial Paradise Reverses of the Jesuits Enslavement


Historical Data The Academy of Laws Course of StudyDis-

History of San Paulo


of the Indians

Men The Andradas Jose Bonifacio Antonio Carlos Alvares


Vergueiro Bishop Moura A Visit Feijo Proposition abolish
Celibacy An Interesting Book The Death of Antonio Carlos de Andrada High
Eulogium Missionary Efforts in San Paulo Early and Present Condition of the
Province Hospitalities of a Padre Encouragements The People Proposition
the Provincial Assembly Response Result Addenda Present Encourage-

tinguished

Machado

to

to

to

ments

366

CHAPTER

XXI.

Old Congo's Spurs Lodging and Sleeping Company


Campinas Illuminations A Night among the Lowly Arrival at Limeira
A Pennsylvanian A Night with a Boa Constrictor Eventful and Romantic Life
of a Naturalist The Bird-Colony destined
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural
Sciences Ybecaba Sketch of the Vergueiros Plan of Colonization Bridge of
Novel Construction Future Prospects
396

Agreeable Acquaintance

to

CHAPTER
A New

The

XXII.

Modus Operandi The


Extension of Tea-Culture in South
America Homeward Bound My Companion Senhor Jose and a Little DiffiCalifornia and the Musical Innkeeper
culty with him
Early Start and the StarDisease

Culture of Chinese Tea in Brazil

Deceived Custom-House

Officials

Probable

Spangled Banner The Senhores Brotero of S. Paulo Fourth of July inaugurated


"Yankee Doodle" on the Plains of Ypiranga Lame and
in an English Family

Impotent Conclusion
de Janeiro

Astronomy under

Difficulties

Deliverance Return

to

Rio
416

11

Contents.

CHAPTER

XXIII.
PAQB

The Brazilian North Extent of the Empire The Falls of Itamarity Gigantic FigTree The Keel-Bill A Plantation in Minas-Geraes Peter Parley in Brazil
The PlantationVesper-Hours
The Padre
Sweet Lemons Baronial Style
Orchestra The White Ants ohedient to the Church The Great Ant-Eater The
Paca The Musical Cart The Mines and other Resources of Minas-Geraes
The Province of Goyaz Stingless Bees and Sour
Coffee its History and Culture
Honey Mato Grosso Long River-Route to the Atlantic A New Thoroughfare
Lieutenant Thomas J. Page The Survey of the La Plata and its Affluents
Steamboat-Navigation on the Paraguay
First American Steamer at Corumba
Diamond and
Dr. Kane and Lieutenant Strain
Officers of the American Navy
Gold Mines the Hinderers of Progress The Difference in the Results from Dia432
monds and Coffee

CHAPTER XXIV.

Campos Espirito Santo Aborigines


The Palm-Tree and Uses The Tupi-Guarani
The Lingoa Geral Ferocity of the Aymores The City of Bahia Porters Cadeiras
History of Bahia Caramuru Attack on the Hollanders Measures taken by
Spain The City retaken The Dutch in Brazil Slave-Trade Sociability of
Bahia Mr. Gilmer, American Consul The Humming-Bird Whale-Fishery
American Cemetery Henry Martyn Visit
MontserratView of the City The
Emperor's Birthday Medical School Public Library Image-Factory The
Anthony a Colonel Visit
Wonderful Image of
Anthony No Miracle
Valenca Daring Navigation In Paris Naturalibus The Factory and Colonel
Carson American Machinery Skilful Negroes Return Home Commerce with

Cape Frio

Wreck

of the Frigate Thetis

Origin of Indian Civilization

its

to

St.

to

St.

the United States

464

CHAPTER XXV.
Departure from Bahia

The Vampire-Bat His Manner of Attack


The Bitten
Negro Annoyances magnified Anacondas One that swallowed a Horse The
Marmoset Province of Alagoaz The Republic of Palmares Pernambuco The
Amenities of Quarantine-Life Improvements at the Recife Peculiarities of Pernambucan Houses Beautiful Panorama Various Districts of the City A BibleChristian Extraordinary Fanaticism of the Sebastianists
Commerce of Pernambuco
The Population of the Interior The Sertanejo and Market-Scene The
Sugar and Cotton Mart The Jangada Parahiba do Norte Natal Ceara The
Padiola
Temperature and Periodical Rains
The City of Maranham Judge
Petit's Description
The Montana Departure
503

CHAPTER XXVI.

The City of Para The Entrance of


Parallel the BlackHole of Calcutta
of Steam-Navigation Improvements in Para" The Canoa
Bathing and Market Scenes Produce of Para" India-RubberPara Shoes The
Amazon River Mr. Wallace's Explorations The Vaca Marina Cetacea of the
Amazon Turtle-Egg Butter Indian Archery Brazilian Birds and Insects Visit
Rice-Mills near Para Journey through the Forest The Paraense Bishop's Sus-

Magnificence of Nature in the Brazilian North


the

Amazon

The

first

Protestant Sermon on these Waters

to

Effects

to

picions of Dr.

Kidder State

of Religion at Para

539

Contents.

12

CHAPTER XXVII.
PAGE

Its Discovery El Dorado Goncalo Pizarro His Expedition CrueltiesSufferings - Desertion of Orellana His Descent of the River Fable of the
Amazons Fate of the Adventurer Name of the River Settlement of the
Country Successive Expeditions up and down the Amazon Sufferings of
Madame God in Present State Victoria Regia Steam-Navigation Effects of
Herndon and Gibbon's Report Peruvian Steamers The Future Prospects of the

Amazonas

563

Amazon

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Effect of Emancipation Law The Apprentice System Dom


Pedro in Europe The Emperor in the United States Brazil at the Centennial
United States Commerce with Brazil Difficulties of American Commerce with
Brazil Trade-Mark Treaty

Discussion of Slavery

Conclusion

582

598

Notes

609

Diplomatic and Consular Corps, and Orders of Nobility and Knighthood

610

APPENDICES.
Appendix A.

Chronological

Summary

of the Principal

Events that have transpired

in the History of Brazil

AprENDix
1824,

B.

611

Abstract of the Brazilian Constitution, sworn to on the 25th of March,

and revised

in 1834

614

Appendix C.
Population
616
Appendix D.
Yellow Fever in Brazil
617
Appendix E. Tables of Brazilian Coins, Weights, and Measures
623
Appendix F.
Imports, Exports, Revenue, &c, of Brazil
624
Appendix G.
Religious Disabilities, Extracts from a Speech made by Dr. Furquim

D'Almeida

629

Afpendix H.
Recent Discoveries of Coal in Brazil
Appendix I. Thermometrical Observations at Rio de
Appendix J.
Steam Routes to Brazil

633
Janeiro in 1864.

638
640

r
B&T0F

l.ol'i'illriini/,

3 Jrwhoriiar ihr.Uen
3

tiixchiwtiiiit)

Cargo

,comprida
I

IRta.

.-

afWar...

Anchorage, fbrMerduuU Vessels

\mchorage for M.

Will, 'iii/o

Gamboo

Ccanpo S.Anna

Publico

Passeio

.r.

io

S.Bento

>'.",/

//,.,/ //,/,

receiving Cargo

THE SUGAR-LOAF, (ENTRANCE TO THE BAY OF

i[ail

mi

ift^

CHAPTEE
THE BAT OF RIO DE JANEIRO
TROPICS

ENTRANCE

AND GRANDEUR

TO THE

rMktt8.

I.

HISTORIC REMINISCENCES

HARBOR

NIGHT-SCENES

GARDNER AND STEWART

RIO.)

FIRST SIGHT OF THE

IMPRESSIONS OF BEAUTY

THE CAPITAL OF BRAZIL

DISTINC-

TION OF RIO DE JANEIRO.

The Bay of Naples, the Golden Horn of Constantinople, and the


Bay of Eio de Janeiro, are always mentioned by the travelled
tourist as pre-eminently

extent,

worthy

to be classed together for their

and for the beauty and sublimity of their scenery. The

first

two, however, must yield the palm to the last-named magnificent


sheet of water, which, in a climate of perpetual summer,

within the

is

enclosed

ranges of singularly-picturesque mountains, and

dotted with the verdure-covered islands of the tropics.

is

He who,
13

Brazil and the Brazilians.

14

has gazed from the Quai of Vevay, or from the


windows of the old Castle of Chillon, upon the grand panorama of
the upper end of the Lake of Geneva, can have an idea of the
in Switzerland,

general view of the

Bay

of Eio de Janeiro

and there was much

truth and beauty in the remark of the Swiss, who, looking for the
and its circlet
first time on the native splendor of the Brazilian bay
!" (It
of mountains, exclaimed, "C'est I'Melvetie Meridionale

Southern Switzerland

is

the

!)

must have presented itself to those


early navigators Be Solis, Majellan, and Martin Alfonso de Souza
who were the first Europeans that ever sailed through the narrow

What

a glorious spectacle

portal which

constitutes

the

entrance

to

Nitherohy, (Hidden

Water,) as these almost land-locked waters were appropriately and


poetically
tain-sides

termed by the Tamoyo Indians

and borders of the bay are

still

Though the moun-

richly

clothed, then all the primeval forests existed,

and luxuriantly

and gave a wilder

and more striking beauty to a scene so enchanting in a natural


point of view, even after three centuries of the encroachments of
man.

Be Souza

as

the

common

tradition runs

supposed

that

he had entered the mouth of a mighty river, rivalling the Orinoco

and the Amazon, and named


after the

happy month

it

Bio de Janeiro, (River of January,)


1531
in which he made his

January,

Whatever may have been the origin of this


misnomer, it is not only applied to the large and commodious bay,
but to the province in which it is situated, and to the populous metropolis of Brazil, which sits like a queen upon its bright shores.
We all of us know, either by our own experience or by that
of others, what is the sight of land to the tempest-tossed voyager.

imagined discovery.

When

the broad blue circle of sea and sky, which for days and

weeks has encompassed

even though
tains of

his vision, is at length

broken by a shore,

that shore be bleak and desolate as the ice-moun-

the Arctic regions, it

is

invested with a surpassing

robed in undreamed-of charms.

What, then, must


be the emotions of one who, coming from a latitude of stormy

interest, it is

winter, beholds around

him a land

towering and crested palms, and

of perpetual summer, with

its

its

giant vegetation arrayed in

fadeless green

In Becember, 1851, when the Hudson and the Potomac were


Entrance to the Harbor.

15

bridged by the ice-king, and clouds and snow draped the sky and

the land, our good vessel stood out upon a stormy sea.

weeks of gales and

rolling waves, varied

by

light

This isolated peak shoots up as steeply

brought us to Cape Frio.

as the chalk-cliffs of England, as high as the

and

covered to

is

its

Eock

very summit with verdure.

beheld them in conjunction with

last

few

winds and calms,

ing over this summer-land.

terra

of Gibraltar,

No

firma

clouds

were

as I

frown-

The balmiest breezes were blowing,

and the palms upon the adjacent hills were gracefully waving
above the world of vegetation so new to me which gleamed in

the

warm

sunlight.

It

was

in the midst of such a scene that the

day, not without evening-glories, faded away.

The morning sun

shone clearly, and the lofty mountain-range near the entrance to the

harbor stood forth in an outline at once bold, abrupt, and beautiful.

The first entrance of any one


an era in his existence

to the

Bay

of Eio de Janeiro forms

"an hour
Whence he may date thenceforward and

Even the

dullest observer

forever."

must afterward cherish sublimer views

of the manifold beauty and majesty of the works of the Creator.


I have seen the most rude and ignorant Eussian sailor, the im-

moral and unreflecting Australian adventurer, as well as the

culti-

vated and refined European gentleman, stand silent upon the deck,

mutually admiring the gigantic avenue of mountains and palmcovered

which, like the granite pillars before the Temple

isles,

of Luxor, form a fitting colonnade to the portal of the finest bay


in the world.

On

either side of that contracted entrance, as far as the eye can

reach, stretch

away

the mountains, whose pointed and fantastic

shapes recall the glories of Alpland.

On

our

left,

the Sugar-Loaf

stands like a giant sentinel to the metropolis of Brazil.

The round

and green summits of the Tres Irmaos (Three Brothers) are


strong contrast with the peaks of Corcovado and Tijuca
the G-avia rears
line of

do

its

huge

sail-like

in

while

form, and half hides the fading

mountains which extends to the very borders of Eio Grande

Sul.

On

the right, another lofty range commences near the

principal fortress

which commands the entrance of the bay, and,

forming curtain-like ramparts, reaches away, in picturesque head-

Brazil and the Brazilians.

16

promontory well known to all South Atlantic


navigators as Cape Frio. Far through the opening of the bay, and
in some places towering even above the lofty coast-barrier, can be
discovered the blue outline of the distant Organ Mountains, whose
lands, to the bold

lofty pinnacles will at once suggest the origin of their


effect is truly sublime;

The general

nearer to the bold shore, and

mount which
leaved woods

we

rises in the rear of

on the sides of the double

see,

Santa Cruz, the peculiar bright-

of Brazil, with here and there the purple-blooming

quaresma-tree,

and when we observe that the snake-like cacti and

rich-flowering parasites shoot forth and

hang down even from the

jagged and precipitous sides of the Sugar-Loaf,


out in every nook and crevice
lific

name.

but as the vessel draws

new

and as we single

evidences of a genial and pro-

clime, emotion, before overwhelmed by vastness of outline,

now unburdens

itself in

every conceivable exclamation of surprise

and admiration.

The breeze

is

wafting us onward, and

walls of the Santa Cruz fortress.


light uniform of enviable

we

pass beneath the white

black soldier, dressed in a

over a parapet,

coolness, leans lazily

while higher up on the ramparts a sentinel marches with leisurely


tread near the glass cupola which, illuminated at night, serves as a

guide to the entering mariner.


is

Immediately an enormous trumpet

protruded from this cupola, and our good ship

stentorian

voice,

demanding,

in

is

saluted

Portuguese-English, the

questions put to vessels sailing into a foreign port.

We

by

usual

soon glide

from under the frowning guns of Santa Cruz, and are just abreast
Fort Lage, celebrated as the

man.

civilized

Far to our

beautiful.

the city,

first spot of the bay ever inhabited by


The scene which now opens before us is exquisitely

is

left,

the fortress of

beneath the Sugar-Loaf, but nearer to


St.

Passing through a

verdure.

market-boats,

manned by

John, bright amid the surrounding

fleet

of gracefully shaped canoes and

half-clad blacks,

we

cling to the steep

right-hand coast, which soon precipitously terminates, and reveals


to us the lovely little

the English.

we have
Naples

Bay

of Jurujuba,

Again looking

the " five-fathom" bay of

to the opposite side,

beyond

St.

a glimpse of the graceful Cove of Botafoga (the

Bay

of

and the pretty suburb of the same name,


a jewel set between the smooth white beach and

in miniature)

which seems like

John,

-a

M
fc

O ^

<
g

PQ

h^

bo

50

W
X
h

a.
*S

-5
03

O
tH

W
U
2
<
tf

H
Z

5
^

Tropic Night-scenes.

17

Here too we have another of the


many views of the Corcovado and the Gavia, which, as we varjour position, are ever changing and ever beautiful.
the broad circle of living green.

Now

the vast city looms up before us, extending, with

its

suburbs, for miles along the irregular shores of the bay,

white

and run-

ning far back almost to the foot of the Tijuca Mountains, diversified

by green

hills

neighborhoods.

which seem to spring up from the most populousThese combined circumstances prevent a perfect

view of Eio de Janeiro from the waters.

domes and

steeples,

on the white

While gazing upon the

edifices of the city,

and the bright

verdure-clad Gloria, Santa Theresa, and Castello Hills,

we

your anchor."

are cut

by the cry of a Brazilian official


" Let go
The command is obeyed, and we are comfortably

short in our admiration

lying to under the formidable-looking guns of the Forteleza Yille-

Our vessel swings round and

gagnon.

reveals to us on the opposite

shore the city of Praia Grande, the parti-colored

cliff

of St. Do-

mingo, and upon a mere rock, which seems a fragment of the adjoining shore, the
in

little

church of Nossa Senhora de Boa Yiagem,

which Eoman Catholic voyagers are supposed

and around which


cool ocean-breeze.
officers

many

While awaiting the

we remain upon

exciting.

to

pay

their vows,

graceful palm-trees are nodding in the


visit of

the custom-house

deck, and tire not of scenes so novel and

Little steamers

and graceful falluas* are passing and

passing from Praia Grande and

St.

White

Domingo.

ting the bay as far as the eye can reach, while


serried masts of Brazilian

all

sails

re-

are dot-

around us the

and foreign vessels are evidences that we

are in the midst of a vast and busy mart.

The night soon succeeds the short twilight of the


city

from our ship seems

tropics,

and the

enchantment.

like a land of fairy

liancy and novelty, do not end with the day.

Bril-

Innumerable gas-

immense borders of the city down to the very edge


of the bay, and are reflected back from the water in a thousand
quivering flashes. The very forms of the hills themselves are defined amid the darkness by rows of lamps extending over their
verdure-clad summits, and seem like the fabled star-bridges of an
Arabian tale. The steam ferry-boats bear various-colored lights,
lights line the

* See engraving on page


2

60.


Brazil and the Brazilians.

18

and each vessel

in the harbor has a

lamp

at its fore; while every

turn of the wheel furrows through a diamond sea, and every dash
of the oar and every ripple from the gentle evening breeze reveals
a thousand brilliant phosphorescent animalculse illuminating the

When we look above us we behold new

otherwise darkened waters.

and their queen is the Southern


by her silent and mysterious attendants, the MajelThe Great Bear has long since been hidden from us;

constellations spangling the heavens,

Cross, guarded
lan Clouds.

but just peeping over the natural ramparts of the Organ Mountains,

we
his

and a welcome friend

see an old

loses

none of

in that

beaming Orion, who here

his northern splendor, and does not even pale before

rival of the

Southern Hemisphere.

could close their eyelids in sleep

Amid

such scenes

who

Dr. Kidder on one occasion, re-

turning from the northern provinces, entered the harbor at nightfall

"

during a squall, and thus describes the scene

We

was

as the vessel
lulled,

passed close under the walls of Fort Santa Cruz


in the

most

critical part of

but, just

the passage, the wind

and the current of the ebbing tide swept her back, and by

degrees carried her over toward the rocks upon which Fort Lage

The moment was one of great excitement and


danger. Our
was perceived at the forts, which severally
fired guns, and burned white and blue lights, in order to show us
is

constructed.

situation

their position.

"A

more sublime scene can hardly be imagined. The rolling


thunders of the cannon were echoed back by the surrounding
mountain-peaks, and the brilliant glare of the artificial flames appeared the more intense in the midst of unusual darkness.
for the vessel

were

and

all

on board, the wind freshened

in time,

Happily

and we

borne gallantly up to the man-of-war anchorage, where, at

nine o'clock,

we were

lying moored to not less than seventy fathoms

of chain.

"

The moon had not yet

dark.

risen,

and the evening remained very

This circumstance heightened the beauty of the city and

the effect of her thousand lamps, which were seen brightly burn-

ing at measured intervals over the hills and praias of her far-

One young man was

stretching suburbs.

so enchanted with the

novelty and splendor of the scene, that he remained on deck


night to gaze upon

it,

notwithstanding rain

fell

at intervals/'

all

Beauty and Grandeur.


More than one have had

19

to confess that their first twenty-four

hours before Eio have been spent in a perpendicular position with


the eyes wide open, and could exclaim, with emphasis,
" Most glorious night

Thou wert not

sent for slumber."

Every thing is so fresh, so novel and awakening, that we are like


children on the eve of some great festival or the night before the
first journey to some vast city with whose wonders the story-book
and the improvisations of the nursery have filled the imagination
to the

full.

I have again and again entered and quitted the Bay of Bio de
Janeiro when the billows were surging and when the calm mantled

the deep

and, whether in the purple light of a tropic morning^

in the garish noon, or in the too brief twilight of that Southern


clime, it has always presented to
It has

been

my privilege

to look

scenes of both hemispheres;

combined

so

much

much

On

the Height of

float the

and new charms.

upon some of the most celebrated

panorama which we have


St. Elmo I have drank in

of beauty from that curvilinear

upon whose bosom

glories

but I have never found one which

to be admired as the

attempted to describe.
as

me new

isles

bay of Southern

Italy,

of Capri and Ischia, and upon

whose margin nestle the gracefully-shaped Yesuvius, the long arm


of Sorrento, and the proverbially-brilliant city of Naples. I have
seen very great variety in the blue, isle-dotted

Bay

of

Panama;

and I have beheld in the Alps, and in the western entrance to the
Straits of Majellan, where the black, jagged Andes are rent asunder,
scenes of wildness and sublimity without parallel; but,

all

things

upon a scene which surpasses,

considered, I have yet to gaze

in

combined beauty, variety, and grandeur, the mountain-engirdled


Mtherohy.

The above impressions were penned


single exception, one of the

of Bio de Janeiro

and

it

many

before I had read, with a

Bay
who had never

detailed descriptions of the

occurred to

me

that those

seen the natural beauties of this region would not give ready
assent to

its

their scenery.

rator."

many other places famous for


"He is an enthusiast, an exaggemany books, journals, and letters

exaltation above so

Such might say,

have since perused

Brazil and the Brazilians.

20
on Brazil; and

down

Martius,

all

from the ponderous tomes

to the ephemeral lines of a contributor to the news-

papers are of one accord in regard to this wonderful bay.


the works

may

Though

be devoted to history, science, commerce, or to the

epistolary correspondence of friends, in this respect they

resemblance ; for
Indeed,

original.

Von

of Spix and

all

draw the same

when reading

portrait

all

bear a

and from the same

by the

the description given

late

lamented English botanist, Gardner, I half suspected myself a


plagiarist,

though

valuable travels until

had never read

my own

and truly

his interesting

account was written.

Describing the entrance of the harbor, this naturalist says,

"Passing through the magnificent portal of the bay, we came to


an anchor a few miles below the

not being allowed to proceed

city,

by the authorities. It is quite impossible to


the
feelings
which
arise in the mind while the eye surveys
express
the beautifully-varied scenery which is disclosed on entering the
harbor,
scenery which is perhaps unequalled on the face of the
earth, and on the production of which nature seems to have
farther until visited

exerted

all

her energies.

Since then I have visited

many

places

celebrated for their beauty and their grandeur, but none of

my mind.

As

them

up the bay as the


eye could reach, lovely little verdant and palm-clad islands were to
be seen rising out of its dark bosom; while the hills and lofty
mountains which surround it on all sides, gilded by the rays of the

have

left

a like impression on

far

setting sun, formed a befitting frame for such a picture.

the lights of the city had a fine effect

At night

and when the land-breeze

began to blow, the rich odor of the orange and other perfumed
flowers

was borne seaward along with

it,

and,

by me

at least,

enjoyed the more from having been so long shut out from the

companionship of flowers.
for its spicy odors

Ceylon has been celebrated by voyagers

but I have twice

made

its

shores, with a land-

breeze blowing, without experiencing any thing half so sweet as


those which greeted

The

my

arrival at Rio."

description given

by the Rev.

showing the impressions of


had, since his

first visit

C. S.

Stewart

is

valuable in

bay upon one who


viewed some of the most re-

this magnificent

to Brazil,

nowned scenes in the world


"I was anxious to test the
:

fidelity of the impressions received

The Capital

of Brazil.

21

twenty years ago from the same scenery, and to determine how
far the magnificent picture still lingering in my memory was
justified

by the

reality, or

how

far it

was

to be attributed to the

enthusiasm of younger years and the freshness of

The
was hurried

travel.

to the

point.

less

deck by a message from Lieutenant

already there, and do not recollect ever to have been im-

pressed with higher admiration

by any picture

in still life

than by

my

eyes on

the group of mountains and the coast-scene meeting

the

experienced

morning quickly determined the

early light of the

left.

The wildness and sublimity of outline of the Pao de

Assucar, Dous Irmaos, Gavia, and Corcovado, and their fantastic

combinations, from the point at which

we viewed them, can

scarce

be rivalled; while the richness and beauty of coloring thrown

over and around the whole, in purple and gold, rose-color, and
ethereal blue, were all that the varied and glowing tints of the

No

day ever impart.

rising

pass this scene, and

work

we

fancy-sketch of fairy-land could sur-

stood gazing upon

it

as if fascinated

by the

of a master-hand."

The

city of Eio de Janeiro, or

commercial emporium and the

While Brazil embraces a greater


other country of the

New

San Sebastian,

political

capital

is

at once the

of

the nation.

dominion than any

territorial

World, together with natural advan-

tages second to none on the globe, the position, the scenery,

and the increasing magnitude of


polis

worthy of the empire.

its

capital render it a metro-

Rio de Janeiro

is

the largest city

of South America, the third in size on the Western Continent,

and boasts an antiquity greater than that of any city in the


United States.
Its

harbor

is

.situated just within the borders of the

Southern

Torrid Zone, and communicates, as before described, with the


wide-rolling Atlantic,

granite mountains.

by a deep and narrow passage between two


This entrance

is

so safe as to render the ser-

vices of a pilot entirely unnecessary.

So commanding, however,

is

the position of the various fortresses at the

upon

its

islands

manned by

mouth

of the harbor

and on the surrounding heights, that,

if efficiently

a body of determined men, they might defy the hostile

ingress of the proudest navies in the world.

Once within

this magnificent

bay of Nitherohy, the wanderer

if

Brazil and the Brazilians.

22
of the seas

may

safely

moor

his

bark within hearing of the roar of

the ocean-surf.

The aspect which Eio de Janeiro presents

to the beholder bears

no resemblance to the compact brick walls, the dingy


tall

chimneys, and the generally-even

by

Its surface is diversified

hills

sites of

roofs, the

our Northern

cities.

of irregular but picturesque shape,

between them flat


Along the bases of these hills,
and up their sides, stand rows of buildings, whose whitened walls
and red-tiled roofs are in happy contrast with the deep-green
foliage that always surrounds and often embowers them.

which shoot up

in different directions, leaving

intervals of greater or less extent.

The most prominent eminence, almost in front of us, is the Morro


do Castello, which overlooks the mouth of the harbor, and on
which

is

the

tall signal-staff

that announces, in connection with the

telegraph on Babylonia Hill, the nation,

convent-crowned

hill

class,

Upon

vessel that appears in the offing.

of San Bento; and

if

and position of every

our right

we

we

see the

could have a bird's-

eye view from a point midway between the turrets of the convent

and the

signal-staff of

Morro do

edifices,

Castello,

we

should see the city

and towers, its public


parks, and vermillion chimneyless roofs, and its aqueducts

spread beneath us, with

its streets, steeples,

spanning the spaces between the seven green


gigantic mosaic, bordered upon one side

hills,

constituting a

by the mountains, and on

the other by the blue waters of the bay.

From

the central portion of the city the suburbs extend about

four miles in each of the three principal directions, so that the

municipality of Bio de Janeiro, containing five hundred thousand


inhabitants, covers a greater extent of ground than
city of th*e

any European

same population.

Here dwell a large part of the

nobility of the nation, and, for a

considerable portion of the year, the representatives of the different


provinces, the ministers of state, the foreign ambassadors
consuls,

and

and a commingled populace of native Brazilians and of

foreigners from almost every clime.

That which

in the

estimation, however, confers the greatest distinction

not the busy throng of foreign and

home merchants,

popular

upon Bio,

is

sea-captains,

ordinary Government-officials, and the upper classes of society; but


it is

in the fact that here resides the imperial

head of Brazil, the

Distinction of Rio de Janeiro.

23

young and gifted Dom. Pedro II., who unites the blood of the Braganzas and the Hapsburgs, and under whose constitutional rule
civil liberty, religious toleration,

and general prosperity are better

secured than in any other Government of the

New

World, save

where the Anglo-Saxon bears sway.


Attractive as

may

be the natural scenery and the beauties of art

abounding in any country,

it

must be confessed that human

ence, with its weal or woe, involves a far deeper interest.

exist-

And the

traveller but poorly accomplishes his task of delineating the present, if

he leaves unattempted some sketches of the history of the

past as an introduction to the scenes and events which have come

under his own observation.

After glancing rapidly at some of the

most striking sights and customs of Eio de Janeiro, I


duce a brief sketch of

its

past history.

shall intro-

HOTEL PHAROUX.

CHAPTEE

II.

NOVEL SIGHTS AND SOUNDS THE PALACE SQUARE


EXCHANGE THE " TEAM " MUSICAL COFFEE-CARRIERS CUSTOM-

HOTEL PHAROUX

LANDING

KUA DIREITA
HOUSE

LESSONS

POST-OFFICE

NARROW

STREETS

AND

BROADWAY, NEW YORK


DOLA"

OF CHANGE

AND FEATHER-FLOWERS

SHOPS

THE

AND GOVERNOR KENT'S OPINION OF BRAZIL

IN PORTUGUESE,

-DISLIKE

SENHOR
THE

JOSE*

POLICE-REGULATIONS

PASSEIO

MAXWELL

BRAZILIAN

RUA DO OUVIDOR

OMNIBUS

CAN BE

SUGGESTION

TO

FULL

RELIEVE

BRAZILIAN POLITENESS THE " GONLACK OF HOTELS FIRST NIGHT IN

PUBLICO

BRAZILIAN IMPERTURBABLE

RIO DE JANEIRO.

The

stranger who, with anxious expectation, has paced the deck

of his vessel as

it lies

at

anchor under Yillegagnon, knows no more

welcome sound than the permission from the Custom-House and


health officers to land and

roam through the city which for hours


The blacks who have come from the

before his eyes have visited.

shore

now

return, pulling their

heavy boat

lustily along, for

are sure of a treble price from the newly-arrived.


visited

Who

they

that has

Eio de Janeiro will not at a glance recognise the landing-

place depicted in the engraving?

Hotel Pharoux, the Palace Stairs,

and the Largo do Pao, (Palace Square,) are associated with Eio de
Janeiro in the mind of every foreign naval officer
24

who

has been on

Novel Sights and Sounds.


But changes have taken

the Brazil station.


in contemplation,

gray walls

lifts its

still

among

this

but

and

We

pital.

flood-tide

no longer land

it

Hotel Pharoux

modernized, and the old restau-

is

and the upper

way

stories

to shell-merchants

form a private hos-

at the Palace Stairs,

where formerly at

dashed and foamed against the

the waters

and greater are

place,

slow-moving people.

rant and stable in the basement have given


feather-flower dealers,

25

of the ba}

stone parapet which at this point marked their limit.

The square

has been extended into the waves, and soon the Government will

have

fine

quays along the whole water-edge in

city, stretching

War

from the Marine to the

Instead of the old Pharoux steps,

this

part of the

Arsenal.

we ascend

the stairs to the west

In former years, we landed amid


odors that certainly had not been wafted from " Araby the blest/'
of the Praia

We

Grande

ferry-boats.

learned that sewerage in Rio was a portable instead of an under-

ground

The sense of hearing,

affair.

too,

was wounded by the con-

fused jabbering of blacks in the language of Congo, the shouts of

Portuguese boat-owners, and by the oaths of American and English

Once

sailors.

astonished us

clear of this throng,


!

what novel sights and sounds

hackney coachman, in glazed hat and red vest,

invited us to a ride to the Botanical

Gardens

a smart-looking mulatto

pointed us to his carriage near the Hotel de France.

words died away, the

roll

Before their

of drums and the blasts of bugles called our

There, in front of the old palace, was


drawn up a squad of the National Guard, composed of every imagi-

attention to another direction.

nable complexion from white to African.

Then, as now, at every

mid-day, they removed their shakos, listened for a


religious veneration to the strain of

moment with

music which the black trumpeters

puffed from swelling cheeks, and then resumed, with the exception of
the sentinels, their difficult task of loitering in the corridors of the

huge building, or of basking in the sunshine, until another sound of


bugle should

call

them

Such was the landing

We
miss

to

change guard or

in days

fall into

ranks at vespers.

gone by.

are not yet read}7 to try any of the vehicles of Rio, so

all

applicants,

and

stroll leisurely

we

dis-

along in order to look around

us in the Largo do Paco.

At

the Palace Square, the stranger finds himself surrounded

by a

throng as diverse in habits and appearance, and as variegated in

Brazil and the Brazilians.

26

complexion and costume, as his fancy ever pictured.


of the crowd are Africans,

who

collect

obtain water, which flows from a score of pipes, and,


in tubs or barrels, is borne off

The majority

around the fountain to

when caught

upon the heads of both males and

females.

The

slaves go barefooted, but

some of them are gayly

Their sociability when coogregated in these resorts


extreme, but sometimes

it

is

ends in differences and blows.

dressed.

usually

To

pre-

vent disorders of this kind, soldiers are generally stationed near


the fountains,

who

are pretty sure to maintain their authority

over the unresisting blacks.


principal

fountains;

now

Formerly there were only a few

there

are large chafarizes in

all

the

THE LARGO DO PACO, AND RUA PRIMEIRO DE MARCO. OR DIREITA.

squares,

and

at

the corners

of every third or fourth street are

smaller streams of the pure element, which flow at the turning of

a stopcock.

The Palace

is

a large stone building, exhibiting the old Portuguese

The Palace Square.

was long used as a residence by the viceJohn VI., but is now appropriated to
and contains a suite of rooms in which court
It

style of architecture.

roys,

and

for a time

various public
is

27

by Dom

offices,

The

held on gala-days.

Square (represented on the

buildings at the rear of the Palace

of the engraving) were

left

all

erected

was a Franciscan convent.


been connected with the Palace, and used for
The old chapel, with its short, thick tower,
The

for ecclesiastical purposes.

but has long since


secular purposes.

oldest

remains, but has been superseded, in popularity as well as in


splendor,

without
is

chapel, which,

by the more recently-erected imperial

Adjoining the imperial chapel

belfry, stands at its right.

Our Lady of Mount Carmel, which is


The steeples of this church
cathedral.

that of the third order of

and

daily open,

is

used as a

during certain festivals are illuminated to the very crosses, and


present a splendid appearance from the shipping.

The

streets of the city are generally quite

Direita, or, as

it is

now

narrow

less poetically called,

Rua

but the

Primo

de Marco^ is

wide, and well paved with small square blocks of stone which are
cut from the neighboring

The Rua

hills.

Direita

now

the principal streets of Rio de Janeiro are


the finest thoroughfares of

and mam* of

as well

paved as

London or Vienna, presenting a

great

contrast to the former irregular and miserable pavement, which


in use

up

to 1854.

The Rua

was

Direita and the Largo do Rocio were

the points whence omnibuses started for eveiy portion of the suburbs,

but tramways have almost superseded omnibuses.

The houses seldom exceed


house at Rio

merly nearly

all

three or four stories

equal in height to one of five in

is

but a four-story

New

York.

devoted to business the

first

were appropriated to the

floors only

storage and display of goods, while families resided above.


since

1850

this

has greatly changed

wholesale houses are found

an animated

spectacle

horses

in

proprietors

the picturesque suburbs of Botafogo,

the h&y at Praia Grande or

galloping

For-

were occupied as dwellings, and even in the streets

the quarter where

Rut
the

and clerks now reside in

Engenho Velho, and across


Every evening presents

San Domingo.

of crowded steamers, full

and mules,

all

convening

the

tramways, and
negociantes

and

caixeiros (book-keepers) to their respective residences.

The

distant

steeples

on our

left

are

those of the

Church of

Brazil and the Brazilians.

28
Candelaria, which

Rua

Direita.

taller spires

The

It

situated

is
is

on a narrow

street

the largest church in the

and a handsomer front than any

back from the

city,

and presents

other.

old Praga do Commergio, or Exchange, once occupied a posi-

tion in the

Rua

Direita.

This building, formerly a part of the Cus-

tom-House, was ceded by Government for commercial purposes

in

But the old building has been taken down, and a most splendid
Exchange has been erected in its stead. The new edifice has a very
1834.

imposing appearance, and within

its

spacious precincts the merchants

of eight or nine different nations meet each other in the morning to


interchange salutations and to negotiate their general business.

Exchange

is

The

not far from the Custom-House, which formerly had

its

main entrance adjoining the Praea.

THE RIO TEAM (NOW ABOLISHED).

Nothing can be more animated and peculiar than the scenes


which are witnessed in this part of the R. de Janeiro during the
business-hours of the day,
in these

viz.

from nine a.m. to three p.m.

It is

hours only that vessels are permitted to discharge and receive

and at the same time all goods and baggage must be


despatched at the Custom-House and removed therefrom. Consequent upon such arrangements, the utmost activity is required to
their cargoes,

remove the goods despatched, and to embark those productions of


the country that are daily required in the transactions of a vast

commercial emporium.

In former days the scene was much more

The Musical Coffee-Carriers.


and confusing,

noisy, animating

The team
ing,

came the negro dray.

there

for

29

consisted of five stalwart Africans pushing, pulling, steer-

and shouting as the} made


r

their

way amid

the serried throng,

unmindful of the Madeira Islander, who, with an imprecation and


a crack of his whip, urged on a thundering mule-cart laden with
boxes.

To-day carriages thunder through the crowd, and a large


wagon, belonging

four-wheeled

portation of "goods,"

to

rolls in its

some Express
wake.

Formerly

was performed by human hands, and scarcely a


used in the

city, unless,

indeed,

it

for
all

the

trans-

this labor

cart or a dray

was drawn by negroes.

and wagons propelled by horse-power are now quite common


for the

moving of

light

until

1862,

but

burdens and for the transportation of furni-

ture, pianos, &c. the negro's

vehicle

was

Carts

when

head has not been superseded by any

spring-carts

and

large

wagons

called

andorinhas, came in vogue, except for pianos.

THE FORMER COFFEE-CARRIERS OF RIO DE JANEIRO.

In 1860, while we were almost stunned by the sounds of the multitude,

we had a new source of wonderment. Above all the confuRua Direita, we heard a stentorian chorus of voices re-

sion of the

sponding

in

quick measure to the burden of a song.

We

beheld,

over the heads of the throng, a line of white sacks rushing around

Rua da Alfandega, {Custom- House Street.) We


portion of Rua Direita, and saw that these sacks

the corner of the

hastened to that

had each a living ebony Hercules beneath.

These were the

far-

Brazil and the Brazilians.

30

famed

They usually went

coffee-carriers of Eio.

ing ten or twenty individuals, of

whom

in troops,

number-

one took the lead and was

These were generally the largest and strongest


While at work they seldom wore any
found.
men that could be
called the captain.

was
Each one took a
bag of coffee upon his head, weighing one hundred and sixty
pounds, and, when all were ready, they started off upon a measured

other garment than a pair of short pantaloons; their shirt


for the time as an

thrown aside

trot,

Since 1860 carts are

to a rapid run.

which soon increased

used for

encumbrance.

coffee.

porters of pianos and crockery frequently carry

The negro

hands musical instruments, resembling children's rattleboxes: these they shake to the double-quick time of some wild

their

Ethiopian ditty, which they

Music has a powerful

all

join

singing as they run.

in

effect in exhilarating

the spirits of the

negro; and certainly no one should deny him the privilege of


softening his hard lot

by producing the harmony of sounds which

are sweet to him, though uncouth to other ears.

It

is

said,

how-

attempt was at one time made to secure greater

ever, that an

by forbidding them

quietness in the streets

quence, they performed


in a short time

taken

little

off.

or no

Certain

work;

it is

that they

selves of their vocal privileges at pleasure,

As

to sing.

a conse-

so the restriction

now

whether

was

avail them-

in singing

and

shouting to each other as they run, or in proclaiming to the people

The impression
made upon the stranger by the mingled sound of their hundred

the various articles they carry about for sale.

voices falling

We now

We
in

we

his ear at once is not soon forgotten.

turn from the busy throng of the

few minutes
portico

upon

we

Eua

Direita,

and

in a

ascend the steps of a stately building, over whose

read, in

huge green

letters,

ALFANDEGA.

will not stop to trace the origin of this

word and many others

the Portuguese tongue beginning with Al, to their Moorish origin,

but will immediately inform the reader that

it is

the

first

learns in Brazil, and one which, in various languages,


vellers in foreign countries

the Custom-IIouse.
lighted

by a

We

officers.

tra-

This

is

enter a vast hall of fine architecture,

There are hundreds of despatchers,


But what a contrast to the noisy multi-

graceful dome.

merchants, and

have occasion to remember.

word he

most

The Custom-House.
Kim

tude of the

Direita

the hall, the hat

and

All are uncovered, and, as each enters

removed and not replaced

What

again reached.
visitors

is

31

capital

discipline

until the portico is

Anglo- American

for

English and North American shipmasters,

for

whose

head-coverings seem to be a portion of their corporeal existence

I once heard Albert Smith, in one of his delightful conversaziones,

say that in foreign lands an Englishman considers


British constitution not to take off his hat except

Queen" ma}

accidentally fall

the

very

strict

upon

his ear.

a part of the

it

when " God save


The Brazilian is

the outward observance of politeness

in

and,

would never enter a private residence without removing


so he considers that he should not enter

any of the

as

he

his hat,

edifices belong-

ing to the Government of his Emperor without showing the same


respect.

At

the end of the hall, on an elevated platform,

who

collector,

various

him by

the

is

chief-

engaged in signing despatches and

constantly

is

other custom-house papers, which are noiselessly handed


sub-officers

and

clerks.

The

inspector-in-chief

who

presides

over the Alfandega of Rio has a most responsible situation.


receipts at Rio equal those of all the other ports of Brazil.

The
Hence

the necessity of a chief of great executive ability and probity.

March, 1878,

this post

was

has every qualification of a

of experience and honesty, and

true advocate for the reform of the

that of America.

Furquim de Almeida, who

offered to Dr.

man

tariff,

which

is

most corruptly administered

To

as

is

cumbersome as

It is to be regretted that he declined.

The customs were

Thirty years ago there were great abuses.

ception.

In

this

bribery was the rule and not the ex-

day some most wonderful

stories are told of the

year 1844, when the treaty between England and Brazil expired, by
limitation, in the

month of November.

Bales, bags,

went through the Custom-House with astonishing rapidity


is

and boxes
;

and there

a tradition that the entire cargo of a schooner entered the rear of

the Alfandega, and in a remarkably short time emerged from the

Portao Grande, (Great Door.)


for such abuses

well conducted as those of

Next

in

But there

is

no longer opportunity

and the largest custom-house of the empire

Germany

is

as

or France.

importance to the chief collector

is

the guar da ?nor, sur-

Brazil and the Brazilians,

32

reyor of the port, the venerable

who

Lima,

known

is

every ship-captain as Senhor

to

who speaks

Thii gentleman,

Leopoldo Augusto da Camara

Si-.

the

Leopoldo,

language most

English

fluently,

has been arrayed on the liberal side of Brazilian polities for more;
than forty years, and was

The new

who condemn

the front rank of those

In

was so completely abolished

the African slave-trade, which

1850.

in

warehouses of the Alfandega, the docks and quays

iron

unaffected

for discharging cargoes

by tides and currents

form

all

works accomplished under the engineering of

the past and magnificent

Mr. Charles Neat of England.

very Interesting illustrated quarto

pamphlet, on the constructions of the Alfandega, was,

in

1877, pub-

lished in Bio, by Dr. Borja Castro.

Once from

the vessels the goods are distributed and stored

respective departments, until a requisition

examination and

formally

is

The removal of

despatch.

the

made

in their

for their

various

articles

within the Custom-House, as well as their transportation to the great

door of

exit,

facilitated

is

by means of small iron railways extending

many

to every portion of the

buildings.

That troublesome delays should occasionally occur


of goods and baggage
the

tedious

strange,

found who
is

embarrass your business

will

conciliated

to (heir benefit

Most of the

is

the

country

the services

passing

is

is

will

always avoid

am

at

some

are occasionally

money

upon the Alfandega; and

unaccustomed to the language; and customs of

much

baggage through

inconvenience

by obtaining

From my own experience


the

different

in

custom-houses

prepared to say that a person who understands and

similar circumstances to

able accommodations.
in

be

every step until their

endeavors to conform to the laws of the country

you,

with
it

houses have a despatching-clerk,

to attend

one of these persons.

books and

of Brazil,

it

who
of*

would

rare than formerly.

more

large commercial

whose especial business


the stranger

nor

by a direct or indirect appropriation of

but this

the despatch

the host of empregados or sub-officers connected

with this establishment upon very limited pay,

favor

in

anyone acquainted

by the laws;

required

formalities

among

if,

not surprising to

is

may

meet with kind treatment and

If,

expect in
all

reason-

however, a glance at your watch

tells

the midst of your labors and difficulties, that three o'clock

Lessons in Portuguese.
is

near at hand, and you undertake to urge the sub-collector to ex-

you are sure

pedite matters,

This
in

33

is

to receive in reply, u Paciencia, senhor."

our second lesson in Portuguese ; and the third soon follows


our demand,

response to

spatched?" "Amanha"

"When

(to-morrow,)

is

can these things be de-

promptly given. But should

you succeed in getting through the portao grande about the time
that huge door is being closed up for the day, you will witness a
Boxes, bales, and packages of every species of goods,
lively scene.
and

cases of furniture, pipes of wine,

coils

of rope,

lie

heaped

together in a confusion only equalled by the crowd of clerks,


feitors,

and negroes, who block up the adjacent

streets

in

their

rush to obtain possession of their several portions, and in their


vociferations to hasten the removal of their merchandise.

We

are perhaps wishing to expedite the tall

Mina blacks whom

we have engaged to transport our luggage to its place of destiBy signs manual our meaning is comprehended, but we
nation.
receive a very cool "PJspera

um

which completes our studies

in Portuguese for the day.

a lesson

we have

pouco, senhor," (Wait a

little, sir,)

And what

received

Paciencia , amanha, and espera

um

pouco! These words in action

nervous, impatient, tearing, fretting Anglo-American,

stare the

everywhere throughout Brazil.

whose name

is

The

late

Ex-Governor Kent,

associated with the Northeastern boundary and

with the politics of

New

England, was for four years a resident of

Bio de Janeiro as U.S. Consul, and for a portion of the time as


acting Charge

d' Affaires.

It

was

his deliberate opinion that Brazil

-was the best place in existence to cool a fervid, speech-making,


community-exciting Yankee.

have laughed heartily

humorous manner, as he has unfolded con amore

"There
life,

is

who has

to a quietly-disposed, mild

seen

many

this

at his

dry

subject:

man, past the meridian of

of the rough sides of humanity, something

agreeable and pleasant in the tranquil, calm, noiseless habits of the


Brazilians.

To

live a

whole year and never attend a caucus or an

indignation-meeting, to hear nothing about elections, to see no

gatherings of the people, to read no placards calling upon the sovereigns to rise and vindicate their rights, to listen to no stump-

speeches or dinner-orations, never once to be importuned to walk or


ride in a political procession, to see not one torchlight-pageant in

Brazil and the Brazilians.

34

honor of a victory which has saved the country and the


one who

short, to live without politics, is, to

or

who has been wearied


Though the

prosperity,

nation,

offices,

in

inclined to quiet,

is

out in the service, soothing and delightful."

by steamships and railroads and general


more active, yet it may be still pre-

daily becoming

is

dicated that the Brazilian

is

not accustomed to be startled and

With a

shocked by other people's miseries and woes.


well-supported press, his nature
editions, filled

demands no

with long and minute accounts of the

disaster, fearful accidents, or horrible murders.

last

and

free

evening

thrilling

steamboat

As a general thing,

he thinks the moral, physical, and political worlds will turn on

own axes without

their

Hence

his interference.

was, doubtless,

it

that some of the far-seeing and really wide-awake statesmen of

Bio proposed a

who

did not

be imposed upon each citizen

fine of five dollars to

come up

to the polls of the municipal election

and

de-

posit his vote.

Almost

one who arrives at Rio

ever}^

is

expecting letters that

may

have anticipated him by some steamer, and, as soon as his trunks are
relieved from the Custom-House, he
in the
itself

either

Rua

on every hand.

In old da}

You saw

s,

makes

his

way to

the Post-Office,

inextricable confusion presented

a large vestibule occupied

You

employees were in the rooms above.

Behind a high counter were the

b}^ soldiers

The Postmaster General and

on guard or sleeping on benches.

his chief

bule.

Direita.

letters

entered the vesti-

and newspapers of the

Post-Office, distributed, not in boxes, according to alphabetical order,

but in heaps, according to the places from whence the}r have come
as, for instance,

ant points.

from the Mines, from

Corresponding to

hung numerical

fists

this,

St. Paul's,

and other import-

on the walls of the room, were

of names, arranged under the head of Cartas de

Minas, de S. Paulo, &c.

The

letters,

with the exception of those

belonging to certain mercantile houses, and to those

who paid annual

subscriptions to have their correspondence sent them, were piled

together promiscuously, and he

who came

first

had the privilege of

looking over the whole mass and selecting what belonged to himself
or his friends.

After the establishment of foreign steam-lines, this

was somewhat modified.

On

the day the steamer arrived an

crowd gathered at the Post-Office, but the


investigated

by

all

upon the counter, were

letters, instead

immense
of being

carefully kept in the back-

The

Post-Ofpice.

35

part of the hall, where four persons at a time were admitted.

But
was needlessly clumsy and inconvenient for a city
I was informed at Rio that
of three hundred thousand inhabitants.
some } ears since Mr. Gordon, of Boston, who was then U. S. Consul,
the whole S3'stem

offered to the Brazilian

same footing of

the

Government

to put their chief Post-Office

Gordon was admirably

qualified for this,

on

Mr.

United States.

efficiency that existed in the

having been for a number

of years the postmaster of the largest distributing and seaport office


in

New

His

England.

offer

was not accepted

for the Brazilians,

though more progressive than most South American people,


a prominent one

dislike

is

the mother- country has

The

of change.

made during

Adam

progress that

little

the last few centuries

mirably illustrated in the following well-known story


time

requested leave to revisit this world

strange, all
to Portugal.
is

seemed to him, that he nowhere


" Ah, now," exclaimed he, "

felt at

set

ad-

permission was

On

wings of

but so changed, so

home

me down

till

he came

everything

just as I left it."

I am, in 1879,

new

is

Once upon a

granted, and an angel commissioned to conduct him.


love the patriarch hastened to his native earth

here

still

man}' characteristics from their Portuguese ancestors, and

inherit

Post-Office

happy to record a better state of affairs.


came great reforms. Boxes and other

With

the

postal im-

provements were introduced.

The
and

larger mails, departing coastwise, are very frequent, regular,

swift.

This ma} also be said of the railwa3T s in the Provinces of


7

San Paulo, Pernambuco, Bahia, and elsewhere. Otherwise, inland


is very slow.
But when the D. Pedro II.
Railwa} and similar constructions reach far into the interior, there will
Rio,

transportation of letters
T

be of course corresponding improvement in this respect.

on the vast

river

Amazon and some

of

its

The mails

branches are regularly

transported b}r steamers running from Para to Peru.

Brazil also

has a mail service on the Paraguay, performed by steamers, which

run

up

to

Cuiaba,

the

capital

of Matto Grosso.

The

inland

mails to the distant provinces depart once in five days, and return
at corresponding intervals.

Their transmission through the country

is

slow and tedious, being performed on horseback or by foot-carriers,

at

an average, throughout the empire, of twenty miles in twenty-four

hours.

Charges for postage are moderate, and a traveller to any

Brazil and the Brazilians.

S6

portion of the country

is

permitted to carry as

his friends will intrust to him, provided

stamp

many

epistles as

they have the Government

affixed to them.

There

is,

postage.

however, one exception to the general cheapness of

sometimes happens that books or packages which

It

ought to have passed through the Custom-House find their


the Post-Office, and then the expense

There

extravagant.

is

crying evil which ought to be remedied

way

I refer to the

is

to

charge by

the post-office clerks on letters which have already been prepaid.


It

amounts to downright robbery.

If the officials are not paid

a sufficient salary, let the Parliament reform the thing, so that


official

may no longer continue.


we next sought the large commercial trapiche
of Messrs. Maxwell, Wright & Co.
This establishment

extortion

In years gone by,

(warehouse)

was long well known as the leading commission-house of Rio de


It was built up under the supervision of the vigilant and
Janeiro.
prompt Mr. Joseph Maxwell, of Gibraltar, and various members
of his family, in connection with the Messrs. Wright of Baltimore.

Few Americans and Englishmen have gone


attentions from

to Eio without receiving

some one of the principals or employees of

this

At the abundantly-spread table in the dining-room of the


house.
trapiche, many have made their first acquaintance with Brazilian
dishes and with the refreshing fruits of the tropics.

In September, 1854,
important firm, died

Sr.

Jose Maxwell, the senior partner of this

and probably the funeral of no other private

citizen in the capital or the

empire was ever attended by such a

throng as that which followed to the grave the remains of this kind
father and respected citizen. This firm no longer exists.

We pass, by

Rua Direita, and


Bua do Ouvidor, which is the comBue Yivienne, Begent Street, and Broadway of Bio. It is
the

Bua do

Bosario, again into the

continue our promenade up the


bined
not,

liant

however, either long or broad, but the shops upon

and

in

good

taste.

There

is

it

are

bril-

no part of the city so attractive

to the recently-landed foreigner as this street,

with

its

print-shops,

The diamond,
any number, and
The feather and

feather-flower stores, and jewellery-establishments.

the topaz and emerald can here be purchased in


are temptingly displayed behind rich plate-glass.
insect-flowers

manufactured

in Brazil are original

and most beauti-

Feather-Flowers.

3?

The early Portuguese found that the Indians adorned them>


selves with the rich plumage of the unsurpassingly brilliant birds
of the forest. In the Amazonian regions the aborigines have not
ful.

lost either the taste or the skill of their ancestors, and, like the

cultivators of roses, they are not content with the gorgeous colors

which nature has painted, but by

Thus, on the Rio Negro, the Uaupe Indians have a head-

varieties.

dress

which

with

it

ment

means produce new

artificial

is

and they

in the highest estimation,

will only part

under the pressure of the greatest necessity.

consists of a coronet of red

This orna-

and yellow feathers disposed

in

The
from the shoulders of the great red macaw;

regular rows and firmly attached to a strong plaited band.


feathers are entirely

but they are not those that the bird naturally possesses, for the
Indians have a curious art by which they change the colors of the

plumage of many
feathers,

and

birds.

They pluck out a

certain

number of

in the various vacancies thus occasioned infuse the

milky secretion made from the skin of a small

frog.

When

the

grow again they are of a brilliant yellow or orange color,


without any mixture of green or blue as in the natural state of the

feathers

and

bird;

it

is

said that

the much-coveted yellow feather will

ever after be reproduced without a

new

infusion of the milky

secretion.

Museum

In the National

on the

Campo

carious head-dresses and feather-robes of

St.

Anna, many of the

the aboriginal tribes

attract the attention of the visitor.

There are few

curiosities

more esteemed

in

Europe and the

United States than the feather-flowers of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia.


They are made from the natural plumage, though from time to
time the novice has palmed

off

upon him a bouquet, the leaves of

which, instead of being from the parrot, have been stolen from the

back of the white


ever, be detected

green,

ibis

and then dyed.

This deception can, how-

by observing the stem of the feather

which never

is

the case in nature.

No

to be colored

one travelling in the

English steamers should postpone his purchases of these beautiful


souvenirs of bright birds and Brazil until he arrives at St. Vincent,

numerous pedlars of that island offer an inferior article


made from artificially-colored feathers. Rio de Janeiro is the best

for the

mart

for this

kind of merchandise.

No ornament

can surpass the

Brazil and the Brazilians.

88

made from the

splendor of the flowers

humming-birds.

breasts and throats of

lady whose bonnet or hair

is

adorned with

such plumage seems to be surrounded with flashes of the most

The carnations and other


happy combination of the feathers of the

gorgeous and ever-varying brilliancy.

made from

flowers

and the rose-colored spoonbill are

scarlet ibis

also

very natural, and

are highly prized.

Tn these shops

we may

also find fish-scale flowers,

manufactured from the wings of

made by

From

insects,

and those

and breast-pins which are

setting a small brilliant beetle in gold.

the

Eua do Ouvidor we turn

Eua dos

into the

(Goldsmiths' Street,) where are scores of shops

Ourives,

with large

filled

and gold ornaments, from a spur to a crucifix.


the Largo de S. Francisco de Paula
the Largo do Eocio, the station for " 'busses" before the days of

quantities of silver

We
to

now wend our way through

We

trams.

omnibus

is

ma}^ yet find an omnibus for the Suburbs.

very

much

prototype in

like its

all

The

Brazilian

parts of the world,

with this single and very important exception

not

it is

elastic.

A New

York or Philadelphia omnibus is proverbially "never full;"


but the same kind of vehicle in Eio can be filled, and, when once
complete, the conductor closes the door, cries " Vamos embora" (Let
us be

off,)

the driver flourishes his long thong and sets his four-

mule team into a


if

Away we

gallop.

go, rattling across gutters as

there were none, and rushing through narrow streets as

water-carriers had no existence.

It is curious to

if

negro

behold the heavy-

laden slaves clearing the street and dodging into open shop-doors
as an omnibus appears in sight.

they do, prompt reparation

Eua

" gondola" in the narrow

were plunging on at a

Few

made.

is

S. Jose.

accidents occur; and,

On one
Our

occasion I

when

was

in a

four long-eared beasts

fearful rate, and, being

much more

un-

manageable than horses, could not be pulled up until the fore-wheel


crunched upon the legs of a poor old mullatress. She was severely
but not fatally injured, and was instantly cared
driver,

however, I never saw again holding the

of Correction, or one of the

many

for.

reins.

The gondolaThe House

prisons, was, without doubt, his

abode for the next few months.

The
in

streets,

many

of

with their diminutive sidewalks, are so narrow that

them only one

vehicle can pass at a time.

was more


JN

arrow Streets and Police-Regulations.

39

than once reminded of Pompeii and Herculaneum, not only in some


of the commonest utensils and mechanic implements, in the open

shop-windows, and in the house of the Brazilian,


fine parlor, (theperist3T le,)

like a duugeon's cell

striking than in

the

and

will sleep in a
} et
r

who demands

windowless alcove

but in nothing was the resemblance more

narrow

which, doubtless, had their

ruas,

Mr. George

origin in the desire to procure shade.

S.

Hillard, in

his thought-begetting " Six Months in Italy," says of the narrow

"As each

thoroughfares of Pompeii,

the space between the curbstones,

must have occupied


any means

vehicle

we

are left without

what expedients were resorted to, or what policewhen two carriages, moving in different
met each other." If this accomplished author had

of conjecturing

regulations were in force,


directions,

visited

of

Eio de Janeiro previous to his excursion to the buried

Magna

G-recia,

the mystery would have been solved.

narrow Euas Ouvidor, Eosario, Hospicio, Alfandega,


others, carriages

S.

cities

In the

Jose,

and

and omnibuses never meet ; and so admirable are

At the corner
by another, we see

the police-regulations that no mistakes ever occur.

of each of these streets where

it

is

crossed

painted, with great distinctness, an index immediately under the

name

Thus, two of the streets mentioned above are

of the street.

adjacent to and parallel with each other, and are crossed

Euas Direita and Quitanda.


behold the following

Upon

their

Eua

by the

Direita corners

we

RUA DO ROSARIO.

RUA DO OUVIDOR.
Now,

if I

am

in a carriage at the point

where the Euas Direita and

Rosario cross each other, and I wish to visit a shop at the corner
of the latter street and the
for

me

to ascend

Eua

Quitanda, although

by the Eua do Eosario, yet

my

it is

more

direct

Jehu knows that

Brazil and the Brazilians.

40
if

he should go contrary to the index he would be subjected to a


fine and forfeiture of certain privileges as a coachman.
He

heavy

therefore whirls through the Direita, up the

Eua do

Ouvidor, and

along the Quitanda, travelling the three sides of the square, and
thus avoiding

all collision.

Rua da Quitanda.

Kua

Direita.

In the city of

New York

there has been for

many

years every

imaginable proposition for the relief of Broadway, and there

is

emporium who has not on


more than one occasion been subjected to great inconvenience by
the regular " blockade" instituted every day in the lower part
of that immense thoroughfare, the whole of which might have been
scarcely a citizen or visitor in that vast

avoided by the simple application of the Brazilian plan.

But

let

us in imagination go back fifteen years and describe the

old, inconvenient, but rather picturesque,

omnibus ride before the days

of tramways.

Now

onward rushes our omnibus

at a rapid pace.

We

whirl by

we can give a second look at


we are bowling along under

the Carioca Fountain, and, before

the

green sides of the Antonio Hill,

the

garden-walls

of the lofty Ajuda

Convent.

All seems

dismal,

with the exception of the foliage that appears above the high
enclosure.

we have

A turn

brings us into the Largo da Ajuda, and at once

the wonderful view

to Northern

eyes at least

of the

Passeio Publico, {Public Promenade,) and before us the verdant


slopes of the Santa Theresa Hill.

From beneath

the tropic-trees

The Passeio Publico.


which cover the
a residence, no

Theresa.

it is

it is

neat white cottages are peeping, and, for

elevation within the city

The Passeio

favorite resort of

when
day

latter,

mine

41

Publico, which

at Rio;

and at

all

we

are

times

passing,

was a

whether at night,

brilliantly illuminated, or in the brightest

hour of the

one of the pleasantest promenades within the precincts

of the municipality.

Here are overhanging

trees,

AQUEDUCT, LARGO DA LAPA, AND PASSEIO PUBLICO, FROM

sites,

preferable to Santa

is

blooming para-

THE SANTA THERESA.

rare plants, shady walks, and cool fountains.

which fronts the bay

is

a large terrace,

from which

On

the side

a magnifi-

is

cent prospect of the Gloria Hill, the distant Sugar-Loaf, and, far

beyond, the rolling ocean.

Having passed
Largo da Lapa.

this public garden,

The

we

palatial building

are in the square called

on our right was purchased

a few years ago for the National Library, and was formerly one
of the most splendid private mansions in Eio.

Over a superbly-paved

street our

omnibus

is

hurrying

but from

Brazil and the Brazilians.

42

time to time an open gate or a


tells

We

Cape of Good Hope pine-tree

us that gardens are in the rear of forbidding looking walls.

dash along what

is

called the " Coast of Africa/'

of low houses on our right


us,

tall

and therefore, the

while on our

left

a long row

the bay

is

beneath

street being unshaded, the appropriateness of

That large three-story building, formerly the


English Embassy, was a foundling hospital. The Chafariz of St.

the hot cognomen.

up against a portion of the rock of the jutting


its name.
After passing the gardens of the
late Barao de Meriti and the Gloria Hill, our passengers begin
to descend at the various streets which cross the Catete, which is
Theresa

hill

built

is

whence

it

derives

the widest thoroughfare in this portion of the capital.


son, as

he

rises to depart, lifts his

returned by every individual in the omnibus, though


entire strangers.

No

Each

per-

and the compliment

hat,

all

may

is

be

one ever enters a large public conveyance in

Rio without saluting those within and receiving in return a polite

Yery frequently a pinch of snuff


you by your unknown neighbor. I have seen gentlemen but recently returned from Brazil enter a New York omnibus
and deferentially salute the inmates the polite strangers were
received with a smile of derision or looked upon with a stare
acknowledgment of his presence.

is

offered to

of contempt.

Each omnibus has painted in large characters upon its sides its
capacity: thus, "14 pessoas" means that the vehicle is registered
at the Bureau de Police to contain that number of persons, and
one passenger more than the registered number would subject the
company to a heavy fine. I have never seen more passengers
within than the figures on the side indicated.
I have

more than once mentioned the "gondola,"

that name

associated with love-romance and Yenice, "moonrise, high midnight,

and the voice of song."

fluous

term

When

in Brazil, I fancied that the

I first

heard that melli-

sharp and graceful

little

barges of the Queen of the Adriatic had been transported to the


bright waters of Bio de Janeiro; but I soon discovered
take,

and ascertained that

this

my

sweet Italian word was used to

designate most unpoetic four-wheeled vehicles, drawn by as


kicking, stubborn mules

mis-

The gondola

in

many

every respect resembles

the omnibus, save that no conductor accompanies

it.

You prepay

The Gondola.
Senhor Bernardo or a Senhor somebody

and

if

43

Largo do Paco

else at the

there are any way-fares, these are received by the driver.

The gondola does not have the convenience which the New York
possesses, in the shape of the leather strap by which the
passenger causes the driver to pull up at the will of the former.
omnibus

make

In lieu of this, passengers

and

fists,

a very free use of canes, umbrellas,

battering at a terrible rate the end of the gondola nearest

the driver; or occasionally the leg of the latter

is

rather more

warmly than affectionately embraced by the individual sitting next to


the farther window. Sometimes the gondola cannot be " propelled''
by its living oars ; and, under such circumstances, when a Scotchman, a Yankee, or a Frenchman will relieve himself of many hard
words at the unfortunate Jehu, the Brazilians remain perfectly
calm, not once descending to see

what

the matter, and con-

is

versing with one another as philosophically as

On

pened.

nothing had hap-

one occasion I was witness to a scene which will scarcely

As a gondola

be credited.
of the

if

Bua

dos Ourives,

it

full

of passengers

was turning out


The driver

unfortunately " stuck."

shouted at his mules, thrashed them with his long raw-hide thong,
tchewed* at them, and stamped his footboard,

the animals could not start the vehicle.


out,

but

all

programme

looked from the windows as


for

all

to no purpose

Not one passenger got


was a part of the

if this

which they had paid their dous

testoes, (five

English

The

pence,) and they determined to have their money's worth.

poor driver was in deep

distress":

quite a

crowd

collected, but

one offered to aid him, until he, by sundry vintems, allured the
vices of several Africans,

whose broad shoulders applied

wheels, in conjunction with the pulling of the mules,


dola, passengers,

and

Having something

no

ser-

to the

moved

gon-

why

these

all.

of a philological turn, I inquired

public conveyances were called gondolas.

was not long

in ascer-

taining that a monopoly had been granted to certain omnibus com-

which was considered onerous, but the municipal government could not in conscience abolish the contract or confer a new

panies,

sound unrepresentable by

in scaring chickens,
tion of others.

by which

letters, similar to that

all classes,

made

in the

high and low, in Brazil,

United States

call the atten-

Brazil and the Brazilians.

44

charter upon another omnibus association


finahy overcome

passengers

We

will

by granting

end our ride

at the

Caminho Velho de Botafogo.


dos Estrangeiros
b}^

however,

all

scruples were

company

cany

to

But the days of gondolas are over.

will thence make


commencement of the
needs but few steps. The Hotel

Ponta do Catete, and

our way to the Hotel dos Estrangeiros,

rounded

privileges to a gondola

is

a large house kept on the French plan, and

verdure,

-adjacent hills,

whose

and clambering

It

at the

if

we consider

is

sur-

the neighboring gardens, or the

sides are covered with luxuriantry-foliaged trees

The

vines.

old omnibus route

that which is fol-

is

lowed by the Botanical Gardens tramwaj^, which was begun by the


enterprise of C. B. Greenough, 1866, and inaugurated

by the Emperor,

1868.

The stranger
scarcity of inns

at

Rio de

Janeiro

is

and boarding-houses.

usually surprised

attached.

supported

by the

But none are


numerous

and intended

large,

and with

let

and these are

res-

chiefly

constantly arriving and


But among the native popula-

foreigners

temporarily residing in the place.


tion,

the

There are several French,

English, and Italian hotels, with apartments to


taurants

at

for Brazilian patronage, there are

only eight or

ten inns in a city of three hundred thousand inhabitants, and


scarcely
It is

any of these exceed the dimensions of a private house.


how the numerous visitors to this great

almost inconceivable

emporium find necessary accommodations. It may safely be presumed that they could not, without a heavy draught upon the
hospitalities of the inhabitants, with whom, in many instances,
a letter of introduction secures a home.
resort, the sojourner rents a

and a few

In the lack of such a

room, and, by the aid of his servant

articles of furniture, soon

manages

to live, with

more or
Most

less frequent resorts to some caza de pasto or restaurant.

of the members of the National Assembly keep up domestic


blishments during their sojourn in the capital.
of this

lack of hotels and boarding-houses, some of the commercial

firms maintain a table for the


guests.

esta-

As a consequence

This was once

convenience of their clerks and

much more common;

but, since 1850, pro-

bably the greater portion of those formerly thus

accommodated

club together, rent a house in Botafogo, Praia Grande, or on the

Santa Theresa, and keep up an establishment of their own.


First Night in the Tropics.

45

Haying thus been cicerone of the reader in his rapid whirl through
know of no fitter termination to the day than

this portion of the city, I

for

him

to imagine himself in one* of the vast

rooms of the Hotel dos

Estrangeiros.

For many days, in a narrow berth, you have been rudely rocked
by the billows, and this is the first night on terra firma and a comfortable bed. The windows of your apartment are wide open, and,
as you close your eyes, the land-breeze, murmuring softly, bears
upon

its

wings not only the sweet, fresh smell of the earth, but,

stealing in its course

from the adjacent gardens the fragrance of

jessamines, the delicate scent of the fiora-pondia, and the odor of

the opening orange-blooms,

The

richest aroma.

distant

it

loads the

evening air with the

booming of the waves, as they break

upon the Praia do Flamengo,

is

a soothing melody, which

lulls

you to dreams of scenes not more lovely than those around you,
where are
" Larger constellations burning, mellow moons and happy skies,

Breadths of tropic shade, and palms in cluster, knots of paradise,"

a land where
"Slides the bird o'er lustrous woodland, swings the trailer from the

Droops the heavy -blossom' d bower, hangs the heavy-fruited

crag,.

tree,

Summer-isles of Eden lying in dark purple spheres of sea."

Note for 1879.

The

engravings on pages 28 and 29, though graphically

They are kept as


The Government has forbidden such exhausting and cruel
labor of the slaves.
Carts now carry the coffee. But the municipality of Rio
should go one step further, and charge three times the amount for license on every
cart which does not have springs.
To say nothing of the immense weight of the
vehicle now in use, whose parallel can only be found in Portugal, it acts like a
representing the former state of things, are no longer apropos.

a matter of history.

sledge-hammer to constantly batter the pavement


could be

much
see

made

to pieces.

just as strong with half the weight,

A cart with

two with the present brutal street destroying machine.


already a few New York spring-carts at Rio. Seven or eight
as

railways

now

springs

and one mule could propel

We

as

are glad to

different horse-

traverse various parts of the city and suburbs, and an inclined plane

ascends the Sta. Theresa

hill,

connecting with a tramway which runs the whole

length of this beautiful elevated region.

CHAPTEE
DISCOVERT OF SOUTH AMERICA

AMERICUS VESPUCIUS

THE

PAST GLORY

COELHO

BAY OF RIO DE JANEIRO

OF PORTUGAL

COLIGNY's

HUGUENOT

PROTESTANT BANNER FIRST UNFURLED IN THE NEW WORLD

TREACHERY OF VILLEGAGNON
FRENCH

CABRAL

PINZON'S VISIT TO BRAZIL

THE NAME "BRAZIL"

MARTIN AFFONSO DE SOUZA


COLONY

III.

CONTEST

DEFEAT OF THE LATTER

BETWEEN THE PORTUGUESE AND THE

SAN SEBASTIAN FOUNDED

CRUEL INTOLE-

RANCE- REFLECTIONS.

Although the bay and

city of Eio de Janeiro are fraught with

interesting associations to the general student of history, and

still

more to the Protestant Christian as that portion of the New World


where the banner of the Eeformed religion was first unfurled, yet
I

have thought

best to introduce here a brief account of the

it

early discovery and settlement of Brazil.

Guanihani

that

European eyes

outpost of the

New World was

six years before the discovery of

beheld by

South America.

In 1498, Columbus landed near the mouth of the Orinoco. He


recorded, in enthusiastic language, " the beauty of the new land,"
felt as if "he could never leave so charming
The
honor,
however, of discovering the Western hemia spot."
sphere south of the equator must be awarded to Yincent Yanez
Pinzon, who was a companion of Columbus, and had commanded

and declared that he

the "Nina" in that

first

glorious voyage which

Old World the existence of the New.

made known

to the

Pinzon sailed from Palos in

December, 1499, and, crossing the equator, his eyes were gladdened, on the 26th of January, 1500, by a green promontory,
Avhich he called
St.

He

Cape Consolation.

This

is

now known

as

Cape

Augustine, the headland just south of the city of Pernambuco.


sailed thence northward, discovering the vast

Amazon, and touched

at various points

mouths of the

until

he reached the

and

densely-foliaged

Orinoco.

When
46

Pinzon

beheld

the

palm-groves

Discoveries of Pinzon and Cabral.


forests,

47

and had scented the spicy breezes which were wafted from

the shore, he supposed that he

was

visiting

India-bey ond-the-

Ganges, and believed that he had already sailed past the renowned
Cathay.

In the name of Castile he took possession of the goodly

land; bat, before he reached Spain, Pedro Alvares Cabral, a distin-

guished Portuguese navigator, had claimed the territory for his

On

own monarch.

Gama

the return of Yasco da

to Portugal, in

1499, with the certainty of having discovered the route to the

Indies

Dom Emanuel

by the Cape of Good Hope, the king

determined to send a large

fleet

famous regions, with

to those

instructions to enter into commercial relations with the Eastern

sovereigns, or, in case of refusal, to

due them.

The command of

make war upon them and

this expedition

Cabral, and, on the 9th of March, the large

was

with

fleet,

sub-

intrusted to
ita

teen

hundred soldiers and mariners, sailed amid grand military and


religious ceremonials, the
his august presence.

king himself honoring the occasion by

With

this handful of

men, intended for the

coercion of the Orient to the commercial notions of Portugal,

Cabral directed his course to the Cape de Yerdes, and thence, in


order to avoid the calms which prevail on the African coast, he ran
so far to the

westward, that, without any intention on his part, he

discovered, on the 21st of April, 1500, the

same land which, ninety

days previously, had been visited by Pinzon.

Cabral's discovery

was, however, in the present province of Espirito Santo, near

Mount Pascal, which is eight degrees south of Cape St. Augustine.


Some Brazilian writers grudgingly mention the voyage of Pinzon; others ignore him altogether, wishing seemingly to ascribe
all the glory to one of their own Portuguese ancestors.
Doubtless
Cabral was led by the trade- winds and by the currents of which
he was not aware to the coast of Brazil, and thus made his for-

To-day, vessels sailing from Europe for the East

tunate discovery.
Indies can (as

is

well demonstrated

by Lieutenant Maury's wind

and current charts) make the swiftest voyages by taking advantage of the wonderful trade-winds, steering

America and afterward


Pinzon

set forth

in the direction of the

first

toward South

Cape of Good Hope.

from Palos with the intention of making Western

discoveries; Cabral

sailed

from Lisbon with instructions to pro-

ceed to the Eastern discoveries of Yasco da

Gama

but, because a

Brazil and the Brazilians.

48

happy accident (some say a fierce storm) forced his fleet to Brazil,
and that, too, months after the landing of the Spanish navigator
at

Cape

Augustine, there

St.

neither reason nor justice in the

is

national pride which endeavors to take

away

the priority of

dis-

covery from Vincent Yanez Pinzon.

On Easter Sunday mass was


this solemnity

May

celebrated; and on the 1st of

was repeated, and,

in the presence of thousands

of the aborigines, a huge cross was erected, bearing the insignia


of

Dom

Emanuel, and the land, to which they gave the name of

name

Vera Cruz, was solemnly taken possession of in the

King of Portugal.*
It was the Padre

Frei Henrique, of Coimbra,

religious ceremonies,

and

in

who conducted

which he was piously joined

the chronicle) by os indigenos imitando os gestos


Portugezes, (the savages imitating the gestures

of the

the

(so reads

movimentos dos

and movements of

the Portuguese.)

Two convicts were left with the


ward became of great use as an

natives,

and one of these

interpreter.

after-

Cabral despatched

Gaspar de Lemos to Lisbon, to inform the monarch of the


covery and appropriation of the

new land

then pursued his route to the East Indies.


laid

down

dis-

of the True Cross, and

The Pope

of

Eomo

a rule regulating the proprietorship of countries dis-

covered by Spain and Portugal, and thus was disposed the question

between Pinzon and Cabral.

Dom Emanuel

The king

was deeply interested

in the intelli-

gence brought him by Gaspar de Lemos, and, in May, 1501, sent


out to his

new dominions

of Gongalo Coelho.f
pucius.

three caravellas under the

command

In one of these vessels was Americus Ves-

This expedition partook more of the character of failure

than of success, and was replaced, in 1503, by a second, which,


consisting of double the

number

of ships employed in the

first,

according to some authorities, under Christopher Jacques ;f


according to others, under the same Goncalo Coelho,J accompanied

sailed,

* Historia do

Brazil,

| Ibid. vol.

chap.

i.

by Gen.

J. I.

de Abreu Lima.

Rio de Janeiro, 1843.

ii.

do Brazil, (by Jose Pedro Xavier Pinheiro.


J Epitome da Hist,
cbap.

i.

p. 27.

Bahia, 1854,)


The Name "Brazil."
Four of these

by Americus.

again

vessels

49

were

with the

lost,

commander-in-chief; but the lucky Florentine escaped, and lived


to deprive, indirectly, the

by Cabral.
The two remaining

upon

new

name

territory of the

conferred

(1)

it

ships entered a bay,

now supposed

to be the

Santos, and afterward coasted south-

spacious Bahia de Todos os

ward two hundred and sixteen leagues, and there remained five
months anchored near the land, and maintained amicable relations
with the natives. Here they erected a fortress, and left in it
twenty-four men.

As the most valuable part of the cargo which Americus Yespucius carried back to Europe was the well-known dyewood, Ccesaljpinia Braziliensis,

on account of

resemblance to brazas, " coals of

whence
finally,

its

Portuguese language, pau

called, in the

fire/'

brazil,

the land

came was termed the "land of the brazil-wood;" and,


this appellation was shortened to Brazil, and completely
it

This change was

usurped the names Vera Cruz or Santa Cruz. {2)

not effected without protestations on the part of some,


t&eir taste for

not because

euphony was shocked, but on the ground that the

cause of religion required a sacred

title to

the fairest possession

New World. One of the reverendiswas through the express interposition of the

of faithful Lusitania in the


simos declared that

it

and lovely land should be called Brazil


cognomen given to it by Cabral. Another

devil that such a choice

instead of the pious

poured

a devoted Jesuit

forth a jeremiad on the subject, con-

cluding, with emphasis, by stating what a shame

cupidity of man,

by unworthy

it

was that "the


wood

should change the

traffic,

of the cross, red with the real blood of Christ, for that of another

wood which resembled

it

only in color"

Other voyages were undertaken at the order of Spain and of


Portugal,

thus

making known the whole

America from the Amazon

coast of Eastern South

to the Straits of Majellan.

navigators at the head of these expeditions were


jellan,

(Magalhaes.) In 1515,

and discovered the Eio de

On

his

De Solis

la Plata,

sailed

which at

on

his

first

Among
Solis

the

and Ma-

Southern voyage,

bore his

way thither, he entered the bay now known

Fernando de Majellan, a Portuguese

De

own name.

as Eio de Janeiro.

in the service of Charles

I.

of

Spain, sailed, in 1519, to discover the western passage to the Indies.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

50

On
De

the 13th of December he entered the bay previously visited by


Solis,

gave to

and remained there until the 27th of the same month, and
the name of Bahia (bay) de Santa Luzia, the day of his

it

entrance being the anniversary of that saint.

He afterward coasted

along the continent until he entered those straits which

still

bear

name, and which were for a century the only known highway

his

Majellan was the

to the Pacific.

The

first to

circumnavigate the gtobe.

usual account of the origin of the term Bio de Janeiro, so

inappropriately given to a bay, has already been referred


facts

The

to.

seem to be adverse to the generally-accepted explanation that

Martin Alfonso de Souza discovered this sheet of water


supposed to be a river
testable that

it

on

the 1st of January, 1531.

was entered twice

It

is

incon-

at least several years previous to

Martin Affonso de Souza was a

from Portugal.

his departure

which he

Portuguese gentleman of noble lineage, and of high estimation in


the court of

Dom John

The king, having received information

III.

of the visits of Spaniards to the coasts which he considered his

own, determined

was

to

send an expedition,

De Souza had

to Brazil.

to fortify

commanded by De

Souza,

plenary powers on land and on sea, and

and distribute the new

He was

territory.

the

first

donatory of Portugal in Brazil, and sailed from Lisbon on the 3d


of December, 1530.

In a few weeks he sighted Cape

near which he encountered three French vessels.


battle,

came

off victorious,

os Santos,

Augustine,

gave them

and took them in triumph to the pre-

sent harbor of Pernambuco.

Todos

St.

He

After refitting, he

where was the

little

came

to

Bahia de

settlement of the shipwrecked

Diogo Alvares Correa, (Caramuru,) whose romantic history is narrated in another portion of this work. After some delay, he again
sailed southward, and,

on the 30th of April, 1531, entered the bay

which had already been named Santa Luzia and Rio de Janeiro.

By

reflecting for a

moment upon

the time (December

3,

1530)

when

Martin Affonso de Souza departed from Lisbon, and the various


events and delays of the voyage, we can easily perceive that it
would be an impossibility to sail more than five thousand miles,
(and his were not modern clipper-ships,) fight and capture three
vessels, refresh successively at two different ports, and then

reach the

Bay

Aside from

this,

of Bio de Janeiro on the 1st of January, 1531. (3i

we have

the direct and simple statement of Pero

Past Glory of Portugal.

51

Lopes de Souza, brother to the commander, which not only settles


the date of their arrival, but the fact that the bay or supposed
river

was previously known

as Rio de Janeiro,

30th of April, at four o'clock in the morning,

viz.

we were

" Saturday,

in the

mouth

of Eio de Janeiro." (4)

Martin Affonso de Souza formed no settlement on the shores of


the magnificent bay which he had entered, but contented himself

with remaining there for a few months, where he constructed three


brigantines,

and then sailed to the coast of the present province

of Sao Paulo.

At a place which possessed no great natural adfirst European colony (Yespucius's

vantages he commenced the

men and Caramuru's wigwams cannot be called the


settlements) in Brazil, and named it St. Vincent.
St. Yin-

handful of
earliest

cent no longer exists, unless

its

existence

may

be predicated in the

few miserable houses and the broken fountain which mark the
spot where

was laid the first stone of the proudest colony of Portugal. On the margin of that spacious and protected harbor which
De Souza rejected for an exposed arm of the sea, has sprung up the
first

commercial city of South America, and the third in the

New

World.
It will not be uninstructive to glance at the position, at that

time, of the

kingdom which sent

forth

Diaz, Yasco da

Gama,

De

Souza,

Cabral, Coelho, Christopher Jacques, Yespucius, and

upon new and hazardous voyages of discovery.

European Portugal was then no greater than

The

territory of

at present

but her

ambitious monarchs and her daring navigators had pushed their


conquests and discoveries not only along the whole western and
eastern coasts of Africa, but to "the farthest Ind."

Bartholomew

Diaz beheld the Cape of Good Hope six years before Columbus
discovered America ;

and Yasco da

ere the great Genoese landed at the

Gama

doubled the same cape


mouth of the Orinoco. Por-

tugal had flourishing colonies in Angola, Loango, and Congo, before

Cortez had burned his ships in the Mexican Gulf.

Honorable East India Company was dreamed

of,

roys and Portuguese commercial enterprises swayed


lions in

Hindostan and Ceylon.

They

trafficked

Before the

Portuguese viceit

over mil-

with the distant

Peguans and the little-known Burmese, on the banks of the

Irra-

waddy, three hundred years before Judson proclaimed, near the

Brazil and the Brazilians.

52

same

river, the gospel of the blessed Saviour.

Centuries before the

English possessed Hong-Kong or the Americans had opened Japan

by commercial

Portugal owned Macao, held intercourse

treaties,

with the curious Chinese, traded with the Japanese, and, through
her priests, led more than half a million of those almond-eyed

Eome. Of her immense


by conquest and discovery, that of Brazil was not to
be the least in its importance and future destiny. When we look
at what Portugal was and what she is, we can only exclaim, a How
are the mighty fallen I" Portugal has been weighed in the balance
and found wanting. Shorn of all her possessions in the East except
a territory (comprising Goa and a few unimportant islands) not so
large as the State of South Carolina, her commerce is now scarcely
islanders to embrace the doctrines of
acquisitions

known

in the Indian Seas.

Her dominion west

to her

own

Africa,

and to a few islands in the Atlantic.

of Asia

is

limited

small European kingdom, to" languishing colonies in

She owns not an inch

of territory in the Western World, where once she had a quarter

of the continent.

She had not the conservative

tianity to preserve her moralit}^

salt of a

and her greatness.

pure Chris-

Like Spain,

she became at once the patron and the protectress of the Inquisi-

more tolerant than the


Government of Portugal held on to that cursed
engine of Boman intolerance until 1821.
The contrast between
Holland and Portugal forces itself upon the consideration of all.
They are both nearly of the same European area and population,

tion; and, though the Portuguese are far

Spaniards, yet the

both were great maritime nations in the sixteenth century, and


both made extensive conquests in the East.

But, while neighbor-

ing states have created a mercantile marine since the era referred
to,

Holland, in this respect,

Europe and the fourth

Her

has not declined.


place

among

still

ranks as the third power in

in the world,

credit has

and her internal prosperity

always maintained the highest

the nations of the earth, while Portugal has been

more than once on the verge of bankruptcy.


governs twenty-two millions of people,

who

Holland to-day

are prosperous and

advancing, whether in the Eastern or the Western hemisphere.


Portugal, in

number.

all

her dominions, rules

The former

gence; the

latter,

is

less

than one-third of that

distinguished for tolerance and

intelli-

under the blighting shadow of the Papacy, has,

Coligny's Huguenot Colony.

53

even in the latter half of the nineteenth century, manifested nar-

rowness and bigotry

(5>

and her people, as a whole, have been the


The last few years have, however, we

most ignorant of Europe.


trust,

been the precursor of a better era for Portugal.

Her young

and enlightened monarch has come to the throne with enlarged


views, and it is fondly hoped that his subjects will be elevated, and
that Portugal will assume a position more in accordance with the
historical traditions of those

and when her navigators

days when her kings were energetic,

laid at

her feet the treasures of the

world.

Eeturning from this digression,


of events in the

new

let

us again watch the progress

acquisitions of Portugal in the

Western World.

Other eyes than those of Spanish navigators were looking toward


Brazil,

and to that very portion of

Martin Alfonso de Souza.

Among

it

which had been slighted by

the adventurers from France

was Nicholas Durand de Yillegagnon, a Knight of Malta, a man


of considerable abilities, and of some distinction in the French
service.
He had even been appointed to the gallant post of commander of the vessel which bore Mary, Queen of Scots, from France
to her own realms.
Yillegagnon aspired to the honor of establishing a colony in the

New World,

spot for his experiment.

and Eio de Janeiro was the chosen

He had

the address, in the outset, to

secure the patronage of the great and good Admiral Coligny,

whose persevering attempt to plant the Eeformed religion in


both North and South America was a leading feature in his life
up to the

when

time

St.

Bartholomew's Eve was written

in

characters of blood.

Yillegagnon proposed to found an asylum for the persecuted

Huguenots.
able

Admiral Coligny's influence secured to him a respectcolonists.


The French court was disposed to view

number of

with no small satisfaction the plan of founding a colony, after the


example of the Portuguese and Spaniards.
It

was

in the

year 1555 that Henry

II.,

the reigning king, fur-

nished three small vessels, of which Yillegagnon took the com-

mand and

sailed

from Havre de Grace.

gale of wind occurred

while they were yet on the coast, and obliged them to put into
Dieppe, which they accomplished with considerable difficulty. By
this

time

many

of the artificers, soldiers, and noble adventurers

Brazil and the Brazilians.

54

had become sick of the

and abandoned the expedition so soon

sea,

as they reached the shore.

After a long and perilous voyage, Villcgagnon entered the

Bay

Mthcrohy, and commenced fortifying a small island near the


entrance, now denominated Lage, and occupied by a fort. His
of

fortress,

however, being of wood, could not

water at

flood-tide,

to the island

named

in

now

resist the action of the

and he was obliged to remove farther upward,

where he

called Villcgagnon,

planned, and the place for a colony

fitly

built a fort, at first

This expedition was well

honor of his patron, Coligny.

chosen.

The native

tribes

were hostile to the Portuguese, but had long traded amicably with
the French.

Some hundreds

of

them assembled on the shore

at

the arrival of the vessels, kindled bonfires in token of their joy, and
offered every thing they possessed to these allies

defend them against the Portuguese.

the French with the idea that the continent

and they denominated

was upon

It

it

La France

this island that

who had come

to

Such a reception inspired

was already

their

own,

Antarctique.

they erected their rude place of

worship, and here these French Puritans offered their prayers and

sang their hymns of praise nearly threescore years and ten before
a Pilgrim placed his foot on Plymouth Rock, and more than half a

century before the Book of

Common Prayer was

borne to the

banks of the James River.

On
nists,

the return of the vessels to Europe for a


considerable zeal

Reformed

teen students,

in the object,

who determined

climate and of a

interesting to reflect that

new supply

of colo-

for the establishment of the

remote parts.

religion in these

became interested

unknown

was awakened

The Church of Geneva

and sent two ministers and

four-

to bravo all the hardships of an

new mode of life in the cause.


when the Reformation was yet

infancy, the subject of propagating the gospel

in

It is

in its

distant parts

was one that engaged the hearts of Christians in the


of Geneva while Calvin, Farel, and Theodore do Beza were
living.
It would bo difficult to find an earlier instance of

of the world
city
still

Protestant missionary

As the

effort.

situation of the

Huguenots

in

France was any thing but

happy, the combined motive of seeking deliverance from oppression

and the advancement of their

faith

appears to have prevailed

The Treachery
extensively, and induced

movements of

incipient

of

its

55

When we

look at the

enterprise, without the

knowledge

many
this

of Villegagnon.

to

embark.

conclusion, there seems as

much reason

hope that the

to

would have taken root here, as they


North America, where they have produced a

principles of the Eeformation

did afterward in

harvest of such wonderful results.

But misfortunes seemed to attend every step of the enterprise.


At Harfieur, the Papist populace rose against the colonists, and
the latter, after losing one of their best officers in the conflict,

were obliged to seek safety in retreat. They had a tedious voyage,


suffering at one time from a violent storm; and, having neared
the Brazilian coast, had a slight encounter with the Portuguese.

However, they were received by Yillegagnon with apparent cordiality, and effectual operations began to be undertaken for their

But

establishment.

it

was not long

before certain

untoward circum-

stances occurred which developed the real and villanous character

of their leader.

Having gained over

who

to his complete influence a certain

number

cared not for spiritual piety, Villegagnon, under pretence

of changing his religion and returning to the true faith, com-

menced a

Those who had come to Antarctic

series of persecutions.

France to enjoy liberty of conscience found their condition worse


than before.
hardships.

They were

ruin of the colony.


to return,

subjected to abusive treatment and great

This unnatural defection consummated the premature

The newly-arrived

which was granted, but

demanded leave

colonists

badly furnished

in a vessel so

that some refused to embark, and the majority,

endured the utmost misery of famine.

them a box of

letters,

Among them was

wrapped

who

in sere-cloth, as

was the custom.

one directed to the chief magistrate of the port

where they might chance to

arrive, in

of the Guises denounced the

which

this

men whom he had

worthy friend
invited out to

Eeformed religion as
The magistrates of Hennebonne,

Brazil to enjoy the peaceable exercise of the


heretics

persisted,

Yillegagnon had given

worthy of the

stake.

where they landed, happened

to favor the Reformation,

and thus

the malignity of Yillegagnon was frustrated, and his treachery


exposed.

Of those who had feared

so badty stored,

and so

to trust themselves to a vessel

unfit for the voyage, three

were put to

Brazil and the Brazilians.

56

Others of the Huguenots

death by this persecutor.


to the Portuguese,

where they were compelled

fled

from him

The homeAvard-bound

colonists

were reduced to the greatest

extremity, and, from want of food, they not only devoured


leather,

and

to apostatize,

which they abhorred.

to profess a religion

all

the

even to the covering of their trunks, but in their despair

they attempted to chew the hard, dry brazil-wood which hap-

pened

to be in the vessel.

begun

to

Several died of hunger ; and they had

form the resolution of devouring each other, when land

appeared in view. They arrived just

in

time to undeceive a body of

Flemish adventurers ready to embark for Brazil, and also about ten

who would have emigrated

thousand Frenchmen,

if

the object of

Coligny in founding his colony had not thus been wickedly betrayed.

Though the Portuguese were


that they treated

all

so jealous of the Brazilian trade

interlopers as pirates, yet,

by some

oversight,

they permitted this French colony to remain four years unmolested;


and, had

not been for the treachery of Villegagnon to his

it

own

party, Bio de Janeiro would probably have been, at this day, the

French colony or of an independent State


Huguenot element would have been predominant.
capital of a

The

Jesuits

were well aware of

this danger,

in

which the

and Nobrega, their

chief and provincial, at length succeeded in rousing the court of

Lisbon.

French

messenger was commanded to discover the state of the

On

fortifications.

despatched to

Mem

the ground of his report, orders were

de Sa Barreto, governor of the colony, and

resident at San Salvador, to attack and expel the intruders

remained.

Having

fitted out

two

chantmen, the governor, taking the

accompanied by
off

ISTobrega as his

who

vessels-of-war and several mer-

command

in person,

prime counsellor.

embarked,

They appeared

the bar at Bio early in 1560, with the intention of surprising

Being espied by the sentinels,


The French immediately made ready for

the island at the dead of night.


their plan

was

foiled.

defence, forsook their ships, and, with eight

hundred native archers,

retired to their forts.

With reinforcements from


ing-place, and, routing the

Yincente,

Mem de Sa won

them that, under cover of the


ships and some to the mainland.

so intimidated
to their

St.

the land-

French from their most important

holds,

night, they fled,

some

Defeat of the French.


The Portuguese, not being strong enough

to

57
keep the position

they had taken, demolished the works, and carried

and stores which they found.

made by the

off the artillery

short time after this,

new

wars,

native tribes, broke out against them, and were prose-

cuted at different points with great ferocity for several years.


the

mean

time, the French recovered strength

parations were again

made

and

to extirpate them.

guese and friendly Indians, under the

influence.

A party

In
Pre-

of Portu-

command of a Jesuit appointed

by Nobrega, landed near the base of the Sugar-Loaf, and, taking a


position now known as Praia Yermelha, maintained a series of
indecisive skirmishes with their enemies for

Occasionally,

when

successful,

more than a

year.

they would sing in triumphant hope

a verse from the Scriptures, saying, "

The bows of the mighty are


the bows of the Tamoyos
mighty; for an arrow sent by one of them would fasten a shield to
the arm that held it, and sometimes would pass through the body,
and continue its way with such force as to pierce a tree and hang
broken," &c.

Well might they

call

quivering in the trunk.

Nobrega

at length

came

de Sa again appeared with


Salvador.

All

to the camp,
all

and at

his

summons

Mem

the succors he could raise at San

was made ready, and the attack deferred forty-eight


The auspicious

hours, in order to take place on St. Sebastian's Day.

morning came,

that of January

French was stormed.


Southey most justly

The stronghold of the


20, 1567.
Not one of the Tamoyos escaped.
remarks, never was a war in which so little

exertion had been made, and so

little force

employed on both

sides,

attended by consequences so important.

The French court was too


busy in burning and massacring Huguenots to think of Brazil, and
Coligny, after his generous plans had been ruined by the villanous
treachery of Yillegagnon, no longer regarded the colony the day
:

for emigration

from his country was over, and they who should

have colonized Eio de Janeiro were bearing arms against a bloody

and implacable enemy, in defence of every thing dear to man.


Portugal was almost as inattentive to Brazil;

unaided as were the Antarctic French, had

so that,

Mem

few and

de Sa been less

earnest in his duty, or Nobrega less able and less indefatigable in


his opposition, the

former would have retained their place, and

perhaps the entire country have this day been French.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

58

Immediately after his victory, the governor, conformable to his


instructions, traced out a
in

new

city,

which he named San Sebastian,

honor of the saint under whose patronage the

also of the

king of the mother-country.

tian has been supplanted

field was won, and


The name of San Sebas-

by that of Eio de

Janeiro.

In connection with the event just narrated, there remains on


record a melancholy proof of the cruelty and intolerance of the

According to the annals of the Jesuits,

victors,

Mem de Sa

the foundations of the city with innocent blood.

stained

" Among the

Huguenots who had been compelled to fly from Yillegagnon's persecution was one John Boles, a man of considerable learning, being
well versed both in Greek and Hebrew. Luiz de Gram caused him
to be apprehended, with three of his comrades, one of

whom feigned

become a Eoman Catholic; the others were cast into prison; and
there Boles had remained eight years, when he was sent for to be
to

martyred
men,

if

The

Bio de Janeiro, for the sake of terrifying his country-

at

any should be lurking

in those parts."

Jesuits are the only historians of this matter.

They

pre-

tend that Boles apostatized, having been convinced of his errors

by Anchieta, a priest greatly celebrated in the annals of Brazil.


But, by their own story, it is not very probable that a man who
for eight long years had steadfastly refused to renounce the religion
of his conviction would

now

Boles doubtless proved a stub-

yield.

born unbending Protestant, and for this suffered a cruel death.

And, notwithstanding the statement that he was


example to

his

countrymen, "

if

to be slain as an

any should be found lurking

in

was not the custom of Borne to put to death those


who renounced their errors and came into her protecting fold.
When Boles was brought out to the place of execution, and the
those parts/'

it

executioner bungled in his bloody


fered,

office,

" Anchieta hastily inter-

and instructed him how to despatch a heretic as speedily as

possible,

fearing,

it is said, lest

he should become impatient, being

an obstinate man, and newly reclaimed, and that thus his soul

would be

lost.

The

priest

who

in

any way accelerates the execu-

but the biograis thereby suspended from his office


pher of Anchieta enumerates this as one of the virtuous actions of
tion of death

his life."

Though Bio de Janeiro was thus founded

in blood, there is

no

Reflections.

59

Catholic country in the world freer from bigotry and

Roman

tolerence than the

Empire of

failed the establishment of Coligny's colony,

Thus

in-

Brazil.

upon which

the hopes of Protestant Europe had for a short time been concentrated

and Eio de Janeiro

in the

religion

memorable

as the first spot

Western hemisphere where the banner of the Reformed


was unfurled. It is true that the attempt was made upon

territory

might

will ever be

which had been appropriated by Portugal;

still,

a question

arise as to the right of priority in the discovery of this por-

tion of Brazil, for

it is

De

certain that the Spaniard,

Solis,

and

also

Majellan, Ruy Faleiro, and Diogo Garcia, Portuguese navigators in


the service of Spain, entered the Bay of Nitherohy long before

In whatever

Martin Affonso de Souza.

way

reflection;

and we can

author of " Brazil and

fully

La

may

be settled,

is full

of food for

this

the fact of the failure of this Huguenot effort

sympathize with the remarks of the

Plata," in regard to the treachery of

Villegagnon, and the consequent defeat of the aims of the

first

French colonists:

"With the remembrance

of this failure in establishing the Re-

formed religion here, and of the direct cause which led to


often find myself speculating as to the possible

and probable

it,

results

which would have followed the successful establishment of Protestantism during the three hundred years that have since intervened.

With the wealth, and power, and increasing prosperity of the United
two hundred years'

States before us, as the fruits at the end of

colonization of a few feeble bands of Protestants on the comparatively bleak

and barren shore of the Northern continent, there

no presumption in the belief that had a people of similar

is

faith,

similar morals, similar habits of industry and enterprise, gained

an abiding footing in so genial a climate and on a


long ago the
interior

still

soil so

exuberant,

unexplored and impenetrable wilderness of the

would have bloomed and blossomed

in civilization as

the

and Brazil from the sea-coast to the Andes would have become
one of the gardens of the world. But the germ which might have

rose,

led to this

was crushed by the bad

faith

and malice of Yillegagnon

and, as I look on the spot which bears his name, and, in the eyes of

a Protestant at
solitary

least,

palms which

perpetuates his reproach, the two or three


lift

their tufted heads above the embattled

60

Brazil and

tiie

Brazilians.

and furnish the only evidence of vegetation on the island,


seem, instead of plumed warriors in the midst of their defences,
like sentinels of grief mourning the blighted hopes
of the long
walls,

past."

tiHb

FORTRESS AND ISLAND OF VILLEGAGNON.

But we should not look too "mournfully into the past;"

for

though, in the mysterious dealings of Providence no Protestant


nation, with its attendant vigor
fertile

and salubrious land,

and progress, sways

may we

mately consider the tolerant and

and

its

over that
legiti-

Constitution of the Empire,

good government, the general material prosperity, and the

advancement of the Brazilians


all

fit

it

not to a certain extent

in

every point of view far beyond

other South American nations, as an answer to the faithful

prayers with which those pious Huguenots baptized Brazil more

than three centuries ago?


Note for 1S66.
of toleration.
colonists;

The

present Emperor has certainly shown himself a friend

He has

aided in the construction of Protestant chapels for

the Government promptly suppressed three riots attempted against

Brazilian Protestants, (at Rio de Janeiro, at Bahia, and at Praia Grande;) and

other acts might be cited to demonstrate that


at the position of religious toleration in Brazil.

we have

go one step further, and admit to the Parliament


religious denomination.

Then Brazil

true cause for gratitude

But Brazilian legislation should


all

fit

men, of whatever

will be abreast with the nineteenth century.

CHAPTER
EABLY STATE OF BIO

DEPARTURE

DOM PEDRO

OF

OF THE

FRENCH

IMPROVEMENTS

ARRIVAL OF THE ROYAL FAMILY OF PORTUGAL

VICEROYS

CHANGES

ATTACKS

IV.

OF

DOM JOHN

VI.

THE

UNDER THE

RAPID POLITICAL

VICEROYALTY IN THE HANDS

BRAZILIANS DISSATISFIED WITH THE MOTHER-COUNTRY

CLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

For one hundred and

DE-

ACCLAMATION OF DOM PEDRO AS EMPEROR.

forty years after its foundation, the city

of San Sebastian enjoyed a state of tranquil prosperity.

This

quietness was in happy contrast with the turbulent spirit of the


age,

and especially with the condition of the principal towns and

colonies of Brazil
to,

nearly

had been attacked by

French.

all

of which, during the period referred

either the English, the Dutch, or the

In this interval the population and commerce of the place

greatly increased.

At the commencement

of the eighteenth century the principal

gold-mines of the interior were discovered by the Paulistas, the


inhabitants of San Paulo.

These gave the name of Minas Geraes

{General Mines) to a large inland province, which became then,


as it

still

remains, tributary to the port of Eio de Janeiro.

digging was found to produce here


resulted from

it

effects similar to

in the Spanish countries.

abandoned, the price of slaves

Agriculture was nearly

who had been

early introduced

became enormous, and the general prosperity of the country


graded; while every one

who

of speedily enriching himself.

Gold-

those which

retro-

could rushed to the mines, in hope

We

abnormal condition of California

even find that the curious and

in 1848

had

its

counterpart three

centuries ago in Brazil.

Even the Governor of Rio, forgetful of his official character and


went to Minas Geraes and engaged with avidity in the
search for treasure.
The fame of these golden discoveries sounded

obligations,

61

Brazil and the Brazilians.

62

awakened the cupidity of the French, who, in 1710,


sont a squadron, commanded by M. Du Clerc, with the intent of
capturing Eio. The whole expedition was ingloriously defeated
abroad, and

by the Portuguese, under Francisco de Castro, Governor of Eio


de Janeiro. This officer possessed no military ability, but blundered

a victory over

into

cruelties

French, and

tho

be practised upon the prisoners.

to

slow to resent the inhumanity

permitted

horrid

Franco was not

which her men had been

with

treated.

M. Duguay Trouin, one of the ablest naval

officers of

the times,

sought permission to revenge his countrymen and to plunder Eio


Individuals were found ready to incur the expenses

do Janeiro.

of the outfit, in prospect of tho speculation.

The

project

was

approved by Government, and an immense naval force was placed


at Trouin's disposal.

The tactics of the


was stormed, taken, and
was during the bombard-

This expedition was eminently successful.


imbecile Castro did not succeed

the city

afterward ransomed for a heavy sum.

It

ment that the convent of San Bento was battered by the balls, the
marks of which are still visible.
The plunder and the ransom were so great, that, notwithstanding, on the return-voyage of tho French, a number of their vessels
went down with twelve hundred men and the most valuable part
of the booty, there remained to the adventurers a profit of ninety-

two per

From

cent,

upon the

the time that

capital they

Duguay

had risked

on their homeward voyage, no hostile


harbor of Eio de Janeiro.

in the outfit.

Trouin's squadron weighed anchor


fleet

has ever entered the

Great changes, however, have taken

place in the condition of that city.

In 1763

it

superseded Bahia as the seat of government, and

became the residence of the viceroys of Portugal.


The more substantial improvements of the capital were undertaken at this period. The marshes, which covered a considerable
portion of the spot where the
diked.
slaves,

The

streets

who had

town now

were paved and

hitherto been

stands, were drained

lighted.

and

Cargoes of African

exposed in the streets for

sale,

exhibiting scenes of disgust and horror, and also exposing the


inhabitants to the worst of diseases, were

now

ordered to be

Improvements under the Viceroys.


removed to the Vallongo, which was designated
market for these unhappy beings.

63
as

a general

Fountains of running water were also multiplied.

The great

aqueduct which spans the Eua dos Arcos was then constructed;

and in these and various other ways, the health, comfort, and
prosperity of the city were promoted under the successive administrations of the

Count da Cunha, the Marquis of Lavradio, and Luiz

de Yaseoncellos

GREAT AQUEDUCT RUA DOS ARCOS.

The system of government maintained during these periods


throughout Brazil was absolute in the extreme, and by no means
calculated to develop the great resources of the country.
.Nevertheless, it

was anticipated by the more enlightened statesmen

of

Portugal that the colony would some day eclipse the glory of
the mother-country. None, however, could foresee the proximity
of those events which were about to drive the royal family (the

house of Braganza) to seek an asylum in the

New

World, and to

Brazil and the Brazilians.

64

The

establish their court at Bio de Janeiro.

close of the eighteenth

century witnessed their development.

The French Eevolution and the leading spirit which was raised
it involved the slumbering kingdom of Portugal in the

up by

troubles of the Continent.

Napoleon determined that the court

of Lisbon should declare itself against

its

ancient ally, England,

and assent to the Continental system adopted by the Imperial ruler

The Prince-Eegent, Dom John VI., promised, but hesidelayed, and finally, too late, declared war against England.

of France.
tated,

The vacillation of the Prince-Eegent hastened events to a crisis.


The English fleet, under Sir Sidney Smith, established a most
rigorous blockade at the mouth of the Tagus, and the British
ambassador

left

no other alternative to

surrender to England the Portuguese

Bom

fleet,

John VI. than to

or to avail himself

of the British squadron for the protection and transportation of

the royal family to Brazil.

The moment was

critical

of Napoleon had penetrated the mountains of Beira;

immediate departure would save the monarchy.

mained

to the Prince-Eegent but to choose

retire to

The

By

army

only an

resource re-

between a tottering

throne in Europe and a vast empire in America.

were at an end.

No

the

His indecisions

a royal decree he announced his intention to

Eio de Janeiro until the conclusion of a general peace.

archives, the treasures, and the

most precious

effects of the

crown, were transferred to the Portuguese and English

fleets

and,

on the 29th of November, 1807, accompanied by his family and a


multitude of faithful followers, the Prince-Eegent took his departure amid the combined salvos of the cannon of Great Britain

and of Portugal. That very day Marshal Junot thundered upon the
heights of Lisbon, and the next morning took possession of the
city.

Early in January, 1808, the news of these surprising events

reached Eio de Janeiro, and excited the most lively interest.

What

the Brazilians had dreamed of only as a remote possible

event was

now

suddenly to be realized.

The royal family might

be expected to arrive any day, and preparations for their reception


occupied the attention of
diately prepared, and

all

all.

The Viceroy's palace was imme-

the public offices in the Palace Square

were vacated to accommodate the royal

deemed

sufficient, proprietors of

suite.

These not beiDg

private houses in the neighborhood

Arrival cf the Royal Family.

65

were required to leave their residences and send in their keys to


the Viceroy.

Such were the sentiments of the people respecting the hospitality

due to their distinguished guests, that nothing seems to

have been withheld; while many, even of the


voluntarily offered sums of

money and

less

opulent families,

objects of value to administer

to their comfort.

The

fleet

having been scattered in a storm, the principal vessels

had put into Bahia, where

Dom

John VI. gave that

carta regia

which opened the ports of Brazil to the commerce of the world.

At length

all

made

a safe entry into the harbor of Eio, on the 7th

In the manifestations of joy upon this occasion,

of March, 1808.

the houses were deserted and the hills were covered with spectators.

Those who could procured boats and

the royal squadron.

The

sailed out to

meet

prince, immediately after landing, pro-

ceeded to the cathedral, and publicly offered thanks for his safe

The

arrival.

city

was illuminated

for nine successive evenings.

In order to form an idea of the changes that have occurred in


Brazil during the last fifty years,

the period

now under

with foreigners had been rigidly


of Portugal.

must be remarked,

that, up to
commerce and intercourse
prohibited by the narrow policy
it

consideration, all

Vessels of nations allied to the mother-country were

occasionally permitted to

moth colony; but

come

to anchor in the ports of this

mam-

neither passengers nor crew were allowed to

land excepting under the superintendence of a guard of soldiers.

The policy pursued by China and Japan was scarcely more

strict

and prohibitory.

To prevent

all

possibility of trade, foreign vessels

whether they

had put in to repair damages or to procure provisions and water


immediately on their arrival were invested with a custom-house
guard, and the time for their remaining was fixed by the authorities

according to the supposed necessities of the case.

quence of these oppressive regulations, a people

As

a conse-

who were

rich

gold and diamonds were unable to procure the essential implements


of agriculture and of domestic convenience.

who

wealthy planter,

could display the most rich and massive plate at a festival,

might not be able to furnish each of his guests with a knife at


table.

single tumbler at the

same time might be under the

Brazil and the Brazilian.

66

making repeated circuits through the company. The


printing-press had not made its appearance. Books and learning
were equally rare. The people were in every way made to feel
necessity of

their dependence
alike

On

and the

spirit of

industry and enterprise were

unknown.
the arrival of the Prince-Regent the ports were thrown open.

printing-press

was introduced, and a Eoyal Gazette was pubfine arts were established.

Academies of medicine and the

lished.

The Royal Library, containing

sixty thousand volumes of books,

was opened for the free use of the public.

Foreigners were

in-

and embassies from England and France took up their

vited,

residence at Rio de Janeiro.

From

this period, decided

and

dition

improvements were made

aspect of the city.

New

streets

in the con-

and squares were

added, and splendid residences were arranged on the neighboring

and

islands

hills,

augmenting, with the growth of the town, the

picturesque beauties of the surrounding scenery.

The sudden and

continued influx of Portuguese and foreigners not only showed


itself in

the population of Rio, but extended inland, causing

new

ways of communication to be opened with the interior, new towns


In fact, the whole
to be erected, and old ones to be improved.
underwent great and rapid changes.
The manners of the people also experienced a corresponding
mutation. The fashions of Europe were introduced. From the
seclusion and restraints of non-intercourse the people emerged into
the festive ceremonies of a court, whose levees and gala-days drew

face of the country

together multitudes from

which
off,

the capital

now

all

offered, the dust of

antiquated customs gave way,

new

were adopted, and these spread from


town

In the mingled society

directions.

retirement was brushed

ideas

and modes of

circle to

circle

life

and from

to town.

Business assumed an aspect equally changed.

Foreign com-

mercial houses were opened, and foreign artisans established themselves in Rio

and other

cities.

This country could no longer remain a colony.

promulgated in December, 1815, declaring

it

decree was

elevated to the dig-

nity of a kingdom, and hereafter to form an integral part of the

United Kingdom of Portugal, Algarves, and Brazil.

It is scarcely

Rapid Political Changes.


possible to imagine the enthusiasm

67

awakened by

this unlooked-for

change throughout the vast extent of Portuguese America. Messengers were despatched to bear the news, which was hailed with
spontaneous illuminations from the

La

Scarcely was this event consummated

Maria

I.,

Plata to the Amazon.

when the

queen,

Donna

died.

She was mother to the Prince-Kegent, and had been

for years in

a state of mental imbecility, so that her death had no influence

upon

political affairs.

Her

funeral obsequies were performed with

memory, delayed
the acclamation of his accession to the throne for a year. He was
The cereat length crowned, with the title of Dom John VI.
great splendor ;

and her

son, in respect for her

monies of the coronation were celebrated with suitable magnificence in the Palace Square, on the 5th of February, 1818.

Amid

the advantages attendant upon the

all

in Brazil, there

new

state of things

were many circumstances calculated

political discontent.

It

was then that

bitter feelings

to

provoke

toward the

natives of Portugal sprang up, which, though modified,

still

exist

throughout the Empire, and made, at a later date, the severance


of Brazil from the mother-country more easy of accomplishment

than the separation of the thirteen colonies of North America from


the crown of Great Britain.

There had always been, to a greater

or less extent, a certain rivalry between the native Brazilian and


the Portuguese

but

now

it

found a

new

cause of excitement.

The

Government felt itself bound to find places for the more than
twenty thousand needy and unprincipled adventurers who had
followed the royal family to the

very

little

New

World.

These

men

cared

for the welfare of Brazil, either in the administration

of justice or in acts for the benefit of the public.

by

Their greatest

was manifested

in the eager desire to fleece the

country and enrich themselves.

Honors were heaped upon those

interest

Brazilians

far

who had

furnished house and

money

to the Prince-

Kegent; and, as he had nothing to give them but decorations, he

was soon surrounded by knights who had never displayed either


chivalry or learning. The excitement thus aroused in a country
where titulary distinctions were hitherto almost unknown was
Every one aspired to become a cavalheiro or a comintense.
mendador, and the most degrading sycophancy was practised to


Brazil and the Brazilians.

68

Men who had

obtain the royal favor.

ported

been good traders in im-

mandioca and

articles, or successful dealers in

coffee,

once

knighted, could never again return to the drudgery and debasing


associations of commercial

life,

and must

live either

on previously-

acquired fortunes or seek Government employment.

On

this

ground the native Brazilians and the newly-arrived

Portuguese fought their


and, once in

office,

They were

first battles.

the Brazilian

was

rivals for place,

as open to every species of

bribery and corruption as the most venal hanger-on of the court

The

from Lisbon.

their adversaries.

Brazilians, however,

The

had one advantage over

natives sympathized most fully with their

recently -knighted brethren, and listened to their complaints with

a willing ear.

These things, together with the wretched state of

morals that prevailed at the court, were calculated to increase the

what the Brazilians considered a foreign dominion


The independence of the English North American
colonies and the successful revolutionary struggle of some of the
neighboring Spanish-American provinces still more augmented the
jealousy of

over them.

uneasiness of the people

and a consciousness of

this increasing

and a fear that Brazil might be induced to follow the


example of her revolting Spanish neighbors, doubtless had a
discontent,

Government

powerful influence upon the

in

making the

con-

cessions named.

Tranquillity followed the erection of Brazil into a constituent

was of short duration. Discontent


was at work. The intended revolt at Pernambuco in 1817 was
betrayed to the Government, and the insurgents were prematurely
compelled to take up arms, and suffered defeat from the troops

portion of the kingdom; but

sent against

it

them by the Count dos Arcos.

From

this time there

seems to have been a systematic exclusion of native Brazilians

from commands in the army.

Murmurs were gradually disseminated


as in

but they found no echo

the case of the North American colonies

which had, with common


of the English colonists.

from

schools, followed in the

The

first,

the press,

immediate wake

and at that time the only,

printing-press in the country, was brought from Lisbon in 1808,


Its
and was under the direct control of the royal authorities.
health
of
the
public
columns faithfully recorded for the Brazilian

Depakture of D. John VI.


all

the European princes.

It

was

filled

with

69

official

day odes, and panegyrics on the royal family; but


unsullied

by the

ebullitions of the

been pronounced a terrestrial

But

pages were

by Armitage,

" to have
must have
paradise, where no word of com-

judged of the country by the tone of

plaint

its

democracy, or the exposure of

As has been well

their grievances.

edicts, birth-

said

its

only journal,

it

had ever yet found utterance/'


at length the time arrived

when

the

monotony of the Court

Gazette was interrupted, and the people soon found voices for
their grievances,

and

in the

end substantial redress.

The revolution which occurred

in Portugal in 1821, in favor of a

was immediately responded

Constitution,

by

to

a similar one in

Brazil.

After much, excitement and alarm from the tumultuous move-

ments of the people, the King, D. John VI., conferred upon

Dom

Pedro, Prince-Eoyal, the

office

his son

of Eegent and Lieutenant to

He

His Majesty in the Kingdom of Brazil.

then hastened his de-

parture for Portugal, accompanied by the remainder of his family

and the principal nobility who had followed him.

The disheartened
monarch embarked on board a line-of-battle ship on the 24th of
April, 1821, leaving the widest and fairest portion of his dominions

by

to a destiny not indeed unlooked for

was

fulfilled

much

his majesty, but

which

sooner than his melancholy forebodings antici-

pated.*

Eapid as had been the

political

ten years, greater changes

Pedro,

who now enjoyed

still

changes in Brazil during the

were about to take

place.

last

Dom

the dignity and attributes of Prince-

Eegent and Lieutenant of His Majesty the King of Portugal, was


at this period in the twenty-third

many

year of his age.

He

possessed

His personal beauty was

of the essentials of popularity.

not less marked than his frank and affable manners, and his disposition,

character, and

* Just as the

was one who seemed

vessel

for the last time,

it

was ready

to

to sail, the old

king pressed his son

and exclaimed, "Pedro, Brazil

herself from Portugal

allow

He had decision of
know when to seize the

though capricious, was enthusiastic.

to fall into the

and

if so,

will, I fear,

place the crown on thine

hands of any adventurer."

to his

bosom

ere long separate

own head rather than

Brazil and the Brazilians.

70

moment

proper

for

calming the populace, as when at Bio, while

King was in the Palace of San Christovao, only three miles


he, upon his own authority, gave to the people and the
troops a decree whereby an unreserved acceptance of the future
the

away,

was guaranteed. He also


knew well how to guard his prerogative. The Prince's consort
was by lineage and talent worthy of his hand, for Leopoldina was
Constitution of the Portuguese Cortes

an archduchess of Austria;
Maria Theresa, and
bride

in her veins coursed the blood of

was her

it

sister

Maria Louisa who was the

She was not possessed of great personal

of Napoleon.

beauty, yet her kindness of heart and her unpretentious bearing

endeared her to every one

Dom

Pedro had

left

who knew her.


when a mere

Portugal

lad,

and

it

was

believed that his highest aspirations were associated with the land
of his adoption.

In the

office

of Prince-Begent he certainly found

scope for his most ardent ambition; but he also discovered himself
to be surrounded with

numerous

difficulties, political

and

financial.

So embarrassing indeed was his situation, that in the course of a


his father to allow him to resign his office
The Cortes of Portugal about this time becoming

few months he begged


and

attributes.

jealous of the position of the Prince in Brazil, passed a decree

ordering him to return to Europe, and at the same time abolishing


the royal tribunals at Bio.
nation

by the

Brazilians,

This decree was received with indig-

who immediately rallied around Dom


among them. His consent to

Pedro, and persuaded him to remain

do so gave

rise to the

among both patriots and

most enthusiastic demonstrations of joy


loyalists.

The Portuguese

military soon

evinced symptoms of mutiny.

conflict

seemed inevitable; but the Portuguese commander

vacillated in

view of the determined opposition manifested by the

people,

who

flew to arms, and offered to capitulate on the condition

of his soldiers retaining their arms.

This was conceded, on their

agreeing to retire to Praia Grande, a city on the opposite side of


the bay, until transports could be provided for their embarkation
to Lisbon;

which was subsequently

effected.

The measures of the

Cortes of Portugal, which continued to be arbitrary in the extreme


toward Brazil, finally had the effect to hasten, in the latter country,
a declaration of absolute independence.

This measure had long

Declaration of Independence.

71

been ardently desired by the more enlightened Brazilians, some of

whom had already urged Dom

Pedro to assume the

title

of Emperor.

Hitherto he had refused, and reiterated his allegiance to Portugal.

But he

at length, while

on a journey to the province of

S.

Paulo,

received despatches from the mother-country, which had the effect

of cutting short

all

delay,

and caused him

to declare for independ-

ence in a manner so decided and explicit that henceforward

all

retrograde measures would be utterly impracticable.

On

the 7th of September, 1822,

was surrounded by
sight of

his courtiers,

when he read

the despatches, he

on those beautiful campinas in

San Paulo, a city which had ever been, as

It

was

now,

it is

brated in Brazil for the liberality and intelligence of

its

cele-

inhabitants.

the margin of an insignificant stream, the


that he made that exclamation, "Independencia ou morte,"

then, on

Ypiranga,

(Independence or death,) which became the watchword of the Bra-

and from the 7th of September, 1822, the inde-

zilian Kevolution;

pendence of

country has since held

the'

its official date.

It has

it

was a

memorable circumstance, and must ever form an epoch

in the

been truly said that in the eyes of the

civilized

world

history of the Western continent.


It was indeed a great event, which has led to vast results.
It
was a grand revolution, begun by one whose very birth and position
would have led the contemplative philosopher or statesman to

pronounce

it

popular cause.

impossible that he should become the leader of a


It

was the descendant of a long

line of

European

monarchs who inaugurated that movement which severed the last


the most faithful of the great divisions of South America from

transatlantic rule.

The Prince-Eegent hastened


and

in his favor

knew no

by a rapid journey;
was known, the enthusiasm

to Eio de Janeiro

there, so soon as his determination

bounds.

The municipality of the

capital issued a proclamation on the 21st

of September, declaring their intention to

of the people, by proclaiming

fulfil

the manifest wishes

Dom Pedro the constitutional Emperor

and perpetual defender of Brazil.


on the 12th of October following,

This ceremony was performed


in the

Campo

de Santa Anna, in

the presence of the municipal authorities, the functionaries of the


court, the troops,

and an immense concourse of people.

His High-


Brazil and the Brazilians.

7.2

ness there publicly declared his acceptance of the title conferred on

him, from the conviction that he was thus obeying the will of the

The troops

people.

the evening.

fired a salute,

and the city was illuminated in

Jose Bonifacio de Andrada, prime minister of the

Government, had in the mean time promulgated a decree, requiring


all

the Portuguese

who were disposed

to

embrace the popular cause

by wearing the Emperor's motto


upon their arm, ordering also, that all

to manifest their sentiments

"Independencia ou morte"

dissentients should leave the country within a given period, and

threatening the penalties imposed upon high-treason against any

one

who

should thenceforward attack, by word or deed, the sacred

cause of Brazil.

The prime minister was the

eldest of three brothers, all of

them

remarkable for their talents, learning, eloquence, and (though at


times factious) for their sterling patriotism.
fluenced

by

Emperor.

They were

unin-

either the adulation of the populace or the favor of the

Jose Bonifacio de Andrada combined, to an eminent

degree, the various excellencies suited to the emergencies of the


incipient stages of the Empire.

The Brazilian Revolution was comparatively a bloodless one.


The glory of Portugal was already waning; her resources were
exhausted, and her energies crippled by internal dissensions.
That nation made nothing like a systematic and persevering
effort to

maintain her ascendency over her long-depressed but

rebellious colony.

The

insulting measures of the Cortes

now

were con-

summated only in their vaporing decrees. The Portuguese dominion was maintained for some time in Bahia and other ports, which
had been occupied by military forces. But these forces were at
length compelled to withdraw and leave Brazil to her own control.
So little contested, indeed, and so rapid, was this revolution, that in
less than three years from the time independence was declared on
the plains of the Ypiranga, Brazil was acknowledged to be inde-

pendent at the court of Lisbon.

In the

mean time

the

Emperor

had been crowned as Dom Pedro I., and an assembly of delegates


from the provinces had been convoked for the formation of a
Constitution.

ARMS OF THE BRAZILIAN EMPIRE.

CHAPTEB
THE ANDRADAS

DOM PEDRO

INSTRUCTIONS
COMMISSION

DOM PEDRO

I.

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSTITUTION FRAMED
THE RULE

OF THIS DOCUMENT

CAUSES OF DISSATISFACTIONTHE

DOM PEDRO

The new

OF THE EMPEROR TO THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY

DISSOLVES THE ASSEMBLY BY FORCE

I.

A SPECIAL

OF

Y.

EMFEROR ABDICATES

IN

BY
OP

FAVOR

II.

state of affairs did not, however, proceed with either

smoothness or velocity.

were at work.

Political bitterness, jealousy,

and

strife

The Andrada ministry* were accused of being


Brazil owed her independence, and Dom

arbitrary and tyrannical.

Pedro

I.

his crown, chiefly to their exertions; yet their administra-

tions cannot

by any means be exempted from

Their

censure.

views were certainly comprehensive, and their intentions patriotic;

when

but their impatient and ambitious spirit rendered them,

power, intolerant to their political opponents.

They were

in

assailed

with great energy, aud finally compelled to resign; but such were
the tumults of the people, and the violent partisan exertions in

were reinstated, and Jose Bonifacio was


by the populace through the streets of Bio
Eight months afterward a combination of all parties

their favor, that they

drawn

in his carriage

de Janeiro.

Jose"

Bonifacio was prime minister, and Martin Francisco de Andrada was at

the head of the Finance Department.

73

Brazil and the Brazilians.

74

again effected the ejection of the brothers Andrada from the


ministry, but not from power.-

They became the most

factious

opponents of the Emperor and of the ministry which succeeded

They were unmitigated

theirs.

in

their attacks, both in the

Assembly and through the press.


The Constituent Assembly had done

besides wrangling.

little

The members were mostly men of narrow views and of little


ability; hence it was that the Andradas, by their eloquence and
knowledge of parliamentary tactics, had such power over their
minds. The Emperor, with great good sense, had, in opening the
sessions, told the

Assembly that the recent " Constitutions founded

on the models of those of 1791 and 1792 had been acknowledged


as too abstract

and too metaphysical

for execution.

This has been

proved by the example of France, and more recently by that of


Spain and Portugal."

His Imperial Majesty seems to have had a

high standard of constitutional excellence, and one which

have deemed

it difficult,

we would

and perhaps impossible, for the Brazilian

"We have need," he said in his address


from the throne, " of a Constitution where the powers may be so

people to have reached.

divided and denned, that no one branch can arrogate to itself the

prerogatives of another; a Constitution which

mountable barrier against

all

invasion of the

whether aristocratic or popular; which

and cherish the tree of

may

liberty; beneath

will

be an insur-

royal authority,

overthrow anarchy,

whose shade we

shall see

the union and the independence of this Empire nourish. In a word,

a Constitution that will excite the admiration of other nations, and

even of our enemies,


ciples in

who

will consecrate the

adopting them."

triumph of our prin-

(From the Falla do Throno, 3d May,

1823.)

Notwithstanding those instructions, the Constituent Assembly

made no

progress in forming a document from which such grand

The
were to flow as those depicted by the Emperor.
Andradas continued their opposition to various measures brought
forward by the Government. His Majesty was irritated by their
results

continual thrusts at the Portuguese incorporated in the Brazilian

army.

An

outrage committed by two Portuguese

officers

upon the

supposed author of an attack upon them was, in the excited state


of public feeling, magnified into an outrage on the nation.

The

D. Pedro

I.

Dissolves the Assembly.

75

sufferer demanded justice from the House of Deputies, and the


Andradas most loudly demanded vengeance on the Portuguese
aggressors. The journal under their control, called the " Tamoyo,"

(from a tribe of Indians

who were

the bitter foes of the early Por-

went so far as to
Government did not turn aside from its antinational course, its power would be of short continuance, and, as a
warning to the Emperor, the example of Charles I. of England was
alluded to in no unmeaning terms.

tuguese settlers,) was

equally violent.

It even

insinuate that if the

Dom Pedro

I. was no weak and vacillating Stuart.


He posmore of the spirit of Oliver Cromwell or of the First NaThe Assembly, through the three brothers, was induced
poleon.
The Emperor, finding that
to declare itself in permanent session.
they (the Andradas) still maintained their predominance, mounted
on horseback, and, at the head of his cavalry, marched to the
Chamber, planted his cannon before its walls, and sent up General

But

sessed

Moraes to the Assembly to order

its

instantaneous dissolution.

The Assembly was broken up. The three Andradas were seized, as
well as the Deputies Eocha and Montezuma, and were, without trial
Thus ended, for a brief
or examination, transported to France.
period at least, the political career of the eloquent, patriotic, and
factious Andradas.

The Emperor issued a proclamation,

stating that he

had taken

the measures recounted above, solely with the view of avoiding

anarchy; and the public were reminded that " though the Emperor
had, from regard to the tranquillity of the Empire, thought
dissolve the said Assembly, he

another, in

had

fit

to

same decree convoked


conformity with the acknowledged constitutional rights
in the

of his people."

special

commission of ten individuals was convened on the

26th of November, 1823, for the purpose of forming such a Constitution as

might meet with the Imperial approval.

of this commission immediately

commenced

personal superintendence of D. Pedro

I.,

who

bases of the document which he wished to

The members

their labors under the

them the
be framed, and gave
furnished

them forty days for the accomplishment of the object.


The ten councillors, as a body, were badly qualified for the important task before them; yet several of their number were noted

Brazil and the Brazilians.

76

and two only

for the excellence of their private characters,

for

One of these two, Carneiro de Campos, was fortunately intrusted with the drawing up of the Constitution, and
to him it has been said Brazil is principally indebted for a number
their erudition.

of the most liberal provisions of the code,


insisted

provisions

on introducing in opposition to the wishes of

which he

many

of his

colleagues.
It is evident that the drafting-committee of ten could not foresee

how

liberal

were the provisions of

them were staunch

this Constitution, for

most of

yet various providential circum-

royalists;

stances conduced to the production of a just and liberal instrument

[See Appendix B.]

of government.

may be stated in a few words. The


government of the Empire is monarchical, hereditary, constitutional,
and representative. The religion of the State is the Boman CaIts

most important features

tholic,

but

all

other denominations are tolerated.

ceedings are public, and there


trial

The

by jury.

is

power

legislative

Judicial pro-

the right of habeas corpus and


is

in the General

Assembly,

which answers to the Imperial Parliament of England or to the

The senators are elected for life,


four years.
The presidents of the

Congress of the United States.

and the representatives

for

provinces are appointed by the Emperor.

Assembly to each province


thus, Brazil

is

There

for local laws, taxation,

a decentralized Empire.

is

a legislative

and government

The senators and representa-

tives of the General Assembly are chosen through the intervention

of electors, as

is

the President of the United States, and the pro-

vincial legislators are elected


free,

and there

The

is

by universal

suffrage.

no proscription on account of

The press

was accepted by the Emperor, and


was sworn to by his Imperial High-

Constitution thus framed

on the 25th of March, 1824,


ness, and by the authorities and people throughout the Empire.
is

is

color.

It

an instrument truly remarkable, considering the source whence

it

emanated, and

we cannot

continue the subsequent history of

the country without devoting to

its

merits a few passing reflections.

'This Constitution commenced by being the most liberal of


other similar documents placed before a South American people.
its

wise and tolerant notions, and in

which

it

was prepared,

it is

its

all

In

adaptation to the nation for

second only to that which governs the

The Brazilian Constitution.


Inglo-Saxon Confederacy of North America.

may

viduals

utter, in their charters of

and right

in regard to equality

and

in securing those

but

77
States and indi-

government,

if

very elements of

they

fail

fine sentences

in practicability

and pro-

justice, stability,

gress, the eloquent jmrases are but "as sounding brass or a tinkling

cymbal." The Brazilian Constitution has, to a great extent, secured

and consequently national prosperity.

equality, justice,

She

is

by the same Constitution with which more than


thirty years ago she commenced her full career as a nation. While
every Spanish-American Government has been the scene of bloody

to-day governed

revolutions,

while

the civilized world has looked with

wonder, and pity upon the self-constituted


rights again

bill

horror,

of the people's

and again trampled under foot by turbulent faction

and priestly bigotry, or by the tyranny of the most narrow-minded


dictators,

has had

two

the only Portuguese-American

its

Government (though

it

provincial revolts of a short duration) has beheld but

revolutions,

and those were peaceful,

one

fully in accordance

with the Constitution;* the other, the proclamation of the majority of

Dom

Pedro

was by suspending

II.,

a single article of the

Government compact.
--Mexico, which, in extent of territory, population, and resources,
is

more properly comparable

to Brazil than

American country, established her

month (February, 1824)

earlier

first

But poor Mexico has been the

charter of government and rights.

thrown

the army.

Her

only one

than the adoption of the Brazilian

prey of every unscrupulous demagogue

command

any other Hispano-

Constitution

who

could for the

moment

Constitution has repeatedly been over-

the victorious soldiery of a hardier nation placed her at

the mercy of a foreign cabinet; her dominion has been despoiled

her commerce crippled and diminished by her

narrow policy;

personal

security and

unknown, and her people are

when the
Brazil,

The head

Constitution

this

first set

inertness and

prosperity are

day no further advanced than


aside in 1835.

on the other hand, has been continually progressing.


of the

Empire

* The abdication of

Emperor.

was

own

national

Dom

is

Pedro

in the

I.

same family, and governs under

in favor of his son,

Dom Pedro

II.

the present

Brazil and the Brazilians.

78

Her commerce

the same Constitution that was established in 1824.


doubles every ten years
lines of steamships,

she possesses cities lighted by gas, long

and the beginnings of railways that are spread-

ing from the sea-coast into the

fertile interior;

her borders

in

education and general intelligence are constantly advancing.

^^-^This great contrast cannot be accounted for altogether on the

ground of the difference between the two people and between


their respective forms of government.

a Monarchy

and

it is

is

equally apparent that there

between the Spaniard and

world.*

latter has of late years

The

is

a very great dissimilarity

his descendants,

The Spaniard

his descendants.

and the

It is doubtless true that

better suited to the Latin nations than a Eepublic

and the Portuguese and

affects to despise the Portuguesey-

been underrated in the eyes of the

child of Castile, take

him where you

tious, chivalric, bigoted, vain, extravagant,

of Lusitania

not wanting in vanity, but

is

less turbulent

than his neighbor, and

is

and
is

ambi-

will, is

The son

lazy.

more tolerant and

a being both economical

and industrious.

The

reasons, under Providence, of the great divergence in the

results of the Brazilian

up

briefly thus

may

and Mexican Constitution

Brazil, while providing a hereditary

head, recognised most fully the democratic element

ledging the

Boman

be

summed

monarchical

while acknow-

Catholic religion to be that established

by the

State, she guaranteed, with the single limitations of steeples and


bells,

the unrestricted right of worship to

all

other denominations;

she established public judicial proceedings, the habeas corpus, and


the right of trial by jury.

Mexico, in the formation of her Constitution, copied that of the

United States, but departed from that document,

in the

two most

important particulars, as widely as the oft-quoted strolling actors


deviated from the original tragedy

when they

to be played minus the role of the Prince of

advertised " Hamlet"


Denmark. The Mexican

Constitution established an exclusive religion with

bigotry of Old Spain

and

vention by juries were omitted altogether.

* "Strip a Spaniard
him."

of all his virtues,

Spanish Proverb.

all

public judicial proceedings

The

the rigorous

and the

inter-

starting-point of

and you make. a good Portuguese of

The Kule
Brazil

of

and Mexico were entirely

suitable

Dom Pedro
different

form of government and in

79

I.

the former, happy in a

from the

liberal principles

beginning, has outstripped the latter in

all

that constitutes true

national greatness.
Brazil did not, however, attain her present proud position in

South America without days of trial and hard experience.

Corrupt

and unprincipled men were in greater numbers than those who

The people were ignorant


by

possessed stern and patriotic virtue.

and unaccustomed

to

self-government, and were often used

unscrupulous leaders to the advancement of their

The administration of
and, during

its

Dom

Pedro

own

intervened between

its first

it

made

greater

had done in three centuries which

discovery and the proclamation of the

Portuguese Constitution in 1820.

was not without

purposes.

continued about ten years,

lapse, the country unquestionably

advances in intelligence than

tion

I.

its faults

Nevertheless, this administraor

its

difficulties.

although not tyrannical, was imprudent.

He was

Dom

Pedro,

energetic, but

inconstant ; an admirer of the representative form of government,

but hesitating in

its

practical enforcement.

Elevated into a hero during the struggle for independence, he


appears to have been guided rather by the example of other potentates than

by any mature consideration of the existing

state

and

exigencies of Brazil; and hence, perhaps, the eagerness with which

he embarked
its

in the

war against Montevideo, which

origin in aggression,

and which,

certainly had

after crippling the

commerce,

checking the prosperity, and exhausting the finances of the Empire,

ended only

in the full

and unrestrained cession of the province

in

dispute.
It

may

Banda

be remarked, that the defeat of the Brazilians in the

Oriental,

though a seeming disgrace, was one of the greatest

blessings that could have been bestowed

appears that that war and


of preserving Brazil from

its

upon the Empire. It


means

disastrous results were the

making such

modifications in her Consti-

tution as might, if effected, have terminated in the overthrow

of some of her most valuable institutions.

arms almost annihilated the

was springing up

The non-success of her

thirst for military distinction

which

and the energies of the rising generation were

consequently turned more toward

civil pursuits,

from which resulted

Brazil and the Brazilians.

80
social

ameliorations that tended to consolidate the well-being of

the State.

In addition to the imprudence and inconstancy of the Emperor,


it

was

said

gant and

and not without


his morals

truth

that

his habits

And

extremely defective.*

were extravayet, the

main

cause of his personal unpopularity seems to have consisted in his

never having known

how

to

become the man of

his people,

in his

never having constituted himself entirely and truly a Brazilian.

He was

often heard to express the sentiment that the only true

strength of a government lay in public opinion

yet, unfortunately,

he did not know how to conciliate the public opinion of the people
over

whom

lution,

it

was

At the period of the Bevo-

his destiny to reign.

ho had, under the excitements of enthusiasm, uttered senti-

ments calculated to
sincerity

flatter the

nascent spirit of nationality, and his

had been credited; yet

his subsequent

employment of a

foreign force, his continued interference in the affairs of Portugal,


his institution of a secret cabinet,

Portuguese to the highest


clusion of natives of the
rise to the universal

and

offices
soil,

his

appointment of naturalized

of the State, to the apparent ex-

had,

among

a jealous people, given

impression that the monarch himself was

still

a Portuguese at heart.

The native
picion,

Brazilians believed that they were beheld with sus-

and hence became restive under a Government which they

regarded as nurturing foreign interests and a foreign party.

Oppor-

tunities for manifesting their dissatisfaction frequently occurred,

and these manifestations were met by more

At

offensive measures.

length, after fruitless efforts to suppress the rising spirit of re-

bellion in different parts of the Empire,

in circumstances as painful

forced his father,


tion

Dom

Dom

Pedro found himself

and as humiliating as those which

John VI., to

retire to Portugal.

which had long been covert became undisguised and

The most

indifferent acts of the

judice, and

* The older

all

notorious.

It

distorted to his pre-

the irregularities of his private

citizens of

life

were brought

Rio de Janeiro have not yet forgotten the place that the

Marchioness of Santos held in the


treatment of his

Emperor were

Opposirelentless.

own spouse

first

Emperor's affections

a daughter

and his slighting

of the high house of

Hapsburg

was

has been said that, though a bad husband, he was a good father.

Popular Agitation.
Individuals to

before the public.

whom

81

he had been a benefactor

was on the wane, had


The very army which
he had raised at an immense sacrifice, which he had maintained
to the great prejudice of his popularity, and on which he had
unfortunately placed more reliance than upon the people, betrayed
him at last.
deserted him, and, perceiving that his star

the baseness to contribute to his overthrow.

After various popular agitations, which had the continual effect


of widening the breach between the Imperial party and the patriots,
J:he populace of Eio de Janeiro assembled in the

Anna on

Campo

de Santa

the 6th of April, 1831, and began to call out for the dis-

new ministry, and for the reinstatement of some indiwho had that very morning been dismissed. Dom Pedro L,

missal of the
viduals

on being informed of the assemblage and

its objects,

issued a pro-

clamation, signed by himself and the existing ministry, assuring

them that the administration was perfectly constitutional, and that


its members would be governed by constitutional principles.
A
justice of the peace was despatched to read this to the people
yet
scarcely had he concluded, when the document was torn from his
hands and trampled under foot. The cry for the reinstatement
of the cabinet became louder the multitude momentarily increased
;

in

numbers; and, about

six o'clock in the afternoon, three justices

of the peace (in Spanish America


soldiers)

it

would have been a battalion of

were despatched to the Imperial residence to demand that

the " ministry

who had

cabinet were designated

The Emperor
to the request.

the confidence of the people"

as the

late

should be reappointed.

listened to their requisition, but refused to accede

He

exclaimed, "I will do every thing for the

by the people I"


No sooner was this answer made known

people, but nothing

most seditious

cries

were

raised,

in the

Campo, than the

and the troops began

to assemble

making common cause with the multiFurther representations were made to the Emperor, but
tude.
were unavailing. He declared he would suffer death rather than
there for the purpose of

consent to the dictation of the mob.

The
went

battalion styled the Emperor's, and quartered at


to join their

Boa

Vista,

comrades in the Campo, where they arrived

about eleven o'clock in the evening; and even the Imperial guard


Brazil and the Brazilians.

82

of honor, which had been

summoned

The

to the palace, followed.

populace, already congregated, began to supply themselves with

arms from the adjoining barracks.

mean

The Portuguese party,

in

the

time, judging themselves proscribed and abandoned, durst

The Emperor,

not even venture into the streets.

moments,

is

unknown

in the

On

days of his prosperity.

Empress was weeping

bitterly,

the one hand, the

and apprehending the most

on the other, an

consequences;

in these trying

have evinced a dignity and a magnanimity

said to

adjutant from

the

fatal

combined

assemblage of the troops and populace was urging him to a

final

answer.

Dom
him

Pedro

1.

had sent

for the

Intendant of Police, and desired

to seek for Yergueiro, a noble patriot,

favorite of the people,

who had always been

The envoy from the


him an immediate

Yergueiro could not be found.

integrity.

and who combined moderation with sterling

troops and populace urged his Majesty to give

would be committed under the idea that he

decision, or excesses

(the envoy)

Emperor

had been

replied,

either assassinated or

made

prisoner.

The

with calmness and firmness, "I certainly shall

not appoint the ministry which they require


Constitution alike forbid

it,

my

honor and the

and I would abdicate, or even

suffer

The adjutant
started to give this reply to his general, but he was requested by
Dom Pedro (who seemed to be struggling with some grand resolve)
death, rather than consent to such a nomination. "

to stay for a final answer.

Nothing could be heard from Yergueiro.

The populace were

growing more impatient, and the Emperor was

still

firmer in his

convictions of that which his position and the. Constitution required

of

him

in a

moment

so critical.

But

at length, like the noble stag

of Landseer, singled out by the hounds, he stood alone.


-harassed, irritated,

Deserted,

and fatigued beyond description, with sadness,

yet with grace, he yielded to the circumstances, and took the only

measure consistent with his convictions and the dignity of his imperial office.

It

was two

o'clock in the

morning when he

sat

down,

without asking the advice of any one, or even informing the ministry of his resolution, and wrote out his abdication in the follow-

ing terms

"Availing myself of the right which the Constitution concedes

Dom Pedro

Abdication of
to

me,

have voluntarily abdicated

I declare that I

dearly-beloved and esteemed son,

Dom

" Boa Vista, 7th April, 1831, tenth year


of the Independence of the Empire."

He

83

I.

my

in favor of

Pedro de Alcantara.

"i

then rose, and, addressing himself to the messenger from the

Campo,

said,

shall retire to

"Here

is

my

abdication:

may you

be happy!

Europe, and leave the country that I have loved

dearly and that I

still

Tears

love."

now choked

and

his utterance,

he hastily retired to an adjoining room, where were the Empress

and the English and French ambassadors.


missed

all

He

his ministers save one, and, in a decree

afterward

dis-

which he dated

Andrada

the 6th of April, proceeded to nominate Jose Bonifacio de

(who, with his brothers, had been permitted to return from exile
in 1829) as the guardian to his children.

*It

was a

striking illustration of the ingratitude with which he

was treated in the hour of misfortune, that from all those upon
whom he had conferred titles and riches he was obliged to turn

away

to the infirm old

man whom,

jected and cruelly wronged.

hold

affairs,

he embarked

in

of-battle ship the Warspite,

at a former period, he

had

re-

Finally, after arranging his house-

one of the boats of the English

line-

accompanied by the Empress,* and his

Queen of Portugal.
was fortunate for Brazil that she had enjoyed that which no
Spanish- American country had ever experienced,i.e. a transitionstate.
She was not hurried from the colonial condition an era
of childhood into self-government, which can only be the normal
state of nations in their manhood.
She had, as we have seen, the
monarch of Portugal, with all his prestige, to be her first leader in
eldest daughter, the late
It

national existence; afterward the son of the king, who,

circumstances,

was

by peculiar

for a time the idol of the people, aided Brazil

coming to a maturity far better fitted for representative-government institutions than any of the neighboring states which had

in

achieved their independence at an earlier date.

Had

the transition

been more violent, the permanence of such institutions would have


been endangered.

Dom

Pedro was certainly, in the hands of God,

* The second Empress was the accomplished daughter of Prince Eugene


Beauharnais,

whom

D. Pedro

I.

had married

in 1829.


Brazil and the Brazilians.

84

a prominent agent in giving to Brazil that form of government

which

day

this

With

all

so wisely rules the Empire.

his faults, B.

Pedro

I.

was a great man, and possessed some

noble aspirations, coupled with a promptness of action which will

None

be remembered long after his errors have been forgotten.

but a great

man

could have returned to Europe and have fought

monarchy against absolutism,

the battle of constitutional


in the contest

chivalric

with his brother,

and heroic devotion

Bom

Miguel.

as he did

His brief though

and

to the cause of civil

freedom in Portugal demands our highest admiration

religious

and the

suc-

young Queen Bonna Maria upon the throne


of that country gave quiet to the kingdom, and was one more
triumph in Europe of the liberal over the absolute.
As time rolls on, the true merits of B. Pedro I. are more recognised by the Brazilians. Statues and public monuments are erected
to his memory; and, though it may not be wholly applicable, yet

cessful placing of the

there

is

no fulsome adulation, too common

when they

He

entitle

him "

loved the country of his adoption

memorable night of
upon the

in that Southern clime,

Washington do Brazil."

his abdication, as

and a few days

Organ Mountains, he poured from a


ing farewell to his son,

last

time

and the

lofty

he gazed for the

city of Bio de Janeiro, the magnificent bay,


full

after the

heart the following touch-

Bom Pedro II., in which

not only

is

parental

tenderness manifest, but a deep solicitude for the land whose destiny at one time

"My

seemed so

beloved son and

my

which you wrote me.

copious tears impeded

my

1 write this to

long as
in

my
"To

life

closely linked with his

Emperor, very agreeable are the

was scarcely

thank you

own

sight.

for

Now

your

shall last, affection for

that I

letter,

you

lines

able to read them, because

am more

composed,

and to declare

will

that, as

never be extinguished

lacerated heart.
leave children, country, and friends

sacrifice;

but to bear away honor unsullied,

is

the greatest possible

there can be no greater

Ever remember your father; love your country and my


country; follow the counsel of those who have the care of your

glory.

education; and rest assured that the world will admire you, and
that I will be filled with gladness at having a son so
land of his birth.

I retire to

Europe:

it is

worthy of the

necessary for the tran-

Departure of Dom Pedro


quillity of Brazil,

and that God

of prosperity for which she

" Adieu,

my very

tionate father,

who

is

dear son

may cause

her to reach that degree

eminently capable.
Eeceive the blessing of your

affec-

departs without the hope of ever seeing you

D. Pedro de Alcantara.

again.
"

85

I.

On board the Warspite frigate, \


/

April 12, 1831."

On

the following day D. Pedro

corvette Yolage.

I.

went on board the English

Before nightfall the Pao de Assucar was cleared,

and the ex-Emperor

left

Brazil forever.

Having thus briefly narrated the history of the Empire to the


abdication of the

first

Emperor, we

will again turn our attention to

Eio de Janeiro, where most of the preceding events occurred.

The

establishment of the regency, and the various changes and progress

under the new monarch, D. Pedro

II., will

be found in Chapter XII.

CHAPTEK
TUE PRAIA DO FLAMENGO

VI.

THE THREE-MAN BEETLE

THE MAN

SPLENDID VIEWS

MOONLIGHT RIO " TIGERS" THE BATHERS


SCENE THE CHURCH MARRIAGE OF CHRISTIANITY AND

WHO CUT DOWN A PALM-TREE


GLORIA HILL

EVENING

HEATHENISM

A SERMON IN HONOR OF OUR LADY

LARANGEIRAS

ASCENT OF THE CORCOVADO

My

THE

was on the Praia do

residence at Eio de Janeiro

niengo,

a beach

so

named from

its

frequented by this beautiful bird.

FESTA DA GLORIA

THE

SUGAR-LOAF.

Fla-

having been in early days

Let the reader imagine tne

beaches of Newport, Ehode Island, or of the battle-renowned


Hastings, transferred to the borders of
T

that, b}
fifteen

London

taking tramway at Charing Cross

New

or

York, so

Union Square,

or

minutes he will be on the hard white sands and

in

in the pre-

sence of the huge ocean- waves, and he will have an idea of Praia

do Flamengo.
cars,

we go

Entering one of the Botanical Gardens horse-railway


swiftly

through various

the foot of the Gloria, where,

if

streets

we wish an

until

we

arrive

up-hill ramble,

at

we

descend from our vehicle and pass over the picturesque eminence,

and are soon cooled by the


a more level promenade,

full

we

blowing sea-breeze;

or, if

we prefer
Kua do

leave our conveyance at the

The noisy wheels, and the equally noisy tongues, have


any other sounds from occupying our attention;
but now the majestic thunder of the dashing waves breaks upon
our ear. The eye is startled by the foam-crested monsters as they
rear up in their strength and seem ready to devour the whole
The very ground
mansion-lined shore in their furious rage.

Principe.

hitherto prevented

quakes beneath
cussion.

us,

and the

But no danger

is

air is tremulous

with the powerful con-

to be apprehended.

The

coast, a

few

from the sands, is rock-bound, and along the whole beach public
and private enterprise have erected strong walls of heavy stone.
Sometimes, however, old Neptune has asserted his rights with

feet

86

The Three-Man Beetle.

87

such tremendous energy, that masses of rock, weighing tons, havo

been wrested from their fastenings.


vailed for several days,

In May, 1853, a storm pre-

and a strong wind blew in the waves of the

ocean with great directness against the protecting walls, and the

was one of the fiercest that I have ever witnessed in contending nature. As they struck the parapet they dashed eighty feet
in height, thus showering and flooding the gayly -painted residences,
and at the same time, in their retreat, undermining the land-side
strife

of the wall, so that for hundreds of feet between the

Princeza and the

Eua da

Eua do

Principe the municipality

had a heavy job

some

for

favorite contractor. (The

paving of the streets was


a never-failing source of

amusement

to

me

during

my first year at Eio. Look


Eua
The paving-ram

at the pavers in the


S.

Jose.

is

the " three-man beetle"

of Shakspeare.

A trio

of

slaves are called to their

work by

a rapid solo exe-

cuted with a

hammer

up-

The three

on an iron

bar.

seize the.

ram: one

the

maestro, distinguished

hat

wails

forth

which the others join


at the

same time

by
ditty
in ch

lifting

the beetle-

down with
few moments

from the ground and bringing


a heavy blow.
occurs,

rest of a

and then the

ditty,

it

chorus,

THE THREE-MAN

BEETLE.

and

thump are resumed: but, as may be imagined, the streets of Eio


were by no means rapidly paved.) The damage done to the Praia
do Flamengo required more than one year for reparation.

between the sea and the land


occur: the rule

is

like that of 1853

A battle

does not often

peacefulness and amiability, for the huge waves

Brazil and the Brazilians.

88

themselves, that seem to foam so angrily, are only joyous in their


giant sport, and, once touching the myriad sands, kiss
their gentlest

mood, and hasten

them

in

back to their boisterous

silently

companions.

The

my

front of

house looked over the bay to Jurujuba and

Praia Grande, and also

commanded

a view of the long Flamengo

Beach, the Babylonia Signal, the lofty Sugar-Loaf, and the entrance

Far up the bay were verdant

to the harbor.

and beyond

isles,

all

towered the lofty Organ Mountains, sometimes gleaming in sunshine,

and sometimes half veiled

in mist, but

always the grandest

From my back-windows, on my

feature in the landscape.

right, I

could see the precipitous southern side of the Gloria, and on


left,

beyond the

Bio face

my
was

is

red-tiled roofs,

upreared the

Beneath

covered with forests.

me was

neighbor, a plodding Portuguese from Braga.

the garden of

This individual

originally one of those industrious ignorant poor

mother-country,

who

in Brazil

from the

and elsewhere, by dint of regularity

and economy, acquire property, but rarely


ful

tall

my

Corcovado, whose

taste.

He had a beauti-

stately palm-tree in the centre of his garden.

Night

after

night have I listened to the music of the cool land-breeze as

it

The sight of it was rethe


noonday
sun
made the more distant
of
freshing when the rays
landscape quiver. It was a "thing of beauty," and "a joy," but

played through the long, feathery leaves.

not "forever."

Early one morning I heard the click of an axe;

and, rushing to

my

window, I beheld

M. directing a black,

Sr.

who, with sturdy blows, buried the sharp instrument deep into the
trunk of the noble
graceful

tree,

summit and the

and each succeeding stroke made the

clustering fruit piteously tremble.

" The ruthless axe that hew'd

Cut loose the

My

love unto the tree

My

its

silvered trunk

ties that, tendril-like,


;

heart sank with

"Woodman,

and when
it to

it

had bound

sunk,

the ground."

spare that tree,"

sung by the voice of an angel, would not have stayed the work of
destruction ) and thus the prince of the tropic forest

minious hands.
toucinho (bacon)

Sr. M.,

and came

fell

by igno-

the regicide, went that morning to his


secca establishment in the

Kua do

Bosario,

" Tigers" of Rio de Janeiro.

The

89

congratulating himself, as he stuffed his nostrils with areia preta*


that he had gained a few

more

feet of sunshine for his cabbage-bed,

a palm-tree that a century would not reproduce.

by cutting down
At evening, the view from the balcony in front of my residence
was most charming. On a bright night the heavens were illumined
by the Southern Cross, by Orion, and other stellar brilliants; and
sometimes,

when

clouds obscured the lesser celestial lights, the

bosom of the bay seemed like a sea of fire. But the most glorious
nocturnal sight was to watch the full moon rise above the palmcrowned mountains beyond the Bay of San Francisco Xavier. Mild
rays of light would herald the approaching queen, and soon her

round form, emerging, threw upon the distant waters of Juru-

full

juba her silver sheen, while the dashing waves that burst along
the whole length of the Praia do Flamengo

We

wreaths of retreating moonlight.

seemed gorgeous

are in the height of enjoy-

Perhaps we murmur

ment.

"

On such

a night

as:

this,"

&c,

and speak something about chaste Dian "moving


fancy free/'
that

we

when we

in meditation,

are suddenly brought to the sad realization

We

are in a sublunary sphere.

rush from the balcony

spasmodically, and instantaneously snatch cologne-bottles, bouquet,

ammonia, or any thing that


tigers-\

also

o'clock has arrived, and these odoriferous

come

stealthily

hours

make

down

the

Eua do

yells,

Infelix.

who on

a visit to Paris became exceedingly

Every restorative was applied

in vain, until a

French physician

well acquainted with the capital of Brazil was called


at once that it

was impossible

Literally, black sand,

two

but with smells which

generally told the newly-arrived stranger at

is

Bio, of a Fluminensian
ill.

Eight

Principe, and for the next

night hideous, not with

curious story

rise.

not to say savagebeasts

have certainly been expatriated from Arabia

The

our olfactories.

will relieve

have opportunities for watching the moon

a favorite snuff

in,

and decided

hope for the recovery of the

to

made

in Bahia.

| The sewerage of Rio was formerly very defective, and slaves, nicknamed

"

tigers,"

conveyed each night

and the next tide swept

it

to the water's

out to sea.

edge the accumulated

offal of

the city,

Brazil axd the Brazilians.

90

patient unless he could

could

breathe

not return to Rio.

the

again his native air

there should be concocted in the sick-chamber a

most " yillanous smells."

but, as he

physician instantly prescribed that

To make

compound of the

a long story short, the invalid

recovered

But as early as 1858

became much more

this nuisance

tolerable

than formerly, for hermetically-sealed casks were then introduced,

which carts during daylight

and the contents were con-

collected,

veyed to some very distant point from the

Rio

city.

has

at present

a good system of sewerage, the plans for which were laid before
the Minister of the

and no tropic
agreeable.

city

Empire

This

in 185-4.

ought to excel

is

now accomplished,

as an abode both healthful

it

and

The Rio City Improvements Company have done

this

work.

The Praia do Flamengo, saving


to

all.

this

drawback, was very attractive

and was one of the most delightful suburbs


But an hour

a foreigner.

after the tigers

for the residence of

had finished

their labors, the

vhole place was as free from any thing disagreeable as if naught but
the fragrance of orange-flowers

the neighboring gardens

had been wafted from the Gloria and

and the morning

light

shone upon a pure

white beach.

For

five

favorite

months

year the Praia do Flamengo

of bathers

resort

season, (from

in the

November

every morning.

of both

sexes.

During the bathing-

to March,) a lively

Before the sun

is

the

is

scene

is

witnessed

above the mountains a stream

women, and children pour down to enjoy a bath in the


The ladies who come from a distance are attended by slaves, who bring tents and spread them on the beach
of men,

clear salt water.

for the senhoras,

who soon put on their bathing-robes and loose


Men and women, hand in hand, enter the

their long black tresses.


cool,

sparkling element, and thus those not skilled in natation

resist the force of the

huge waves which come toppling

senhoras are neatly dressed, in robes


there

is

not as

much coquetry

as in a

made

in.

The

of some dark stuff; but

French watering-place, where

the ladies study the becoming for the sea as well as for the ball-

room.

The gentlemen are required by the

be decently clad, which

still

swimming-bath to the douche of the


It is a

merry sight

police-regulations to

does not impede those

who

prefer a

billows.

to behold Brazilian girls

and boys evincing

for

The Bathers,
once some activity,

of Praia do Flamengo.

running

91

on the sand, and screaming with

wave than before has rolled over a


The prostrate bathers

pleasure whenever a heavier

party and sends them reeling to the beach.

drive their feet convulsively into the sand to prevent being carried

Now

back by the receding breakers.

and then some mischief-

makers shout " Shark! shark!" and away dash the senhoras to

who

the shore, to be laughed at by the urchins

There

are

some traditionary

tales

raised the cry.

about these rough-skinned

cannibals, but I never heard a well-authenticated instance of a

repast furnished by the bathers of Praia do

Flamengo

to the

dreaded " wolf of the seas."

By

seven o'clock the sun

is

Here and

have departed.

high, and

all

the busy white throng

may

there, however,

head popping up and down among the waves,

mistresses.

woolly covering

The negresses that accompany


generally enter the water at the same time as their

defying the fear of coup de


the ladies

its

be seen a curly

soleil.

On moonlight

nights the sea

is

alive

which are the capita of the slaves in the

specks,

with black

swim remarkably

well,

and

it is

They

knew

not a sorrow.

The people of Bio are fond of bathing, and on


called cariocas,
it.

which some translate "ducks."

There

is

is

this account are

Many walk

miles

a floating bath in the harbor, not far from

Hotel Pharoux, for those whose courage


the element which

all

pleasant to hear their cheerful

voices sounding as merrily as if they

to enjoy

who

vicinity,

splash and scream and laugh to their hearts' content.

is

great enough to brave

there called sea-water, but which a truthful

narrator, previous to the improved sewerage,

would stigmatize by

another name.

Nor

are the bipeds the only animals that derive benefit from the

ablutions on Praia do Flamengo.


allotted to

them

The horses and mules have


where at an early

a certain portion of the beach,

hour they are bathed and brushed.

It is a comfort to

know

that

the poor creatures have this chance of cleanliness; otherwise they

would

who

suffer greatly

from the laziness of their keepers.

Gentlemen

care for their horses endeavor to procure English grooms, for

a black

is

proverbially a bad care-taker for any animal.

The

beautiful horses imported at great expense from the Cape of Good

Hope

are soon destroyed under the hands of the negroes.

It is

Brazil and the Brazilians.

92

considered that the climate of Brazil

is unfavorable to them, and


one can hardly believe that these pampered, delicate animals

same race, half English, half Arabian, which at the Cape


Good Hope will endure a journey of sixty or seventy miles a
day without other refreshment than a feed of oats and a roll on
the sand.* For all useful purposes the horses of the country are
are of the

of

better, but

they are not so swift or graceful as the imported animals.

my

front-door to the southern

when

the surf was not too high,

was but a few paces from

It

entrance of the Gloria.

Here,

boats could land, and often were our evenings enlivened by the

presence of some of the intelligent officers from the men-of-war

whose station was beyond the Fortress Yillegagnon.

Once within the gateway

at the foot of the

hill,

we behold

narrow, level strip of ground, occupied by one or two secluded


residences and a beautiful private flower-garden.

The base of the

black rock which rises perpendicularly on the side facing the sea

is

hidden by large waving banana-trees and overhanging creepers.

The
of

diversified

summit of the

checkered with every evidence

hill is

and country agreeably blended.

city

around the

hill at different altitudes,

residences and gardens by which

Narrow paths wind

leading to the

it is

many

beautiful

On

covered to the summit.

either side of the paths are seen dense hedges of flowering mi-

mosas, lofty palms, and the singular cashew-tree, with


shaped, refreshing

fruit,

and occasionally other large

its bottle-

trees,

hung

with splendid parasites, while throughout the scene there prevails


a quiet and a coolness which could scarcely be anticipated within

the precincts of a city situated beneath a tropical sun.

In the

first

half of this Century, before the establishment of omni-

buses and trams to the more remote suburbs, the Gloria by


access,
it

was one of the most desirable places of residence

most pleasant memories.


Among the dwellers on the Gloria were two

its

easy

in Rio.

For

I have the

Swiss,)

who

in their tastes

families, (English

and accomplishments were

far

the mere shopkeeping class so often found in a foreign land.


* When Napoleon was

at St.

was

to

accompany

The

their "perverse prisoner"

the pace of the Cape horses.

In

Helena he was supplied with these horses, and

their fire exactly suited his style of riding.


it

and

beyond

old English generals

had often reason

to

whose duty
complain of

Evening-Scene on the Gloria.


their pleasant society one
circle left far

was

93

often compensated for the home-

The Englishman was an amateur-

over the billow.

naturalist of the very first ability, while both families possessed

the best periodical and standard literature of England and of

After the fatigues of the day

France.

it

was a

delightful recrea-

spend the even-

tion to

ing amid such compa-

and surrounded

nions

by such

glorious

sce-

On many moon-

nery.

light evenings I could

enter into the feelings

entertained by Dr. Kid-

der years before, and,

he

as

expressed

it,

could realize "the en-

chantment of an evening-scene so felicitous-

described

ly

by Yon

Martius."
"

delicate transpa-

rent mist hangs

over

the country; the

moon

shines

brightly

amid

heavy and singularlygrouped

The

clouds.

outlines of the objects

illuminated

by

FRUIT AND NUT OF

it

THE CASHEW-TREE.

are

clear and well defined,

while a magic twilight seems to remove from the eye those which
are in the shade.

Scarce a breath of air

is stirring,

and the neigh-

boring mimosas, that have folded up their leaves to sleep, stand


motionless beside the dark crowns of the mangueiras, the jacatree,

Sometimes a sudden wind

and the ethereal jambos.

and the

juiceless leaves of the

grumijama and pitanga

let

cashew

rustle; the richly-flowered

drop a fragrant shower of snow-white

blossoms; the crowns of the majestic palms


silent roof

arises,

which they overhang

like a

wave slowly above the

symbol of peace and

tran-

Brazil and the Brazilians.

94

Shrill cries of the cicada, the grasshopper,

quillity.

make an

incessant hum, and produce

At

melancholy.

and tree-frog

by their monotony

intervals different balsamic odors

fill

a pleasing

the

air,

and

flowers, alternately unfolding their leaves to the night, delight the

now the bowers of


orange-grove, then the thick
of the

senses with their perfume,

neighboring

paullinias, or the

eupatoria,

tufts

or the bunches of the flowering palms, suddenly bursting, disclose


their blossoms,

and thus maintain a constant succession of

fra-

grance; while the silent vegetable world, illuminated by swarms


of

fire-flies

by a thousand moving

as

stars,

and elevate the mind

still

its

in joyful admiration to the stars, which, glow-

ing in solemn silence in the firmament,


timent of

charms the night by

Brilliant lightnings play incessantly in the horizon

delicious odors.

fill

the soul with a presen-

sublimer wonders."

Often, while enjoying the scene

which the great German natural-

away from my meditaby the clangor of the bells in the tower of the Gloria Church.
Though the worship of Him who made the beautiful nature around
me should be ever more elevating than the mere contemplation of
ist

has so eloquently depicted, I was called

tions

the grand and wonderful in the material world, yet the sound of
those bells

filled

me

with painful

Whene/er

reflections.

I entered

that pretty church of Nossa Senhora da Gloria, whenever I gazed

upon the kneeling throng and on the evidences of a corrupted


Christianity, I could not believe that God was worshipped "in
spirit

and

in truth."

In the interior, the octagonal walls are lined for several feet

with large Dutch

tiles,

representing landscapes and scenes con-

nected with classic heathenism.

Actseon and his dogs start the

timid deer, or pursue the flying hare; Cupid, too, with arrows in

hand, joins the sport.

Over the chief

altar

Gloria, robed like a fashionable lady in silks

Nossa Senhora da

and

laces, looks

down

upon the scene beneath. She has received many jewels from her
devotees, and no gem is esteemed too costly to win her favor.
She wears

brilliant finger-rings,

sleeves of her

necklaces

gown.

and

rich

and diamond buttons fasten the

Her bosom and


pendants.

sparkles on her breast: this

ears are graced with

An immense diamond

was vowed

to the Yirgin

diamond
brooch

by Donna

Prancisca, the consort of Prince de Joinville, in prospective compen-


The Marriage

of

Heathenism and Christianity.

sation for the restoration of


curls that cluster

Her Highness' s

offerings, clipped

by some anxious mother from the glossy locks of a


Let us enter the vestry

in the rear of the

behold a few specimens of what


Brazil,

may

The flowing

health.

around Our Lady's brow are also

95

favorite child.*

church.

Here we

be seen in every church in

and which was formerly to be witnessed

in almost every

heathen temple in old Italia before the days of Constantine the

many

In the

Great.

particulars in

which we can trace with

certainty the marriage between Christianity and heathenism, none

more curious than the system of ex votos. The ancients who


were affected with ophthalmia, rheumatism, boils, defective limbs,
&c. &c, prayed to their gods and goddesses for recovery, and at the
is

same time

on the shrine of the favorite

offered

pended near the

altar, votive tablets,

name

description of the disease and the

acknowldgements and miraculous

divinity, or sus-

upon which were inscribed a


of the invalid.

cures were

Grateful

thus

also

made

public for the edification of the faithful worshippers and for the

confusion of the incredulous.

with votive

is filled

Thus,

also, in Brazil

tablets, telling of

every church

wonderful cures by Nossa

Senhora and innumerable saints with very hard names.

The pious pagans, however, did not

limit themselves to

mere

written thanksgivings and descriptions of the parts affected, but

hung up
and

in their

artists,

legs, eyes,

Church

temples the handiwork of their mechanicians

representations in painting and in sculpture of hands,

and other portions of the

also

may

afflicted

be seen any quantity of

feet, eyes, noses, breasts, &c. &c.

Where

body.

In the Gloria

wax models

the disease

is

and the seat of pain cannot well be modelled, the subject

* " This

wooden deosa has a splendid head

rapes of locks committed on her account.

young gentleman of

my

little

thinking

off

how

internal,
is

gene-

It is the last of a series of

the brother of Sr. P.

a,

acquaintance, was seven years old, his hair reached more

than half-way down his back.


Senhora, sheared

of hair.

When

of arms,

His mother, having great devotion to Nossa

the silken spoils, and offered

literally

them as an act

of faith to her,

The

she was copying the practice of heathen dames.

locks were sent to a French hairdresser,

then brought to the church and

laid in

who wrought them

into a wig.

It

was

due form before Our Lady, when the priest

reverently removed her old wig and covered her with the flowing tresses of the

Larangeiras Absalom."

Ewbank's Sketches of Life

in Brazil.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

96

by representing a bedridden patient: peril by sea is


represented by a shipwreck.
All proclaim one story, viz.
the
miraculous cure wrought by Nossa Senhora and other saints,
ralized

through the ex

We

voto offering.

have very early instances of the same mode of procedure

among

The

the heathen.

in battle the

lords of the Philistines,

(1

Sam.

to

accompany

who

appears to have devoted

archseology and mythology,

quotation from Tavernier, one of the early


lers in India:

disease,

their dreadful cap-

vi. 4.)

Mr. Ewbank,

comparative

seized

the children of Israel, the pagan

Philistines
tive

who had

ark of the Covenant, were with their people smitten

when returning the ark to


made golden ex votos

and,

"When a pilgrim

much

Eoman

Catholic travel-

goes to a pagod for the cure of

he takes with him a figure of the member

of gold, silver, or copper, and offers

volume of Montfaucon
long account of ex

(also a

votos,

deliveries

limbs,

and

to his god."

affected,

made

In the second

Catholic writer) there

of which were offered to

for safe voyages, Serapis for health,

happy

it

Eoman

"some

attention to

makes the following

Juno Lucina

is

Neptune
and

for children

pictures of sick patients in bed, and eyes, heads,

tablets without

number, were offered to Esculapius and

other popular medical saints

among

the heathen/'

This sad spectacle of modern heathenism at Eio de Janeiro

is

somewhat ameliorated by the fact that, whenever the ex votos are


found in a church consecrated to Nossa Senhora or to some
the offerings are mostly brown and dusty with age.
a fresh pair of eyes or breasts are to be seen, but
are less frequent in the capital than formerly.
ever, be a

demand

one-third of the

for

saint,

Occasionally

new wax models

There must, how-

them from some portion of the Empire

wax and

for

tallow chandlers (where these objects are

obtained) at Eio have an ex voto branch in their manufactories.

me that he had just seen one


whose arm had been so disabled that its use was
lost, until he was advised by some one of the living "saints" to
go to a chandlery and purchase a wax model of his unruly member to offer to the Virgin. Suffice to say the arm was completely

At

Tijuca, Mr. M., a planter, informed

of his neighbors

restored.

On

the Sabbath I often passed over the Gloria Hill on

my return

Sermon in Honor of Our Lady.

where I had been holding


During a festival I mounted the

from the shipping or from the


service

97

hospitals,

or visiting the sick.

and as I walked beneath the broad platform upon


which the church stands, I heard strains of music that were most
unlike the solemn chants and the grand anthems of the Eomish
hill

as usual,

They were

eummunion.

polkas and dances, performed

military band that had been hired for the occasion


cently been informed that this abuse, as well as

I have re-

some

by some

others, has

been remedied through the direct interposition of the Emperor.


Dr. Kidder thus gives an account of some of the religious exercises at the Gloria,

in general

which

is

applicable to Brazilian church-services

"Preaching

is

not

known among

the weekly services of the

church ; but I twice listened to sermons delivered here on special

occasions.

small elevated pulpit

the edifice, and

is

is

entered from a hall between the outer and inner

In

walls of the building.

this,

at one of the

occurred during Lent, the preacher

The people

mass was over.

seen on the eastern side of

made

which

services

his appearance after

at once faced round to the left

from

the principal altar, where their attention had been previously

The harangue was passionately

directed.
it

fervid.

In the midst of

the speaker paused, and, elevating in his hand a small

crucifix, fell

on his knees, and began praying to

The

Master.

people,

most of

sprinkled with leaves,


join

him

bowed down

in his devotions.

sermon was ended,

whom

all fell

He

sat in

it

as his

wooden
Lord and

rows upon the

their heads,

floor,

and seemed to

then proceeded, and, when the

to beating their breasts, as if in imita-

tion of the publican of old.

of

"In the second instance, the discourse was at the annual festa
Our Lady of the Gloria, and was entirely eulogistic of her cha-

racter.

One of the most popular preachers had been procured,

and he seemed quite conscious of having a theme which gave him


unlimited scope.
1

The

He

glories of the

dealt in nothing less than superlatives

Most Holy Yirgin were not to be compared

with those of creatures, but only with those of the Creator.'


'She did every thing which Christ did but to die with him.'
'Jesus Christ
mother.'

was independent of the Father, but not of

Such sentiments, rhapsodically strung together,

left

his

no

Brazil and the Brazilians.

98

God

place for the mention of repentance toward

or faith toward

the Lord Jesus Christ throughout the whole sermon."

In 1852, on the occasion of a very solemn festival in honor of

Our Lady, one of the most eloquent padres of Eio was called upon
to pronounce the discourse in the Church of Our Lady of Mount
Carmel, which adjoins the Imperial Chapel.

day referred

to,

Eoman

In the evening of the

me

Catholic gentleman gave

an account

of the sermon, one sentence of which I translate for the benefit of

" The magi of the East and the kings of the Orient
came on painful journeys from distant lands, and, prostrating
themselves at the feet of Nossa Senhora, offered her their crowns
for the bestowment of her hand; but she rejected them all, and
gave it to the obscure, the humble but pious St. Joseph I"
During a festival, the faithful (and others, for that matter) can
obtain any amount of pious merchandise, in the shape of medietas
and bentinhos, pictures, images, and medals of saints and of the

the reader

Pope, &c. &c.

These

" exchanged'

are

church, and fetch round prices.

exact height of the presiding

Lady

'

is

sold

in

the

a ribbon cut the

or saint of the place of wor-

These, worn next to the skin, cure

ship.

never

medida

all

manner of

diseases,

and gratify the various desires of the happy purchasers.

There

are certain colors esteemed appropriate to different Nossas Senhoras;

and once

I ascertained the important fact, that,

Fluminense has

made

vow

when some

A lady-member

taken not to permit the wrong color to be used.


of

my

family, wishing to

pious

to JSTossa Senhora, great care must be

make

a small present to one of her friends,

a young Eoman Catholic mother, sent a neat pink dress for the
little

many regrets
vow was upon

one; but the package was soon returned, with

that the kind offering could not be received, for a

the mother which had particular reference to her child.

vowed

to a

Nossa Senhora (whose favorite colors were

driven snow and the heavens above) that

if

She had
like the

her boy recovered from

his sickness he should be clothed in nothing but white and blue for

the next six months

At the end

of that time,

it

was added, the

present could be accepted.


Bentinhos are

two

little

Lady, &c. upon them.

silken pads with painted figures of

These are worn next to the

Our

skin, in pairs,

being attached by ribbons, one bentinho resting upon the bosom

Brazilian Pyrotechny.
and the other upon the back.
protecting

wearer

the

from

99

These are most


invisible

efficacious for

both

foes

and

before

behind.
I visited the Gloria

Church during one of these

the " exchange" of pictures

however, was not always paid in money.

and

festivals,

and medidas was immense.


I found

The

price,

that

wax

candles offered to the Virgin were esteemed equal to copper or

The heat and crowd of the church on this occasion


I sought the esplanade in front
and the contrast

silver coin.

were such that

of the cool night-air and the sweet odors that wafted up from the

gardens beneath was as agreeable as refreshing.

The multitude,

I soon

ascertained,

were not confined to the

Groups were collected around the fountain, and thou-

church.

sands were congregated in the ascent called the Ladeira da Gloria,


or whiling

away

by eating doces, smoking, and conThey were awaiting the fireworks which
the festival.
The Brazilians are exceedingly fond
their time

versing in the Largo.

were to

close

of pyrotechny, and every festival begins and ends with a display

of rockets and wheels.

The grand

finale surpasses any thing in


North America; and I doubt
the world, except China, where

this line that is ever witnessed in


if

there

is

pyrotechny

a single country in
so splendid

is

and varied as

in Brazil.

Not only

are

there wheels, cones, suns, moons, stars, triangles, polygons, vases,


baskets, arches with letters
us, but, elevated
life,

and the usual devices known among


poles, are

human

figures as large as

representing wood-sawyers, rope-dancers, knife-grinders, bal-

let-girls,

By

upon high

and whatever vocation of

life

calls for especial activity.

ingenious mechanism these effigies go through their various

parts with remarkable and lifelike

The

gauche.

celerity.

There

is

nothing

figures are well dressed, even to the gloves of the

represented ladies.

The wood-sawyer makes the sparks

fly,

and

the knife-grinder whirls a wheel that sends forth a perfect "glory"


of scintillations

There

is

no

festa

throughout the year that

is

more enjoyed by

the pleasure-loving Fluminenses than that of Nossa Senhora da


Gloria.

up,

The evening

before, the usual

number

of rockets are sent

that

probably to arouse the attention of the Virgin to the honor

is

about to be paid her on the following day,

lest, in

the mul-


Brazil and the Brazilians.

100

her cares, she should forget the approach of this anni-

tiplicity of

must have a very wonderful memory if she call


mind each fete-day at which her especial company is requested,

versary
to

for she

seeing that every fourth church in Eio

dedicated to a

is

JN*ossa

Senhora of some kind.


Early on the morning of this
temple
is

is

festival,

crowded with devotees

the approach to the white

in their gayest attire; for there

nothing in this celebration that requires the usual sombre black.

The
that

butterflies themselves,
flit

more

among

than the senhoras and senhoritas of

brilliant

flutter about,

and the golden-breasted humming-birds

the opening jessamines and roses around, are not


all

ages

who

robed in the brightest colors of the rainbow, and

with their long black tresses elaborately dressed and adorned with
natural flowers,

among which

They
of the mass; and happy they

the carnation

enter the church to obtain the benefit

who have
up

pre-eminent.

strength and lungs and nerve enough to force a

to the altar

floor,

whom

through the crowds

Once arrived at

petual mourning.

upon the

is

this desired spot,

they squat

and, after saying their prayers and hearing mass,

they amuse themselves with chatting to the

on such occasions, are always in

man

is

is

done by the

beaux who,
upon the fair

circle of

close attendance

For be

objects of their adoration.

praying, as in France,

reason each

way

nature has clad in per-

remarked that most of the

it

women and probably for


;

that

anxious to secure an interest in the affections

of some fair devotee, in order that she

may

supply his

own

lack

of zeal.

After patiently displaying their charms and their diamonds for

some hours, a

thrill of

excitement passes through the throng, and

salvos of artillery announce the approach of the Imperial party,

who, when the weather permits, leave their carriages at the foot
of the

church.

hill,

and slowly ascend the steep path that leads to the

This has been previously strewn with flowers and wild-

ci nnamon-leaves.

On some

occasions, troups of

young

girls in white,

from the

dif-

ferent boarding-schools, are in waiting at the top, to kiss the hands

of their Majesties.

This

is

the prettiest part of the exhibition,

the Emperor, with his stately form, and the Empress, with her

good-humored

smile, passing slowly

through the

lines of bright-

The Larangeiras.
eyed

girls

who

101

are not without a slight idea of their

own prominent

part in the graceful group.

After the ceremonies in the chapel, the Imperial party used to

descend to the garden and grounds of the

whose

late Baron Marity, in


was always prepared. The

fine residence a splendid collation

gala evening generally terminated with fireworks.


display

was on the

who would induce

nate wight

There

is

street near at hand,

no other road into the

The pyrotechnic

and woe betide any unfortu-

spirited horse to pass that

city

from Botafogo

way.

may

so that he

as well take a philosophical resolution, and enjoy, as best he may,

and the

the Catherine wheels

fiery

maidens pirouetting in the midst

of surrounding sparks.

distinguishing feature of these gatherings

is,

thousands present, no scene of rudeness or quarrel


Perfect good-nature reigns around ; and

any person

is

if,

is

amid

in the inevitable pressure,

is

is

made,

the only beverage,

nothing to inflame the bad passions of the multitude.

slaves are not

the

all

ever witnessed.

trodden upon or jostled, an instant apology

with the hat removed from the head. As water


there

that,
is

The

merely respectful in their manners, but evince a

joyous sense of liberty for the day; and they ambitiously seek the
best places for sight-seeing,

wish to

which their

less active

masters in vain

attain.

At midnight

is

all

the church-crowned

When we

over,

and the quiet

and verdure-robed

stars shine

down upon

Gloria.

descend the Ladeira da Gloria and turn to our

are in a finely -paved

left,

we

and in some places macadamizedthorough-

wide and important street, leading from


About half-way between the town and the
last-mentioned suburb, we enter the Largo Machado, which is the
commencement of the Larangeiras, or the valley of orange-groves.

fare called the Catete, a

the city to Botafogo.

There were formerly

many trees of the Laranga

da terra* or native

orange, in this lovely spot; and, although the most of


disappeared, their places have been
tives, the

Laranga

selecta,

perfume of their flowers.

* Gardner
indigenous.

is

filled

and the night-air

Some

of the opinion that the

them have

with their sweeter


is

of the prettiest gardens

Laranga da

terra,

rela-

laden with the rich

which,

or bitter orange,

is

not

Brazil and the Brazilians.

102

instead of thick stone walls, are surrounded

by open

iron railing

and the most beautiful residences in Eio nestle in this quiet

valley.

A shallow but limpid brook gurgles along a wide and deep ravine,
two precipitous spurs of the Corcovado Mountain.
Nearer to the source, you see scores of lavandeiras, or washerwomen, standing in the stream and beating their clothes upon the
boulders of rock which lio
lying between

scattered along the bot-

Many

tom.

these

of

washerwomen go from the


city early in the morning,

carrying their huge bunof

dles

soiled

their heads,

linen

on

and at even-

ing return with them, puriin

fied

the

stream and

bleached in the sun. Fires

smoking

are

places,

in various

where they cook

their meals;

and groups

of infant children are seen

playing around, some of

whom

are large

have

to

enough

toddled

after

their mothers; but

of

them have been

there

LAVANDEIRAS.

on

the

most

carried

backs of

the heavily-burdened servants.

Female

slaves, of

every occupation,

may

be seen carry-

ing about their children as on page 167; but the lavandeiras no


longer

One

work
is

in a

semi-nude

state.

reminded by their appearance of the North American

Indian pappoose riding on the mother's back; but the different

methods of fastening the respective infants


produce very different

young Indian

is

effects.

The

in

permanent positions

straight board on which the

lashed gives him his proverbially-erect form; but

the curved posture in which the

young negro's

legs are

bound

The Ascension

of the Corcovado.

103

around the sides of the mother often entails upon him crooked
limbs for

Up

life.

the valley of the Larangeiras

certain seasons of the year

Agoa Feirea,

much

a name indicating

Near

water.

is

this locality

is

a mineral spring, which at

frequented.

It

denominated

is

the chalybeate properties of the

you may enter the road which

leads

up

the Corcovado.

An

excursion to the summit of this mountain

that should be

made by every

visitor to Eio.

is

one of the

first

You may ascend on

horseback within a short distance of the summit; and the jaunt

commenced

should be

early in the morning, while the air

and balmy, and while the dew yet sparkles on the


inclination

not very steep, although the path

is

uneven, having been worn by descending rains.


of the mountain

is

covered with a dense

is

The

foliage.

is

cool

narrow and

The greater part

forest,

which varies

in

character with the altitude, but everywhere abounds in the most

Toward the summit

rare and luxurious plants.


rare, while

large trees become

bamboos and ferns are more numerous.

Flowering

shrubs and parasites extend the whole way.

made

I once

the

Our horses were

excursion in company with a few friends.


a rancho not far from the summit, and

left at

a few minutes walk brought us through the thicket.

the rocks are covered with only a thin

What

shrub nestling in the crevices.

below

soil,

Above

appears like a point from

in reality a bare rock, of sufficient dimensions to

is

of fifty persous standing on


its sides,

it

to enjoy the

save that from which

it is

this

and here and there a


admit

view at once, although

reached, are extremely pre-

In order to protect persons against accidents, iron posts

cipitous.

have been inserted, and railings of the same material extend


around the edge of the rock.
of the Government.

If

we

This has been done at the expense

except this slight indication of

art, all

around exhibits the wildness and sublimity of nature.

The

feet

elevation of the mountain

is

richest

twenty-three

just sufficient to give a clear bird's-eye

hundred and

six

view of one of the

and most extensive prospects the human eye ever beheld.

The harbor and


the whole

city,

its islands;

from

S.

the forts, and the shipping of the bay;

Christovao to Botafogo;

the botanical

garden, the Lagoa das Freitas, the Tijuca, the Gavia, and the

1--

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mountains and shores on the other, were ail expanded around and
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In descendin g we

we entered the

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city, at

of Santa Theresa to that

Tfill

an Antonio, as depicted on page 63.

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_ c-t

~:

thrown together to supply the great aqueduct.


followed this remarkable watercourse until

:_r

__:;Z =

;::.z.:;

;:

7.

section of the

;._r

:__

negroes are met, waving their nets in chase of the gorgeous butter-

may

^nd other insects which


t.

..:_ :.i;L

Many

i-\;:^
slaves

-~

iz.

be seen fluttering across the

~!r sirr: iniii.^ fibers ;.z:

from early

eve formerly trained

::li:ii*r

life

preserve specimens in entomology and botany, and,

\_>

Z:

:;.-

.._-:.-_:

:.::r

Jim:=

:l:.r;. ::rri=:i:

..-.--:

;ii.r==

::r

h;.:::

:l.;.:7 ;:

tZ-:ii-::.~i_

::

r..

ilrir

to collect and

by

following

These

izinrzs-r ::7r::i:zs

Zi^s

~'z.:. if ::_ ":_t 1


i_;-.~

;:-_'.:"l_\

s::..

~:

:1~

::: :_:::

l\s

Yon Spix and Ton Martins, whose learned works


upon the natural history of Brazil may be compared with those
of Humboldt and Bonpland in Mexico and Colombia.
interesting as did

I_r ::::.::::
::zir~

;.".

i?

;.

~;

:lr.r 1

1^:::.:1

::

;.::. ;

_-

:rk. riiss:::^:

:~: :<zi =:iirTiiie= '.:i::.:: :1: S'lrf :-:- ::::: _: :""."..

a gentle declivity, and air-holes

given distances.

il

:zit-

~:1

The vie

be enjoyed along the line of this aqueduct are, beyond measure,

Xow you look down at your right upon


Hey of the Larangeiras, the Largo do Maehado, the Catete,
the mouth of the harbor, and the ocean ; anon, verging toward the
other declivity
Si Anna,
the hill, you may survey the 0am]
interesting and varied.

raburl

the d ii

iie

upper extr e

ity

Z. igenho Yelho, and, in


so

mounded by moun-

A! rngth, just above the Convent


and dotted by islands
Santa Theresa, you will pause to contemplate a fine view of the
town. But for the Hill of S. Antonio and the Morro do Castello

tains
:

the greater portion of the city would here be seen at on:r

Dm

Recollections of Sb. Domixgos Lopes.


glimpse, however, that

perhaps

sufficient,

perceptible between these

is

eminences

Theresa

Sta.

hill

in the

in the variety of sublime

world can compare with Rio de Janeiro

and interesting scenery

The semicircular Bay

mountains surrounding

We

ever beheld.

The

has become a favorite place of residence.

Probably no city

vicinity.

is

and the eye rests with peculiar pleasure upon

unusually-happy combination of the objects on every side.

this

it

immediate

form one of the most picturesque views

and

before us stands the

appears an immense

far behind us

AThen seen

truncated cone of granite.

at a distance, this

thought to resemble the foretopsail of a

name, the Gavia.

in its

and the group of

of Botafogo

are on the Corcovado;

far-famed Sugar-Loaf;

is

105

Between

this

vessel,

mountain

and hence

its

and the Sugar-Loaf remains a

group of three, so much resembling each other as to justify the

name of Dous

Trm'aos. or

Two

The head

Brothers.

of one of the

brothers stretches above his juniors, and also looks proudly

upon the ocean which laves


is

Praia Vermelha, a

the

It

soil.

extends to the fortress of

that of Praia
is

fertile

Yermelha on the

a prominent station for

down

At the base of the Sugar-Loaf


beach, named from the reddish color of

his feet.

left,

S.

Joao on the right, and to

of the Sugar-Loaf.

The

latter

new recruits to the army and many are


Upper Amazon who have here been
;

the poor Indians from the


drilled to the use of arms.

revolt of the

German

This also was the scene of a bloody

soldiery in the time of the First Emperor.

The beach of the ocean outside the Sugar-Loaf is called Copa


Cabana. A few scattered huts of fishermen and a few ancient
dwellings belonging to proprietors of the land accommodate all the
present inhabitants of this locality. Once it used to be far more
populous, according to the recollections of Senhor Domingo3
Lopes,

garrulous sexagenarian with

whom

acquainted on one of his visits there, and

who

Dr. Kidder became


detailed to

him the

monstrous changes that had transpired since his boyhood, when


the site of

beyond
low,

it

mean

S.

not

Francisco de Paula was a frog-pond, and

much

houses.

which dashes upon

better, although built

up

to

all

the city

some extent with

The sand of this beach is white, like the surf


Whoever wishes to be entertained by the

it.

low but heavy thunder of the waves,


Atlantic, cannot find a

more

as

they

fitting spot;

roll in

from the green

and he that has once

Brazil and the Brazilians.

106

enjoyed the sublime companionship of the waves, that here rush to

pay

their

homage

long to revisit the scene.

at his feet, will

In beholding the Sugar-Loaf for the


an almost

irresistible desire to

ascend

As

never carried into action.

my

time, I

was seized with

summit.

This wish was

first

its

countrymen, however, have

shared largely in this species of ambition, I shall be more excusable.


It is said

by some, that a Yankee midshipman

and executed the hazardous project of climbing


Nevertheless, this honor

Austrian midshipman.
served for

first

its

conceived

rocky

sides.

disputed by others in behalf of an

is

Belonging to

Donna America Vespucci,

who

whom

that may,

it

was

re-

in 1838, to be the first lady

should attempt the exploit but the Donna failed to accomplish


what her ambitious mind determined. Several persons of both sexes
have, since this failure, made the attempt, and, at the peril of life
and limb, some have succeeded in scrambling to the very top. On
the 4th of July, 1851, Burdell, an American dentist, accompanied
by his wife, a French coiffeur et sa dame, and a young Scotchwoman, made the ascent. From the latter I received an account
;

of that adventurous night,

when

at times they

dash into the foaming ocean beneath.


of no small magnitude, and,
foolhardiness, they sent

when

Their

is

seemed ready

to

and danger were

crowned their

success finally

up rockets and

built a bonfire, to the asto-

nishment of the gazing Fluminenses.


gular mountain, which

toil

bold ascent of this sin-

almost as steep as Bunker Hill Monument,

was performed by a young American, who, without a companion


or the usual appliances and skill of a seafaring man, worked his

way up to the very summit, under the fall blaze of


He was, however, so disgusted with his adventure,
his friends

a burning sun.

that he begged

never to mention the subject.

Note for 1879.

Great

amelioration in the condition of the streets has taken

owing to a better system of paving, the stone for the


pavement being quarried from the hills that abound in the city. The Rio City
Improvements Company have contributed to this better state of things. SomeThis

place since 1865.

is

times there has been found a scarcity of water for so large a city

want

will

be supplied when the

new company

is

new water-works

but happily this

shall be in full operation.

The

English, and under the contractor, Sr. Gabriella, will bring water

from the mountain region of Tingua, an unfailing source of the purest

The stream which

is

to furnish the

supply

is

the Rio d'Ouro.

liquid.

CHAPTEE
BROTHERHOODS

HOSPITAL

RATTLESNAKE

THE

FOR

VII.

OF SAN FRANCISCO DE PAULA

MISERICORDIA

SAILORS'

INSANE

JOSE*

LAZARUS AND THE


FOUNDLING-

NEW MISERICORDIA

FOUNDER

D'ANCHIETA,

MONSTROUS LEGENDS OF THE ORDER

THE

HOSPITAL AT JURUJUBA

RECOLHIMENTO FOR ORPHAN-GIRLS

HOSPITAL

FRIAR JOHN

OF

THE

ASYLUM

MISERICORDIA

D' ALMEIDA

CHURCHES

CONVENTS.

To turn from
is

the contemplation of nature to the works of

man

not always the most pleasing transition; and Bishop Heber's

well-known and

oft-cited lines

" Though every prospect pleases,

And

seem doubly true

in

only

man

is

vile"

South America, where the grand and the

and

beautiful are so wonderfully profuse

with the shortcomings of earth's

last

in such strong contrast

But

and highest creature.

the philanthropy and practical Christianity embodied in the hospitals of

Eio de Janeiro are in

mummeries and

puerilities

These

fostered in Brazil.
ciency,

command our

Among

happy

dissimilitude

with the

which the Eoman Catholic Church has


and

institutions, in their extent

effi-

highest respect and admiration.

the hospitals of the capital there are a number which

belong to different Irmandades or Brotherhoods.

These fraternities

are not unlike the beneficial societies of England and the United
States,

though on a more extended

scale.

They

are generally

composed of laymen, and are denominated Third Orders,


example,

Ordem

Terceiro do Carmo,

Da Boa

Morte,

as, for

Do Bom

Jesus

They have a style of dress approaching the clerical in appearance, which is worn on holidays, with some distinguishing mark by which each association is known. A liberal
entrance-fee and an annual subscription is required of all the mem-

do Calvario, &c.

bers,

each of

whom

is

entitled to support

from the general fund


107

in

Brazil and the Brazilians.

108

sickness and in poverty, and also to a funeral of

The brotherhoods contribute

dead.

ceremony when

to the erection

and support

of churches, provide for the sick, bury the dead, and support

masses for

In short, next after the State, they are the most

souls.

the support of the religious establishment

efficient auxiliaries for

Many

of the country.
rich

of them, in the lapse of years, have

by the receipt of donations and

such

is

become

and membership

in

highly prized.

The extensive private

hospital of S. Francisco de Paula belongs

to a brotherhood of that name.

and

legacies,

built in the

It is located in an airy position,

Each patient has an

most substantial manner.

alcove allotted to him, in which he receives the calls of the physician

When

and the necessary care of attendants.

able to walk,

he has long corridors leading round the whole building, in which

may

he

promenade, or from the windows enjoy the

air

and a sight

There are also sitting-rooms in which the

of surrounding scenes.

members of the fraternity meet to converse.


The Hospital dos Lazaros is located at St. ChristOvao,

convalescent

miles from the city, and

several

entirely devoted to persons afflicted

is

with the elephantiasis and other cutaneous diseases of the leprous

Such diseases are unhappily very common

type.
is

no rare thing

its

to see a

man

at Eio,

where

it

dragging about a leg swollen to twice

proper dimensions, or sitting with the gangrened member ex-

posed as a plea for charity.

The term

" elephantiasis''

is

derived

from the enormous tumors which the affection causes to arise on


the lower limbs, and to hang

making the parts resemble the


is

down
legs of

in folds or circular bands,

an elephant.

The deformity

frightful in itself; but the prevailing belief that the disease

is

contagious imparts to the beholder an additional disgust.


It

was an

act of true benevolence

by which the Conde da Cunha

appropriated an ancient convent of the Jesuits to the use of a

was placed, and has


since remained, under the supervision of the Irmandade do Santissimo Sacramento. The average number of its inmates is about
hospital for the treatment of these cases.

eighty.
their

Few

in

whom

the disease

is

so far

It

advanced as to require

removal to the hospital ever recover from

a person pretended to have


phantiasis of Brazil

was

it.

made the discovery

Not long
that the

since
ele-

the identical disease which was cured

Elephantiasis and the Eattlesnake.

among

the ancient Greeks

lished

several

by the

disquisitions

public attention

to

offered for testing

his

bite of a rattlesnake.

He

pub-

on the subject, and thus awakened

An

theory.

singular

An

it.

109

opportunity soon

inmate of the hospital, who had been a

subject of the disease for six years, resolved to submit himself to

the hazardous experiment.

A day was fixed, and several physicians and friends of the parties
were present to witness the result. The afflicted man was fifty
years

old,

and, either from a confident anticipation of a cure, or

from despair of a happier

issue,

was impatient

The

for the trial.

serpent was brought in a cage, and into this the patient introduced

The reptile
his hand with the most perfect presence of mind.
seemed to shrink from the contact, as though there was something
When touched, the serin the part which neutralized its venom.
pent would even lick the hand without biting.

It

became neces-

sary at length for the patient to grasp and squeeze the reptile

from his fangs.

tightly, in order to receive a thrust

was

infliction

So

little

sensation pervaded the

member

not aware he was bitten until informed of


act.

A little

The

it

that the patient was


by those who saw the

blood oozed from the wound, and a slight swelling

appeared when the hand was withdrawn from the cage


pain was
it

desired

at length given, near the base of the little finger.

felt.

Moments

of intense anxiety

now

but no

followed, while

remained to be seen whether the strange application would issue

The

for the better or for the worse.

manifest, although

it

effect

became gradually

was evidently retarded by the

had preoccupied the system.


Lazarus was a corpse

disease

which

In less than twenty-four hours the

The most extensive


pire, is that called the

of Mercy.
the

hospital in the city, and indeed in the

This establishment

brow of the

Em-

Santa Casa da Misericordia, or the Holy House

Castello Hill,

is

located upon the sea-shore, under

and

is

open day and night for the

The best assistance in the


power of the administrators to give is here rendered to all, male
and female, black or white, Moor or Christian, none of whom,
even the most wretched, are under the necessity of seeking influreception of the sick and distressed.

ence or recommendations in order to be received.

From

the statistics of this establishment

it

appears that more

Brazil and the Brazilians.

110

than seven thousand patients are annually received, of whom more

than one thousand

die.

are treated vast numbers of English and


American seamen, the subjects of sickness or accident on their

In this

arrival, or

hospital

There are few nations

during their stay in the port.

of the world which are not represented


Misericordia of Eio de Janeiro.
to its halls,

among

the inmates of the

Free access being always granted

they furnish an ample and interesting

lent exertions in behalf of the sick

field for

benevo-

and dying.

THE JURUJUBA HOSPITAL.

The years

among

1850, '51, '52,

and

'53

were those of great mortality

foreigners on account of the

first

and only known

visit of

The
number of deaths among the natives was much exaggerated, and
in no portion of the Empire was the mortality ever so great as in
the yellow fever to Eio de Janeiro and the coast of Brazil.

those parts of the United States which have so often been visited

by the same

disease.

In 1854,

'55,

and

'56,

no cases of the yellow

The Yellow Fever Hospital at Jurujuba.


fever occurred, and

appearance and disappearance have been

its

The reader curious

equally mysterious.

Ill

in

such matters will find

this subject treated in the appendix.

New

hospitals were arranged for the reception of foreign mariners

stricken

down with

this fell malad}^

but none have been so well

appointed, so well regulated, and so eminently successful, as the


hospital

under

at Jurujuba,

a gentleman of great

affability

ent languages with fluency, and


his patients

Candido was the

com-

a medical
chief.

The

prin-

and attending physician was Dr. Correo de Azevedo,

cipal visiting

year the

supervision of

the

mittee, of which the late Dr. P.

from

little

all

"

Every day during the

Constancia," bearing the physician and his

through the entire shipping, receiving the

and then transports them to the southern shores of the


or Jurujuba Bay.

differ-

who was a universal favorite among

parts of the world.

steamer

assistants, passes

and experience, speaking ten

The

hospital

is

St.

sick,

Xavier's

situated in the midst of perpetual

verdure, and where the ocean and land breezes are uncontaminated
by the many impurities of a vast city. Here are excellent and

kind nurses, who co-operate with the physicians


recovery of the invalids.

Dr. Azevedo

Jurujuba Hospital was for

me

in

promoting the

now resides at Theresopolis.

a place of frequent visitation

How many

during the prevalence of the dreaded yellow fever.

poor wayfarer of the deep have I seen here and on shipboard,

away from

How

down to the grave


have I witnessed the power of that " hope which

country, home, and relatives, go

often, too,

maketh not ashamed/'

as I

have caught from dying

loving messages sent to a distant father, mother, or

have listened to the triumphant


tory over the last foe to

Although there was


hospital, I

many
that

hymn which

lips
sister,

the last
or as I

proclaimed the

who wished

to go to the

never met a single Brazilian or Portuguese priest in

was an

vic-

man

free transit to all

visits to Jurujuba.

it

fax

It could

institution for English

very large proportion were

my

not be pleaded in extenuation

and American mariners,

Portuguese,

Spanish,

for a

French, and

The only Eoman Catholic ecclesiastic of any


grade that I ever saw at Jurujuba was one of the devoted Italian
Capuchins who seem at Eio to be ever on errands of mercy,

Italian

sailors.

through tropic heats and rains, while the lazy, lounging, greasy,


Brazil and the Brazilians.

112

acclimated frades of San Antonio, San Bento, and of Carmo, live


at ease in their

huge conventual buildings, situated

and healthiest portions of the

Before the erection of Jurujuba Hospital nearly

accommodated

foreign invalids were

The benevolence of
within
city,

in the loveliest

city.
all

the necessitous

in the Misericordia.

this latter hospital is not confined to those

its infirmaries,

but extends to the different prisons of the

most of whose inmates receive food and medicines from the

provisions of the Misericordia.

Besides the public hospital, the institution has another for found-

and a Becolhimento, or Asylum for Female Orphans.

lings,

Foundling-Hospital*

is

The

sometimes called Casa da Roda, in allusion

wheel in which infants are deposited from the streets and


by a semi-revolution conveyed within the walls of the building.
to the

This wheel occupies the place of a window, facing the thoroughfare,

and revolves on a perpendicular

tition into four triangular apartments,

It is divided

axis.

by par-

one of which always opens

without, thus inviting the approach of any

who may be

so heartless

They have only

as to wish to part with their infant children.

to

by a turn of the wheel it


they themselves going away unobserved.

deposit the foundling in the box, and

passes within the walls,

That such
thropy

is

institutions are the

as evident in Brazil as

offspring of a mistaken philanit

can be

any country.

in

Not

only do they encourage licentiousness, but they foster the most


palpable inhumanity.

Out of three thousand

six

hundred and

thirty infants exposed in Bio during ten years anterior to 1840,

only one thousand and twenty-four were living at the end of that
period.

In the year 1838-39, four hundred and forty-nine were

deposited in the wheel, of


out;

many

expired the

whom

first

day

six

were found dead when taken

after their arrival,

and two hun-

dred and thirty-nine died in a short period.

The report of the Minister of the Empire


1854-55 gives the following alarming
of the minister

for the official

statistics

year

and the comments

* The Foundling-Hospital was formerly the large three-story building seen on


the right-hand side of the

Passeio Publico."

"View of the Gloria


is now in the Rua

The hospital

Hill

from the Terrace of the

dos Barbonas.

Foundling Hospital and Misericordia.


"In 1854, 588

infants

were received,

118

in addition to 68 already in

Total, 656: died, 435; remaining, 221.

the establishment.

"In 1853, the number of foundlings received was

630,

and of

deaths 515.(!)

"There was,

therefore, less mortality in the past than in the

former year. Still, the number of deaths is frightful.


" Up to the present time it has not been possible to ascertain the
exact causes of this lamentable mortality.
years do not show a diminution of the

utmost

effort

The
evil,

statistics

of later

notwithstanding the

and care that have been used to combat

it."

Well might one of the physicians of the establishment, in whose

company

a gentleman of

ments of the

institution,

What must be

acquaintance visited several depart-

remark, "Monsieur,

the moral condition or the

those numerous persons

posure of infant

my

life?

who
One

c'est

une boucherie!"

humane

feelings of

deliberately contribute to such an ex-

peculiar circumstance connected with

this state of things consists in the alleged fact that

many

of the

foundlings are the offspring of female slaves, whose masters, not

wishing the trouble and expense of endeavoring to raise the

chil-

dren, or wishing the services of the mothers as wet-nurses, require

the infants to be sent to the engeitaria, where, should they survive,

they of course are


foundlings

is

free.

A large

edifice for the

accommodation of

being erected on the Largo da Lapa.

The Asylum

for

Female Orphans

It is chiefly supplied

is

a very popular establishment.

from the Foundling-Hospital.

not only contemplates the protection of the girls in

The
its

institution

care during

more tender years, but provides also for their marriage, and
them dowries of from two to four hundred milreis each.
On the 2d of July, every year, when the Eomish Church celebrates the anniversary of the Yisitation of St. Elizabeth, by processions, masses, and the like, this establishment is thrown open to
the public, and is thronged with visitors, (among whom are their
Imperial Majesties,) some of whom bring presents to the recolhidas,
and some ask for them in marriage.
The new buildings of the Misericordia are upon a grand scale, and
the view of it to those entering the harbor is, architecturally considered, truly magnificent.
It is constructed of stone, and is six
hundred feet in length. There is only the half of the immense

their

confers on

Brazil and the Brazilian;

114

structure presented to the eye as

we

look at the sketch below, en-

graved from a daguerreotype; and the reader will be astonished at


the size of this noble beneficiary edifice when he is informed that
it is

it;

a double building, and that

but

it

courts.

is

With

tion, light,

its

twin-brother

in the rear of

is

so connected as to

and

its

form several airy quadrangular


modern improvements, insuring superior ventila-

with its flower-gardens and shrubberies


and exercise of the convalescent, with its cool

cleanliness,

for the recreation

Arsenal of War.

SERICORD

fountains, its spacious apartments, kind attendants,


situation,

this hospital

civilization of the age,

and beautiful

"a credit to the


and a splendid monument of the munifiis,

as has been well said,

cence and benevolence of the Brotherhood of Mercy."

The Lunatic Asylum,


Pedro

II.,

or, as it is officially called,

situated on the graceful

Bay

palace-like structure, inaugurated in 1852.


for the insane

equalled

is

by the

the Hospicio de

of Botafogo,

is

a splendid,

The accommodation

here upon a scale of comfort and splendor only

Misericordia,

whose noble dome

lifts itself

above

Jose de Anchieta.

The French

the Praia da Santa Luzia.

115

Sisters of Charity are the

nurses here as well as in the house of the Brothers of Mercy.

Emperor, after
its

most

whom

the hospital at Botafogo

named,

The

one of

is

liberal supporters.

The annual expenses


and

is

fifty

thousand

of the Misericordia are about one hundred

A small portion

dollars.

of

its

receipts are pro-

vided for by certain tributes at the Custom-House, another portion

by lotteries, and the balance by donations and the rent of properties


which belong to the institution through purchase and legacies.
The Foundling-Hospital and Eecolhimento have been in existence
about a hundred years. The original establishment of the Misericordia dates back as far as 1582, and took place under the auspices

of that distinguished Jesuit, Jose de Anchieta.

About that time

there arrived in the port a Spanish armada, consisting of sixteen

and having on board three thousand Spaniards,

vessels-of-war,

bound

to the Straits of Majellan.

During the voyage very severe

storms had been experienced, in which the vessels had suffered


greatly, and sickness

chieta

was

had extensively broken out on board.

at the time on a visit to the college of his order,

Anwhich

had been founded some years previously, and whose towers still
surmount the Castello Hill. Moved by compassion for the suffering
Spaniards, he

made arrangements

for their succor,

and

in so doing

laid the foundation of

an institution which has continued to the

present day enlarging

its

its

means of

It is impossible to contemplate the results of such

an act of

alleviating

human

charities

and increasing

suffering.

philanthropy without a feeling of respect

How many

hundred and

fifty years,

Anchieta was among the


his

name

earlier labors

fills

its

author.

more than two

have found an asylum within the walls of

the Misericordia of Eio de Janeiro,

and

toward

tens of thousands, during the lapse of

first

how many thousands a grave!

Jesuits sent out to the

New

World,

a large spa^ce in the history of that order.

were devoted to the Indians of

S.

His

Paulo, and along

that coast, where he endured great privations and exerted a powerful influence;

ended
His

but he finally returned to Eio de Janeiro, and there

his days.
self-denial as a missionary, his labor in acquiring

izing a barbarous language, and his

services to the

and methodState,

were

Brazil and the Brazilians.

116

him an honest fame and a precious memory;


made a candidate for saintship, and his real virtues were made to pass for little
in comparison with the power by which it was pretended that he
Simon de Yasconcellos, Provincial of
had wrought miracles.
Brazil, and historian of the province, composed a narrative of
sufficient to secure to

but in the latter part of the ensuing century he was

his

life,

which

is

one of the greatest examples of extravagance

extant.
It

may

dia, so

be interesting to pass from the Santa Casa da Misericor-

happily associated with his name, up the steep paved walk

which leads to the old

where Anchieta

on the Morro do Castello,


Here we may contemplate the huge anti-

Jesuits' College

died.

quated structure, which, although long since perverted from


original use, remains,

and

is

its

destined to remain perhaps for ages

come, a monument of the wealth and power of the order

to

founded by Ignatius de Loyola, whose name the college bore.


sickening to turn our attention from the good which

It is

Anchieta

did, to the

absurd inventions in regard to the founder of

the Misericordia after he had been for a hundred years slumbering

tomb.

in the

by the

one of those monstrous legends invented

It is only

priests,

approved by the Inquisition, and

ratified

by the

church, which were for centuries palmed off upon the credulity of
the people, as a

means of advancing the

of rival monastic orders.

Mr. Southey remarks

"

It

and the renown

interests

would be impossible to say which

order has exceeded the others in Europe in this rivalry, each

having carried the audacity of falsehood to

its

utmost bounds; but

in Brazil the Jesuits bore the palm."

Of

this

few

Vasconcellos,

will

doubt

"have

who read

called

tourgos; others, the second

because

it

was expedient

the following.

" Some/' says

him [Anchieta] the second ThaumaAdam, and this is the fitter title;

that, as there

had been an

Adam

in the

Old World, there should be one in the New, to be the head of


its

all

inhabitants and have authority over the elements and animals

of America, such as the first


"

Adam

possessed in Paradise.

There were, therefore, in Anchieta,

Adam had

with which the

first

them not merely

for a time, but

all

the powers and graces

been endowed, and he enjoyed

during his whole

life

and

for this

The Wonderful Gifts


common

reason, like our

of Anchieta.

117

he was born with innocence^

father,

an enlightened mind, and a right will.


"Dominion was given him over the elements and

impassibility,

The earth brought

that dwell

all

command, and even


gave up the dead, that they might be restored to life and receive
baptism from his hand. The birds of the air formed a canopy
over his head to shade him from the sun. The fish came into his
The wild beasts of the forest attended
net when he required them.

therein.

him

in his journeys

waves obeyed
chief

which

forth fruit at his

and served him as an

his voice.

The

The winds and

escort.

at his pleasure, undid the mis-

fire,

had done, so that bread which had been burnt

it

cinder in the oven

was drawn out white and

by

soft

to a

his inter-

ference.

"He

could read the secrets of the heart.

The knowledge of

hidden things and sciences was imparted to him; and he enjoyed

He was

and revelations.

daily and hourly ecstasies, visions,

was

his

worker of miracles, and a vice-Christ yet such


humility, that he called himself a vile mortal and an igno-

saint, a prophet, a

rant sinner.

" His barret-cap was a cure for

one of his
efficacious

cilices,

all

diseases of the head.

Any

[wire shirts,] or any part of his dress, was an

remedy against impure thoughts.

Water poured over

one of his bones worked more than two hundred miracles in Per-

nambuco, more than a thousand


few drops of
Galilee.

fanciful

Some
and

South of Brazil; and a

in the

turned water into wine, as at the marriage in

it

of his miracles

in a

more elegant

are

taste

commended
[sic']

as

being more

than those which are

re-

corded in the Scriptures."

The book
stuffed

in

which these assertions are made, and which

is

with examples of every kind of miracles, was licensed by

the various censors of the press at Lisbon,

one of whom declares,

that, as long as the publication should be delayed, so long


faithful be deprived of great benefit,

would the

and God himself of glory!

The same author, who has collected and attested all the fables
which credulity and ignorance had propagated concerning Anchieta,
has produced a far more extraordinary history of Friar Joam
It was written immediately
d' Almeida, his successor in sanctity.
after Almeida's death,

when

the circumstances of his

life

Avere fresh

Brazil and the Brazilians.

118

remembrance, and too soon

in

for the embellishment of

machinery

to be interwoven.

This remarkable person, whose

name appears

originally to have

been John Martin, was an Englishman, born in London during the


reign of Elizabeth.

In the tenth year of his age he was kidnapped

by a Portuguese merchant, apparently for the purpose of preserving


him in the Catholic faith; and this merchant, seven years afterward, took him to Brazil, where, being placed under the care of
the Jesuits, he entered the company.

Anchieta was his superior, then an old man, broken down with
exertion and austerities and subject to frequent faintings.

Almeida

used to rub his feet at such times, in reference to which he was

accustomed to say

hands, he had taken

it

body

d' Almeida

from the

many

tuary ever invented so

Joam

whatever virtue there might be in his

that,

feet of his master.

No

volup-

devices for pampering the senses as

He

did for mortifying them.

looked upon his

as a rebellious slave, who, dwelling within-doors, eating at

and sleeping in

his table,

for his destruction;

his bed,

was continually laying snares

therefore he regarded

it

with the deepest

hatred, and, as a matter of justice and self-defence, persecuted,


flogged,

and punished

it

some of
had

catgut,

cilices

For

this pur-

some of whipcord,

some of leathern thongs, and some of

wire.

of wire for his arms, thighs, and legs, one of which

fastened around the body with seven chains


his

way.

in every imaginable

pose he had a choice assortment of scourges,

He
was

and another he called

good sack, which was an under- waistcoat of the roughest horse-

hair,

having on the inside seven crosses made of

iron, the surface

of which was covered with sharp points, like a coarse rasp or a nut-

meg-grater.

Such was the whole armor of righteousness in which


with the infernal

this soldier of Christ clad himself for his battles

among his other virtues that he never disturbed the mosquitos and fleas when they covered him; that, what-

enemy.

It is recorded

ever exercise he might take in that hot climate, he never changed


his shirt

more than once a week; and that on

his journeys he put

pebbles or grains of maize in his shoes.

His daily course of

drawn up by
Mondays,

in

life

was regulated

in conformity to a paper

"to eat nothing on


wear one of his cilices,

himself, wherein he promised

honor of the Trinity,

to

Friar Joam d'Almeida.

119

according to the disposition and strength of the poor beast, as he


body, and to accompany

called his

it

with the customary

flapping of his four scourges, in love, reverence, and

fly-

remembrance

of the stripes which our Saviour had suffered for his sake.

Tues-

days, his food was to be bread and water, with the same dessert, to

the praise and glory of the archangel Michael, his guardian angel,

and

other angels.

all

Wednesdays, he relaxed so

follow the rule of the company.

On Thursdays,

Holy Ghost, the most holy sacrament,


and

apostles,

all saints,

St.

far as only to

in

honor of the

Ignatius Loyola, the

male and female, he ate nothing.

Fridays,

he was to bear in mind that the rules of his order recommended

and that he had forsworn wine except in cases of neces-

fasting,
sity.

Saturday, he abstained again from

all food, in

honor of the

was to be accompanied with whatever


might be acceptable to her whereby exercises of rigor as well as
prayer were implied. On Sundays, as on Wednesdays, he observed
the rules of the community."
The great object of his most thankful meditations was to think
that, having been born in England,* and in London, in the very
seat and heart of heresy, he had been led to this happy way of life.
Virgin, and this abstinence

-,

In this extraordinary course of self-torment, Friar


attained the great age of fourscore and two.

Joam d'Almeida

When

he was far

and scourges were taken from him


but from that time he was
lest they should accelerate his death
observed to lose strength, as if his constitution was injured by the
advanced in years, his

cilices

change

such practices were become necessary to him, like a per-

petual blister, without which the bodily system, having been long

accustomed to

it,

could not continue

its functions.

entreat others, for the love of God, to lend

He

him a whip

used to

or a

cilice,

"What means have I now wherewith to appease the


What shall I do to be saved ?" Such are the works which

exclaiming,

Lord ?

a corrupt church has substituted for

faith in Christ

and

for the

duties of genuine Christianity.

Nor must
ness.

While Almeida

* On one

mere case of individual madhe was an object of reverence and

this be considered as a
lived,

side of his portrait is the figure of England, on the other that of Brazil,

and under them these words:

"Hinc Anglus, hinc Angelus."

Brazil and the Brazilians.

120

admiration, not only to the

gion,

common

people of Bio de Janeiro, but

His excesses were in the

to persons of all ranks.

and they were recorded after

spirit of his reli-

and

his death for edification

example, under the sanction of the Superiors of an order which


that time held the

rank

first

at

Eoman

the estimation of the

in

Catholic world.

During

who were

his last illness the convent

was crowded with persons


Nothing else

desirous to behold the death of a saint.

was talked of

and the Fluminenses accosted each other

in the city,

with condolences as for some public calamity.

made thus
cilices,

Solicitations

were

early for scraps of his writing, rags of his garments or

and, indeed, any thing which had belonged to him;

and

the porter was fully employed in receiving and delivering beads,


cloths,

and other things which devout persons

sent, that

they

might be applied to the body of the dying saint and imbibe from
it

a healing virtue.

was

of the blood

among

as relics

When
city

He was bled

during his

carefully received

those

upon

who had most

interest in the college.

the bell of the college announced his death, the whole

was

as greatly agitated as if the alarm of an invasion

nobles, clergy,

and religious of every order, and the whole people,

hastened to his funeral.

Every shop was

shut.

and the sick were carried to the ceremony.

was with great


bear the body to the grave.

same time, and

at the

be found to

for Friar

it

Joam

difficulty that

memorial

d' Almeida

was

been canonized, ^ind with as

voked no other

The

cripples

men

could

and the admiration of the people

so great, especially in Eio de Janeiro,

that they used his relics in diseases with as

of devotion

Even the

Another person died

statement of the proceedings of the day was drawn

official

up, to be a perpetual

in

had been

The governor, the bishop-administrator, the magistrates,

given.

An

and every drop


which were divided

illness,

cloths,

saint, as if

much

success.

much

faith as if

he had

For a while they

in-

they had forgotten their former objects

practical rules of our Saviour, in the

Sermon on the Mount,

regard to cheerfulness and absence of ostentation in religion, are

very far from coinciding with the above practices ; and one would
judge that there was no need of a Mediator for the man who thus

worked out

his

own

salvation.

Churches, Chapels, and Convents.


There are within the city of Eio and

They

churches and chapels.

and imposing

its

are generally

121

suburbs about

among

fifty

the most costly

many

them have
They may
be found of various form and style. Some are octagonal, some are
in the form of the Eoman and some of the Grecian cross, while
others are merely oblong. The Church of the Candelaria* was
but

little

edifices of the country,

although

of

to boast as regards either plan or finish.

originally designed to be a cathedral for the diocese of Eio de

Janeiro.

It

was commenced about seventy years

siastical

purposes in the country,

generations.

The

ago, but

Like nearly every other building

yet entirely finished.

erection of a

it

memento

of past

in Brazil is

not an

stands as a

new church

not

is

for eccle-

event of frequent occurrence.

The chapels of the convents

are in several instances larger, and

probably more expensive, than any of the churches.

Convent of San Bentof

is

That of the

one of the most ancient, having been

repaired, according to an inscription

it

rior of the edifice is rude but massive

bears, in 1671.
;

its

The

exte-

windows are heavily

barred with iron gratings, more resembling a prison than a place

The sides of the chapel are crowded with images and


The roof and ceiled walls exhibit paintings designed to
illustrate the history of the patron saint, the relics of whose
miracles are here carefully preserved. Unnumbered figures of
angels and cherubs, carved in wood and heavily gilded, look down
upon you from every corner in which they can be fastened in
The order of the Benefact, nearly the whole interior is gilt.
dictines is by far the richest in the Empire, possessing houses and
lands of vast extent, though the number of monks is at present
of worship.
altars.

quite small.

In the convent proper, a large square area

rounded by corridors open on one


of the several dormitories of the

apartment

is

sand volumes.

* The

side,

is

sur-

and exhibiting the doors

monks on the

other.

An

accessible

devoted to the library, composed of about six thou-

The sombre and melancholy

tall spires of this

air

which pervades

church may be seen in the general

"View

of Rio de

Janeiro from the Island of Cobras," rising above the right of the central palm-tree.

" View"
f The turrets of this convent are those seen farthest to the right, in the
referred to in the note above.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

122
this

monastic pile

is

in perfect contrast with the splendid scene to

be enjoyed in front of

it,

and with the neat and modern appear-

ance of the Naval Arsenal, located at the foot of the eminence on

which

it

stands.*

striking peculiarity in the aspect of Eio de Janeiro

from the circumstance that

all

is

derived

the most elevated and commanding


the city and

sites of

churches

its

occupied by

vicinity are

and

convents.

Of these may be next mentioned


St.

Convent

the

of

Anthony, a mendicant

whose

order,

shovel-hat

monks, although sworn to


eternal poverty, have con-

trived

to

obtain a very

valuable site and to erect


a most costly edifice.

The

building, since they can possess

nothing themselves,

belongs,very conveniently,
to the

Pope of Eome.

In

two immense chaand a vast cloister,

are

it

pels

with scarcely enough friars


to keep
FRADES OF

On

ANTHONY.

of

S.

them
hill

in order.

opposite that

Antonio

is

the nun-

nery of Santa Theresa, occupying a situation more picturesque,


perhaps, than that of either of the monasteries mentioned;

and

yet, as if to render the appearance of the building as offensive as

possible in the midst of scenery ever breathing the fragrance of

opening flowers and smiling in beauty,

On

its

contracted windows are

the island of Cobras, nearly opposite the Convent of S. Bento,

is

an im-

mense copper ring near the water's edge, put down by the celebrated Captain

Cook

in his last voyage.

The Lady Boardeks

Ajuda Convent.

of

123

not only barred with iron gratings, but even these gratings are set

with bristling spikes.

The Convent of Nossa Senhora da Ajuda, which


from the Hill of Santa Theresa, completes the
inmates

who had

not taken the

of the Portuguese and their descendants

years

it

was not uncommon

was
all

first

The jealousy

veil.

was

for.

such, that in other

when making a visit


more politely, " procure
the convent, where she remained during

his wife in

his entire absence.

overlooked

for a gentleman,

to the mother-country, to incarcerate

lodgings" for

is

of monastic insti-

In this last-mentioned were

tutions in the capital of Brazil.

merly many

list

or,

have understood that this shameful practice

The monasteries may

forbidden by the present Emperor.

be considered unpopular, and could never again be erected at

any thing

like their original cost.

The churches of all descriptions are generally open every morning.


At this time masses are said in most of them. Ordinarily
but few persons are in attendance, and these are principally women.

Upon

the great holidays, several of which occur during Lent, the

churches are thronged, and sermons are occasionally delivered;


but nothing like regular preaching on the Sabbath or any other day
is

known

in

any part of the country.

Note for 1879.

As the subject of

pitals in this chapter, I

health

is

mentioned in connection with hos-

add that I have been deeply interested

1864 of the sanitary condition of the Empire, published


J. P.

Regos) of the Junta Central de Hygiene Publica.

It

by

in the report for

the'

shows

President (Dr.
that,

under the

wise and skilful treatment of the Brazilian faculty, cholera and the yellow fever

have much abated.

Dr. Nicolan

J.

that excellent Brazilian journal, the

the yellow fever has changed.

But

control of the disease than formerly.

by

the death of Dr. Paula

much

and

as in Brazil.

it is

He

this subject in

thinks that the character of

believed that physicians have

much more

Brazil has suffered the greatest medical loss

Can dido, who did more than any other man

and publish close observations


at Paris in 1864

Moreira has also written on

Novo Mundo.

his loss

in

regard to the epidemics of his country.

was

felt in the

eminent medical

circles of

to

make

He

died

Europe

as

CHAPTER
ILLUMINATION OF THE

CITY

EARLY

MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT

SLAVERY

BRAZILIAN

The

streets of

few

POLICE GAMBLING

FAVOR OF FREEDOM

IN

SLAVERY

THE

cities are better lighted

than those of Eio de

streams to remote suburbs as well as through the


cate thoroughfares of

PRISONS

MINA HERCULES

IN BRAZIL DOOMED.

The gas-works on the Atterrado sends

Janeiro.

AND LOTTERIES

BEGGARS ON HORSEBACK

VACCINATION

LAWS

ENGLISH SLAVE-HOLDERS

TO BED

VIII.

its

illuminating

many and

intri-

the Cidade Velha and the Cidade Nova.

They have not the convenient fiction which city governments so


often palm off upon themselves in the United States, viz. that the
moon shines half the year; for in Bio, whether Cynthia is in the
full, or whether shorn of her beams by unforeseen storms, the lamps
continue to shed their brilliant light. The coal for the gas comes
:

from England.
After ten o'clock at night few people are seen in the streets.

The

When

people.

the great bells ring out the hour of ten, every slave

and woe he to him that

"he'els it;"
tolls

" early to bed, early to rise"

Brazilians are eminently an

when the law

the time

master's house;

him to durance

The same

Nothing
the night

is
is

caught out after the tocsin

the police seize Jose and commit


owner ransom him by a smart fine.
does not hold good in regard to freemen yet

for, if dilatory,

vile until his

rule

one would think that


class, for the

is

prescribes that he should be in his

it

was equally

in force

without regard to

Fluminensians, as a general thing, retire at ten p.m.

more surprising
so attractive,

to a stranger

with

from the North, to

its coolness, its

liancy, than to find the streets

fragrance, and

whom

its bril-

and the beautiful suburbs of the

city

almost as tenantless and silent as the ruins of Thebes or Palmyra.

The
by

police of Rio de Janeiro

officers of the

124

is

regular army.

military, and

They

is

well disciplined

are fortified with plenty

The Policeman and


of authority, and take care to use

it.

his Duties.

Great

125

difficulties

have some-

times occurred between the constabulary and foreigners, where, on

some occasions, the former have been to blame; but it was good
"Young America," when going "round the Horn" on his way

for

to California, to be held in

Brazilians,"

whom

wholesome restraint by these "yellow


The police is armed.

he affected to despise.

may

During the day you

see

them singly or

in pairs,

having then-

positions in convenient localities for watching the slaves

Now

others suspected of liability to disorder.

and

all

the policeman, with

three or four of his com-

by

panions, strolls along

Hotel Pharoux to have an

,,

eye upon the foreign sailors;


or again, with a single con-

he takes his stand by

frere,

the Carioca fountain;


again,

blue

his

or,

undress-cap,

his

uniform,

his

sword, and his brace of


pistols,

wholesomely

are

displayed at a corner venda,

where the tamanca*-shod


from

Antonio

Sr.

Fayal

sells

cachaga, (rum,)

tail

tobacco,

came

pigsecca,

mandioc-flour, red Lisbon

wine,

and

black

beans

The above-mentioned
ples

are the

sta-

articles

of

stock and consumption for

POLICEMAN AND VENDA.

the low grocer and the low


class that patronize him.

Sometimes he

the provision-line, and add

from the United

and sausages.
*

States, onions

Then, too, he

sort of wooden-soled slipper

free blacks.

will get a little

butter, brought

higher in

from Ireland, lard

from Portugal, sardines, a few hams,


is

somewhat of a lumber-merchant

much worn by

the lower class of whites

and tho


Brazil and the Brazilians.

126
for

he purchases a few bundles of finely-split wood, which, together

with charcoal,

the small accompaniment of the kitchen-battery

is

At these vendas

in Brazil.

is

the only hard drinking (except that

done by English and Americans)

in Eio,

and that imbibing

the effects of cachaga, and then the policeman


I

by

is

Often Congo or Mozambique becomes eloquent under

the slaves.

have found few

is

an effectual arbiter.

more orderly than Bio de Janeiro; and

cities

the police are so generally on the alert, that, in comparison with


JSTew

York and

Philadelphia, burglaries rarely occur.

I felt greater

personal security at a late hour of the night in Bio than I would


in

New

Yet there are occasions when the

York.

hint through the

strong

public

press

following, taken from a late newspaper of Bio,

"Night

before

last,

eight

after

police receive a

The

remissness.

for their

an illustration

is

an individual named

o'clock,

Mauricio was attacked by a band of capoeiras*

who

fell

upon him

with clubs, striking him upon the forehead, and gashing his thigh

manner
was taken

The

victim, bathed in

in such a

as to injure the artery.

blood,

to the drug-store of Sr. Pires Ferao, and there

received the necessary succors, which were afforded

Thomas An tunes de Abreu, who rushed


as soon as he

was

called.

No

man

police-authority appeared to take

cognizance of this criminal deed!"

and a few

him by Dr.

to the aid of the poor

Such outrages are exceptions,

based on facts like the above soon arouse the

articles

police to their duty.

There are some offences against the good of society which the
police occasionally

The

gambling.

winked at during

jogo seems

my

residence in Bio,

an inveterate habit of some Brazilians;

and when I have been cooped up with them in quarantine

had opportunities

for

i.e.

watching how every

have

class represented in the

Lazareto, from the padre down, gave itself up to the gamblingpassion.

housed;

At Bio the laws

ferreted out

and

'53,

are very stringent against gambling-

and there are times when their owners are earnestly

by the

police.

But

a certain lawyer each

in the

Bua

house a rendezvous where gamblers met,

the regular professional

* Africans, who with daggers run a muck in the


present day in Rio.

See page 137.

Princeza, during 1852

Saturday night constituted his

streets,

but not often at the

Gambling and Lotteries.

and the young pigeon who came

blackleg, (including the lawyer,)

When

to be plucked.

went

127

my

to

religious services at nine

o'clock on Sabbath morning, their carriages

would be still standing


yawning and swearing
on every side.
Policemen regularly marched down the Catete at
all hours of the night and in the daytime
yet month after month
passed, and the den was not broken up until their operations were for
a time suspended by the suicide of one of the parties concerned.
before the door, and their sleepy servants

There
effects,

another species of gambling most deleterious in

is

which

is

1 refer to lotteries.

put up, and,

They

are not "

drawn, paid.

if

its

countenanced and supported by the Government.

If

sham" concerns, but

it is

prizes are

a church, a theatre, or some

other public building, to be erected, the Government grants a

There are always six thousand tickets at 20$000 (twenty

lottery.

milreis) each; the highest prize

20,000$000, (or about ten thou-

is

sand dollars,) and the second prize

is

half that

sum

there are then

two thousand more tickets, which draw prizes of 20$000 (ten doland upward. Everywhere in the city are offices for selling the
tickets, and in the country there are equestrian ticket-venders who
lars)

go from house to house with the risking


in

awarding the

and there

prizes,

gambling that the tickets are sold

is

There

billets.

is

no fraud

such a rage for this kind of

in a

few days.

The

effects are

bad; for the poorest whites and the shabbiest blacks will rake,
scrape,

and

part of a

steal, until

billet,

wheel-sign with

them that

they have sufficient to purchase the quarter

and then run with

Anda a roda

hoje

it

to the shop

(The wheel turns to-day)

this is the road to fortune.

engendered by the State,


cipal authorities to put

it

When

becomes rather

down

where the naming


tells

such a spirit

difficult for

is

the muni-

private gambling.

The head-quarters of the police are in a public building at the


corner of the Ruas Lavradio and Invalidos.
The city government, consisting of nine aldermen, who compose
the Camara municipal, are elected by the people of Rio (i.e. those
possessing 100$,

about

fifty dollars

income) once in four years.

Camara Municipal, is situated


on the Campo Santa Anna. The General Government enforces
vaccination, and it is on the lower floor of this building where all
who present themselves on Thursdays and Saturdays are vaccinated

The City

Hall,

which

is

called the

128

Brazil and the Brazilians.

free of charge

the patients, however, are obligated to return after

A portion

eight days.
is

of the report of the Minister of the

Empire

devoted to this subject, and in the report of 1854-55 the minister

says that in the cities and large towns


law, but in the villages and the country

easy to enforce the

it is

overcome

difficult to

it is

the obstacles which superstition throws in the way.

There

is

a class, confined to no portion of the world, which comes

under the especial surveillance of the

Every Saturday the

police.

Mr. Walsh remarked, in 1828, that

beggars have their harvest.

This was far from

beggars were seldom seen in the streets of Eio.


being the case in 1838,

when

Through

Dr. Kidder resided there.

the lenity or carelessness of the police, great numbers of vagrants

were continually perambulating the

and importuning

streets

for

alms ; and mendicants of every description had their chosen places


in the thoroughfares of the town,

where they regularly waited and

saluted the passers-by with the mournful drawl of Favorece o seu

pobre pelo amor de Deos.

If any, instead of bestowing a gift,

to respond to this formula

fit

with

saw

counterpart, Deos Ihe favorece,

its

(God help you,) they were not always sure to escape without an

When

insult.

known

this state of things

was

at its height,

and

it

beggars, the chief of the police suddenly sprung a mine upon

He

was

that numerous rogues were at large under the disguise of

offered the constables a

reward of ten milreis

cant they could apprehend and deliver at the

In a few days not

less

marine arsenal.

at the

labor at the penitentiary


their apprehension.

House

them

mendi-

of Correction.

than one hundred and seventy-one vaga-

bundos were delivered, over forty of

employment

for every

till

whom

were furnished with

The remainder were made

to

they had liquidated the expense of

This measure had a most happy

effect,

and

the streets were thenceforward comparatively free from mendicity,

although persons really deserving charity were permitted to ask


for aid at their pleasure.

But

in 1855 the evil

had again become a crying one.

of beggars seemed to abound everywhere.

covered that poor,

old,

ness and elephantiasis


alms.

A new

mendicants.

worn-out slaves

were

At length

those

afflicted

it

was

dis-

with blind-

by their masters to ask


made an onslaught upon such

sent out

chef de police, however,

He had them

All shades

arrested and examined.

No

slave

was

Beggars on Horseback.
thenceforth allowed to beg, as he rightly

who had

129

deemed that the owner

enjoyed the fruit of his labor during his days of health

could well afford to take care of

him when overtaken by

Twelve mendicants were considered

and sickness.*

of charity, and had licenses given them.


either blind or lame,

old age

real objects

These beggars, being

have now the monopoly of the eleemosynary

sympathies of the good people of Eio

Some

and

I believe

it is

found to

them are carried in a rede


by two slaves or drawn by one one worthy rejoices in a little
carriage pulled by a fat sheep, and another a footless manrides
be a most profitable business.

of

THE

on a white horse.

BEGGAR.

Sometimes, in the country-parts of Brazil, beg-

gars whose pedal extremities are free from

the cavalier, altogether disdaining to foot

all

it,

derangement play

and seem to receive

none the

less charity

Upon one

occasion, a female beggar, adorned with a feather in her

than

if

they trudged from door to door

bonnet and mounted on horseback, rode up to a friend of mine at


St.

Alexio, and,

inquiries as to

verb

is

demanding alms, was exceedingly indignant at any


the consistency of her costume. The English pro-

not remarkably complimentary to such mendicants; but

* The proverb

may gnaw

in

Portuguese

is

very forcible

the bones."

He who

has enjoyed the meat

Brazil and the Brazilians.

130

a like application

is

never heard in the land of the Southern

Cross.

The House

of Correction, referred to on a previous page,

is

brow of a high hill, between the suburbs of


Catumby and Mata Porcos. The grounds pertaining to it are
surrounded by high granite walls, constructed by the prisoners,
located under the

who have

long been chiefly employed on various, improvements

of the premises.

On

the hill-side

is

a quarry, and numbers are

more extended walls and buildings.


Others are made to carry earth in wooden trays upon their heads,
sometimes from one part of the ground to another, or to fill the
cars of a tram-railway, which runs from within the walls to the
employed

in cutting stone for

borders of a marsh nearly a mile distant, which

is

by

this process

being reclaimed from the tide-water and converted into valuable

The more refractory criminals are chained together, genetwo and two, but sometimes four or five go along in file, clanking a common chain, which is attached to the leg of each individual.
The House of Correction is as fine a building, in an architectural
point of view, as any similar edifice in the United States. The

ground.
rally

Director, (Sr. Falcao,) however, finds fault with its plan.

yet completed;

Government

is

and

it

is

evidences of progress in a nation which

Antonio

J.

not

taking every measure to bring about an entire

reform in prison-buildings and prison-discipline.

Sr.

It is

gratifying to see that the Brazilian

de M. Falcao

is

It is

one of those

unmistakable.

In 1852,

who, by his intelligence and enlarged


was sent to the United

views, was admirably fitted for his

office

The report of Sr. Falcao


Thomas Nabuco de Araujo) is in-

States to inspect our various prison-systems.


to the Minister of Justice (Sr. J.

corporated in one of the Eelatorios of the nation for 1854-55, and


full

of interest.

It

seems strange to read,

in the official

is

message of

a Brazilian Minister, familiar and sensible discussions in regard to

the systems of Auburn and Pennsylvania

pliment to
in our

own

Sr.

and

it is

country, in the " Journal of Prison Discipline," so ably

edited by the late Mr. Packard, of Philadelphia.


his preference to the

and interesting

Sr. Falcao gives

The Eelatorio of

system of Pennsylvania.

the Minister of Justice for the year mentioned


instructive

a deserved com-

Falcao that his able report has been fully reprinted

is

overflowing with

details in regard to penitentiaries

and

Punishments of Slaves.
prisons.

131

however, a mere dry narration of

It is not,

facts,

but

wise suggestions and feasible improvements are laid before the


nation in a

The
all

manner

city prisons

at once clear, attractive,

known

as the Aljube

were in a very sad state

damp

and

forcible.

and the Xadres da Policia

bad ventilation, bad food, and miserable

called forth the loud denunciations of Sr. Falcao

cells,

and

other enlightened philanthropists in Rio, and these evils were soon

remedied.

City prisoners are

ment

now

sent to the Casa da Correc^o.

now enumerated,

Besides the prisons

in the different forts

there are places of confine-

those of Santa Cruz and the Ilha das

Cobras being the principal.

Many of the
at

all

prisoners are slaves, though the Brazilian law

is

not

dainty as to color or

condition. In the Relatorio

of the Minister of Justice


for the

year 1854-55

I find

that from the 7th of Sep-

tember, 1853, to the 16th


of March, 1855, forty slaves

and twenty-one

free

per-

sons (whi ch includes whites

and blacks) were, for mur-

condemned to death.
The punishment of fourteen of the slaves was comder,

muted, and that of bat four


of the freemen.

One department

of this

prison was formerly appro-

priated to the flogging of


slaves,

who are

sent thither

to be chastised for disobe-

dieuce or for

demeanors.

common misThey are re-

THE LOG, IRON COLLAR, AND

TIN

MASK.

ceived at any hour of the

day or night, and retained


choose to leave them.

It

free of

expense as long as their masters

would be remarkable

ciuelty did not sometimes occur here.

if

scenes of extreme

Brazil and the Brazilians.

132

The punishments of the Cast da Correefio are not. however, the


only chastisements which the refractory slave receives.
There are
private floggings; and some of the most ei mmon expiations are
The last two
the tin mask, the iron collar, and the log and chain.
denote runaways
to

mask

but the tin

is

upon the visage

often placed

prevent the city-slave from drinking eachaca and the country-

which many of the field-negroes are

slave from eating clay, to

This m^nid.

addicted.

for

can be called nothing

it

else.

not

if

checked, causes languor, sickness, and death.

The

subject of slavery in Brazil

The

fulness.

nor indirectly, color as


black

man

down,

it

one of great interest and hoperecognises, neither directly

a basis of civil rights:

hence, once free, the

or the mulatto, if he possess energy

social

position from which

Until 1850,

debarred.

is

Constitution

Braziliau

when

and

his race in

talent, can rise

North America

is

the slave-trade was effectually put

was considered cheaper, on the country-plantations,

to

use up a slave in five or seven years and purchase another, than to

take care of him.

This I had. in the interior, from intelligent

native Brazilians, and


since the

inhuman

my own

traffic

observation has confirmed

But,

it.

with Africa has ceased, the price of slaves

has been enhanced, and the seltish motives for taking greater care
of

them have been

Those

increased.

than those on the plantations

in the city are treated better

they seem more cheerful, more

of fun. and have greater opportunities for freeing themselves.


still

there must be great cruelty in some cases, for suicides

slaves

which

are almost

unknown

in our

ever, be attributed to cruelty

the descendant of those

who

knowledge of the hopes and


which the Scriptures hold out
to

avoid the crime of suicide

that of murder.

The negro

':

among

Southern States

of very frequent occurrence iu the cities of Brazil.

Can

full

But

this,

are
how-

of the United States

is

have, in various ways, acquired a


fears, the

to the
is

rewards and punishments.

good and threaten

to the evil

as strongly inculcated as to avoid

The North American negro

has.

by

this

very

circumstance, a higher moral intelligence than his brother fresh

from the wild freedom and heathenism of Africa


Led

by

cruelty, or his high spirit refusing to

man, takes that


world.

fearful leap

which lands him

hence the

bow
in

to the

latter,

white

the invisible

Brazilian Laws in favor of Freedom.

133

In Brazil every thing is in favor of freedom j* and such are the facilities for the slave to

emancipate himself, and, when emancipated,

if

he possess the proper qualifications, to ascend to higher eminences


than those of a mere free black, that fuit will be written against
slavery in this Empire before another half-century rolls around.

Some

of the most intelligent

men

educated at Paris and Coimbra


ancestors were slaves.

how

merit, no matter

refused him.

Thus,
black

that I

were
a

if

may

met with

man have

freedom, money, and

It is surprising also to observe the ambition

men with

and plenty of books

is

and

negro blood in their

The National Library furnishes not only

tables,

men

be his skin, no place in society

the advancement of some of these


veins.

in Brazil

of African descent, whose

quiet rooms, large

to the seekers after knowledge, but

pens and paper are supplied to such as desire these aids to their
studies.

Some

of the closest students thus occupied are mulattoes.

Formerly a large and successful printing-establishment


that of Sr. F. Paulo Brito

was

owned and

directed

in

Bio

by a mulatto.

In the colleges, the medical, law, and theological schools, there

no distinction of
a certain

is

It must,

color.

though by no

over the land in favor of

means strong

men

is

however, be admitted that there

prejudice

existing

all

of pure white descent.

In some intestate cases, a slave could go before a magistrate, have


his price fixed,

man

and purchase himself; and I was informed that a

of mental endowments, even

debarred from no

official

if

he had been a slave, would be

station, except that of Imperial Senator.

But the law of 1871 settled the future status of slavery.


The appearance of Brazilian slaves is very different from that of
their class in our

own

country.

Of

course, the house-servants in

the large cities are decently clad, as a general rule


are almost always barefooted.

On

This

is

but even these

a sort of badge of slavery.

the tables of fares for ferry-boats, you find one price for persons

wearing shoes, (calgadas,) and a lower one for those

descalgas, or

Southern lady (the wife of the very popular United States Consul at Rio

during the administration of President Pierce) used to say that "the very paradise
of the negroes
choose,

was Brazil ;"

may make

their

for there they possess a

way up

in the world.

warm

climate, and, if they

Brazil and the Brazilians.

134
without shoes.

In the houses of

many of the wealthy Fluminenses

you make your way through a crowd of little woolly -heads, mostly
guiltless of clothing, who are allowed the run of the house and the
amusement of seeing visitors. In families that have some tincture
of European manners, these unsightly

background.

friend of

bipeds are kept in the

little

mine used frequently

to dine in the

house of a good old general of high rank, around whose table

gambolled two

little

jetty blacks,

who hung about

their "pai" (as

they called him) until they received their portions from his hands,

and

that, too, before

he commenced his

own

dinner.

lady of the house drove out, these pets were

Whenever the

put into the carriage,

and were

as

much

offended

at being neglected as

only

spoiled

any

They

son.

were the children of the


lady's nurse, to

whom

she

had given freedom. Indeed,


a faithful nurse

generally

is

rewarded by manumission.

The appearance of the


black male population
live in

the open air

is

who
any

thing but appetizing. Their

apology for dress

and

coarsest
scription.

is

of the
de-

dirtiest

Hundreds

them

loiter

streets

with large

about

wicker-baskets

of

the

round

ready

to

carry any parcel that you


desire conveyed. So cheaply

and readily
PRETO DE GANHO AND QUITANDEIRA.

is

this help ob-

tained, that a white servant

seldom thinks of carrying

home

a package, however small, and would feel quite insulted

if

him of a roll of calico


or a watermelon. These blacks are sent out by their masters, and
They are allowed
are required to bring home a certain sum daily.

you refused him a preto de ganho

to relieve

The Mina Hercules.

135

a portion of their gains to buy their food, and at night sleep on

a mat or board in the lower purlieus of the house.


You frequently see horrible cases of elephantiasis and other diseases,

which are doubtless engendered or increased by the


bestowed upon them.

care

little

Formerly the coffee-carriers were the finest race of blacks. They


were almost all of the Mina tribe, from the coast of Benin, and were
athletic

and

intelligent.

They worked

half clad, and their sinewy

forms and jetty skins showed to advantage as they hastened at a


quick

trot,

seemingly unmindful of their heavy loads.

paid well, but soon broke them down.

This work

They had

a system

among themselves of buying the freedom of any one of their number who was the most respected.
After having paid their master
the sum required by him daily, they clubbed together their surplus
There was a Mina black

to liberate the chosen favorite.

in

Eio

remarkable for his height, who was called "The Prince," being,
fact, of

the blood-royal of his native country.

of war, and sold to Brazil.


freed

him by

He was

engaged

know

Eio once

and was a

in war,

second time made prisoner and brought back.


regained his throne I

a prisoner

It is said that his subjects in

their toil: he returned,

in

Whether he ever

not; but the loss of

it

did not

seem to weigh heavily on his mind. He was an excellent carrier;


and, when a friend of mine embarked, the "Prince" and his troop
were engaged to transport the baggage to the

He

ship.

carried

the largest case on his head the distance of two miles and a half.

This same case was pronounced unmanageable in Philadelphia

by the united

efforts of four

American negroes, and

relieved of half its contents before they

it

had to be

would venture to

lift it

up-stairs.

From time

to time the traveller will

those portions of Africa of which

meet with negroes from


little except by

we know very

the reports of explorers like Livingstone, Barth, and Burton.

have often thought that the slaves of the United States are
descended not from the noblest African stock, or that more than a
I

century of bondage has had upon them a most degenerating

We

find in Brazil

very inferior

an almost untamable disposition.


a good house-servant, for he

is

spiritless Africans,

effect.

and others of

The Mina negro seldom makes

not contented except

in

breathing

Brazil and the Brazilians.

186
the fresh

The men become

air.

and the women

coffee-carriers,

quitandeiras, or street pedlars.

These Minas abound at Bahia, and in 1838 plunged that city into

the

last which that nourishing municipality has


was rendered the more dreadful on account of
combinations of these Minas, who are Mohammedans,

a bloody revolt,
experienced.

the secret

It

and use a language not understood by other Africans or by the


Portuguese.

When

the delegation from the English Society of Friends visited

Bio de Janeiro in 1852, they were waited upon by a deputation of


eight or ten

They had earned money by hard

Mina negroes.

now

labor and had purchased their freedom, and were

They had funds

returning to their native land.

passage back again to Africa, but wished to

from the

really free

for

know

desirous of

paying their

the coast were

if

Sixty of their companions had

slavers.

left

Bio de Janeiro for Badagry (coast of Benin) the year before, and

had landed

in safety.

last information,

The good Quakers could

thinking

it

scarcely credit this

almost impossible that any

who had

once been in servitude " should have been able and bold enough to

make

an experiment;" but the statement of the Minas

so perilous

was confirmed by a Bio

ship-broker,

who

put into the hands of the

Friends a copy of the charter under which the sixty Minas sailed,

and which showed that they had paid four thousand dollars passage-

money.
Candler

(See Appendix.)

& Burgess

A few

days after this interview, Messrs.

received from these fine-looking specimens of

humanity "a paper beautifully written


chiefs,

who

is

In Bio the blacks belong to

many

to each other, having different usages

negroes

still

by one of

in Arabic

their

Mohammedan/'
some being hostile
The Mina

tribes,

and languages.

remain Mohammedans, but the others are nominal

Boman Catholics.
Many of them,

however, continue their heathen practices.

1839, Dr. Kidder witnessed in

Engenho Velho a

funeral,

In

which was

of the same kind as those curious burial-customs which the African


traveller beholds on the

into a basket in

a fetisch.

Gaboon Biver.

You can

which the quitandeiras carry

The most common

is

fruit

scarcely look

without seeing

a piece of charcoal, with which, the

abashed darkey will inform you, the "evil eye"

is

driven away.

English Slave-holders.

137

among the negroes, in which the


highest rank is assigned to the man who has taken the most lives.
They are not so numerous as formerly, but from time to time harm
There

is

a singular secret society

These blacks style themselves

the unoffending.

and

capoeiros,

during a festa they will rush out at night and rip up any other

They rarely attack the


would cost them too dearly.

black they chance to meet.


ing, perhaps, that it

The Brazilians are not the only proprietors


There are

Empire.

in bondage,

many Englishmen who have

some for a

series of years,

whites,

know

of slaves in the

long held Africans

and others have purchased

when what is called the Lord Brougham Act


was passed. By this act it is made unlawful for Englishmen to
buy or sell a slave in any land, and by holding property in man
they are made liable, were they in England, to prosecution in
criminal courts.
The English mining-company, whose stockholders
are in Great Britain, but whose field of operations is S. Joao del
Eey in Brazil, own about eight hundred slaves, and hire one thousand more. 1865, the English government remedied this.
slaves since 1843,

Frenchmen and Germans

also purchase slaves, although they

have not given up allegiance to their respective countries.


If
is

it

be asked,

"

Who will be the

no more?" the reply

is,

laborers in Brazil

though the

that,

broken, the man, and a better man,

come from Germany, Portugal,

still

exists;

when

slavery

bonds are

slave's

and emigrants

the Azores, and Madeira.

will

There

is

a moderate yet steacly stream of emigration into Brazil.


It is a striking fact that emigrants did not begin to arrive

Europe by thousands until 1852.


trade

was

annihilated,

In 1850 and

and in the succeeding year commenced the

Each year

present comparatively vigorous colonization.

of colonists

is

increasing, but old

selfishness of speculators
is

will

the

number

and narrow laws and the grasping


There

have greatly impeded emigration.

great reform needed here, and the complaints from

England

Germany and

hasten reform.

Almost every step

in Brazilian progress

has been prepared by a

previous gradual advance: she did not leap at once into

government.

from

'51 the African slave-

She was raised from

a colonial state

self-

by the residence

of the Court from Lisbon, and enjoyed for years the position of

a constituent portion of the


peaceful state of the

Kingdom

The present
was preceded by

of Portugal.

Empire under D. Pedro

II.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

138

the decade in which the capabilities of the people for self-govern-

ment were developed under the Regencj^. The effectual breaking


up of the African slave-trade was but the precursor of a more important step, and that step was taken by the Emancipation laws of 1871.

Slavery

freedom

is

is

doomed

As has already been

in Brazil.

once obtained,

it

may

Such hinderances do

exist in our country.

regions of Texas to the coldest corner of

black man, no matter


tion

how gifted,

when
social

England the

free

experiences obstacles to his eleva-

Across that imaginary line which

which are insurmountable.

separates the

New

no

down a man of
From the warm

hinderances, as in the United States, can keep


merit.

exhibited,

be said in general that

Union from the possessions of Great

condition of the African, socially considered,

is

not

Britain, the

much

superior.

The Anglo-Saxon race, on this point, differs essentially from the


Latin nations. The former may be moved to generous pity for
the negro, but will not yield socially.
The latter, both in Europe
and the two Americas, have always placed merit before color.
Dumas, the mulatto novel-writer, is as much esteemed in France
An instance came under
as Dickens or Thackeray are in England.
my own observation which confirms most strongly the remark
made above. In 1849, it was my privilege to attend with a large
number of foreigners a soiree in Paris, given by M. de Tocqueville,
then French Minister of Foreign Affairs. I was introduced to a
visitor

from the United States,

who

for the first time looked

the scenes of the gay capital, and as

ment-room

by

his

arm

his intelligence,

admiration of

all

rested on mine.

common

with

sense,

whom

we proceeded

upon

to the refresh-

I found that this clergyman,

and modesty, commanded the

he came in contact.

few weeks

afterward a European university of high repute honored him with


the degree of Doctor of Divinity.

In England he was looked upon

with interest and curiosity; but, had he proposed a social alliance


equal to his
his offer.

own

station, I

doubt

if

success would have attended

In 1856, the same clergyman was ejected from a

York railway-omnibus, by

a conductor

who

daily permitted, with-

out molestation, filthy foreigners of the lowest European


to

occupy seats in the identical

car.

New

When

class

the matter was

submitted to the courts of justice, the decision sustained the


conductor.

There was no attempt to place the case on any

Slavery.

139

other ground than that the plaintiff was a

No

man

of African descent.

such decision could ever have been made in Brazil, and since 1861

no such verdict could be rendered in the United States.

am

happ3r to say that on the 28th of September, 1871, a law was

passed for the gradual abolition of slavery.

Children

emancipated the Government slaves.


the Emperor,

private slaves,

To

who has alwa} s taken


and many Brazilians,
T

act

Seven years previous to

this

the side of freedom, liberated his


after 1871, followed his example.

the Visconde do Rio Branco belongs the honor of introducing

the law that gives slavery

by law.

It will die

much

were written in 1857.

Note for 1879.


"

born after

The same

that date are free, though liable to apprenticeship.

1850.

1902

the

It

is

The

is less

of page 133

first five lines

than half a century.

following note on the subject of slavery

treatment of slaves have greatly changed for the better

estimated

that,

by the emancipation by

own freedom, and by

chasing of their

In 1902 slavery ceases

death-blow.

In 1866 I wrote the

The laws and

since

its

sooner.

the

liberation

of

will,

by the

pur-

what were termed

Africanos Ucros, (those taken from captured slave- vessels and apprenticed out for

fourteen years,) the

number

of slaves has decreased one million, so that to-day

Slavery

there are not 2,000,000 at the highest calculation.


fined to the central sea-coast provinces.

some

labor, as

is

now mostly

lost to

From

1850 to

of the advocates of slavery

would have us believe.

I860, inclusive, the great tropical staples of coffee, sugar, cotton,

actually increased

more than 30 per

con-

But the emancipated were not

cent.

One

and tobacco

of the latest notable cases of

emancipation was by the Emperor, who, on the occasion of the marriage (October

16,

1864) of the Imperial Princess to the Count d'Eu, liberated the slaves that were
hers

by dower.

and

in

da Motta repeatedly brought in

Sr. Silveira

the session of

1865, after the collapse of

States, his efforts, with those of the venerable Senator

have brought

this subject

slavery

Confederate

Visconde de Jequitinhonha,

most prominently before the Brazilian people

slavery will doubtless soon be so limited by law that


early date.

bills to limit

the so-called

it

will

and

be extinguished at an

A. C. Tavares Bastos, in the Chamber of Deputies, has been a per-

severing advocate of emancipation."

Now

I can write that in 1871, the act looking to the gradual abolition of slavery,

although far from being perfect, was passed after great deliberation. The Visconde
de Jequitinhonha and Tavares Bastos and

many

other friends of the slave are

already in their graves, but the noble work which they aided in initiating

going on.

Some

after 1871

seem hard, but

is

bravely

of the conditions concerning the apprenticeship of those born


it is

evident from the fact that so

many

are voluntarily

manumitted, and others by funds voted by Government for that purpose, that
slaverv will end before 1902.

CHAPTEE
RELIGION

THE

CORRUPTION OP THE CLERGY

THE PADRE

AMONG THE BRAZILIANS


THE INTRUDO

IX.

MONSIGNOR

BEDINI

TOLERATIOK

CONSUMPTION OF WAX

FESTIVALS

PROCESSIONS ANJINHOS SANTA PRISCILLIANA THE

CHOLERA

NOT CURED BY PROCESSIONS.

The "Koman
Brazil

yet,

Catholic Apostolic"

by the

the religion of the State in

liberal Constitution,

sentiments of the Brazilians,

God

right to worship

is

all

and by the

equally-liberal

other denominations have the

they choose, whether in public or

as

single limitation that the church-edifice

private, with the

not be exterior de

templo,

in

must

in the form of a temple, which has

been defined by the supreme judges to be a building "without

Eoman

steeples or bells."

Catholicism in Brazil has never been

subject to the influences with

Europe since the Eeformation.


neously with the

first

which
It

has had to contend in

was introduced contempora-

settlement of the country as a colony, and

hundred years has been

for three

it

untrammelled course.

It

left

to a perfectly free and

has had the opportunity of exerting

its

very best influences on the minds of the people, and of arriving at


its

highest degree of perfection.

In

pomp and

display

it is

unsur-

The greatest defender of the Church of


Eome must admit that South America has been a fair field for his
ecclesiastical polity; and if his religion could have made a people
great, enlightened, and good, it has had the power to have made

passed even in Italy.

Spanish and Portuguese America a moral, as


dise.

it is

a natural, Para-

Spain and Portugal, at the time of the appropriation of their

possessions in the

English in

all

centuries

but

New

World, were equal,

if

not superior, to the

the great enterprises of the fifteenth and sixteenth

how

widely different have been the results which

have flowed from the colonies founded by both

Brazil

is

in every

respect the superior State of South America just so far as she has

abandoned the exclusiveness of Eomanism.


140

Since the Independ-

Corruption of the Priesthood.


ence, the priest-power has been broken,

of

Eome

141

and the potent hierarchy

does not rule over the consciences and acts of

Chili or Mexico.

On numerous

men

as in

occasions, measures have been

taken in the Assemblea Geral to curtai} the assumptions of the


triple-crowned priest of the Eternal City; and once,* at least,

was proposed
Holy
It

to render the Brazilian

See.

may

be said that the advancement in liberality which the

Empire has displayed has been owing


Granted

ment

it

Church independent of the

to political considerations.

but every reader of history knows that the commence-

of the English Eeformation

was largely implicated with

and England's independence of the Papal power was the

politics,

beginning of her greatness as a state, and paved the

way

for the

rapid moral advancement which characterizes England to-day.

In Brazil, however, other than political views must be taken of


the present freedom from bigotry.

owe the
is

no

loss of their

class of

men

power

in the

The

some extent,

priests, to

whole Empire whose

are so corrupt as those of the priesthood.

lives

and practices

It is notorious.

Relatorios (messages) of the Minister of Justice

paper from time to time contains

this point;

no

traveller,

Every news-

every man,
most unreservedly on

articles to this effect;

his sentiments

whether Eomanist or Protestant, can shut

his eye to the glaring facts.


visited I

The

and the Provincial

Presidents annually allude to this state of things.

whether high or low, speaks

There

to their shameful immorality.

In every part of Brazil that I have

have heard, from the mouths of the ignorant as well as

from the

lips of the

worse, in

many

educated, the same sad tale;

places the priests openly

avow

and,

what

their shame.

is

Dr.

'41, and the


where foreigners are very

Gardner, the naturalist, lived in Brazil from 1836 to


greater part of that time in the interior,
rarely found.

In speaking of the banishment of the laborious and

indefatigable Jesuits,

whose

lives in this portion of

without reproach, this distinguished botanist says,

men they must have been from

the degraded race

take the spiritual welfare of this nation

It is a

America were

"What different
who now under-

hard thing to say,

* This was during the Regency, when Padre Antonio Maria de Moura was nominated

to the

vacant bishopric of Rio de Janeiro.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

142
but I do

not without well considering the nature of the asser-

it

tion, that the present clergy of Brazil are

more debased and immoral

than any other class of men."*

Though we should lament immorality

any man or

in

class of

men, yet the combination of circumstances mentioned has had


effect in

ite

rendering the people, as well as the Government, tolerant.

few years ago, Monsignor Bedini (Archbishop of Thebes, and

once Pope's Legate in the United States and in other partibus

infi-

was the Nuncio of Pius IX. at the Court of Brazil. In


July, 1846, the nuncio went to the mountain-city of Petropolis,
(about forty miles from Bio,) where are many German Protestants,
delium)

who have

a chapel of their own, which, as well as the chapels in

other colonies,

is

protected under the broad shield of the Constitu-

and receives a portion of its support directly from the Govern-

tion,

There had been certain mixed marriages; and Monsignor

ment.

preached a furious sermon, in which he declared that


so allied

were living

in concubinage,

their children illegitimate.

and Bio,

polis

all

Bomanists

their marriages were void, and

storm of indignation, both at Petro-

upon the head of the nuncio, whose

fell

arrival in

by the rumor of an assurance to the Pope


Empire " faster than ever to the chair of

Brazil had been preceded


that he

would bind

this

One of

St. Peter."

the

papers of Bio, a conservative journal

first

always considered the quasi organ of the Government, denounced

M. Bedini

in firm

was once dining with a Roman Catholic gentleman

Janeiro, and, of his


of

but respectful language, and insisted that

my

priest

own

Catholic

who had

In the province of Bahia


a

number

lives

chaplain.

The

priest

were of such a grossly-immoral character that


I received

to

fill

the chaplaincy

obey the injunctions

the acquaintance of a

and a

(who was one of the few


his wish for

Four were men whose

dare not insult

my

readers

from a member of the Romish Church.

was an old man of good repute, but not very

was engaged

made

Five candidates presented themselves.

by the particulars which


fifth

the greatest breaker of the

The proprietor then made known

moral ecclesiastics in Brazil) died.

new

is

was

in the province of Rio de

can

of female operatives under his charge,

chapel connected with his establishment.

How

he reads us the Decalogue, and yet he

seventh commandment."

Roman

"

accord, he s$id to me,

it

active.

As a

The

dernier ressort he

but only a few months elapsed before he was

discovered to be living in open concubinage with an abandoned character, and on

remonstrance would not give up this sinful union.


Monsignor Bedini.

143

the highest imprudence thus to kindle the fires of religious intolerance.

Its

columns contained sentiments in regard to

of which the following

is

a specimen

" Propositions

this subject

like those

emitted from the Chair of Truth by a priest of the character of

Bedini are eminently censurable.'

The nuncio was put down, but not

one of his friends

until

published what were probably the sentiments of Monsignor, in

which he complains of the Emperor for "not taking

sides in the

controversy and using his influence to prevent the spread of


Protestant heresies."

There

is

no country in

thropist and the Christian

South

America where the

have a freer scope

philan-

doing good

for

So far from its being true that a Protestant clergyalways tabooed, and that the people " entertain a feeling

than Brazil.

man

is

toward him bordering on contempt,"


has expressed

it,

as

one writer on Brazil

I can testify to the strongest friendship

with Brazilians in various portions of the Empire,

formed

a friendship

which did not become weakened by the contact of years or by


the plain

my

manifestations and defence of

subscribe to the

remark put

forth

by

my

and I can

belief;

colleague in 1845,

when

he says,
"It

is

my

firm conviction that there

is

not a .Roman Catholic

country on the globe where there prevails a greater degree of


toleration or a greater liberality of feeling

"I
in

will here state, that in all

toward Protestants.

my residence

and travels in Brazil

the character of a Protestant missionary, I never received the

slightest opposition or indignity

from the people.

been expected, a few of the priests made


could

all

As might have

the opposition they

but the circumstance that these were unable to excite the

people showed

how

little

hand, perhaps quite as

influence they possessed.

many

On

the other

of the clergy, and those of the most

respectable in the Empire, manifested toward us and our

work both

favor and friendship.

"From

them, as well as from the intelligent

laity, did

we

often

hear the severest reprehension of abuses that were tolerated in the


religious system

that no

more

and practices of the country, and sincere regrets

spirituality

To one who

pervaded the public mind."

looks alone at the

empty and showy

rites of the

Brazil and the Brazilians.

144

Eoman

Catholic Church in Brazil,

country.

ments that

there

no future for the

is

But when we consider the liberal and tolerant sentiprevail,


when we reflect upon the freedom of debate,

the entire liberty of the press, the diffusion of instruction, and the

workings of their admirable Constitution,

we cannot believe that

future generations of Brazilians will retrograde.


spirit in

tion.

maintaining their

civil rights

They have shown

against ecclesiastical assump-

In 1870, the Bishops of Pernambuco, two reactionaries of the

worst type, undertook to forbid the burial of Masons, and to make


their decrees ride over civil law.

condemned

A faithful

They were

arrested, tried,

and

and hard labor in 1874.


narrator cannot pass over this subject without giving

to prison

a brief notice of some of the peculiarities connected with worship


at the capital, which, to a

certain extent, are those

witnessed in

every pro-

vince of the Empire.

There
a priest

no mistaking

is

or

any

species

of ecclesiastics in Brazil.

The

frades, (monks,) the

Sisters of Charity, as well

as the priests, have their

peculiar costumes,

most

of them exceedingly incon-

venient in a

warm climate.

You cannot be an hour

in

the streets of Bio de Janeiro without

beholding

the padre, with his large

hat

and his closely-but-

and long gown,


moving along with pertoned
M/y- M&V-SNY0fi

fect

THE PADRE.

composure under a

hot sun that makes every

one

else swelter.

In the churches, where there generally pervades

a cool atmosphere, the padre, with his uncovered, tonsured head,

with his thin gowns and airy

laces,

seems prepared for a tropic


The Padre.
clime

but,

when

the mass

is

said

and

145
his duties are finished,

he

garment of common-sense thickness and dons that which


would be comfortable in a Northern winter.

doffs bis

The padre's office is not onerous in Brazil,


make it such and very few are thus inclined.

unless he choose to

families to visit through rude snow-storms;

There are no poor

there

is

no particular

cure of souls, beyond repeating masses in the cool of the morning,


the carrying of the
at a funeral, for

The

confessional

are not

Host

to the

hopeless sick, and attendance

which the carriage and

always provided.

fee are

does not trouble him greatly, for the people

much given

to confession,

knowing too well the charac-

If he is of an ambitious turn of mind, he

ter of the confessor.

perchance he
and there he pour

becomes a candidate for the Chamber of Deputies,


succeeds in securing a seat in the Senate,

will

out more eloquence, in ore rotundo Lusitanian, than he has ever

Perhaps formerly his heaviest duties

delivered from the pulpit.

were

in getting

up

festivals.

as to number, but

which gives work

still

there

They have been wonderfully abridged


a very respectable share of them,

is

and the alms-collectors, and

to the padres

days to clerks, school-children, and

holi-

slaves.

Bishop Manuel do Monte Eoderigues d'Araujo, when professor at


Olinda, published a

that the

compendium

of moral theology, and he states

number of holidays observed in the Empire of Brazil is


Urban VIII. in 1642, with the

the same as that decreed by Pope

addition of one in honor of the patron saint of each province, city,

town, and parish, for which Urban 's decree also provides.
holidays are divided into two general classes

guar da, or whole holidays,

in

which

it is

These

Dias santos de

not lawful to work; and

Dias santos dispensados, or half-holidays, in which the

ecclesiastical

laws require attendance upon mass, but allow the people to labor.

The number of the former

varies from

according as certain anniversaries

fall

twenty

to twenty-five,

on a Sabbath or on

weekday; while the number of the latter is from ten to fifteen.


The celebration of these holidays by festivals and processions
engages universal attention throughout the country; and the
North American

is

reminded of the 4th of July


The number of festivals were

constantly

minus the patriotic enthusiasm.


curtailed within a few years;

yet some
10

five or

six during the


146

Brazil and the Brazilians.

year arrest the course of commerce and material duties generally.

It is particularly observable that all the religious celebrations

are

deemed interesting and important

and splendor which they display.

show and parade

possible

urged in

is

applications for

all

The

in proportion to the

pomp

desirableness of having

all

generally the crowning argument

Government patronage, and

in all

appeals designed to secure the attendance and liberality of the


people.

The daily press of Rio de Janeiro must annually reap enormous


sums for religious advertisements, of which I give one or two
specimens.

The announcement of a
thus concluded
" This festa

is to

festival in the

Church of Santa Eita

be celebrated with high mass and a sermon, at the expense of

the devotees of the said Virgin, the Most Holy Mother of Grief,

by the Board
will receive

add

to

to the splendor of the occasion

by

who

are

all

invited

their presence, since they

from the above-named Lady due reward."

The following
Estrella,

is

and

in the literal

is

the advertisement of a festa up the bay, at

is

as clumsily put together in Portuguese as

English translation which I have given

it

appears

" The Judge and some devout persons of the Church of Our Lady of

Estrella,

erected in the village of the same name, intend to hold a festival there, with a

chanted mass, sermon, procession in the afternoon, and a Te Deum,


greatest

pomp

possible,

display of fireworks.

on the 23d instant

The managers of the

Inhomerim Steamboat Company

to

and at night there


feast

will

all

with the

be a beautiful

have asked the Director of the

put on an extra steamer that will leave the

Praia dos Mineiros at eight o'clock in the morning and return after the fireworks.

"It
render

the devotees will deign to attend this solemn act, to

is

requested that

it

of the most brilliant description.

all

"Francisco Pereira Ramos,


"Estrella,

The following
irreverent

Secretary.

Sept. 17."

will be to

Northern Christians as novel as

of the Divine

Holy Ghost of San Goncalo

"The Brotherhood

of religion.

is

(a small village across

the bay) will hold the feast of the Holy Ghost, on the 31st instant, with
splendor.

it

Devout persons are invited

On

to attend, to give greater

all

pomp

possible

to this act

the 1st proximo there will be the feast of the Most Holy Sacra-

ment, with a procession in the evening, a Te Deum, and a sermon.

On

the 2d,

tho

Festivals, and Consumption of "Wax.


San Gon9alo,

feast of the patron of

racing [!]

But

after which, a Te

it is

at

Deum and

147

three p.m. there will be brilliant horse-

magnificent fireworks."

not the Church alone which advertises the festas.

The

make known

their

tradesmen, having an eye to business, freely


ecclesiastic

wares through the agency of public journals.

following

a specimen

"Notice

is

to the Illustrious

dos Ourives, No. 78,

may

Preparers of the Festival of the Holy Spirit.

Holy Ghosts, with

In

the

Run

be found a beautiful assortment of Holy Ghosts, in gold,

with glories, at eighty cents each


silver

The

smaller sizes, without glories, at forty cents

glories, at six dollars

and a half per hundred

out glories, three dollars and a half; Holy Ghosts of

tin,

resembling

ditto, with-

silver,

seventy-

cents per hundred."

five

The language of the

last

two advertisements seems

blasphemy; but, with the Brazilian public, there

want of veneration

is

in holy things shocking to all

impressions are derived from the

to us like

and a

a levity

whose

religious

word of God.

In some particulars the festivals of

all

They

the saints are alike.

are universally announced, on the day previous, by a discharge


of skyrockets at noon and by the ringing of bells at evening.

During ihefesta,

also,

whether

frequent discharge of rockets

it

is

continue one day or nine,

the

These missiles are so

kept up.

constructed as to explode high up in the air, with a crackling


souna, after which they descend in beautiful curves of white
if in 1he

who

daytime, or like meteoric showers

if at night.

smoke

Dr. Walsh,

had resided a number of years in Turkey, thought that the

Turks of Constantinople in their fondgunpowder on festival occasions. He, moregives an estimate, by which it would appear that "about

Brazilians quite equalled the

ness for exploding


over,

seventy-five thousand dollars are

gunrowder and wax,


all

these exhibitions of

sumsd

annually expended in Eio for

the two articles which


pomp and

enter so largely into

splendor."

in vast quantities of candles that are

The wax

is

con-

kept burning before

the different shrines, interspersed with artificial flowers and other


decorations.

Great care

by day

is

bestowed upon

as well as

by

night.

this

manner of adorning churches,

Sometimes regular rows of blazing

takers are so arranged in front of the principal altars as to present


the

appearance of semicones and pyramids of light streaming from

Brazil and the Brazilians.

148

These tapers are

the floor to the roof of the edifice.

all

made

of wax, imported from the coast of Africa for this express use.

No

animal-oils are used in the churches of Brazil

plies the

lamps

is

made from the

olive or

that which sup-

from the palm-nut.

The

tapers are manufactured from vegetable and bees' wax.

Nothing

is

more imposing than the

chief altar of the Candellaria

Church, when illuminated by a thousand perfumed tapers, which


shed their light amid vases of the most gorgeous flowers.

Walsh
S.

states that

on a certain occasion he counted in the chapel of

Antonio eight hundred and thirty large

at once,

Dr.

and the same night,

wax flambeaux

in that of the Terceira

burning

do Carmo,

seven hundred and sixty; so that, in consideration of the number


of chapels from time to time illuminated in a similar way, his

estimate hardly appears extravagant.

Sometimes, on the occasion of these


in the

festivals, a stage is erected

church, or in the open air near by, and a species of dramatic

representation

is

enacted for the amusement of the spectators.

other times an auction

is

held, at

which a great variety of

At

objects,

by purchase or gift, are


The auctioneer generally manages to
keep the crowd around him in a roar of laughter, and, it is

that have been provided for the occasion


sold to the highest bidder.

presumed, gets paid in proportion to the interest of his entertainment.

Epiphany

is

celebrated in January, and

is

styled the

day of

The occurrence of this holiday is not likely to escape the


mind of the most indifferent, for in the morning your butcher
kings.

kindly sends your beef

gratis.

The

festa

on that day

is in

the

Imperial Chapel, the Emperor and Court being in attendance to


give

it

tian's

a truly royal character.


day, on which

patriarch" under

it

is

The 20th of January

is

St. Sebas-

customary to honor the "glorious

whose protection the Indians and the French


laid.
The members

were routed, and the foundations of the city

of the municipal chamber, or city fathers, take especial interest in


this celebration,

and by virtue of their

office

have the privilege of

carrying the image of the saint in procession from the Imperial

Chapel to the old Cathedral.

The Intrudo, answering

to the Carnival in Italy, extends through

the three days preceding Lent,

and

is

generally entered upon bf

The Intrudo.
the people with

149

apparent determination to redeem time for

ail

amusement in advance of the long restraint anticipated.


The Intrudo, however, is no more celebrated as it was when 1
It was then a saturnalia of the most liquid
first went to Eio.
character, and every one, men, women, and children, gave themselves up to it with an abandon most strongly in contrast with
Before it was suptheir usual apparent stiffness and inactivity.
pressed by the police it was a marked event.
It was not with

showers of sugar-plums that persons were saluted on the days of


the Intrudo, but with showers of oranges and eggs, or rather of

waxen

balls

made

These

water.

in the

articles

shape of oranges and eggs, but

beforehand, and exposed for sale in

was of

shell

moment

bespattering whatever

it hit.

of collision

out.

license of pelting

Common

consi-

broke to pieces,

somewhat similar sport


jogo was not confined to

boys or to the streets, but was played in high

and

it

"Unlike the

of snowballing in cold countries, this

in-doors

with

in

admit of being hurled a

sufficient strength to

derable distance, but at the

filled

immense quantities
the shops and streets. The

were prepared

life

as well as in low,

consent seemed to have given the

any one and every one

at pleasure,

whether

entering a house to visit or walking in the streets.

In
ing,

fact,

whoever went out

and found

at all on these days expected a duck-

well to carry an umbrella; for in the enthusiasm

it

of the

game

came

into play syringes, basins, bowls,

the

waxen

balls

were frequently soon consumed

water, which were plied without

mercy

and sometimes

then

pails of

until the parties

were

thoroughly drenched.

Men and women perched

themselves along the balconies and

windows, from which they not only threw at each other, but also
at the passers-by.

So great indeed were the excesses which grew

out of this sport that


trates

it

was prohibited by law.

of the different districts

Intrudo from year to year, with but

new

The magis-

formally declared against the


little effect until

1854,

when

chef de police with great energy put a stop to the violent

Intrudo and

its

peltings and duckings.

It is

now

conducted in a

dry but humorous manner, more in the style of Paris and Home.

The origin of the Intrudo was for a long; time considered to have
some remote connection with baptism; but Mr. Ewbank has been

Brazil and the Brazilians.

150
the

first

to trace clearly its beginning,

archaeological

many

follows

article

it

and

very interesting

in a

up to India, that storehouse of

of the practices of the Latin Church.

The procession on Ash-Wednesday

is

conducted by the third

order of Franciscans from the Chapel of the Misericordia, through


the principal streets of the city, to the Convent of

Not

less

S.

Antonio.

than from twenty to thirty stands of images are borne

Some

along on the shoulders of men.

of these images are single;

others are in groups, intended to illustrate various events of scriptural history or

ments of these

Roman

are of the most

effigies

The

dress and orna-

gaudy kind.

The platforms

Catholic mythology.

upon which they are placed are quite heavy, requiring


and eight men

to carry

for a long time.

who walk by

They

them; nor can

all

require to be alternated

by as many

thronged with thousands of people, among

numbers of

slaves,

once engaged

for

single files of

or

wax

others,

The

their side like extra pall-bearers at a funeral.

streets are

their loads.

four, six,

these endure the burden

who seem
in

The senhors indeed

hard labor.

The images pass

men on

whom

are

highly amused to see their masters


toil

under

into the middle of the street, with

either side, each one bearing a lighted torch

candle several feet in length.

marches an angel (anjinho) led by a

Before each group of images


priest, scattering rose-leaves

and flowers upon the path.

As the reader may be anxious to know what kind


part in these spectacles, I must explain that they are

of angels take
a class created

for the occasion, to act as tutelary to the saints exhibited.


girls,

from eight to ten years

this capacity, for

which they are

Its leading design

dress.

old, are

Little

generally chosen to serve in

fitted

out by a most fantastic

seems to be to exhibit a body and wings

wherefore the skirt and sleeves are expanded to enormous dimensions,


silks,

On

by means of hoops and cane framework, over which

flaunt

gauzes, ribbons, laces, tinsels, and plumes of diverse colors.

their head is placed a species of tiara.

ringlets

down

their faces

Their hair hangs

and necks, and the triumphal

which they march along shows that they

fully

air

in

with

comprehend the

honor they enjoy of being the principal objects of admiration.


Military companies and bands of martial music lead and close

up the procession.

Its

march

is

measured and slow, with frequent

The Anjinho.

151

pauses, as well to give the burdened brethren time to breathe,

as to give the people in the streets and

seem

to look

to

on with any

very elevated

emotions.

same

All could see the

images

kindred

or

windows opportunity

Few

gaze and wonder.

in

when they

the churches

please; and, if the design


is

to edify the people, a

troublesome and at

less

more effecmode might easily be

the same time


tual

adopted.

There appears

but

solemnity con-

little

nected with

the

and most of that

is

scene,

shared

by the poor brethren who


tug

and

sweat

the platforms

under

even they

occasionally endeavor to

enliven each other's spirits

by entering
tion

^v -

into conversa-

and pleasantry when

THE

relieved

by

their

ANJINHO.

alter-

nates.

When

the Host

is

carried out on these

and other occasions, but a

small proportion of the people are seen to kneel as

no compulsion

is

used

when any

it

passes,

and

are disinclined to manifest that

degree of reverence.*

* In 1852 John Candler and Wilson Burgess, two philanthropic Englishmen


belonging to the Society of Friends, went to Brazil for the purpose of presenting
to the

Emperor "an address on slavery and the slave-trade."

tume attracted much notice


narrative,

in the streets;

"as we were walking

in the

Rua

"and on one

Their singular cos-

occasion," they say in their

Direita, a Brazilian

gentleman accosted

us in imperfect English, informing us that he had been in England, and

Quakers.

knew

'They [the Brazilians] ask me,' he continued, 'who you are;

them Friends,

very good people.'

the

I tell

Finding him disposed to be familiar, we told


Brazil and the Brazilians.

152

No

class enter into the spirit of these holiday

zeal than

They

the people of color.

are,

parades with more

moreover, specially

complimented from time to time by the appearance of a colored


saint, or of

Nossa Senhora under an ebony


comes

parente," (There

my

"La

skin.

vera o

meu

was the exclamation heard

kindred,)

by Dr. Kidder from an old negro, as a colored effigy, with woolly


hair and thick lips, came in sight; and in the overflow of his joy
the old

man had

by such appeals
Palm Sunday

expressed the precise sentiment that

and

to the senses
in Brazil

is

addressed

celebrated with a taste and effect that

cannot be surpassed by any

artificial

make

The Brazilians

ornaments.

are never indifferent to the vegetable beauties

surrounded, since they

is

feelings of the Africans.

by which they are

use of leaves, flowers, and branches

of trees on almost every public occasion

the display of the real palm-branches

but on this anniversary

is

not only beautiful, but

often grand.

Holy Week, by which Lent


religious services

is

terminated,

is

chiefly devoted to

designed to commemorate the history of our

Lord; but so modified by traditions, and mystified by the excess of


ceremonies, that few, by means of these, can form any proper

what really took place before the crucifixion of Christ.


The days are designed in the calendar as Wednesday of darkness,

idea of

Thursday of anguish, Friday of passion, and Hallelujah Saturday.

Maunday Thursday,
noon of that day

till

as the English render

the explosion of rockets are

excluded from

all

it, is

the churches; the temples are illuminated within

him we were seeking the National Library.

'

I will

Catholic

We

number

requested him not to take us that way, as

was his rejoinder; 'leave that


hat,

to me.'

On coming

and as we passed through them he

must give dispensation;' and we were


dispensation

is

just avoided.

said.

we could not

to give offence.
to the
'

'

take off

Never mind,'

people he took

These are

my

friends

suffered to go on without molestation.

not permitted in Portugal."

John Candler and Wilson Burgess.

its

of persons stood bareheaded before

oar hats in honor of the service, and we desired not

own

we had

church, in which high mass was performing, opened by

principal entrance into the court, and a

the doors.

Taking

go with you,' he said.

us by the arm, he took us by a narrow paved court-way which

A Roman

kept from the

The ringing of bells and


now suspended. The light of day is

the following noon.

Narrative of a recent

visit

London, 1853: Edward Marsh.

to

off his
;

you

Such

Brazil by

An
by wax
is

Imposing Procession.

tapers, in the midst of which,

Two men

exposed.

153

on the chief

stand in robes of red or purple silk to watch

In some churches the effigy of the body of Christ

it.

Host

altars, the

is

laid

under

a small cloister, with one hand exposed, which the crowd kiss,
depositing

money on

a silver dish beside

it

At

same time.

at the

night the people promenade the streets and visit the churches.
This
is

is

also an occasion for a general interchange of presents,

and

who

are

turned greatly to the benefit of the female slaves,

allowed to prepare and

Friday continues

sell

silent,

body of

sentation of the

confectionery for their

own emolument.

and a funeral-procession, bearing a repre-

Christ,

is

borne through the

At

streets.

night occurs a sermon, and another procession, in which anjinhos,

decked out as has already been described, bear emblematic devices


alluding to the crucifixion.

One

fifth

the ladder, and

Never

a sixth the cock that gave the warning to Peter.

more crowded than on

balconies

to behold one's

own

hundreds of families
is

who

torch,

is

an interest

otherwise might remain at home.

at the long line of the gown-clad

as

There

this occasion.

are the

children performing a part, which draws out

no procession more beautiful and imposing than

mense

ham-

carries the nails, another the

mer, a third the sponge, a fourth the spear, a

men, bearing

in

There

As I gazed
one hand an im-

this.

and leading by the other a brightly-decked anjinho,

from time to time

saw the images of those who were active or


which was presented on Calvary

silent spectators of that sad scene

eighteen hundred years ago,

hand and
tread,

as

their
I

as

I beheld the soldiers,

helmet

in

arms reversed, marching with slow and measured

heard the solemn chant issuing from the voice of

child-

hood, or as the majestic minor strains of the marche funebre wailed

upon the

night-air,

But when a

the

aesthetic feelings

were powerfully moved.

halt occurred, and I witnessed the levity

and the utter

indifference of the actors, the effect on myself vanished,

and

could at once see that the intended effect upon the multitudes in
the street and in the neighboring balconies was entirely lost.*

* In

Brazil, all veneration is taken

things of our holy religion.


tholic gentlemen, of

Sergipe del Rey.

At Bahia

away by

the familiarity of the most sacred

I learned,

through a number of

an occurrence which took place

It

was

at a festival,

Roman

Ca-

in 1855, in the province of

and there was

to

be a powerful sermon

Brazil and the Brazilians.

154

Hallelujah Saturday

is

better

known

as " Judas's day," on account

of the numerous forms in which that "inglorious patriarch"

made

to suffer the vengeance of the people.

been made beforehand, rockets are

fired in front of the

a particular stage of the morning service.

is

Preparations having

churches at

This explosion indicates

The sport now begins forthThe effigies of poor Judas become


the objects of all species of torment. They are hung, strangled, and
drowned. In short, the traitor is shown up in fireworks and fantastic figures of every description, in company with dragons,
that the hallelujah

is

being chanted.

with in every part of the town.

serpents,

and the

and

devil

his imps,

KILLING

which pounce upon him.

JUDAS.

Besides the more formal and expensive preparations that are

made

for this celebration

by

negroes have their Judases,


preached on the crucifixion.

public subscription, the boys and the

whom

they do feloniously and mali-

civilized Indian,

by the promise of muita cachaga,

(plenty of rum,) consented to personify our Saviour on the cross.

was a trying one, and


in

at the foot of the crucifix stood a

which was a sponge attached

was

to a long reed.

to refresh the caboclo forgot his

quence of the Padre.

office

bucket

with rum,

The individual whose duty

away by

while carried

The Indian, however, did not forget

out, "

Sbnhor

more

(0 Mr. Jew, Mister Jew, a

it

the florid elo-

his contract, and, to the

astonishment as well as amusement of the audience, shouted


Judeio, mats fel!"

His position

filled

little

Senhor Judeo,
gall

!)

Collections and Collectors.

155

ciously drag about with ropes, hang, beat, punch, stone, burn, and

drown, to their hearts' content.

Lent being over, Easter Sunday


joyous strains of music from

fine

is

bands or large orchestras; by

the churches with unwonted splendor; and by the

illuminating

triumphal discharge of rockets in the

and

fjrts

ushered in by the quick and

air,

and of

artillery

from the

batteries.

On Whitsunday

the great feast of the

Holy

Spirit

is

celebrated.

In preparation for this, begging-processions go through the streets,


a long while in advance, in order to secure funds.

In these expedi-

wear a red scarf (capa) over their shoulders


a display of flags, on which forms of a dove are

tions the collectors

make

the}-

quite

embroidered, surrounded by a halo or gloria.

windows and

at

Thewe are handed

and waved to individuals to

doors,

in

kiss: they are

followed by the silver plate


or silk bag, which receives

donation

the

from

pected
least,

who

The

public

tified

of

that

>

no-

approach

of

personages

b}T the music of a

tatterdemalion

<?

at

duly

are

emblem.

kiss the

august

these

those,

all

the

ex-

is

band of
or

negroes,

by the songs and tambourine

accompaniments

of

who some-

sprightly boys

times carry the banner.


Collections of this stamp

are

very frequent

cities of Brazil,

as

some

festa is

anticipation.

miniature
saint

in

Generally a

image

is

the

always

whose honor

templated

in

inasmuch

of

the

is

con-

COLLECTORS FOR CHURCH FESTIVALS.

handed around

with much formality, as the great argument in favor of a donation.


The devotees hasten to kiss the image, and sometimes call up their

Brazil and the Brazilians.

156

children and pass

and a
as

the

it

round to the

These

lips of each.

class of females called beatas, at times

become

collectors,

as troublesome

were the common beggars before they were accommodated at


House of Correction. Occasionally but one or two of these indi-

viduals go around, crying out, with a most nasal twang, in the street

and at every corner, " Esmolas [alms] para nossa Senhora" of


or that church.
(1866, this begging is greatly curtailed.)

On
astic

this

we behold a pair of these semi-ecclesiwho may be seen returning along the Praia

the preceding page

gentlemen-beggars

da Santa Luzia after one of their collecting-excursions.

The expeditions

for Espirito Santo

assume a very peculiar and

grotesque character in remote sections of the Empire.

The

late

Senator Cunha Mattos describes them, in the interior, under the

name

He

of fulioes cavalgadas.

met one between the


posed of

fifty

mentions

in his Itinerario

having

and Paranahiba, com-

rivers of S. Francisco

persons, playing on violins, drums, and other instru-

ments of music, to arouse the

liberality if not the devotion of the

people; and also prepared with leathern sacks and mules, to receive

and carry

off pigs, hens,

and whatever

else

might be given

them.

Among

the Indians in the distant interior, the live animals are

frequently promised beforehand to some particular saint; and often,

when a
is St.

traveller wishes to

John's pig;"

or, "

buy some provisions, he

is

assured,

"That

Those fowls belong to the Holy Ghost."

The procession of Corpus Christi is different from most of the


others.
The only image exposed is that of St. George, who is set

down

"defender of the Empire."

in the calendar as the

How

this

"godly gentleman of Cappadocia" became the defender of Brazil


I

have not been able to ascertain; but

does on Corpus Christi day


a daylight
St.

George

affair,
is

and occurs

fair

his festival

w ith
T

celebrated

falling

great pomp.

as

it

It is

in the i;>leasantest season of the year.

He

is

countenance, with a flowing wig of flaxen curls

floating on his shoulders.

He flourishes

in

armour and a red velvet

For the day some devout person of

saint his jewels; but


glories

is

always carried around the city on horseback.

ruddy and of a
mantle.

when

the festival

and put away for the moths

till

is

his

over he

name
is

lends the

stripped of his

the following year.

not remarkable for his horsemanship: his

stiff

He

is

legs stick out on

Santa Prisctlliana.

men

each side, and two

had

157

hold him to the saddle.

been no better equestrian, the dragon

If his prototype

would have been un-

killed to the present day.

The Emperor walks bareheaded, and carrying

a candle, in this

procession, in imitation of the piety of his ancestors,

and

is

attended

by the Court, the cavalheiros, or knights of the military orders, and


the municipal chamber in full dress, with their insignia and badges
of

Whenever

office.

the

Emperor goes out on these

inhabitants of the streets through which he

other in the display of rich silk and

windows and balustrades of

is

occasions, the

to pass rival each

damask hangings from the

their houses.

In 1846, a certain Brazilian had the distinguished honor of trans-

Eome

porting from

to Eio

the holy ^remains of


r-virgin

St.

H^

the

Priscil-

This was deemed a


mspicious acquisition
e city

by some, but
was highly

by others

it

condemned

as

an egregious

humbug. Nevertheless, she

was inaugurated. In order


that the bones might not

appear as repulsive as those


of the renowned "eleven

thousand virgins"

Church of
Cologne, the
of

St.

in the

Ursula

St. Priscilliana

at

remains

frail

were en-

cased in wax by some clever


artist at

Eome

at the time

her saintship was said to

have been removed from


the catacombs where she

SANTA

PRISCILLIANA.

had been buried more than


a thousand years
St. Priscilliana' s

likeness

was engraved, and the picture was

"exchanged;" and the above engraving

is

a fac-simile of the one


Brazil and the Brazilians.

158

" exchanged" while I resided in Eio de Janeiro.

She

represented

is

with a sword stuck unpleasantly through her delicate neck, which

means, as the Bishop of Eio de Janeiro* hath

it,

Emperor
manner
The

that the

Julian the Apostate had her put to death in this

erudite bishop does not give us any of his authorities; but the faithful

when

are expected never to entertain the least doubt


speaks.

very

know

little is

a high prelate

not what miracles she has performed at Eio, for

heard concerning her at present, and

it is

certain that

she did not prevent the yellow fever and cholera from visiting the
capital of the Empire.

It

may, however, be

hand, that this was not the department of


Sebastian

When
as in

is

asserted,

as St.

supposed to have the city under his especial charge.

the cholera visited the coast of Brazil, though not so fatal

Europe and the United

among

extensive

States, yet its ravages

the slaves,

who had escaped

which in former years had attacked the whites.

made

on the other

St. Priscilliana ;

were somewhat

the yellow fever

When

the chole

appearance at Eio, the city was in a universal

its

charms and amulets were eagerly sought

of terror:

superstitious preventives

were invented every hour.

after,

wl
and

Prayers of

were worn next to the skin, as they are among the Mohammedans of Arabia or the heathen of India. Badly-executed pic-

saints

tures of St. Sebastian were "exchanged" for a few vintems, and a


star,

with a prayer to the Yirgin Mary, called "The miraculous

Star of Heaven," was considered a certain safeguard to any person

who

possessed

it.

the daily papers

Advertisements like the following appeared in

ORACAO PARA BENZER AS CASAS


b

contra a epidemia reinante, ornada de emblemas religiosos,


troca-se por 80

"J Prayer for

rs.,

na Rua dos Latoeiros

blessing residences against the reigning epidemic,

adorned with religious emblems,


59

Eua

n. 59.

is

exchanged

for four cents at

No.

dos Latoeiros."

* Pastoral

letter

published March, 1846, at Rio de Janeiro. Also Noticia Historica

da Santa Priscilliana in the Annuario do Brazil for 1846.

Panic from the Cholera.

159

The succeeding announcement, however, must have been from


some money-making fellow without church-policy in his head,
or he would have advertised his holy ware as troca-se instead
of vende-se.

PALAVRAS SANTISSSMAS

ARMAS DA

ICrHEJA

contra o terrivel flagello da peste,

com

a qual se tern appla-

cado a Divina Justica, como se vio no caso que succedeu no


real mosteiro de Santa Clara de Coimbra

na Rua da Quitanda

n. 174.

em

Pre9o, 320

1480. Vende-se

rs.

"Most holy words and arms of

[Translation.]

the

Church against

the terrible scourge of the pest, with which Divine Justice chasseen in the case which succeeded in the royal monastery

tises, as

of

St. Claire of

Quitanda.

What

Coimbra

To be

in 1480.

sold at

No. 174 Eua da

Price, 16 cents."

the medical faculties

of Rio

de Janeiro and Bahia and

other eminent physicians elsewhere thought of such remedies

know

not

but

we

believe that both they

we

and many of the people

of Rio de Janeiro looked upon this religious quackery in the right


light.

Nevertheless,

there

summoning of the church

was,

in

militant,

the

general

alarm, a

great

and the newspapers of Septem-

ber, 1855, are full of long-sentenced notices of penitential processions.

Such appeals to the faithful were not in vain. The images were
removed and carried through the streets; and torchlight-proces-

immense length in which marched delicate ladies barewere of frequent occurrence. With all these precautions, the
foot
pestilence did not cease, though business went on as usual. Common
sense, however, had not left Rio, notwithstanding the panic which
prevailed.
The secular authorities, urged on by the able editor of
the principal newspaper of the city, at last forbade all processions,
sions of

as the exposure consequent thereon

tended to promote the spread

Brazil and the Brazilians.

160

of disease; so the saints had no more promenades by lamplight,

and the young


It

is

ladies

kept their bare feet at home.

pleasing to contemplate at this crisis the conduct of the

The Emperor and

monarch.
near the

city, in

his family

remained at their palace

order to inspirit the people, although

was the

it

usual time of removal to their mountain-residence of Petropolis.

His Majesty visited the hospitals, and superintended the sanatory


regulations, besides contributing largely to the fund for the sick

poor.

We cannot devote more


ing but painful subject,

space to religion in Brazil,

painful to

this interest-

every true Christian and well-

wisher to his race. If we look at Brazil in the point de vue

we

are overwhelmed at the

amount of ignorance and

religieuse,

superstition

Let any one read Mr. Ewbank's Sketches, and they

that prevails.

will see, archseologically considered,

how

close is the relation be-

tween heathen Borne and Christian Borne.

If

we grant

that this

corrupt church at one time had the only light and knowledge,
there

is

no necessity that we should remain

in modified

darkness

or use the glimmer of lamplight when we may have the clear


gence of the noonday sun. May that light beam upon Brazil

Note for 1866.

There

are several native Protestant churches

The regularly ordained pastors of these churches are


form the marriage ceremony.

letter."

The

The clause of the constitution

Imprensa Evangelica

of the Protestants at Rio published


aries

is

in Brazil.

legally authorized to perin regard to religious

toleration has been fully tested on three different occasions,

a "living

now

efful-

and

is

shown

to

under the auspices of the Presbyterian Mission-

has been reasonably successful.

Several faithful preachers of the gospel

from Europe and North America are now laboring with encouraging success.

most flourishing missions are those of the Presbyterian Board of the United

begun by the

late

be

the bi-monthly religious journal

The

States,

Rev. A. G. Simonton and continued by Revs. Blackford, Cham-

berlain, Schneider,

and others

they have more than realized the hopes enter-

tained by the most sanguine friends.

There are several flourishing churches and

schools in the provinces of Rio de Janeiro, San Paulo, Minas Geraes, and Bahia.

The Emperor on

a trip to San Paulo in September, 1878, visited the Protestant

school under the direction of Rev. Mr. Howell, and his Majesty openly declared
that

it

was the best school of its grade that he had ever seen.

There are also

cessful missions under the auspices of the Presbyterian Southern Board,

suc-

and we

note especially the church and school at Campinas begun under the direction of

Rev. Mr. Morton.

CHAPTER
THE HOME-FEELING

BRAZILIAN HOUSES

MOORISH JEALOUSY
DELIGHT

HER

DOMESTIC

OF THE CITIZEN
BILITY

FAMILY

RECREATIONS

circle,

with

WIFE

THE

MOTHER

BRAZILIAN LADY'S

KILL THE BIXO

BOY

THE

COLLEGIO

THE GENTLEMAN

BRAZILIAN

DUTIES
NO-

STATESMEN

OF KNIGHTHOOD.

their descendants, have

more marked than the home-feeling.

The

no

fireside-

joys and cares, does not belong to the Gaul or to the

its

The Southern European has much in his delicious climate


The old Eoman was one who
out-of-door being.

Italian.

to

THE

POLITICAL PARTIES

The German, the Englishman, and


characteristic

THE

HIGHEST ACADEMIES OF LEARNING


ELECTIONS

ORDERS

GIRL

MILK-CART ON LEGS

DUTIES

THE MARKETING AND WATERING

TROUBLES

BOSTON APPLES AND ICE

COMMON-SCHOOLS

THE

X.

make him an

His existence seemed to be a portion of the forum,

lived in public.

the public bath, the circus, and the theatre.

and newspapers, without

zines,

" Without books, maga-

letters to write,

and with a

fine

him into the open air, there was nothing


him home but the requisitions of eating and sleeping/'
The city of Pompeii probably contained not more than twenty-five

climate always attracting


to call

thousand inhabitants, and only one-sixth of

humed. In that small


merely

for theatrical

thousand spectators.

mans

are, like

district there

its

space has been ex-

have been found public

entertainment, which will

edifices

seat seventeen

Most of the nations descended from the Bo-

them, without the endearing associations connected

with the word home.

There

is,

however, an important exception

Portuguese nation, which in every


more Eoman than any living people. The home
and the family exist; and doubtless the Lusitanians owe this to the
Moors, who engrafted upon the Latin stock something of Oriental
The Portuguese and their American descendants
exclusiveness.
to this rule in the case of the

other respect

to this

is

day watch with a jealous eye their private abodes, and,


many of their hours within those precincts which are

spending

11

161

Brazil and the Brazilians.

162

and family associations have

their castles, the home-attachments

been cherished and perpetuated.


I propose in this chapter to consider the residence

to

trace the education of the children to that age

and the

family,

when they go

forth to occupy the position of adult years.

The city-home is not an attractive place; for the carriage-house


and stable are upon the first floor, while the parlor, the alcoves, and
the kitchen are in the second

Not unfrequently

story.

gjp^

a small

area or court-yard occupies the

^_

space between the coach-house

and the

stable,

and

this space

separates, on the second floor, the

kitchen from the dining-room.

The engraving represents one


of the

is

older city-residences at

The

Eio.

access to the staircase

through the great door whence

festas
is

Every

lock, bolt,

or mechanical contrivance seem

the Pompeiian department of the

composed of broken

it

shut by iron bars of prison-like

as

walls,

At night

and holidays.

dimensions.
older Brazilian dwelling-house.

thunders out on

carriage

the

if

they might have come from

Museo Borbonico at Naples. The

bits of stone

cemented by common mortar,

are as thick as those of a fortress.

In the daytime you enter the great door and stand at the

bottom of the staircase

your presence.

You

unless the family

is

but neither knocker nor

of the highest class,

by a slave from the top of the


there

?)

bell

announce

clap your hands rapidly together

stairs

you are sure

and,

to be saluted

with " Quern e?"

(Who

is

If you should behold your friends in the balcony, you not

by removing the hat, but move quickly


of your hand, as if you were beckoning to some one.

only, if intimate, salute

the fingers

The

furniture of the parlor varies in costliness according to the

degree of style maintained

but what you

may

find is a cane-bottomed sofa at one extremity

always expect to

and three or four

Ladies and Music.

163

chairs arranged in precise parallel rows, extending from each end

toward the middle of the room. In company the ladies are


expected to occupy the sofa and the gentlemen the chairs.

of

it

The town-residences

in the old city

always seemed to

But the same cannot be

beyond description.

me gloomy

said of the

new

houses, and of the lovely suburban villas, with their surroundings

embowering

oi

Some

fruits.

fogo,

foliage,

profusion

of flowers, and overhanging

portions of the Santa Theresa, Larangeiras, Bota-

Catumby, Engenho Yelho, Praia Grande, and San Domingo,

cannot be surpassed for beautiful and picturesque houses.


also the residences of

Baron de Andarahy and the

There are various classes of society

in

Mr.

late

I cite

Gint}^.

Brazil as well as else-

where, and the description of one would not hold good for another;
but, having sketched the house, I shall next endeavor to trace the

inmates from infancy to adult

The

life.

mother almost invariably gives her infant to a


be nursed. As soon as the children become too trouble-

Brazilian

black to

some for the comfort of the senhora, they are despatched to school;
and woe betide the poor teachers who have to break in those vivacious specimens of humanity
Accustomed to control their black
!

nurses,

and to unlimited indulgence from their parents, they

minds to work to contrive every method of

their
efforts

made

placable,

them to order. This does not arise from


want of parental discipline. They are affectionate

to reduce

malice, but from

and

though impatient and passionate,

though extremely

idle

full

of intelligence,

knowledge

French and Italian are

easy to them, as cognate tongues with their own.

and dancing

suit

They

and incapable of prolonged attention.

readily catch a smattering of

ing,

set

baffling the

their volatile

Music, sing-

temperaments; and

have

rarely heard better amateur Italian singing than in Eio de Janeiro

and Bahia.

Pianos abound in every street, and both sexes become

adept performers.
as

it is

in Europe,

The opera
and the

is

first

maintained by the Government,

musicians go to Brazil.

Thalberg

triumphed at Bio de Janeiro before he came to

New

manners and address of Brazilian

and their carriage

is

to

graceful.

make

It is true that

ladies are good,

York.

The

they have no fund of varied knowledge

a conversation agreeable and instructive

but they chatter

nothings in a pleasant way, always excepting a rather high tone

Brazil and the Brazilians.

164

commands given to
Congo or Mozambique. Their literary stores consist mostly of the
novels of Balzac, Eugene Sue, Dumas pere et fils, George Sand, the
gossipping pacotilhas and the folhetins of the newspapers.
Thus
they fit themselves to become wives and mothers.
of voice, which I suppose comes from frequent

Dr. P. da S

who

a gentleman

takes a deep interest in

all

matters of education, and whose ideas are practically and success-

own

fully applied to his

children,

who

possess solid acquirements

as well as graceful accomplishments, once said to me,


all

my

heart to see the day

when our

"I

desire with

schools for girls will be of

such a character that a Brazilian daughter can be prepared, by her

moral and intellectual training, to become a worthy mother, capable


of teaching her
duties

toiling.' '

lent

own

children the elements of education and the

which they owe to G-od and man

to this end,

sir,

am

Such schools are increasing, and some are very excel-

but, in eight cases out of ten, the Brazilian father thinks that

he has done his duty when he has sent his daughter for a few years
to a fashionable school kept

by some foreigner

at thirteen or four-

teen he withdraws her, believing that her education


If wealthy, she

is

already arranged for


.

life,

and

is finished.

in a little time the

father presents to his daughter some friend of his own, with the

soothing remark, "Minha

view of diamonds,
she

stifles

laces,

filha, this is

your future husband."

and carriages dazzles her mental

the small portion of heart that

quietly acquiesces in

may

be

vision,

left her,

and

her father's arrangement, probably consoling

herself with the reflection that

it

will not be requisite to give her

undivided affections to the affianced companion,

Now

that near resem-

The
young lady devolves on her husband, and thenceforth he alone is responsible. He, poor man,

blance of her grandfather.

the parents are at ease.

care of watching that ambitious

having a just sense of his own unfitness for such a task, places

some antique

relative as a

duenna to the young

goes to his counting-house in happy security.

bride,

and takes her to the opera, there to exhibit the prize that
*

conto of reis is one

thousand milreis,

Brazilian never reckons a man's wealth


milreis;" but,

"He

has so

many

equal

to five

by saying, " He

contos."

and then

At night he returns

is

hundred

his contos*

dollars.

The

worth so many thousand

The Wife and Mother.

165

have gained, and to receive the congratulations of his friends on


the lovely young wife that he has bought. ""lis an old tale;"

and Brazil has not a monopoly of such marriages.


Then the same round of errors recommences her children feel
the effects of the very system that has rendered the mother a
:

and outward being. She sallies forth on Sundays and


festas, arm-in-arm with her husband or brother, the children preceding, according to their age, all dressed in black silk, with neck
frivolous

and arms generally

bare, or at

most

GOING TO

and orna-

MASS.

mented, and sometimes covered with a black lace

book

thrown

a light scarf or cape

beautifully arranged

over them, their luxuriant hair

in hand, they thus proceed to church.

veil

prayer-

Mass being duly gone

through and a contribution dropped into the poor-box, they return

home

in the

It is often

same order as

before.

matter of surprise to Northerners

how

ladies can support the rays of that unclouded sun.

the Brazilian

Europeans

glide along under the shade of bonnets and umbrellas; but these

church-going groups pass on without appearing to

bonnet

is,

suffer.

The

however, becoming the prevailing mode.

You remark,

iu

these black-robed, small-waisted

contrast to the ample

dame who

follows them.

young

ladies, a

A Brazilian

matron

Brazil and the Brazilians.

166

generally waxes wondrously broad in a few years,

probably owing

which the national habits


cannot be attributed to any want of temperance

to the absence of out-door exercise, of

deprive her.

It

we must always remember that Brazilian ladies rarely take


wine or any stimulant. On " state occasions," when healths are
drunk, they only touch it for form's sake. During many years of
for

residence, I cannot recall a single instance of a lady being even

suspected of such a vice, which, in their eyes,

reproach that can be cast upon the character.

pronounced
Brazilian woman,
drunk,)

is

um

one of the severest and most withering

baeta Inglez, (an English overcoat;)

is

for a

and the term

toxicated fellow, in the northern provinces,

(He

Estd bebado, (He

is

and almost scolding pitch of a

in the high

In some parts of the country the expression

proaches.
is

the most horrible

is

is

for

re-

dram
an

in-

Elle estd bem Inglez,

very English.) The contrast between the general sobriety of

of Brazilians and the steady drinking of some foreigners


and the regular " blow-out" of others is painful in the extreme.
all classes

Wives

in Brazil do not suffer

from drunken husbands ; but

of the old Moorish prejudices


jealousy.

There

is,

make them

the objects of

many
much

however, an advance in this respect; and, far

more frequently than formerly, women are seen out of the church,
the ballroom, and the theatre.
Nevertheless,

owing to the prevailing opinion that ladies ought

not to appear in the streets unless under the protection of a male


relative,

the

lives of the Brazilian

women

are dull and mono-

tonous to a degree that would render melancholy a European or

an American lady.

At early dawn
is

all

the household

is astir,

and the principal work

Then the

performed before nine o'clock.

selves to the balconies for a few hours, to "

to gossip with their neighbors,

and

ladies betake

loll

and to look out for the milkman

The former brings the milk

for the quitandeiras.

them-

about generally,"

of novel construction to the foreigner,

or

in a cart

at least he has never

seen such a vehicle used for this purpose before going to Brazil.

The cow

is

the milk-cart

Before the sun has looked over the

mountains, the vacca, accompanied by her

door by a Portuguese peasant.


her presence.

little

calf, is

led

from door to

tinkling bell announces

slave descends with a bottle

and receives an

The Milk-Cart and Quitandeira.

allotted portion of the refreshing fluid, for

One would suppose that


The inimitable

sixpence English.
avoided.

Punch

167

which he pays about


all

adulteration

is

thus

says, if in the hu-

man world

the " child

father to the

man/'

is

in the

London world the pump


father to the cow,

is

judg-

ing from the results,

(i.e.

the milk sold in that vast

Alas

metropolis.)

the same

kind

is

that

it is

in

man-

in Brazil

London. Milk

may be obtained pure from


the

cow

you stand

if

in

the balcony and watch the

operation; otherwise your


bottle is filled

from the

tin

can carried by the Oportoense,

and which can has

oftentimes a due proporof the

tion

started

water

that

*"*

from the top of

THE QUITANDEIRA.

Corcovado and has gurgled

down

the

aqueduct and

through the fountain at the corner of the

The

street.

quitandeiras are the venders of vegetables, oranges, guavas,

maracujas, (fruits of the " passion-flower/') mangoes, doces, sugarcane, toys, &c.

They shout out

their stock in a lusty voice,

and

the different cries that attract attention remind one of those of

Dublin or Edinburgh.
noticed in

all.

tramps down the street


her

little

She

sings,

The same nasal tone and high key may be


when their favorite old black
with toys or doces. Here she comes, with

Children are charmed

African tied to her back and her tray on her head.

"Cry meninas,

cry meninos,

Papa has money

Come buy,

in plenty,

ninha, ninha,

come buy

!"


Brazil and the Brazilians.

168

and, complying with the invitation,

down run

the

meninoa

little

and meninas to buy doces doubly sugared, to the evident destruction

Be

of their gastric juices and teeth.

it

remarked, en passant, that

no profession has more patronage in Eio than that of dentistry.

At length

there appears at the head of the street that

a Brazilian lady's day,

the

charm of

He

pedlar of silks and muslins.

an-

nounces his approach by the click of his covado, (measuring-stick,)

and

is

followed by one or more blacks bearing tin cases on their


heads.

He walks up-stairs

sure of a welcome; for, if

they need nothing of his


wares,

the

have

ladies

need of the amusement of

The

looking them over.

negroes deposit the boxes

on the

floor

Then the

and

retire.

skilful Italian

Portuguese displays

or

one

thing after another; and

he manages very badly

if

he cannot prevail on the


economical lady to become
the possessor of at least

As to

one cheap bargain.

payment,

there

need of haste:
call

take

no

is

he

will

again next week, or


it

by

just as the

instalments,

senhora finds

best; only he should like

THE BRAZILIAN LADY'S DELIGHT.

senhora to have that dress,

it

suits

her complexion so well; he thought of the senhora as

soon as he saw

has a box of
of towels,

it

lace,

and the

some just

insertion

a mere nada. Then,


made, a new pattern for the

price,

too,

for pillow-cases,

and trimmings

for

he

ends

under-

garments.

Some

families

this lace,

have negresses who are taught to manufacture

the thread for which

is

brought from Portugal,

and

The Housekeeper's Troubles.


owners make considerable

169

by exchanging the proOne kind of


needlework in which they excel is called crivo. It is made by
drawing out the threads of fine linen and darning in a pattern.
their fair

profit

ducts of their lace-cushions for articles of clothing.

The towels that

are presented to guests after dinner are of the

most elaborate workmanship, consisting of a broad


finished

by a trimming of wide Brazilian

beautiful articles.

sell

the most expensive

Brazilian lady's wardrobe

wholly purchased at home.

Even

if

crivo

thread-lace.

These Italian and Portuguese pedlars

and

band of

she

is

almost

do not buy from the

mascate, she despatches a black to the

Eua do Ouvidor

da Quitanda, and orders an assortment

to be sent up,

or

Eua

from which

The more modern ladies begin to wear


bonnets, but these are always removed in church. Almost every
lady makes her own dresses, or, at least, cuts them out and
arranges them for the slaves to sew, with the last patterns from
she selects what

Paris near her.

is

needed.

She

sits in

the midst of a circle of negresses, for

she well knows that " as the eye of the master maketh the horse
fat," so

the eye of the mistress

maketh the needle

woman

answers to the description of the good


of Proverbs:

"She riseth

up while

portion to her maidens ; she


selleth it;" and,

maketh

it is

to move.

She

in the last chapter

yet night, and giveth a

and lace] and


though her hands do not exactly lay hold on the
fine linen [crivo

spindle and distaff, yet " she looketh well to the

ways of her house-

hold, arid eateth not the bread of idleness," always excepting that

taken on the balcony.

We may infer that the habits

of servants were the

same

in Solo-

mon's time as in Brazil at the present day, judging by the amount


of trouble they have always given their mistresses. j lady of
high rank in Brazil declared that she had entirely lost her health
in the interesting occupation of scolding negresses, of

possessed some scores, and


in order to

knew not what

keep them out of mischief.

one day asked a friend of mine

if

she

whom

she

occupation to give them

A lady

of noble family

knew any one who

desired

to give out washing, as she (the senhora) had nine lazy servants at

home

for

whom

story, saying, "

there was no employment.

We make it a principle

they are the torment of

my life,

She piteously told her

not to

sell

for I cannot find

our slaves, and

enough work to

Bkazil and the Brazilians.

170

keep them out of idleness and mischief."

Another, a marchioness,

said that her blacks " would be the death of her."

Slavery in Brazil, setting aside any moral consideration of the


viz.
is the same which we find the " world over,"
It is

question,

an expensive

and

institution,

in every

is,

way, very poor economy.

When

I have looked upon the careless, listless work of the bondman, and have watched the weariness of flesh to the owner, I have
sometimes thought the latter was most to be pitied. Any cruelty

that

may

be inflicted upon the blacks by the whites

avenged by the vices introduced in

families,

is

amply

and the troublesome

anxiety given to masters.

One

of the trials of a Brazilian lady's

the slaves

who

life is

the surveillance of

are sent into the streets for the purpose of market-

ing and carrying water.

The markets
fish

Bio are abundantly supplied with

in

all

kinds of

Of the former there are many delicate species


the North. Large prices are given for the finer kinds.

and vegetables.

unknown in
One called the garopa

is

much sought

the supper-table on a ball-night.

dollars) are given on such occasions.

a casa de pasto, or

common

for as & piece de resistance for

Fifty milreis (about twenty-five

The market near the Palace Square


cool of the morning.

fish is

always the sign of

restaurant, at Bio.
is

a pleasant sight in the

Fresh bouquets shed a fragrance around, and

the green vegetables and bright fruits contrast well with the dark
faces of the stately

"What

price of this?"

reply; and

woe

Mina negresses who

sell

"

them.

What is the
common

will the senhor give?" is the

betide the

first efforts

of a poor innocent ship's-

steward in his early attempts at negotiation with these queenly


damsels, whose air seems to indicate that with
to sell is

The indigenous

to sell or not

fruits of the

country are exceedingly rich and

Besides oranges, limes, cocoanuts, and pineapples, which

various.

are well

conde,

them

equally indifferent and beneath their notice.

known among

maracuja,

us, there are

pomegranates,

mangoes, bananas, fruitas de

mammoons, goyabas, jambos,

aracas, cambocas, cajus, cajas, mangabas,

and many other species

whose names are Hebrew

ears, but

to

Northern

convey to a Brazilian the idea of


fruits,

which quickly

rich, refreshing,

and

each of which has a peculiar and a delicious flavor.

delicate

Marketing.

With such a variety

to supply

whatever

of either the necessaries or luxuries of

These

articles are

171
is

life,

to be desired, in view

none need complain.

found in profusion in the markets, and also

hawked about through the town and suburbs by slaves and free
negroes, who generally carry them in baskets upon the head.
Persons who wish to purchase have only to call them by a suppressed whistle, (something like pronouncing imperfectly the word
tissue,)

in

which they universally understand

and display their

as

an invitation to walk

stock.

THE EDIBLE PALM, (EUTERPE EDULIS.)

In an outer

market mentioned you find small shops


Here gay macaws and screaming
parrots keep up a perpetual concert with chattering apes and
diminutive monkeys. At a little distance outside are huge piles of
filled

circle of the

with birds and animals.

oranges, panniers of other fruits ready to be sold to the retailer and

the quitandeiras, wicker-baskets

filled

with chickens and bundles of

Brazil and the Brazilians.

172

palmito for cooking.

makes one sad

It

to think that the procuring

of these palmito-sticks has destroyed a graceful palm, {Euterpe


edulis;)

but what

is

there that

we

One

that Maelstrom, the stomach?

sketched at Constancia,
as

we

usually find

it,

slender form and tufted

fifty

the spot to drink

my

of those beautiful trees I

miles from Eio.

It

but gracefully curved

summit above the

uncommon

a picture of such

are not ready to sacrifice to

fill

was not

and, as

tropic forest,

loveliness, that

day

straight,

it lifted its
it

presented

day

after

I visited

of beauty.

Here comes the black cook,

or Csesar, basket on arm,

Jose,

counting with his fingers, and bent on beating

down

to the lowest

price the white-teethed

who

Ethiopian
sides, in

pre-

order that he

may have

a few vin-

tems, filched from his

master, to spend, as he
returns home, in the

purchase

of

little

cachaga, "para matar


o

bixo" ("to

beast.")

the

kill

What

this

much-feared animal

is

has never been ascertained; but certainly,

judging from the protracted effort that

is

required to kill him, he

must be possessed of
remarkable tenacity of
"s*/i/-//V/?/s-..

life,

BARGAIN.

a sort of phoenix

among animals
fish,

and indispensable chickens, being purchased to his


next goes to the street appropriated to the butchers.

some

beef, lean

but not

ill-flavored,

mistaken for patriarchal goat, or a

The

vegetables, fruit,
satisfaction,

he

Here he buys

an apology for mutton easily

soft,

pulpy substance, considered

a great delicacy, (appropriately termed,

by the Emerald

Islanders,

Eating and Drinking.

the

'staggering Bob/')

173

of an unfortunate calf that had

flesh

it was consigned to the


Then he proceeds to the venda to purchase the
his bixo, and wends home, in high good-humor, to

scarcely time to look at the blue sky ere

butcher's knife.

dose for

little

prepare breakfast.

In

many

families a cup of strong coffee

taken at sunrise, and

is

Dinner

then a substantial meal later in the morning.


served about one or two o'clock,

at

foreigners have not been adopted.

and afterward meat,

Soup

always finds a place on a Brazilian

much

Except at

by

relished

It is

table.

it,

and

it is

for the million,

worked

and

usually

generally presented,

foreigners,

compounded of the

or black beans of the country, mingled with some

(jerked beef) and fat pork.

over

is

and pastry at the same time.

fish,

dinners of ceremony, an excellent dish,

feijao,

is

where the hours of

least

came

secca

Farinha, or mandi oca-flour,

is

sprinkled

This farinha

is

the bread

into a stiff paste.

the principal food of the blacks throughout

is

who would consider it much deteriorated by being eaten


any other manner than with the fingers. It is an excellent and

the country,
in

nutritious diet,

and with

it

they can endure the hardest labor.

or mate are often taken after dinner, and the use of tea

The "cha nacional"

more common.

bids

China; but the mate, though not generally used

Northern provinces,
less exciting to

offish

is

Some

European

cities at

Eio

rest.

two

noise, as

reside in the city.

is

is

is

morning.

in the

taken after dinner, and

as quiet at ten o'clock p.m.

Even the

they are generally on

foot,

theatre-goers

at

least if

if

the evening

is

decidedly rainy

usual to postpone the performance until another night.

must be remembered that half an hour's rain transforms the


of Eio into rushing canals,

On

they

So much do the places of public amusement

depend on the pedestrians, that


it

that of

the Middle and

in

families have supper frequently

but in others nothing substantial

make but little

becoming

considered more wholesome than tea, being

the nerves.

they retire very early to


as

is

rival

to

fair

Coffee

all

It

streets

the drainage being on the surface.

a drenching day, the pretos de ganho, or porters,

who lounge

at

make a good harvest by carrying people


on their backs across these impromptu streams. Sales are often
the corner of every street,

announced with

One of the

this condition

"The weather permitting."

greatest delights for the black population of Eio

is

Brazil and the Brazilians.

174

the necessity of carrying water from the chafariz or public fountain, or

street.

from the water-pipe which


Blackey

and happy

is

is

lazily lounges out

Congo

if

at the corner of almost every

with his barril under his arm,

he espies a long queue of his compatriots

awaiting their turn at the stopcock.

Here the news of


world

is

their little

amid bursts

told

of Ethiopian laughter ; or

a small flirtation
ried

on

car-

is

Rosa

with

or

Joaquinha from the next


street; or perhaps there

an upbraiding lecture

is

by

administered

some

jetty damsel from Angola,

whose

voice, to his con-

sternation,

by no means

is

There

pianissimo.

is

other out-door affair

more congenial

i.e.

a sly attempt to

bixo

is

made

an-

much
many

kill

the

at the ad-

joining venda while the

water pours into the


rils

Some
ever,

THE ANGOLIAN'S REPROACH.

bar-

of the earlier comers.

how-

mistresses,

who

find that their

cooks have always to wait


for the water,

make arrangements with

the water-carriers,

who

perambulate the streets with an immense hogshead mounted on


wheels and drawn by a mule.
frequent occurrence,)

men

is

This vehicle, during a

fire,

required to supply the fire-engines.

(not a

These

are generally natives of Portugal or the Azores, and seem

eminently qualified by nature to be hewers of wood and drawers


of water.

They carry the water

up-stairs

and pour

it

into large

earthen jars, which bring to mind the waterpots at the marriage

The huge earthen vases are arranged on


where there is a current of air, and the liquid

of Cana in Galilee.

stands in places

element in them thus acquires a coolness which, though not equal

Family Recreations.
to the

iced

water of the United

Ice

frigidity .

is

in Brazil

North America or manufactured

unknown out of
highest

esteem

wholesome, upon

the city.

but
its

the

States,

an expensive
in

possesses a delightful

Rio de Janeiro.

was

rejected,

It is, of course,

both in the

ice are

as

introduction in 1833, and the

a total loss to the adventurers.

from

luxur}-, either coming-

Boston apples and


latter

175

altogether
first

un-

cargo was

At the present time both com-

mand a good price; and in the month of January the quitandeiras


maybe heard crying out lustily, " Macaas Americanas," (American
apples,)

which they

sell for five

or six vintems each

THE ILHEO WATER-VENDER.

The Fluminensian lady has


watching and household
polis or Tijuca, or

occasionally

cares,

when

respite

from slave-

the senhor takes her to Petro-

perhaps gives her a few weeks of fresh

Nova Fribourgo.

Constancia or

some

Such

visits are not,

air at

however, so

frequent as one would wish, and the senhora must content herself

with

festas,

the opera, and a

An

of duties.

liar intercourse

foreigners

ball, as

a relief from her usual round

evening-party in Rio generally means a

with the higher families

but when the stranger

is

is difficult

ball.

Fami-

of attainment

admitted he

is

by

received en

and all ceremony is laid aside. In such home-circles the


evenings are often spent in music, dancing, and games of romps.

famille,

Brazil and the Brazilians.

176

Here men of highest


stiff exteriors,

position are sometimes seen unbending their

and joining heartily in innocent mirth.

and

called "pilha tres" is a favorite,

is

quite as wild

An American

" pussy wants a corner."

game

and noisy as

gentleman informed

me

that on one occasion he joined in this play with a Minister of the

Empire, the Yiscountess,

(his wife,)

two Senators, an ex-Ministerd' Affaires, and the ladies

plenipotentiary, three foreign Charges

No

and children of the family.


la3T ing aside, for

thus

seemed

The

one feared any loss of dignity by

the moment, his ordinary gravity, and

all

to enjoy themselves in the highest degree.

Brazilians have large families, and

it

is

uncommon

not an

thing to find ten, twelve, or fifteen children to a single mother.

saw a gentleman a planter in the province of Minas-Geraes, who


was one of twenty -four children by the same mother. I afterward
was presented to this worthy matron at Rio de Janeiro.
I

am

persuaded that there

is

much

among

of the home-element

Family fete-days and birthdays are celebrated

the Brazilians.

with enthusiasm.

Though the standard of general morality is very

much lower than

that of the United States and England, I believe

it

to be above that of France,

among

all

and there

is

a home-feeling diffused

which tends to render the Brazilian a more

classes,

man than the Gaul. With a pure religion


would make him infinitely superior to the latter.

order-loving
lencies

The education of the Brazilian boy


There

sister.

made

better than that of his

however, a great deal of superficiality

is,

a "little old

man"

before he

is

twelve years of age,

his stiff black silk hat, standing collar,

he walks along as

were encased

is

his excel-

if

and cane; and

he

in the city

everybody were looking at him, and as

in corsets.

He

is

if

he

does not run, or jump, or trundle

hoop, or throw stones, as boys in Europe and North America.

an early age he

is

having

sent to a collegio,

At

where he soon acquires the

French language and the ordinary rudiments of education in the


Portuguese. Though his parents reside in the city, he boards in
the

collegio,

mother.

and only on certain occasions does he see his father or


learns to write a " good hand," which is a universal

He

accomplishment among the Brazilians; and most of the boys of the


higher classes are good musicians, become adepts in the Latin, and

many

of

them

are taught to speak English with creditable fluency.

"Professores," Collegios, and Schools.

177

The examination was formerly a great anniversary, when


fellows

were starched up

were "crammed"

in their stiffest clothes

for the occasion.

The boys acted

the various professores, in exaltation of their

office,

the

little

and their minds


their parts,

memoriter speeches to the admiring .parents; and the whole

wound up by some patron of


wreaths the " good boys."

The

collegio

again with

and

read or delivered

the school crowning with

was

immense

All were good boys, without exception

then took a vacation of a few weeks, and commenced

young gentlemen" students.


for the better, and many

boarders, the "very

its

But these things have greatly changed


collegios are ably conducted.

The

principals of these establishments,

administrative

was acquainted had,

after a

when gifted with good


One with whom I

sums.

capacities, reap large

few years' teaching, 20,000$000 (ten

The professores do not


by the hour for a stipulated
sum, and are thus enabled to instruct in a number of schools during
the day. The English language has become such a desideratum at
thousand dollars) placed out at interest.

always reside in the

collegio,

but teach

Rio, that every collegio has its professor Inglez.

There has recently been a great improvement in the collegios


as

well as in the public

The

schools.

moned, by a commission under the

professores

Superintendent

were sumof Public

Instruction, to appear at the Military Academy, and there to be

examined as to

their

qualifications

for

giving instruction.

they passed their examination, which was most rigid, they


ceived a license to teach, for which they had to
fee.

The

principals also

tion, if the

pay a

If
re-

certain

were required to undergo an examina-

commission should think

permitted to carry on their

it

collegios

proper; and they were not

without a

certificate.

The

educational authorities also asserted their right to visit these pri-

vate academies at any hour of the day or night, to examine the


proficiency of the scholars at

any time during the term, to

investi-

gate their sleeping-apartments, their food, and whatever appertained to their mental or physical well-being.

mere

threat, but

schools

This was not a

and some were


The system of "cramand the Empire thus took

were actually

visited,

reformed more rapidly than agreeably.

ming" was
under

its

in a

measure broken up,

control the instruction given in the private as well as in


12

178

Brazil and the Brazilians.

the public aulas.

This educational innovation at Rio was owing to

One of

the energetic measures of the late Visconde de Itaborahy.


his adjutants in accomplishing this

who was
Pedro

was Dr. M. Pacheco da

afterwards appointed Regent of

II. at

Rio de Janeiro.

the

Silva,

Imperial College of

The note of reform was sounded, every

duty connected with teachers or scholars was

fully investigated,

and

the revolution was made, notwithstanding the complaints of professor es

who were degraded


children rigidly

as

incompetent, and parents

examined and only promoted

who found

their

in the public schools

after convincing proofs of real progress.

There

is

a common-school

or less modified

by provincial

during the years

S3

stem throughout the Empire, more

legislation.

The General Government

1854-55 educated 65,413 children.

more were educated

in private schools I

How many

have no means of knowing.

In the report of the Minister of the Empire for 1871, the tables of
which were systematized by Dr. J. C, Rodrigues in the Novo Mundo
for October, 1872, 1 find that there

were in the 4,437 schools of every

grade, whether public or private, 133,950 scholars, of which

109,699 belong to the public schools.

number

In 1876, the Government

published the statistics of the schools for 1875, at which time, the
report sa}T s, " there were 5,890 schools, both public and private, for
primar}^

and secondary education, frequented by 187,915 scholars."

This increase has certainly either been very rapid, or the


1871 were defective.

statistics

of

Dr. Rodrigues has written very feelingly and

impartially on the education of his native land, and has

shown by

comparative statistics, with the United States and Europe, that Brazil
is

lamentably behind-hand in the education of the people.

has brought with

it

Slavery

an immense amount of ignorance elsewhere as

well as in Brazil, and the Empire has that, and, except on the seacoast, a sparse population to contend with.

Great credit

is

to be

given to the Minister of the Empire in 1878, Dr. Leoncio de Carvalho, for promoting important

and

liberal reforms in public edu-

cation.

Great ignorance prevails in a large portion of the population, and,

though

many

years

may

elapse before a tolerable degree of

know-

ledge will be properly diffused, yet the beginning has been made,

and the French proverb


que

le

is

true in this as in other things,

premier pas qui coute."

" Ce

n'est

Collegio of Pedro

179

II.

In the city of Rio, instruction can be divided into the following


classes

the

primary, the secondary, (instrugao secundaria,) and

the private schools,

The College of Pedro

(collegios.)

II.,

the

Naval Academies, the Medical College, and the

Military and

Theological Seminary of St. Joseph, are also under the direction

of the State.

In 1876, the total number of scholars in Rio was 17,279.

Through some one of these establishments the juvenile Brazilian


ascends the

which of

hill

capital of Brazil,

the

name

An

of knowledge.

late has

awakened more

was organized

of Collegio de

Dom

institution already referred to,

any other

in the

in the latter part of 1837,

under

interest than

Pedro

It

II.

is

designed to give a

complete scholastic education, and corresponds, in


to the

its

general plan,

lyceums established in most of the provinces, although

in

endowment and patronage it is probably in advance of any of


There was at the opening an active competition for the
those.
All of them are said to
professorships, eight or nine in number.
have been creditably filled. The concourse of students was very
considerable from the

first

stance that
of the

its

is

its

in the vernacular tongue.

point

the circum-

statutes provide expressly for the reading

Holy Scriptures

previous to

organization of the classes.

of great interest connected with this institution

and study

For some time

establishment, copies of the Scriptures had been

used in the other schools and seminaries of the city, where they

were not

was the

worthy an example on
The Rev. Mr. Spaulding (who

likely to be less prized after so

the part of the Emperor's College.


clerical colleague of Dr.

Kidder at Rio de Janeiro) had an

application to supply a professor and an entire class of students

with Bibles; to which he cheerfully acceded, by means of a grant

from the Missionary and Bible

Societies.

The Military and Naval Academies are for the systematic instruction of the young men destined to either branch of the public
service.
At fifteen years of age, any Brazilian lad who understands the elementary branches of a

French language so as to render

it

common

with

education, and the

facility into the national

idiom or Portuguese, may, on personal application, be admitted to


either of these institutions.

I have never witnessed a

teresting scene than the assembling of these

young men

more

in-

for their

Brazil and the Brazilians.

180

morning

recitations.

much

versities, so

manifest

in their

each other of

me back

It carried

Northern uni-

to the

vigor and spirit did the Brazileiro students

sports and repartees, or in their explanations to

points of geometry and engineering which


were soon to be brought before their professors.
The regular army of Brazil is 16,000 men in peace, and 32,000 in

The

war.
it

difficult

was dissolved

national guard that formerly existed,

shall be reorganized after a

new

The Naval Academy was formerly on board


anchor in the harbor, and introduced
1865, the

the water.

academy

until

census.

is

its

a man-of-war at

pupils at once to

removed

upon

life

to the city.

The Imperial Academy of Medicine occupies the large buildings near the Morro do Castello, and is attended by students in
the different departments, to the number of more than three hun-

dred.

full

whom

corps of professors, several of

have been edu-

by

cated in Europe, occupy the different chairs, and,

their reputa-

tion, guarantee to the Brazilian student an extensive course of

lectures

and study.

The

institution is in close connection with

the Hospital da Misericordia, which at

times offers a vast

all

field

for medical observation.

The Theological Seminary of St. Joseph has less attraction for


the Brazilian youth than any other educational establishment
at Bio.

The young

Brazileiro, (of course

we speak

of the gentleman's

Academy,

son,) after leaving his collegio, enters the Medical

or,

having a warlike inclination, becomes a middy or a cadet, or he


possibly

may

enter the Seminary of

turn, he is sent to the

The young
gold lace
toils

Law

St.

Joseph.

Schools at

If he has a legal

Paulo or Pernambuco.

S.

Brazilian likes nothing ignoble

he prefers to have a

around his cap and a starving salary to the cares and

of the counting-room.

The Englishman and German are the


is the jobber, the Frenchman

wholesale importers, the Portuguese


is

the coiffeur and fancy dealer, the Italian

guese islander

is

the grocer, the Brazilian

place in the gift of the

the diplomatic corps


house.
life, is

The

Government

down

to

is

is

is full

the pedlar, the Portu-

the gentleman.

of young

some petty

office

Every

attaches,

from

in the custom-

Brazilian, feeling himself above all the drudgery of

a'man of leisure, and looks down

in perfect

contempt upon


The Brazilian Gentleman.
who

the foreigner,

is

is

and

moustache

his

is

glossiest pattern, his

tionable

ball,

diamonds sparkle,

young lady whose

In spite of

whether

as

dressed in the last

smooth as brush can

irreproachable, his shoes of the smallest

may

His theme of conversation

or some

is

is

his rings arc

unexcep-

short, he has a high estimation of himself

in

clothes.

He

an exquisite.

Paris fashion, sports a fine cane, his hair


it,

drawbacks,

all

The

always grumbling, fretting, and busy.

Brazilian of twenty-five

make

181

father has so

many

and

his

be the opera, the next

many

contos.

of these men, in after-life,

in the diplomatic circle, in the court-room, in the

House

show that they are not deficient in


They can almost all turn a sentence
well, rhyme when they choose, or make a fine ore rotundo speech,
echoed by the apoiados of their companions. Some few become fine
scholars, and more of them are readers than are generally supposed.
Many of them travel for a year or two, and are educated in Europe
The interest which the Brazilians, with
or in the United States.
of Deputies, or in the Senate,

talent or in acquirements.

D. Pedro

II. at their

whose ranks

head, are

now

manifesting in learned societies,

are recruited from the very class mentioned,

monstrates that the "

little old

men"

of twelve have not

all

de-

turned

;" though too much of the vain, the light, and the supermust be predicated of the Brazilian, who looks upon cards,

out " froth


ficial

and the opera as essential portions of his existence.

balls,

such

men you would not expect much

From

of the " sterner stuff" which

enters into the structure of great statesmen.

county has made wonderful progress; and

it

Nevertheless, the

must be added, that

from time to time there have arisen from the lower ranks of society

men

of power,

who have become leaders. There is nothing in


man that can keep him down in Brazil.

the

origin or the color of a


It

must be borne

in

mind that the Brazilian thus described

is

not the portrait of the large majority of the citizens of the Empire,
but of one from the higher classes as generally found in the

cities.

There are exceptions; but the same religion and the same modo
of thinking have, to a greater or less degree, given a similarity
to all

who

comprise the upper ranks of society, and from

come the magistrates,


greatest defect

sound morality,

is

officers, diplomatists,

and

legislators.

whom
Their

not the want of a polished education, but of a

pure religion.

Without

these, a

man may

be

Brazil and the Brazilians.

182

amiable, refined, ceremonious;


sponsible, insincere,
viduals, it

and

but their absence makes him

As nations are made up

selfish.

irre-

of indi-

should be the ardent desire of every Christian and

philanthropist that this Southern people, which have so favorably


set out in their national career,

may

have that which

is

far higher

than mere refinement or education.

The

duties of the Brazilian citizen are clearly defined in the

Constitution and by-laws of the Empire.

has attained his majority

income of one hundred

Each male

citizen

who

entitled to a vote if he possess an

is

Monks, domestics, individuals not

milreis.

in the receipt of 100$000 rent, and, of course, minors, are excluded

from voting.

Deputies to the Assembled Geral are chosen, through

The Senator, who holds his position for


manner
somewhat different from the Deputado.
a

electors, for four years.


life, is

elected in

Electors, chosen

by popular

suffrage, cast their ballots for candi-

dates aspiring to the senatorial

who

stand highest on the

selects one;
electors,
zilian

list

office.

The names of the three

are handed to the Emperor,

who

and thus he who has been chosen through the people,

and the Emperor, takes

Chamber of Peers.

his chair for lifetime in the Bra-

There seems to have been great wisdom

and their excellencies are the


more enhanced when we examine the various laws and qualifications that pertain to elections and candidates in the States of
Spanish America.
The Chamber of Deputies consists of one
hundred and eleven members, and the Senate, according to the
The provincial
Constitution, must contain half that number.
in all these conservative measures,

legislators are chosen directly

An

United States.

Bio de Janeiro

(freguezias) or wards.
for

some weeks before an

clerks

by the people.

election in Brazil is not very dissimilar to an election in the

and inspectors

list

is

divided into ten or twelve parishes

of voters in each parish

election,

for the various freguezias.

Upon an American

held in churches.

is

The

elections are

expressing to a Brazilian his

surprise in regard to this seeming inconsistency in a


tholic country,
is

Boman

Ca-

where the importance put upon the visible temple

as great as if

it

were the very gate of heaven,

no satisfactory

The only theory by which the Fluminensian


account for it was on the supposition that when the

reply was obtained.

attempted to

posted up

and the Government designates

Elections and Political Parties.


Constitutional

Government was adopted

to give a solemnity to the act of voting,

it

183

was deemed advisable

that

men

in the sacred

edifice and before the altar would be restrained from acts of violence,
and would be otherwise more guarded than in a secular building.
Experience, however, has shown that political rancor will ride over
all religious

veneration; for

it is

said that on certain occasions, in

some of the provinces, the exasperated

electors

have seized the

tall

candlesticks and the slender images from the altar to beat conviction
into the heads of their opponents.

ballot-box, in the shape of a hair trunk,

clerks and inspectors; the vote

name

the

of the voter

is

is

is

surrounded by the

handed to the presiding

checked, and the ballot

is

officer;

then deposited.

Groups of people, active electioneerers and vote-distributers,

may

be seen in and around the church, like the crowds of the "unterrified"

near the polls in the United States.

The Government has

great power in the elections through the numerous office-holders in


its

employ

ties

but ofttimes

it

suffers a defeat.

have the right to set aside an election

The supreme

authori-

in cases of violence or

fraudulent procedure.

The parties are the ins and the outs, or Government and Opposition.
The part} -hnes were formerly more closely drawn, under the names
T

of Saquaremas, (the Conservatives,) and Luzias, (the Progressives.)

These names are derived from two unimportant freguezias in the


provinces of Rio de Janeiro and Minas-Geraes.

The

elections of

1878 brought the liberals into power.

These parties for some years contended for power and principle,

and

so

battle

warm were

more

for rule

their struggles that at times they

than for the success of principles.

seemed to

The Luzias

endeavored to promote the welfare of Brazil by adopting laws and


regulations for

yet prepared.
the reins of

which the Saquaremas did not think the country


Both struggled for many years, and alternately held

government

at last the

Saquarema party triumphed,

and from 1848 to 1864 was at the head of

now

called Liberal

affairs.

(1878, parties are

and Conservative.)

In 1854 the two parties were nearly reconciled, there being few
This was owing to the wise policy of the Saquaremas.
They made very good use of their great influence; they adopted

dissidents.

some of the ideas of their opponents; and they promoted to

Brazil and the Brazilians.

184

Government employment a number of the Luzias who were men


of acknowledged ability and probity.

This reconciliation was mostly

and a

fluent

He was

speaker.

reaching by his industry and

and

man

man

tactics

of talent

He knew

well

how

spirit

was

employ

to

moral character was by no means spotless

yet at

laid aside, the faults

were covered, and the energy and talent of the states-

man only were remembered.


At this point I will mention some
politicians,

political

skilful politician

an instance of a

September, 1856, party

his death, in

of the

his

the

to

energy the highest position in the

monarch and people.

gift of the

intrigue,

owing

who was a most

of the late Marquis of Parana,

of the leading statesmen and

both dead and living, who for the last half century have

wielded an influence in Brazil.

Among

now dead may


who
of Coimbra, and who

the distinguished politicians and orators

be counted the Marquis of Olinda, (Pedro de Araujo Lima,)

was educated at the Portuguese University


dedicated more than

fifty

He was Eegent

countr}'.

3*ears

of his

during the minority of the Emperor, and

was at various times either a member, or a

The Marquis d'Abrantes, (Miguel


matist, consummate financier, and
different periods a member of the
better known by a volume giving an
in Europe.

Among

He

chief,

of the Cabinet.

Calmon du Pin,) a

skilful diplo-

a distinguished orator, was at

made himself

Cabinet, and

still

account of his diplomatic mission

died in 1865.

the veteran statesmen

gueiro, (once

to the service of his

life

Eegent during the

may be mentioned

Senator Ver-

D. Pedro

minorit}^ of

II.,)

who

en-

deavored to advance the prosperity of his country by promoting, at


his

own expense, European immigration.

noble octogenarian

Of

all

is

found in another chapter.

fuller

sketch of this

(Died 1860.)

the Brazilian statesmen after the death of the

Parana none wielded a more governing power of


Eusebio de Queiroz.

He was named by

Sr.

Marquis of

his party than Sr.

Octaviano the "Pope

of the Conservatives."

The Visconde de Uruguay, who died

at

Rio de Janeiro in 1866, was

formerly a leader in Brazilian politics, and was Minister of Foreign


Affairs

when

the

cruel

Dictator

Rosas was overthrown by the

combined Brazilian and Argentine armies.

Statesmen of Brazil.

185

The Visconde de Itaborahy was a skilful financier who was


member of the Cabinet. To him were due financial

quently a

fre-

re-

forms in the treasury and the creation of a national bank.

The Visconde de Sepetiba was one of the

first

Cabinet ministers to

promote internal improvements in the Empire.

The Visconde de Jequitinhonha (Montezuma) was eminent as a


He was one of the five patpolitician, diplomatist, and advocate.
riots

banished by

Dom

Pedro

I.

(See page 75.)

The Marquis of Sao Vicente, who died


Senator or Cabinet minister, a powerful

He was

erudition.

Nabuco

Sr.

in 1878, was,

man by

either as

his eloquence

and

an authority on constitutional law.

in his lifetime stood deservedly high as

one of the

first

jurists of Brazil.

Theophile B. Ottoni was one of the advanced


politics greatly influenced

The

late

whose

liberals,

" young Brazil."

Senator Souza Franco was a gentleman of great talent, and

had great power as a leading

made man."

He

is

liberal.

He was what

is

termed a "

self-

referred to on page 560.

Zacarias de Goes e Vasconcellos, as a brilliant orator, as a student


of political economy, and as a skilful politician, (often accused of
Jesuitic dealings,)

was amongst the noted statesmen of

Padre Pompeu, the


b}T

all

late senator

from Ceara, was a

Brazil.

man

respected

parties for his accomplishments as a scientific geographer,

and

as a strong and upright politician.


If we turn from the dead to the living we find a number of men
who have achieved fame in their native land, and some of whom are
known beyond the Empire.
The Duke of Caxias is the oldest of the notables as a military man

and

politician.

dence

he

was noted

He

gained his early laurels in the war of indepen-

won renown

in the

wars against Hispano-Americans, and

for his energ}^ in intestine troubles.

He commanded

the

Brazilian forces

against llosas in 1852, and against Lopez from

November, 1866,

to

March, 1869, when he resigned, and the war was

successfully concluded under the

Count d'Eu,

March 1, 1870.
Amongst those who have rendered important

(the consort

of the

Imperial Princess,)

services both at

home

and abroad, none stand higher than the Visconde do Rio Branco
(Paranhos).

As

senator, diplomatist,

and premier, he

is

equally

Brazil and the Brazilians.

186

And, next

great.

to the

Emperor, to him belongs the honor of the

He

project for the emancipation of slavery.

is

respected by

all

parties.

The Visconde de Abaete (Limpo de Abreu) was formerly President

many

of the Senate, and has been

times minister.

connected with the early histor} of the Empire.

One

of the best

known

Brazilian statesmen in other countries

Bom

undoubtedly the Visconde de

member of

His history

who was

Retiro

is

(See page 220.)


is

} oungest
T

the

the famous cabinet of the Marquis of Parana.

In

held the distinguished portfolio of minister of the Empire.

it

It

he

was

then that he promoted internal improvements, and reforms in educa-

In 1871-72, and again in 1876-77, he was the chosen com-

tion.

panion of the Emperor in his foreign tours.

Genial and cultivated,

he won hosts of friends in Europe and America.


Sr.

Sinimbu, the Premier in 1878, has done much to promote the

and as judge.

services as senator

high as a writer,

and

of Brazil,

interests

agricultural

speaker,

just celebrity as

is

is

his

and as a

liberal

political

Saldanha Marinho, who has a

an advocate, as a writer, as a leading Free Mason,

and as the uncompromising foe of reaction


Saraiva, too,

for

Octaviano ranks deservedly

diplomatist,

Another eminent Liberal

manager.

also distinguished

is

Sr.

man

When

of mark.

in religion

and

politics.

he became Minister of For-

eign Affairs in 1865, he displayed great energy and ability.

Dantas

and consummate debaters in Parlia-

is one of the most


ment and has a high reputation throughout the country. Paulino
Jose Soares de Souza is also an eminent man, and ma} be considered

of Bahia

fearless

by

his abilities

Ottoni

may

Republicanism.
tician.

and success one of the Conservative

C. B.

He

is

distinguished as an engineer and a

mathema-

Jose Bonifacio de Andrada, the son of Martin Francisco,

(mentioned on pages 73 and 374,)

He became

in Brazil.

eral Cabinets.
is

Affonso Celso,

a young

man

He

one of the most scholarly men


has been a

who has
is

member

law colleges
of two Lib-

alread}^ filled a place in the

of great talents,

directing a political campaign, and

of the Liberals.

is

at an early age professor in the

of Pernambuco and San Paulo.

Cabinet,

leaders.

be described as a liberal statesman, almost verging to

who has wonderful

really

skill in

one of the active leaders

Such are some of the men who take a leading part

in the State- affairs of Brazil.

SR.

SALDANHA

Grand Master of

the

MARINHO,

Brazilian Free Masor.s.

CHAPTEE
PRAIA GRANDE

XI.

SABBATH-KEEPING MANDIOCA PONTE DE AREA


THE ARMADILLO COMMERCE OF BRAZIL THE FINEST STEAM-

SAN DOMINGO

VIEW FROM INGA

SHIP VOYAGE IN THE

WORLD

BRAZILIAN FUNERALS

CASCADES EXCURSIONS BOTANICAL

GARDENS

Rio de Janeiro, sometimes called

AN

TIJUCA

OLD FRIEND

BENNETT'

HOME.

by the
same name,

Corte (the Court)

Brazilians, while situated within the province of the


is

THE ENG-

AMERICAN SEAMEN'S FRIEND SOCIETY

ENGLISH CHAPEL

LISH CEMETERY

Praia Grande, on the opposite

only the capital of the Empire.

side of the bay, is the capital of the province of Eio de Janeiro.

The

latter city is in a neutral district, like the District of

in the

United States, and

all

Columbia

the laws of this metropolis, as those

of Washington, emanate from the General Government.

Ferry-boats, resembling those in the United States, run half-

hourly between the Court and Praia Grande, touching at the white
little

village of

San Domingo.

The passage

is

made

in thirty

minutes, and gives a fine view of the entrance to the harbor, the

whole water-line of Eio, and the various anchorages for the shipping.

These American boats were introduced by Dr. Eainey.

Praia Grande and San

Domingo

bay, and probably contain

On account
side of the

stretch around a semicircular

about sixteen thousand inhabitants.

of the quietness and cheaper rents,

many

prefer this

water to the urbs fluminis as a place of residence. I here

frequently held religious services, and the Sabbath seemed


like a

day of

rest than in Eio,

more

where so many shops are open and

the people generally given to amusement.

In regard to the holy

keeping of the day of rest the Brazilians are no more scrupulous


than their co-religionists in France or Italy.
as frequent
balls are

upon that day as any other

Military parades are

and operas, theatres, and

probably more crowded than during the evenings of

secular time.

The foreign wholesale establishments

are closed
187

Brazil and the Brazilians.

188
but

many

French

of the native shopkeepers, and nearly

dealers,

make

as great a display, in the

on Monday or Saturday.

was the

made great improvements

Brazilian jobbers,

and that day,

week

favorite of the

the authorities suppressed

stained from

at least, as

Formerly there was no closing of the smaller

places of business on Sunday,


years,

of the small

must, however, be admitted to the

It

credit of the Brazilians that they have


in this respect.

all

morning

by

and

edict;

by an agreement,

Sunday dealings; but

in 1852, a

number

This
of the

for a while ab-

(convenio,~)

this

few

until within a

for holding auction -sales.

move was by no means

apparent as the suppression of the auctions.

so

In the discussion

which arose in regard to Sabbath-keeping, the Bishop of Bio de


and the leading journals, took an active

Janeiro,

standing

these ameliorations, the Lord's day

all

ment and

part.
is

JSotwith-

one of amuse-

business, so far as Brazilians are concerned;

profanation

is

such as to shock even those

who

and

its

are not accustomed

decent observance of that portion of time in England, Scot-

to the

land, or the

United States.

In Praia Grande and


(country-seats,)

and

S.

quiet,

Domingo

there are beautiful chacaras,

shady nooks, whose delicious fragrance

and coolness contrast refreshingly with the hot landing-place

of

the steam ferry-boat.

Twenty minutes' walk from the praia (beach)


the sparsely-inhabited environs, where

with

will bring us into

see the coffee-tree,

cherry-like berries, the noble dome-shaped mangueira,

its

whose

we may

fruit is

esteemed so highly by the English in the East Indies,

and orange-trees, whose

rich,

yellow burdens never become weari-

some

to the

fields

of the mandioca, which plant has been and

eye or cloying to the palate.

ciated with the sustentation of

northern climes.

life

is

in Brazil as

wheat

Its peculiarity is the

nutritious qualities.

is

far

union of a deadly poison with highly-

It is indigenous to Brazil,

and was known to


Southey

" If Ceres deserved a place in the mythology of Greece,

more might the

who

more

deserving of particular

the Indians long before the discovery of the country.

remarks:

in

This vegetable, (Jatropha manihot L.,) being the

principal farinaceous production of Brazil,


notice.

we may see
as much asso-

There, too,

deification of that person

have been expected

instructed his fellows in the use of mandioc."

It is difficult

The Mandioca Root.


imagine

to

how

189

savages should have ever discovered that a whole-

some food might be prepared from this root.


Their mode of preparation was by scraping it to a fine pulp with
oyster-shells, or with an instrument made of small sharp stones set
-

in a piece of bark, so

as

form a rude

to

The pulp was

rasp.

then rubbed or ground

with a stone, the juice


expressed,

carefully

and the

last

remain-

ing moisture evapor-

ated by the

The

fire.

operation of preparing

was thought

it

unwholesome, and the

whose

slaves,

ness

busi-

was, took the

it

flowers of the nhambi

and the root of the


urucu in their food,

"to strengthen

the

heart and stomach."

The

Portuguese
invented mills

soon

and presses

for this

purpose.

They usually

pressed

it

in cellars,

and places where

was

MANDIOCA, (JATROPHA

it

least likely to occasion accidental

harm. In these places it

that a white insect was found generated

not less deadly, with which the native


their husbands,
food.

MANIHOT.)

by

women sometimes

and slaves their masters, by putting

A poultice

of mandioc, with its

own

is

said

this deadly juice, itself

juice,

it

poisoned
in their

was considered

It was administered for worms, and


was applied to old wounds to eat away the diseased flesh. For
some poisons, also, and for the bite of certain snakes, it was
esteemed a sovereign antidote. The simple juice was used for

excellent for'imposthumes.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

190

The poisonous

cleaning iron.

quality

is

confined to the root; for

the leaves of the plant are eaten, and even the juice might bo

made innocent by
sated

boiling,

and be fermented into vinegar, or

became sweet enough

till it

The crude root cannot bo preserved three days by any


care,

and the slightest moisture

inspis-

to serve for honey.

spoils the Hour.

possible

Piso observes,

had seen great ravages occasioned among the troops by


There ay ere two modes of preparation, by
eating it in this state.
which it could more easily be kept. The roots were sliced under

that he

water, and then hardened before a

they were grated into

a tine

fire.

water, became like a cream of almonds.


to macerate the root in water

up to be smoke-dried; and
duced a

flour as

it

till

this,

white as meal.

manner by savages. The most


it

AThen wanted

The other method was

became

putrid, then

on the

It

fire.

hang

it

when, pounded in a mortar, pro-

It

was frequently prepared

delicate preparation

in this

was by pressing

through a sieve and putting the pulp immediately

vessel

for use,

powder, which, being beaten up with

in

an earthen

then granulated, and was excellent when

either hot or cold.

The native mode

down

Indians cut

enough

They

to burn,

cultivating

Taking

mouths

ever tried

to

it

was rude and summary. The


them lie till they were dry

and then planted the mandioc between the stumps.

ate the dry flour in a

imitation.
their

oi'

the forest-trees, let

it

between their

so neatly that

perform

manner

that baffled all attempts at


fingers,

they tossed

was lost.
without powdering

this teat

it

into

No European

not a grain

his face or his

amusement of the savages.


The mandioc supplied them also with their banqueting-drink.
They prepared it by an ingenious process, which savage man has
often been cunning enough to invent, but never cleanly enough to
The roots were sliced, boiled till they became soft, and set
reject.
The young women then chewed them, after which
aside to eool.

clothes, to the

they were returned into the vessel, which was filled with water,
and once more boiled, being stirred the whole time. When this
process had been continued sufficiently long, the unstrained contents were poured into earthen jars of great size,
to the middle in the floor of the house.

The

jars

and buried up
were closely

stopped, and, in the course of two or three days, fermentation took

Tapioca.

They had an

place.
it

would be good

191

old superstition that if

When

for nothing.

were made by men

it

the drinking-day arrived,

women kindled fires around these jars, and served out the
warm potion in half-gourds, which the men came dancing and
the

They

singing to receive, and always emptied at one draught.

never ate at these parties, but continued drinking as long as one


drop of the liquor remained, and, having exhausted
house, removed to the next,

till

they had drank out

one

all in

the town.

all in

These meetings were commonly held about once a month. De Lery


witnessed one which lasted three days and three nights.

man,

Thus,

every age and country, gives proof of his depravity, by

in

converting the gifts of a bountiful Providence into the means of

own

his

destruction.

Mandioca

is difficult

of cultivation,

the

more common

requiring from twelve to eighteen months to ripen.

Cut

a great tendency to spread.


large

hills,

furnish

when

it

slips of

which the mandioca

soil,

have

Its roots

the plant are inserted in

which at the same time counteract

with a dry

sj>ecies

this tendency,
prefers.

The

and

roots,

dug, are of a fibrous texture, corresponding in appearance to

The process of preparation is first to


wash them, then remove the rind, after which the pieces are held
by the hand in contact with a circular grater turned by waterpower. The pulverized material is then placed in sacks, several

those of the long parsnip.

of which, thus

filled,

are subjected to the action of a screw-press

for the expulsion of the poisonous liquid.


fied

by pressure are beaten

The masses thus solidiThe substance is

fine in mortars.

next transferred to open ovens, or concave plates, heated beneath,

where

it

is

constantly and rapidly stirred until quite dry.

appearance of the farinha,

when

well prepared,

is

beautiful, although its particles are rather coarse.

The

very white and


It is

found upon

every Brazilian table, and forms a great variety of healthy and


palatable dishes.

mandioca,

when

The

fine

substance deposited

by the

juice of the

preserved, standing a short time, constitutes the

commerce, so well known in the culinary departments


North America and Europe, and is now a valuable export from

tapioca of

of

Brazil.

Another

species, called the Aipim,

(manihot Aipim,)

It is destitute of all poisonous qualities,

and

is

is

common.

boiled or roasted,


Brazil and the Brazilians.

192
and

but

is

chestnut.

months

eight

the

inferior to

little

It

has

ripen,

to

the

further

although

potato

the

or

advantage

large

Italian

requiring

of

but

cannot be converted into

it

farinha.
JNot far

from Praia Grande

is

the foundry, engine-manufactory,

and ship-yard of Ponte da Area, where four or

five

hundred

mechanics and laborers, under European and Brazilian


the year 1854, besides kettles,

ment constructed

super-

works of importance and magnitude.

vision, are turning out

and

stills,

In

boilers, this establish-

four steamers with their engines, and

two more

steamers and a bark were upon the stocks.

But the most

attractive part of this side of the water

peaceful and beautiful

Bua da Inga and

wind through a thoroughfare


graceful shade-trees; and on

if it

is

the Praia de Carahy.

can be so called

the

We

overhung by

either side, almost hidden

by hedges

of mimosa, creeping and flowering vines, huge plants and cacti in

gorgeous bloom, are the vermilion roofs and the blue arabesques
In a few minutes

of Brazilian cottages.

we

reach the Praia de

Carahy, where the fanning sea-breeze dashes the waves in foaming


brightness against the shell-paved beach.
indescribable in

its

beauty and

its

The scene beyond

is

grandeur; and the view of the

surrounding mountains and Bio de Janeiro nestling at their base


has often reminded
to

me

of the observations of Mr. Hillard in regard

Naples and Edinburgh, when he says, "The works of man's hands

are subordinate to the grand and

around and above them

of the landscape eat up the city

When

I gazed

surf beneath,

the

islet

of

itself.'

from the craggy

the

commanding
7

cliff

graceful lake-like

Boa Yiagem

features of nature

the magnificent lines and sweeps

of Inga upon the rolling

Bay

of Jurujuba on our

before us, crowned with

its

left,

picturesque

and kissed by the breeze-swayed palmwonder I beheld far across the water the
giant groupings of the Pao de Assucar, the Tres Irmaos, the wide
topped Gavia, the columnar Corcovado, and the distant Tijuca.
I could realize the emotions of the same polished and forcibly
chapel, dear to mariners

tree,

and as with

writer

silent

when acknowledging

the utter impossibility of describing

the Italian scene to which the Brazilian landscape

beauty and

superior in sublimity.

What

is

equal in

Mr. Hillard has said of

&

^<

The View from


the glorious environs of Naples

Inga

Inga.

193

doubly true of the view from

is

" What words can analyze and take to pieces the parts and

details of this matchless

panorama, or unravel that magic web of

beauty into which palaces,

and the

woven

sea, are

gardens, the mountains

villas, forests,

What pen

can paint the soft curves, the

gentle undulations, the flowing outlines, the craggy steeps, and the
far-seen heights, which, in their combination, are so full of grace,

and, at the same time, expression

Words here

are imperfect in-

struments, and must yield their place to the pencil and the graver.

But no canvas can reproduce the


this

enchanting region.

No

light

and color which play around

can catch the changing hues of

skill

the distant mountains, the star-points of the playing waves, the

and green which spread themselves over the calm

films of purple

waters, the sunsets of gold and orange, and the aerial veils of rose

and amethyst which drop over the

from the skies of morning

hills

and evening."
Such scenes can he felt, not described.
If

we now turn from

Vista

de

the white beach and the magnificent

and seek the reddish-colored

Ingd,

beyond the Bay of Jurujuba, we

shall in our

meet portions of the earth freshly thrown up.

him

are

rambles frequently
This has been done

by the armadillo; for the pointed snout


and the strong claws of this little bucklerclad animal admirably adapt

which

hills

for bur-

rowing, which operation he performs with

such astonishing rapidity that


impossible to get at

him by

it is

hunters, in such a case, resort to

smoke the armadillo out of

almost

digging.
fire,

his den.

The
and
Not

being able to stand the fumes of burning

wood, the

new-made

little

aperture, rolls himself up,

delicate flesh

THE ARMADILL0

fellow rushes through the

is

is

easily captured,

soon consigned to the kitchen.

and

his

This power of

enveloping himself so completely in his shell that he appears like


a round stone or a cocoanut,

is

a provision of a kind Providence.

The armadillo cannot run with any degree of rapidity, and, when
attacked by birds of prey, he rolls himself up like a hedgehog, and
offers

only a solid uniform surface impervious to beaks and talons.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

194

upon by a dog or some small quadruped, he " swallows himself" and rolls down a hill. I have before me a specimen
of the armadillo that was seized in his

Or

again, if set

doubled-up state and thrust immediately

which has preserved

into boiling water,

him

So

in that position.

little

does

it re-

semble the live animal or his natural


elongated appearance, that no friend to

whom
what

-^o

to

have shown him could divine

it

was, nearly every one taking him

The

be some strange Brazilian nut.

en-

gravings afford a perfect likeness of him

from two

different points of

head nor

tail

view neither
:

can be made of him, unless

the triangular piece

is

his os frontis.

In returning to Eio de Janeiro,


often an agreeable variety to

passage in &falua.*

boat with lateen

twenty or forty tons' burden.


steers,

They

are

This

sails,

is

and

manned by

it

make

is

the

a species of

may

be of

a captain,

takes the three-cent fare, and scolds the poor blacks.

who

When

more than half-naked negroes slowly pull at the


long oars, which are so heavy, that, in order to obtain a " purchase," they are obliged to step up on a sort of bench before them,
and thus, rising and falling to a monotonous African ditty, they
it

is

calm, the

form one of the peculiar sights of Eio.

Many

classes go as passengers on these faluas;

but they are mostly

of the poorer

used for the transportation of light cargoes to various towns on


the bay.

If

we

take a falua to the Saude,

we

pass through vast

quantities of shipping.

The great interests of Brazilian commerce draw an immense


number of vessels from all portions of the globe. Brazil itself possesses the second navy of the Western World, and her steamfrigates,

her sloops-of-war,

and her iron-clads rendered essential

service in overthrowing the tyrants,


in

Rosas

in

Buenos Ayres and Lopez

Paraguay.
Since

1839, Brazil has had steamship-lines running along the

* The sail-boats in the engravings on pages 60 and 201 are faluas.

The Commerce

195

of Brazil.

whole of her four thousand miles of sea-coast, but

it

was not

1850 that steam-communication was established to Europe.

until

It

was

then that the Eoyal British Mail Steamship Company, whose

from Southampton, began their monthly voyages.


In 1857 Brazil had for a short time six different lines of steamers,
connecting her with England, France, Hamburg, Portugal, Belgium,
The United States, which hitherto had been the
i.nd Italy.
vessels start

great commercial rival of Great Britain in Brazil, had not a single


line of steamers to any portion of South America; and, while
England was reaping golden harvests, the balance of trade was

each year accumulating against

With

us.

all this so

evident,

it

did

seem strange that the General Government of the Union, which


had aided

in extending our mercantile

interests

by

subsidies to

steamships running to other lands, had been so tardy in regard to

South America, and especially unmindful of Brazil.


commerce with Brazil since the establishment of her
line in

England's
steam-

first

1850 has increased her exports more than one hundred per

while the United States required thirteen years to make the


same advance. Her entire commerce with Brazil, imports and
exports, advanced two hundred and twenty-five per cent, since

cent.,

her

first

steam-line

was

established.

Each year the balance of

trade was increasing rapidly against us.

In 1860-61 the United

States exported to Brazil $6,018,394, while in return the United


States imported from Brazil $22,547,091; or, in other words, only a

year's trading with Brazil left against us the cash balance of


$16,528,697,

which we had

to

pay

at

heavy rates of exchange.

England, in 1864, sold Brazil $40,612,985, and bought of her in


return only $33,079,755, thus leaving the latter her debtor.

was there such

a disastrous account against us?

Why

British steamers,

energy, and capital, and our neglect, had thus advanced the com-

merce of England.

Our Government and our merchants, notwith-

standing their boasted enterprise, did next to nothing to foster the


trade with Brazil.

Purchasing as

we do

half her coffee crop # and

the greater portion of her India-rubber, there should have been

an

effort

on our part to introduce effectually the

tions of our country

Our common

which we can furnish

many

produc-

as well as Great Britain

cottons are better than the imitations of the

same

manufactured at Manchester, England, and yet labelled "Lowell

Brazil and the Brazilians.

196

and "York

drillings"

The few

England.

made by

can furnish

and

cheaper

items

other

efforts

We

Saco, Me."

Mills,

and

of hardware

kinds

single

many
than

better

individuals (as in

the

case of several American merchants) to introduce the labor-saving

machines of our country have already resulted in the establish-

ment of a number of Brazilian houses


one can purchase various

articles

Rio de Janeiro, where

In 1878, the United States purchased

of Generos Norte Americanos.


one-third of

in

under the comprehensive name

the exports of Brazil, but the imports

all

from the

United States into the Empire were not a seventh of the Brazilian
In the

imports.

fiscal

year ending June 30

we

1878,

sold Brazil

$8,610,646, but Brazil sold to the United States $42,972,036.


subject

demands

ment.

It does not fall within

investigation from individuals

my

This,

and from our Govern-

province to extend this to greater

length in this portion of the work, but the statistician and the political

economist, as well as those

relations

who

are engaged in commerce, will

Appendix much information

find in the

with Brazil

in regard to our business

however, in this connection I will mention

the efforts of several persons

who were among

the earliest to foresee

the benefits arising from steam communication between Brazil and


the United States.

To William Wheelwright,

Esq., (the energetic

founder and entrepreneur of the Pacific Mail steam-line on the west


coast of South America, the builder of the Copiapo Railway, and the
late principal contractor for constructing the great

Railway,) belongs the honor of

New York

to Rio de Janeiro.

a merchant at Rio, actually

first

John Gardiner, Esq.,

made

Congress of 1851-52 for effecting

Thomas Raine}

T
,

now

this desired object.

Director-in-Chief of the Ferry

to himself, he travelled twice from

tive

for

Amazon and

the

West

many

ears

propositions to the United States

At

Rio, devoted particular attention to this subject.

visiting the

Argentine Central

suggesting the steam-line from

Company

at

a pecuniary loss

Rio de Janeiro,
going before the Execu-

Washington
Indies,

In 1854, Dr.

to

heads and the statesmen of each Government, and calling atten-

tion to the important facts which he


investigation.

These

facts

had elucidated

after patient

were very striking and convincing, and

some of the strongest arguments for


by steam the two greatest American countries.
In 1852, the junior author was so impressed with the evidence

afforded to friends of both lands

uniting

Steamship Line to Brazil.

before him at Rio that the

197

commerce of Brazil was gliding away


letter on the subject of

from the United States, that he wrote a

steam communication to the New York Journal of Commerce, and


from that time forward he continued to agitate in the press, before

Chambers of Commerce and popular audiences


and by
men,

visits to Brazil

and by correspondence with Brazilian

until a steamship-line

The

on page 186,) hy his

by

(Letters of a Hermit,)

his

re-

Cartas do Solitario,

essaj-s entitled

communications to the daily press

of Rio, and hy his persistent advocac}^ in the Parliament, did

among

states-

was subsidized.

Hon. A. C. Tavares Bastos, (the Brazilian statesman

late

ferred to

in the United States,

much

countiymen to bring about a correct public opinion on

his

this subject.

It

was a

favorite idea with the friends of this

interests of the

measure that the

Western continent should be united

that the policy

of the North and South American States should be as far as possible

But the communication with

American.

quently, with

all

no means of sending
vessels,

letters

interests of rivals.

difficult.

and passengers except by

which are slow, unreliable, and but

modate the

Brazil, and,

South America, was exceedingly

Nearly

little

all

conse-

We

had

sailing-

disposed to accom-

passengers and letters

went to Liverpool, thence to Southampton or the Continent, and


thence to Brazil,

La

Plata,

and the Windward Islands,

of nearly nine thousand miles.

There was

graphic communication with South America.


not only had to send
pelled

to

\>y this

most unnatural

at

a distance

that time no tele-

Our commercial men


transit,

but were com-

submit to the most harassing disadvantages, and were

almost at the mercj' of European rivals.


of Brazil passed the

bill,

In June, 1865, the Senate

(brought into the Chamber of Deputies in

1864,) based on the law of the United States Congress, signed b}T

President Lincoln,

May

28, 1864, to the following effect: that Brazil

Government of the United States in granting a joint


subsidy to a line of steamers making twelve round voyages per annum,
from New York to Rio de Janeiro, touching at St. Thomas, Para,
Pernambuco, and Bahia. " The United States and Brazil Mail Steamunite with the

ship

Company " obtained

was (from causes which


in its results,
in Brazil.

the contract.

That contract,

I will not dwell

and did not add

It expired in 1875.

suffice to say,

upon) very disappointing

to the lustre of the

American name

Brazil and the Brazilians.

198

W.

In 1877, Colonel

P. Tisdale began to agitate the subject of

increasing the trade between the United States and Brazil.

John Roach, of

various consultations with Mr.


to Brazil

New

and interested that country in regard

from the United States and was successful.

to a steamship-line

But. strange to say. the

United States Government has yet done nothing for

which

is

manifestly

After

York, he went

this project,

its interest.

Behind the island of Enxadas are the Royal Mail, the French,
and the Liverpool steamers, which have come over the pleasantest
route,

save one,

known

is

I have

in ocean-navigation.

man}- seas, but only one other voyage which,

all

on

sailed

things considered,

We

comparable to that from Rio de Janeiro to England.

are out

of sight of land but six days at the longest stretch, (from Pernain-

buco to the Cape de Verds

number of days

while the average

:)

at

From Rio to Bahia there


summer waters
and the ten

sea without stopping are two and a half.

steaming over

are but three day?'

or twelve hours at the second city of the

time for
less

promenades

refreshing

or

rides

Empire gives plenty of


into

the

country.

In

than two days we land at Pernambuco. where we spend from

twelve to twenty hours, lay in a stock of fine oranges and pineapples, (capital anti-nauseaties.)

ing parrots
friends.

chattering

eight hours

and perhaps purchase a few scream-

monkeys

YTe then steam for

we remain
Peak of

or

St.

few hours, and. next steering northward, in forty-

we

behold, one hundred and

Teneriffe

lifting

and luscious

temperate zone.
hours are

at

fifty

more than

itself

miles at sea. the

thirteen thousand

Here we revel

from the bosom of the ocean.


tigs,

European

present to our

to

Vincent, (Cape de Verds,) where

clusters of grapes.

in

peaches, pears.

in short, all the fruits of the

TVe pass through the Canaries,

Funchal. where the fruit-dose

the shore (if health-bill clean)

is

tall

feet

is

repeated

and
:

in

thirty

walk upon

permitted, and. after being bored

by the pedlers and grape- venders, we bid farewell to


Madeira,
and. at the end of three days, sail up the
picturesque
mouth of the Tagus and anchor before Lisbon. When we leave
a few hours

Portugal,

we steam aloug

we land

at

Southampton.

exists in the world

the

coast

of Spain, and in three days

Only one other such steamer-voyage

and those who are

in quest of the

new. the

Accessibility of Kio de Janeiro.


strange,

and the

beautiful,

can nowhere so easily and so cheaply

gratify their wishes in those respects as

ampton

But

call.

this route is

New York

steam- voyage from

by the

to Rio

{via

It equals

from South-

the tropic Isle of St.

Thomas, Para on the Amazon, and the bright


and Bahia).

trip

and Madeira are now no


not more attractive than the

Teneriffe

to Rio, or vice versa.

longer ports of

199

cities

in pleasantness the route

of Pernambuco

from Europe to

Mr. Roach's American steamers anchor at Enxadas.


From the island of Enxadas, on either hand, over vessels from
the coasting-smack to the largest freighting-ships, may be seen the
Brazil.

flags of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Russia,

Germany, France, Belgium,

Greece, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, England, the United States,


the

South American Republics,

These vessels are

and Brazil.

required to anchor at sufficient distance apart to

each other in
flowing tide

all

may

the different

place

them

thus, boats

swing clear of

positions in which the ebbing

may

pass

and

among them

at pleasure.

Situated accessibly as the port of Rio de Janeiro

upon the

is,

great highway of nations, with a harbor unrivalled, not only for


beauty, but also for the security

comes a touching-point
commerce. Those that

for

many

vessels,

Many

affords to the mariner,

it

be-

engaged in Brazilian

suffer injury in the perils of the sea

the equator and the Cape of


repairs.

it

vessels not

Good Hope generally put

between

in here for

sons of the ocean, with dismasted or waterlogged

have steered for

same time, nearly

all

this

harbor as their

men-of-war and

last hope.

At the

many merchantmen, bound

round Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope, put in here to


plenish their water and fresh provisions.

re-

Thus, in the course of

business and of Providence, missionaries, either outward or home-

ward bound, were in various instances thrown among us for a


brief period; and we scarcely knew which to value most,
the privilege of enjoying their society and counsel, or that of extending
to them those Christian hospitalities not always expected on a

foreign shore.

We

enjoyed

many

such visits that will long be

remembered, and we seemed to be brought directly in contact with


Russia, India, the Sandwich Islands,

and Central and South Africa,


met with had severally

the countries where the individuals

labored.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

200

Such circumstances beautifully

illustrate the central position

and

the important character of the harbor of Eio de Janeiro, which

forms a converging-point for vessels from any port of the United


States and Europe, and for returning voyages from Australia, California,

and the islands of the

Pacific.

Annually more than twelve thousand mariners,

England and the United

flags of

men demands

This class of

Janeiro.

before

men who

sooner than any other

it

improvidence of sailors

Eio de

the earnest attention of the

If pestilence visits Eio, they are sure to

philanthropic Christian.
fall

under the

sailing

States, are gathered at

is

proverbial,

A greater

and recklessness are well known.

The

resort thither.

and their general dissipation


proportion of theso

men

die annually than of those

They

therefore really call for most earnest effort in their behalf,

who

follow

any other

calling.

both morally and physically.

The exertions that have been made among


time to time have not been entirely in vain.

men's Friend Society

a noble

institution,

sailors at

Sea-

which has carried the

church over the world for Americans and Englishmen

established
No

a chaplaincy at this port more than twenty years ago.

was ever

Eio from

The American

chapel

erected, because the peculiar regulations of the port are

such that vessels

lie

at

anchor away from the shore

hence

it

has

been usual to hold services on board various vessels that might be


in the

harbor.

The Bethel

hoisted to the main, and,


church-bell,

when

though mute, would

various anchorages to
join in the

hymn

with

flag,

come up

its

white dove, would be

unfurled to the breeze, like a


call

the hardy mariners from the

to the floating tabernacle, there to

of praise, or to listen, in this distant clime, to

the lessons of sacred truth.


privilege, in connection

American Chaplain.

It

During a number of years

with duties on shore, to

was

my

healthy, to visit the English and

conversing with the

oflicers,

custom,

fill

when

it

was

my

the post of

the

port

was

American vessels each Friday,

dropping a word of advice to the

sailors, and placing in the hand of each a tract to announce the

ship over which the Bethel flag would float on the following Sun-

day.

When

the yellow fever prevailed, I daily attended the hos-

and boarded the ships to administer the comforts of the


Many passed
gospel to the sick and dying sailors. Poor fellows

pitals

The English Cemetery.

201

from time into eternity without being able to send a parting mesbut, whenever I could ascertain the

sage to their distant friends

address of their relatives, I

forwarded their dying words, which

were frequently the outpourings of their faith and hope in Christ.


In this round of duties I was materially aided by Senhor Leopoldo, the guarda-mor, who, with great kindness, made an exception
in favor of the chaplain, allowing

me

to visit all the vessels in port

without the special daily permit.*

From

the loading-ground to the British Cemetery at

the distance

by water

is little

Gamboa

more than a mile; and often have

--iiiiisiy

ENGLISH

had

to lead the

CEMETERY AT GAMBOA.

mournful procession from the landing-place up the

green walks of this quiet and retired resting-place for the dead.
In this beautiful and secluded spot sleep more than 'one minister-

Men of eminent
unknown English and American citizen, the

plenipotentiary and admiral.

station, as well as the

G-erman, the French-

man, the Swede, and the representatives of the commercial marine


of almost every nation, here slumber in death.

ISTo

* This courtesy can be better appreciated when the reader

is

portion of Eio

informed that, by

the narrow and restricted port-laws of Brazil, no one except a custom-house officer

can

visit,

offence

is

without permit, a vessel that


a fine of fiftv dollars.

is

discharging.

The penalty

for each

Brazil and the Brazilians.

202

was over more impressive


solemn funeral-service
but the sexton.
I

whether

to me.

in the

stood by the

reading the

in

when

or

deceased person of another nation

While Englishmen either

at

never rejected.

is

home

toward preparing and beautifying

or at Rio have done so much,

a suitable

dead, they have sadly neglected the living

who

regular service for those

the six thousand mariners

who

sail

The

no provision has been made.

resting-place for the

who come

to this mart.

reside in the city:

and masters go

to the chapel, the

"There stands the chapel;

duties of the English chaplain

him go

thither."

not accustomed to the sound of the church-going


proclivities are not particularly

officers

may be
Men who are

sailor is neglected.

let

but for

hither under the English Hag,

eonhne him to the shore; and. though occasionally English

said.

alone

This cemetery belongs to

but the application of any consul for the burial of a

the English;

is

was

new-made grave,

wandered through the shady walks.

There

it

hearing of many, or when, with none

It

and whose

bell,

God-ward, have some hesitation to

row one mile upon the water, and

then, in a tropic clime, to

walk

another, in a strange city, to a house of worship with which they

by ordinary local ties. For such men. either


some benevolent association connected
with the Established Church or with Pissenters. should make provision for regular worship. If men will not come to the gospel, we
do not

ieel associated

the English Bethel Union, or

must take

it

to

them; and the most earnest workman

yard of our Master

will tind

enough

in the harbor of Eio de Janeiro.


either in the mines or

to

do

among

The lower

in the vine-

the English sailors

class of English laborers,

engaged in the construction of railways,

annually increasing, and

it is

hoped that the

effort for

is

ameliorating

the moral condition of the resident workmen, so auspiciously begun


at the Saude.
is

ever to

may

be followed up on the vast water-parish which

be found floating on the commodious bay.

that there are those

am aware

who look upon it as a more hopeful task to


among the heathen than for seamen.

labor for the good oi souls

While

would not have

a single soldier called in

from the distant

outposts, I do believe that, under the circumstances,

held

is

those

more encouraging than

who

go

down

no distant

caring for the spiritual welfare of

to the sea in ships."

They may be termed

hard set;" but they have noble and generous qualities

and great

203

Brazilian Funerals.

becomes the English Christian not to


rest until in every important foreign port he establishes worship
for the sailor. (1866, the Gamboa Cemetery is exclusively English.)
It therefore

temptations.

The English Chapel is situated in Eua dos Barbonos, near the


Largo da Mai do Bispo. This neat little edifice was erected in 1823,
almost immediately after the achievement of Brazilian IndependService is held here each Sunday morning at eleven o'clock,
ence.
and the English resident experiences a homelike feeling when he
finds himself

sacred and

surrounded by his countrymen, and listens to the


which he was accustomed in the

beautiful service to

THE ENGLISH

land of his birth.

It

is,

CHAPEL.

however, painful to

reflect that so

few avail

themselves of the opportunity which this chapel affords for hearing

The attendance is better since Rev. Mr. Preston's arrival.


Compared with all other English chapels which I have visited in

the truth.

many

foreign lands, that of Rio de Janeiro

There are a number of

Roman

is

the least frequented.

Catholic cemeteries in the vicinity

of the city, which belong to the different brotherhoods.


zilian funerals are

ments took place


no intermural

conducted with

in the churches

burials.

of friends in vehicles,

much pomp.

The Bra-

Formerly

but, since 1850, there

inter-

have been

Carriages and outriders, and a long train

make up

the procession.

There are not,

to a

great extent, those peculiar customs and ceremonies which were

Brazil and the Brazilians.

204

formerly consequent upon a death in a Brazilian family. There is


more parade than upon the Continent, and probably more, since the
The deceased child, often decked
burial-reform, than in England.

with flowers,
pillars.

riders,

is

borne to the grave in an open hearse with gilded

The driver of the hearse, the footman, and the four outupon white horses, are in red livery. Custom forbids the

presence of

women

near relatives.

at a funeral,

and

also the attendance of

If the deceased be above ten years of age, the im-

mediate relatives remain at home for eight days, during the


of which a profound silence
offer their
is,

very

is

maintained.

When

first

come

friends

to

sympathy, the customary salutation of those who enter

"Will you permit

me

to offer

my

condolence for the loss you

Silence is then preserved by both parties, and,


some minutes, the visitor withdraws.
From the cemetery of Gamboa is a vista of the Serra de Tijuca;

have sustained?"
after

and among the many jaunts near the city, none surpasses in intePassing through the long street
rest the ride up these mountains.
of Engenho Yelho, which is lined with the residences of wealthy
families,

each surrounded with

its

chacara or grounds, that glow

with the fadeless verdure of mangueiras, orange-groves, and palms,


interspersed with flowers of the brightest hues,

we reach

the foot

Here are many picturesque villas, each having


by a large stone gateway,
the evening, the family sit to amuse their listless hours

of the mountain.

piazzas in front, and often approached

where, in

by watching the

passers-by.

These country-residences are

built in

The pediments
and cornices of the houses are ornamented with arabesques on a
ground of vivid blue.
No ugly clusters of smoking chimneys

a style that accords well with the glowing climate.

deform the

roofs.

The white

walls glitter amid the dark foliage,

or stand in strong relief against the steep mountain-sides.

The

native families generally live on the plain, and near the everattractive road; but the Englishman, true to his national character,

climbs the mountain and builds an eyrie

On

the railway for the more agreeable


horse or mule.

may

among

the clouds.

arriving at a mineral spring, called Agoa Ferrea, you quit

mode

It is true that invalids

cause four mules to drag

of travel afforded by

and hard-hearted people

them up the

steep ascent.

But no

od e possessing eyes, taste, and health, should miss the opportunity

Tijuca.
of a horse-back ride.

No pen

about Bio.

It is difficult to

205
speak calmly of the scenery

can do justice to the view that meets the eye

keep your attenbank of the road


until he reaches a low part of the brushwood and pulls in his
A wondrous view it is that bursts
horse, exclaiming, "Look!"

half-way up the mountain.

good cicerone

will

tion fixed on the flowers that adorn the left

There, unfurled before you, like a fairy panorama,

upon you.

are the bay with

its islands,

the clear blue sky,

down
plants

on the right, pouring

left

a high

hill,

its

barren stern-

covered with glossy-leaved

coffee-

on the plain below rises a single mound, and beyond

gleaming
hills

cliff

tiny cascades in silvery lines, that relieve

its

and on the

ness,

the distant mountains blending with

a dark precipitous

city,

its

white

edifices peacefully encircling the

the

green

Nothing but a large

of Conception, San Bento, and Antonio.

oil-painting can

is

convey any just idea of this view; and

it

was here

that an English painter took his stand for his tropic landscape.

Leutsinger has the best photographs of Bio scenery.


After a long gaze you turn away only half satisfied, and immediately lose sight of all

on that

side of the mountain, but

Mr. B. was an

brings you to Bennett's Hotel.


lishman,

many

who

soon

A few minutes

cover the open sea beyond the opposite descent.

intelligent

dis-

more
Eng-

erected in this beautiful spot a boarding-house, where

of the foreign residents pass the hot months.

Here, while

only eight miles from the Braca do Commercio, far from the heat

and noise of the busy


ease and comfort.
fierce

city,

No

we

could spend our days and nights in

mosquitoes fright

away

sleep with their

war-whoops; no cockroaches or baratas, as they are called

crawl over your feet as you


that there

is total stillness.

sit in

On

But do not imagine

the piazza.

the contrary, the air

is

vocal with

the sounds of that portion of animated nature which loves to dis-

turb nocturnal hours.

Bre-eminent above

all is

the staccato music

of the blacksmith-frog, whose substantial body a man's hands


could not enclose, and every sound that he produces rings upon
the ear like the clang of a

hammer upon an

anvil, while the tones

uttered by his congeners strikingly resemble the lowing of distant


cattle.

Not

far

from Bennett's are the coffee-plantations of Mr. Lescene

and of Mr. Moke, which are among the very

first

that were

culti-

Brazil and the Brazilians.

206

vated in Brazil ; and, as they are the only fazendas near to the city,

no stranger should omit an early walk to the lovely valley where


they are found.

The excursions from the boarding-house are most varied and


To climb the Pedra Bonita and gaze upon the moun-

interesting.

tain-landscape and the far-off meeting of sky and ocean


delightful

while

its

work

is

the

The charm of Tijuca is that,


unchanging June, and its verdure tropical, it

of a few hours.

climate

is

BENNETT'S, TIJUCA.

possesses

the

Switzerland.

sparkling cascades and thundering waterfalls of


If

turn to our

left,

which hangs

like

we wander from

Bennett's

toward Kio, and

moments will bring us to a limpid stream


a ribbon down the mountain-side, and sends up

a few

" Brave notes to

all

the woods around,

When morning beams are gathering fast,


And hush'd is every human sound."
This beautiful
feet,

fall is

and reminded

said to

me

come from a height of three hundred

of the leaping brooks of the Yalley of the

Bhone, or the graceful cascade of Arpenaz, that swings from an


Alpine
for

cliff

into the sweet vale of Maglan.

a half-hour in the

boarding-house,

we reajch

opposite

direction

Or

again, if

from the

we

ride

mountain

a wild and verdant spot, where, dismissing

Excursions.
our horses,

we

207

climb up through banana-fields and forest, and reach

the foaming waters of the Cascata Grande.

more over a rocky

leaps for sixty feet or

when the volume


the stream

is

is

Here the Tijuca Eiver

inclined plain, presenting,

increased, an imposing appearance; but,

when

only supplied by the clear springs of the Serra,

it

down in a transparent sheet, revealing the shining rock


beneath. The river pursues its way over a rock-bed down the

glides

mountain, and loses

the lake which mirrors the giant

itself in

Gavia.

Mr. Ewbank,

who

is

usually very correct in his facts, has

curiously departed from his accustomed precision in the statement

that

" in this secluded retreat that the

was

it

Bishop of Eio lay

concealed during the troubles with the French Protestants of


Coligny's time."

No

was

" Bishop of Eio"

in

existence " during

The only bishopric in Brazil for


The French were finally expelled
from the Bay of Eio de Janeiro in 1567, and it was not until this
was effected that the city of San Sebastian or Eio de Janeiro was
founded. Mr. Ewbank was doubtless misled by some one informing
him that the remains near the Cascata Grande were those of walls
the troubles of Coligny's time."

many

years was that of Bahia.

erected for the bishop

This

is

when

the French took possession of Eio.

perfectly correct; for in 1711, after the disastrous defeat of

the French

commander Du

Clerc, (in 1710,)

Du Guay

Trouin came

with an avenging squadron to Eio de Janeiro, and on such a scale

were

his preparations that the inhabitants fled to the

of Tijuca, and there remained until the city

and did not return before Trouin had

mountains

was taken and sacked,

sailed

away with

his

heavy

ransom.

But

if

Mr.

Ewbank

has been led into error so far as a date

concerned, he has more than

made up

for it

by

graphic painting of the bright Falls of Tijuca, as

when taking
table

it

is

and

appeared to him

a picnic-dinner upon the glistening stones:

extended into the channel; and there

reclined

his beautiful

"Oui

we banqueted and

amid scenery far excelling that which Pliny's Lauren tinum

dining-chamber opened on.


parasols, far

Shielded from the sun

from the busy scenes of

artificial life,

by

nature's

not a carking

care to trouble us, and our spirits airy as our dresses,

we laughed

and talked and dipped our cups in the crystal stream as people did

208

Brazil and the Brazilians.

in the

golden age.

Flora adorned the hanging shrubbery Pomona,


from the distance, looked on; zephyrs played round us; and
naiads

if

naiads there be

frisked in the

falls

and threw spray at

us as they glided by."

From

Tijuca there

is

a very fine excursion around the base of the

Gavia, high up whose steep sides are certain curious hieroglyphics,

which have long occupied the attention of the learned.


characters seem like

Boman

letters

These

but the best explanation of

upon this precipitous wall is that nature has


them by rains and sun, and, perhaps in times remote, by
little shrubs, whose seeds, deposited by wandering birds, have
grown in the crevices until their swelling roots have aided the raiD
their

existence

chiselled

in

prying

off friable portions of the rock.

This excursion can be extended upon the wave-washed beach

around to the Botanical Gardens, above which, from one of the


lesser hills,

a prospect not excelled by the views of

is

Como and

The abrupt Corcovado presents a new face as it looks


down upon the calm Lagoa das Freitas. The stately palms of the

Maggiore.

Jardim Botanico seem from our elevation


toy garden.

The

Serra, across the

Bay

like the trees of a child's

of Bio, takes every shade

of purple and blae during the daytime, and, as the sun at eventide
darts his rays athwart the

Pao de Assucar and the Irmaos, the

dis-

tant white fortress of Santa Cruz stands out from waters and mountains of rose.

lady friend,

who sketched

graved scene, accompanied the

gift

hues,

me

me

the opposite en-

with this remark in regard to

the exquisite tints of that tropic region

never destroyed for

for

" Years

of familiarity

the loveliness and marvellousness of these

which a painter would hesitate to put upon canvas

bition to the inhabitants of a less genial zone."


difficulty,

for exhi-

There

less

is

however, in transferring to the sketch-book the bold out-

lines of those peculiar-shaped

mountains which abound throughout

almost every league of the capital province of the Empire; and


the

many

zilians,"

scenes presented in this portion of " Brazil and the Bra-

which were taken to support no argument of mine,

will

expose the absurdity as well as the inaccuracy of the descriptions


given, even in the latest

American

edition of McCulloch, of " the

neighborhood of Bio de Janeiro," which


sure of plains"

" consists in a great

mea-

An Old
The Botanical Gardens,
situated in this romantic

to

209

Friend.

which we can now easily descend, is


and is reached from the city by a

spot,

turnpike which leads through Botafogo and under the shadow


It is not a flower-garden, but rather a Jardin des
of Corcovado.
Plantes,wherQ rare exotics, from the tiniest parasite up to the loftiest

fine

Here you may behold groves of


cinnamon and clove trees, acres of Chinese tea, the Nogaras da
India, the bread-fruit, cacao and camphor trees, besides many others
There was one tree, half hidden
that are objects of great curiosity.

palm, come under our inspection.

LAGOA OE FREITAS.

by the dome-shaped mangueiras, that I often visited with peculiar

was a small North American maple. As


an exotic in this distant land, where
I looked upon that little tree,
no wintry blasts would strip it of its foliage, where not even an
autumnal frost would robe it in those gorgeous hues which the
emotions of pleasure.

It

flowers of this

summer

clime hardly surpass,

I could sympathize

with the Bedouin of the desert who, upon beholding the palm-tree
in the Jardin des Plantes of Paris,

tain

and sea

was transported

to the country of his nativity.

far over

The most

sight to the Northern stranger in the Botanical Gardens

avenue of the Palma Eeal, (Oreodoxa

regia,)

moun-

surprising
is

the long

which we enter from

the great gate, and which, in its regularity, extent, and beauty,
14

is

Brazil and the Brazilians.

210
unrivalled.

It

is

a colonnade of natural Corinthian columns, whose

seem to support a portion of the

graceful, bright-green capitals

blue

dome

that arches above.

But the

sun's last rays are empurpling the granite peaks around

and, after a gallop through the villa-lined San Clemente,

us,

we

The lamps are already twinkling, and throw


upon the edge of that graceful little bay where the gay

reach Botafogo.
their light

regatta holds

its

annual

entire circuit of the city

Where
!

world will you find

else in the

running water,
sea

At

San Sebastian de Bio de Janeiro.

No one who has not recently visited


many improvements that have taken place

Note/or 1879.
idea of the

Five minutes more, we dismount


and thus we have accomplished tho

festivity.

at the Hotel dos Estrangeiros;

fine

all

Tijuca can have a just


in that

charming

spot.

the adjuncts of gas, (from the city mains,)

gardens on a verdure-clad peak 1300 feet above the level of the

Bennett's, the

accommodations of the most excellent hotel are more than

doubled; and, by the tasteful horticultural adornments and other important additions, this

mountain and valley home

is

rendered more attractive than ever.

CHAPTEE

THE

THE CAMPO SANTA ANNA

EVENTS SUCCEEDING THE


CONSTITUTIONAL

REFORM

REVOLUTION OF 1840

XII.

OPENING OF THE ASSEMBLEA GERAL

ACCLAMATION OF DOM PEDRO


CONDITION

DEBATES

IN

BEFORE

PARTIES

POLITICAL

OF

HISTORY

OF

THE REGENCY

II.

THE

ATTEMPT AT

THE HOUSE OF DEPUTIES

PROROGATION MOVEMENT OF ANTONIO CARLOS DEPUTATION TO THE EMPEROR


PERMANENT SESSION ACCLAMATION OF DOM PEDRO'S MAJORITY THE ASSEMBLY'S PROCLAMATION REJOICINGS NEW MINISTRY PUBLIC CONGRATULATIONS

REAL STATE OF THINGS


CORONATION

CHANGE

OPPOSITION

DIPLOMACY

COUNCIL OF STATE

DISSOLUTION

OF THE

CAMARA

RESTORATION OF ORDER

IMPERIAL MARRIAGES

MINISTERIAL CHANGE

PREPARATIONS FOR THE

COME INTO POWER

SPLENDOR OF THE CORONATION

TION POSTPONED

MENTS

MINISTERIAL PROGRAMME

OF MINISTRY

FINANCIAL

CORONA-

EMBARRASS-

PRETEXT OF OUTBREAKS

SESSIONS

THE ASSEMBLY

OF

PRESENT CONDITION.

The usual carriage-route to and from Gamboa is through the


Campo de Santa Anna. Man}' important public buildings are upon
the side of this large square.
garrison, the

The railway

station,

an extensive

Camara Municipal, the National Museum, the Palace

of the Senate, the Foreign Office, and one of the large opera-houses,
are to be found on different portions of the park.

It presents

an

animated scene on the 3d of May, when the session of the Assemblea Geral

from

St.

is

opened by the Emperor in person. The procession

Christovao to the Palace of the Senate

scenic effect

by any

similar pageant in Europe.

is

not surpassed in

The

foot-guards,

the dragoons and the hussars


picturesque and bright uniforms, the mounted military bands,

(halberdiers,) with their battle-axes,


in

the large state-carriages, with their six caparisoned horses and

coachmen and postillions, the chariot of the Empress,


drawn by eight iron-grays, the magnificent Imperial carriage,
drawn by the same number of milk-white horses decked with
liveried

Prince-of- Wales plumes,

and the long cavalcade of troops, form a

pageant worthy of the Empire.

The

six coaches-and-six are for


211

Brazil and the Brazilians.

212

Her Majesty Dona Theresa

the officers of the Imperial household.

surrounded by her maids of honor in their robes and trains of

is

Believing that some fair readers will be gratified

green and gold.

with the details of Dona Theresa's


quainted than I

am

with

who

one

toilette,

better ac-

is

costume says that the habillement

ladies'

of the Empress, on state-occasions,

is

an under-dress of white

satin,

heavily embroidered with gold, with a profusion of rich lace falling

deeply over the corsage and forming

up with diamonds magnificent

These are looped

its sleeves.

in size

and

The

lustre.

train

is

of

green velvet, with embroideries in gold corresponding with those

Her

of the skirt.
in front,

worn

head-dress, with the hair

a wreath of diamonds and emeralds

is

in

long ringlets

shape of

in the

flowers rising into the form of a coronet over the forehead, and

from which a white ostrich-feather

falls

gracefully to the shoulder.

broad sash, the combined ribbons of different orders,

purple, and green,


waist, above

which

habitually,

scarlet,

crosses the bust from the right shoulder to the

which a mass of emeralds and diamonds of the

Her

water sparkles on her bosom.


ness,

is

smile

is

not assumed on mere state-occasions, but

whether

august spouse in

this

Neapolitan princess

an afternoon

ride,

seen

is

accompanying her

is

or whether with a single

attendant she grants a private audience to those

homage to her majesty.


The Emperor is indeed a Saul,

first

one of engaging sweet-

who

desire to

pay

their

people

and

in his court-dress,

head and

shoulders above his

with his crown upon his

fine, fair

brow, and his sceptre in his hand, whether receiving the salutes
of his subjects or opening the Imperial Chambers, he

specimen of manhood. His height, when uncovered,


inches,

and

his

is

full

person.

He

a splendid

six feet four

brain and in that fine blue eye, that

not a mere puppet upon the throne, but a

The opening of the Chambers


in

is

head and body are beautifully proportioned: at a

glance one can see, in that

he

is

is

man who

thinks.

always performed by His Majesty

reads a brief address from the throne, setting forth

the condition and necessities of the Empire, and then, pronouncing

the session aberta, descends from the dais, followed in procession


to his Imperial carriage

by

bers of the Assembly.

The cortege returns

all

the dignitaries of court and

mem-

to San Christovao

through streets that are decorated with hangings of crimson

silk

The Opening
There

and satin brocade.

ceremony which

is

Assemblea Geral.

of the
is

213

not the enthusiasm attending this

new

manifested at the inauguration of a

Presi-

dent of the United States, but the circumstances are different

opening address of the Emperor corresponds


of the President, and there

is

no occasion

to the

for the jubilatic proceed-

The

ings which are the concomitant parts of an inauguration.

monarchial principle
zilian,

is

the

annual message

deeply imbedded in the heart of the Bra-

and, in its adaptation to

them and

their country,

it

is

infinitely superior to republicanism.

It is appropriate, in connection

with the opening of the Assemblea

Geral, to give a sketch of the events

succeeding those which

brought the present Emperor to the throne of Brazil.


It will be

remembered that

it

was

in the

Campo

that the citizens assembled in April, 1831, and


to restore the ministry

de Santa

Anna

demanded D. Pedro

I.

which was the favorite of the people. Upon

the refusal of the monarch to this request, repeatedly and respect-

urged through proper magistrates, several divisions of the

fully

army and

the national guard joined the populace.

An

adjutant

was sent to the Palace of San Christovao for a final answer, which
was given in the abdication of the monarch under circumstances
which command our highest admiration.

The Adjutant (Miguel de Frias Vasconeellos) returned

at full

gallop from San Christovao with the decree of abdication in his

was received with the liveliest demonstrations of joy,


and the morning air rang with "vivas" to Dom Pedro the Second.
At an early hour all the Deputies and Senators in the metropolis,
hand.

It

together with the ex-Ministers of State, assembled in the Senate-

House and appointed a provisional Eegency consisting of Vergueiro,


Francisco de Lima, and the Marquis de Caravellas, who were to
,

administer the government until the appointment of the permanent

Regency provided

whom
less,

for

this abdication

by the Constitution.

was made was not

he was borne in triumph to the

city,

in favor of
:

neverthe-

and the ceremony of

acclamation as Emperor was performed with


siasm.

The son

six years old

all

During the progress of these events, the

his

imaginable enthucorps diplomatique

had assembled at the house of the Pope's nuncio, to determine on


what course they should take in the progressing revolution. Mr.
Brown, the American charge

d'affaires, declined

being present at

Brazil and the Brazilians.

214

apprehending that

this meeting,

the

common

its

special design

was

to protect

Those who met, however, agreed

interests of royalty.

an address to the existing authorities, in which, after

to present

stating that the safety of their several

countrymen was

perilled in

the midst of the popular movements then taking place, they de-

manded

for

them the most

explicit

enjoyment of the rights and

immunities conceded by the laws and treaties of civilized nations

They furthermore resolved


to learn

from

his

own

lips

to wait

upon the ex-Emperor

in a body,

whether he had really abdicated

These measures were highly offensive to the new Government,

That
Government was at the same time highly pleased with the course
pursued by Mr. Brown, and also by Mr. Gomez, the charge from
being considered in the light of an uncalled-for interference.

Colombia,

who

dissented from the policy of the monarchial diplo-

The Minister of State remarked that their conduct


was that of "true Americans."
The 9th of April was appointed as the first court-day of Dom
Pedro II., while the ex-Emperor still remained in the harbor. A
Te Deum was chanted in the Imperial Chapel. The troops appeared
in review; and an immense concourse of people, wearing leaves of
matic agents.

the "arvore nacional" as a badge of loyalty,

filled

the streets.

They detached the horses from the Imperial carriage, so that they
might draw their infant sovereign with their own hands. When
he had been conveyed to the palace he was placed in a window,
and the unnumbered multitude passed before him. After this he
received the personal compliments of the corps diplomatique, none

of

whom

board the

were absent, notwithstanding the recent excursion on


"VYarspite.

The new Government courteously


of a public ship.

He

declined

it,

pense that would be necessary to


time, that his

good

friends, the

offered

Dom

Pedro

I.

the use

on account of the delay and ex-

its outfit;

remarking, at the same

Kings of Great Britain and France,

could well afford him the conveyance for himself and family which

had been

offered

by their respective naval commanders on that

station.

On

the 17th of June the Assemblea Geral proceeded to the elec-

permanent Begency. The individuals elected were Lima,


Costa Carvalho, and Joao Braulio Muniz. The General Assembly
tion of the

The Regency.
was occupied during

this session

215

by exciting debates on the subject

of constitutional reform.

Senhor Antonio Carlos de Andrada presided in the Chamber of

who had been

Jose Bonifacio,

Deputies.

appointed by the ex-Em-

peror as tutor to his children, was recommissioned by the Assemblea,


that body having decided that the former appointment was invalid,

On

accepting his charge, that distinguished Brazilian declared that

he would receive no compensation for the services he might render


in that

important capacity,

which declaration

he maintained

in

the spirit of a true patriot.

Notwithstanding the magnitude of the revolution that had so suddenly transpired, the public tranquillity was scarcely at

On

the 7th of October

official

all

disturbed.

despatches arrived, bringing the

congratulations of the Government of the United States upon the

new

order of things.

This was the

demonstration of the senti-

first

ments of other nations that was communicated at the Brazilian


court,

and as such was received with peculiar

satisfaction.

In the month of April, 1832, two military riots occurred in Rio


de Janeiro, and in July following the Minister of Justice, in his
public report, seized the occasion to denounce the venerable Jose
Bonifacio, on suspicion of his having connived at the preceding

The report of a committee in the Camara dos Depudemanded his dismission without a hearing. The Camara
agreed to this by a bare majority, but the Senate dissented, and
disturbances.

tados

The Regents

that plot for degrading Andrada failed.


resignation

Chamber

to the General Assembly.

of Deputies besought

them

new

sent in their

deputation from the

to remain in

consented, but immediately organized a

The next

office.

They

ministry.

year, however, the opposition triumphed, not in veriiy-

ing these unjust accusations, but in deposing the old patriot as

young Emperor.
The year 1834 was celebrated on account of the important
changes that were made in the Constitution of the Empire. One
tutor to the

of these created annual assemblies in the provinces, instead of the


general councils

before

held.

The members of the provincial


two years. Another abo-

assemblies were to be elected once in


lished the triple

Regency, and again conferred that

single individual, to be elected once in four years.

office

upon a

Brazil and the Brazilians.

216

After the election for Sole Eegent took place, the Senate delayed

announcement of the successful candidate; but


was made known that Diogo Antonio Feijo, of San

for a long time the

at length

it

Paulo, had received a large majority of the electoral votes.

although a priest, had been for


life,

many

Feijo,

years engaged in political

and only two years before had been elected a Senator.

One

of the last acts of the preceding administration had been to appoint

him Bishop of Mariana, a diocese including the rich province of the


Minas. Feijo was installed Sole Eegent on the 12th of October,
1835.

On

the 24th he issued a judicious proclamation to the Bra-

zilian people, setting forth the principles that

he intended to observe

in his administration.

The agitated question of the Eegency being settled, affairs assumed a more permanent aspect. Several foreign nations, at this
juncture, advanced their diplomatic agents to the highest grade.

The United

States were desired to do the same, but did not consent.

In 1836 the Government, among other suggestions for the public


good, proposed to employ Moravian missionaries to catechize the

Indians of the interior. This measure, together with every other

ori-

ginated by this administration, was opposed with the utmost rancor

and bitterness by Vasconcellos, a veteran politician of great


ties

abili-

and uncommon eloquence, but of doubtful principles and bad

morals.

Notwithstanding the arts and power of Vasconcellos, the

leading measure of the administration prevailed.

This was a loan

of two thousand contos of reis (200,000) for the temporary relief


of the treasury.

Open and

active rebellions

were at

progress in Eio Grande do Sul, and also in Para.

this

time in

Their influence,

however, was scarcely apparent at the capital, where every thing

The General Assembly was slow in


suppress these outbreaks, and when they were

seemed quiet and prosperous.

making provision

to

about to adjourn Feijo prolonged the session a month, "that the

members might do

their duty."

Movements

for the abolition of

the Eegency, and the installation of the young Emperor, had

already commenced, even at this early day.

At

times,

and

in

more apparent.
was not calculated to be popular. His
character partook of the old Eoman sternness. When he had once
marked out a course for himself, he followed it against all opposi-

favorable circumstances, they became


Feijo's administration

Condition of Parties.

217

Disinclined to ostentation himself, he did not countenance

tion.

in others.

He

neither practised nor abetted the usual arts of

tering the popular will.

sometimes changed his ministers, but

At

seldom or never.

his advisers

find himself

He

length, so embarrassed did he

between the rebellion of Eio Grande and the factious

opposition that checked his measures for repressing

determined to retire from his

On

it

flat-

it,

that he

office.

the 17th of September, 1837, Feijo abdicated the Eegen y,

and the opposition party came into power.

Pedro Araujo Lima,

then minister of the Empire, assumed the Kegency by virtue of a

was the prime


mover in the new order of affairs. No commotion took place, and
it was evident that the strength of the new Government consisted
in union.
A different policy was adopted toward the boy Emperor.
Feijo had been distant and unceremonious; the new administration
became over-attentive. More display was made on public occasions,
and the inclinations of a people passionately fond of the^pomp and
provision of the Constitution, although Vasconcellos

circumstance of royalty began to be fully gratified.


1838, the votes of the
installed Eegent.

new

election

His term of

In October,

were canvassed, and Lima was

office

was

to cover the minority of

the Emperor.

Whether the Eegent himself expected such a result or not, it


soon became apparent that the dignity of his office was quite
eclipsed by the new honors with which the young sovereign was
complimented.
The frequent changes of ministry hitherto had
embarrassed the diplomacy of the Brazilian Government, and had

much

caused

dissatisfaction to foreign powers,

to see their claims neglected

from any cause.

who were

By

unwilling

degrees, how-

ever, the foreign as well as the internal affairs of the Government


became more permanently adjusted.
The year 1840 was signalized in Brazil by a new and startling
political revolution, which resulted in the abolition of the Eegency.
The Emperor, Dom Pedro II., was now in his fifteenth year; and

the political party opposed to the Eegent and the existing ministry

espoused the project of declaring his minority expired, and of


elevating

But

it

him

at once to the full possession of his throne.

This

had been occasionally discussed during the last five years.


had always been characterized as premature and absurd. It

project

Brazil and the Brazilians.

218

was argued that the Constitution limited the minority of the


sovereign to the age of eighteen years, and that was early enough
for any young man to have the task of governing so vast an Empire. On the other hand, it was urged that, as to responsibility, the
Constitution expressly provided that none should attach itself to

Emperor under any circumstances. Hence an abolition of the


Eegency would, as matter of course, devolve the powers of the
regent upon some other officer. There would be one difference,
however. The Eegent, as such, enjoyed the privileges of royalty
the

itself,

being also perfectly irresponsible.

urged as a great and growing

evil.

This circumstance was

However

desirable

it

a sovereign to possess the attribute of irresponsibility,

dangerous thing for a

citizen, accidentally elevated

have the power of dispensing good or

answer

As

for his conduct.

evil

was for
was a.

it

to office, to

without expecting to

much

these subjects were discussed,

was aroused but the best-informed persons supposed that


the Eegent* would be able to defeat the plan laid for his overthrow.
The debate upon the motion in the House of Deputies to declare
the Emperor of age began early in July, and at first turned
The legislature had, in
principally upon constitutional objections.
But the
fact, no power to amend or overstep the Constitution.
plan was arranged, minds were heated, and the passions of the
Violence of language prevailed, and
people began to be enlisted.
feeling

began to be threatened.

personal violence

Andrada, already described as a

man

Antonio Carlos de

of great learning and elo-

quence, but at the same time fiery and uncontrollable, stood forth

champion of the

as the

assailing party, accusing the

Eegent and

his ministry of usurpation, especially since the 11th of March,

the Imperial Princess,

were powerfully
in the

Donna

resisted,

Januaria, became of age.

His

when

efforts

but his cause rapidly gained favor both

Assembly and among the people.

Galvao, until recently attached to the other party,

impressive

speech

on

the

side

of

made an

immediate acclamation as

inevitable.

Alvares Machado demanded that party trammels should

abandoned.
nation,

"The

and ought

country."

cause of the

now

be

Emperor was the cause of the

to receive the approbation of every lover of the

Debates in the House of Deputies.

"^

219

Navarro, a young but powerful member from Matto Grosso,

lowed

in a violent

the Eegent, and

fol-

and denunciatory speech, in which he stigmatized


his acts, in the most opprobrious language.

all

While in the heat of his harangue, he suddenly exclaimed, " Viva


a maioridade de sua Majestade Imperial !" The crowded galleries
had hitherto observed the most religious
tion

drew

forth a burst of enthusiastic

silence; but this exclama-

and prolonged applause.

Navarro, no longer able to make himself heard, drew his handkerchief from his bosom to respond to the vivas from the gallery.

him imagined they saw a


knowing
whose turn might
dagger gleaming in his hand, and, not
come first, began to flee for their lives. One seized Navarro to
keep him quiet; but he, not perceiving the reason of the assault,
furiously repelled it.
For a few moments the most intense and

Members of the other party

sitting near

was soon restored.


doors, demanding the

uncontrollable excitement prevailed; but order

Crowds of people now assembled out of


young Emperor. Some went

elevation of the

so far as to proclaim

his majority in the public squares of the city.

The

ministerial

party desperately resisted these strange movements in the House,


but they were unable to stave

off

the debate.

Limpo de Abreo, (afterward Yisconde de Abaete,) an ex-miniswas in favor of the Eevolution, but he wished it to be a deliberate and consistent one, at least preceded by the report of a
committee justifying the step. After much opposition to the measure, the committee was appointed, and a momentary calm ensued.
During the night both parties reviewed their positions. The clubs
and lodges held their sessions, and the opposition met in caucus.
The Eegent and his ministry were also in conclave. Vasconcellos,

ter,

the Senator from Minas-Geraes, the veteran politician, but a

who had
quencies,

The

was

called in as their counsellor.

session of the

Chamber

was opened in
were crowded with

of Deputies next day

the midst of the deepest anxiety.


people.

man

long been obnoxious on account of great moral delin-

The

galleries

The report of the committee was anxiously looked

for,

and indeed imperiously demanded, but did not appear.


Navarro accused the majority of the committee of treacherously
intending delay.
He urged the immediate and unceremonious
declaration of the Emperor's majority.

He

appealed to the galle

Brazil ash rai Brazilians.

220
riee,

ived a deafening response of vivas

ai

Iro II.

The President of the Chamber


the day; but it was im| issil

Indescribable confusion ensued.

attempted to

up the order of

call

The absorbing question must be


the Opposition wished the
bis birthday.

'.

young Emperor's elevation deferred till


The more violent ex '.aimed

the 2d of December.

vehemently against any delay whatever.


an unusual length.

:i to

The

the Secretary.

first

was

ui

They were read by

At the mention of the


:: indigi ition were

Vasconeettos, irrepressible sensations

The Secretary

apparent throughout the House.

;i to read

eument. which proved to be an act of prorogation,

seeoH

adjourning the General Assembly over from that


20th of

November

now

sations

to ihe majority of
the

and one

Pom

Pedro

madness

his

resist

BUDD.es

agi

They charged

hat every Brazilian should

They represented lima as


power that was about to escape
him as a usurper, willing to

gh-handed measures.
ith-grasp, the

hazard of lighting up

and the thro:

war in every eorner nfthc Empire. ~V~as::::eellos


every
kg a monster whose name was signific

if sivil

was portray
and crime
into his

to their feet,

vehement protests

the part of the Government,

from his hards.


sacrifice the

Anionic Carlos, Martin Fran-

II.

two Andradas,] Iampo de Abreo, sprang

the Regent with treason, an

clutching.

The p
They poured down

upon the administration, mingled with

after the other enter:

this act of

to the

at their height.

in the galleries could not be restrained.

rent of

moment

following.

Confusion and indignation were

cisco,

pro-

a mease

it

nomination of Bernardo Pereira de

Yasconcellos as Minister of the Empire!

name

The debate was

In the midst of

loenments from the Regent.

enter:

The

discussed.

thai the worst

enemy

the

Emperor had: but


i :w betray

hands that the young monarch was

The President of the House attempted to enforce the Act of Prowas prevented.
Antonio Carlos de Andrada
forth, and called upon every Brazilian
follow him
:

.1

to the halls of the Senate.

situated

Anna, and nearly a mile distant.


the pec

upon the Campc

he

Santa

His friends in the House, and

:d him.

The multitude increased

Acclamation of
at every step.

two Houses

On

Dom Pedro

221

II.

the arrival of the Deputies at the Senate, the

instantly resolved themselves into joint session, and

appointed a deputation, with Antonio Carlos at

upon the Emperor and obtain

its

his consent to the

head, to wait

acclamation.

During the absence of the deputation, several of the Senators en-

The multitude with-

deavored to calm the passions of the people.


out had increased to the

appeared

number

of several thousand.

No

soldiers

but the cadets of the Military Academy, in the heat of

their juvenile enthusiasm, rushed to

arms and prepared to defend

their sovereign.

Presently the deputation returned, and announced that, after

members had represented


existed at the present

its

Emperor the state of affairs which


His Majesty had consented to assume

to the

crisis,

the reins of government, and had ordered the Eegent to revoke his

obnoxious decrees and to pronounce the Chambers again in

Thunders of applause followed

sion.

enthusiasm of the people

knew no

and no blood was shed

The

bounds.

ses-

announcement.

The

The country was

saved,

this

citizens proceeded to congratulate

one another upon this peaceful triumph of public opinion.

The

discussions of the

Assembly turned upon the manner of con-

summating the revolution which had thus singularly commenced.


Lima was now stigmatized as the &r-Regent, and was pronounced
incompetent to reassemble the body which he had tried to prorogue.

The Marquis of Paranagua, President of the Senate,


House was now in session, but that the mem-

declared that neither

bers of both composed an august popular assemblage, personifying

the nation, demanding that their

a minor.
until

It

was

Emperor be considered no longer


remain in permanent session

finally resolved to

His Majesty should appear and receive in their presence the

oath prescribed by the Constitution.

The Assembly consequently


remained in the Senate-House all night. A body of the National
Guards, the alumni of the Military Academy, and numerous citizens,
also

remained to guard them.

At daylight the people generally began

to reassemble.

o'clock not less than eight or ten thousand of the


citizens

surrounded the palace of the Senate.

President of the Assembly

By

ten

most respectable

At that hour the

made a formal declaration of the objects


The rolls of both Houses were then

of the present convocation.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

222
and the

called,

legal

number, both of Senators and of Deputies,

being found present, the President arose and said

"I, as the organ of the Eepresentatives of this nation in General

Assembly convened, declare that His Majesty


from this moment in his majority, and
constitutional prerogatives.

Dom

Pedro

II.

Dom

Pedro

peror and perpetual defender of Brazil


II.

Pedro

II. is

The majority of His Majesty Senhor

Viva Senhor

Dom

in the full exercise of his

II.,

constitutional

Yiva Senhor

Dom

Em-

Pedro

I"

Millions of vivas from the

members of the Assembly, from the


Campo, now

spectators in the gallery, and from the multitude in the

rent the air in response, and were prolonged with indescribable

enthusiasm and delight.

Deputations were appointed to wait upon

His Majesty when he should

At

Empire.

for the

arrive,

and to prepare a proclamation

half-past three o'clock the Imperial escort ap-

His Majesty was preceded by the dignitaries of the palace,

peared.

and followed by

his Imperial sisters.

On

beholding the young

Emperor, the enthusiasm of the crowd exceeded any former

Nothing but a reiteration of vivas could be heard


during the whole ceremony.
possible formality,

in

the

limit.

Campo

His Majesty was received with

and conducted

to the throne, near

all

which the

members of the diplomatic corps were already seated in their


The Emperor now knelt down and received the
court-uniform.
oath prescribed by the Constitution and, after the auto de juramento was read aloud and solemnly signed, the following proclamation, already drafted by Antonio Carlos de Andrada, and approved
by the Assembly, was now uttered
"Brazilians! The General Legislative Assembly of Brazil, recognising that happy intellectual development with which it has
pleased Divine Providence to endow his Imperial Majesty Dom
;

Pedro

II.,

selves

to

recognising also the inherent evils which attach them-

an unsettled government,

unanimous

witnessing,

desire of the people of this capital,

moreover, the

which

it

believes to

be in perfect accordance with the desire of the whole Empire,


to confer

tion secures to

him; therefore,

siderations, this

body

fit

viz.

upon our august monarch the powers which the Constituin

view of such important con-

has, for the well-being of the country, seen

to declare the majority of

Dom

Pedro

II.,

so that he

may

enter

Public Congratulations.

223

at once upon the full exercise of his powers as constitutional

Emperor and perpetual defender of

Brazil.

Our august monarch

has just taken in our presence the solemn oath required by the
Constitution.

The hopes of the nation are converted into


era has dawned upon us. May it be one of
May we prove worthy of so
uninterrupted union and prosperity
" Brazilians!

reality.

A new

great a blessing

I"

After the ceremonies of the occasion had been completed, His

Majesty proceeded to the city palace, accompanied by the National

Guards and the people.

In the evening a numerous and splendid

reception took place, and the joy of the whole city

by a spontaneous and most

was manifested

brilliant illumination.

To the astonishment of every one, the revolution was now comThe Eegency was abolished; perfect tranquillity prevailed
and Dom Pedro II. the boy who, when six years old, had been
acclaimed sovereign of a vast Empire was now at fifteen invested
with all the prerogatives of his Imperial throne. The youthful
Emperor was very tall for his age, but not of the handsome proportions for which he is now so distinguished. His mind was of
an exceedingly mature cast. As a student he was, it may be said
without any exaggeration, most remarkable in his tastes, application, and rapid advancement.
The study of the natural sciences

plete.

not

a mere smattering of them, but the most thorough and

abstruse investigation

was

his delight;

and

his facility for ac-

quiring language was such, that this day he can converse in the
principal tongues of Europe.

It

was therefore no empty phrase

which Antonio Carlos de Andrada used when he spoke of the

"happy

intellectual

He was

not a mere " boy Emperor."

development" of His young Imperial Majesty.

The preceding year had witnessed the inauguration

of steam-

navigation along the whole Brazilian sea-coast, so that the news


of the recent events at Bio de Janeiro

was soon made known

in

every town of the extensive Atlantic board, and by special couriers


in a

few weeks the most remote parts of the wide Empire were

sending up their vivas for

Dom

Pedro

II.

Congratulations were the order of the day.

Every

society,

every public institution, every province, and nearly every town,

Brazil and the Brazilians.

224
from the

capital to the remotest parts of the Empire, hastened, on

the reception of the news, not only to celebrate the event with

extravagant rejoicing, but also to send a deputation to utter, in the


presence of the Emperor, their most profound sentiments of joy at
his elevation to the sovereignty,

and their cherished hopes of his

prosperity and happiness.

Thus was accomplished, without bloodshed, the third popular


revolution of Brazil.

The

article relating to the

majority of the Emperor, remained intact.

Constitution, with the exception of the

In regard to the peculiar form of rule of the preceding nine

may

years,

it

ment

of the

period of

its

difficulties,

do

be said that there can be no doubt that the govern-

Eegency was a
existence

and

Sul, besides

less,

also

benefit to Brazil.

During the entire

had to struggle with serious financial

it

with the formidable rebellion of Eio Grande

temporal outbreaks in other provinces.

improvement became the order of the day, and,

Neverthein various

ways, was really secured.

The personal
circumstances.

never waned.
Carlos

rule of the

He was
The two

Emperor commenced under

leaders of his

first

and Martin Francisco Andrada.

Jose Bonifacio, was no more.


to the

auspicious

the object of an enthusiasm which has

Cabinet were Antonio

Their

elder brother,

In 1833, upon his deposition as tutor

Emperor, he withdrew from public

beautiful island of Paqueta in the

Bay

until a short time before his death at

life,

and retired

to the

of Bio, where he remained

Nictherohy

in 1838.

Antonio Carlos at the very outset frankly and lucidly

set forth

the principles upon which the ministerial action would be based

under the new order of things.

Those principles were

consistent; and from the

known energy

with their associates,

may

it

safe

and

of the Andradas, together

be presumed that no efforts were

spared to put them in practice.

The nation

at large

was exhilarated with the idea of the

revolution that had transpired;

glorious

but the legislature, tired by

its

method of doing business. The first leading measure of the opposition was the appointment of a Council of State, the members of which were to hold the
It became an immediate
office of special advisers to the Emperor.

recent paroxysms, soon

fell

back into

its

old

and protracted subject of discussion, but did not succeed

till

late in

Preparations for the Coronation.


the following year.

Things throughout the Empire moved on in

their ordinary course, save that,

elevation lost

its

225

when

the subject of the Emperor's

novelty, that of his approaching coronation

became

the theme of universal interest and of unbounded anticipation.

was fixed upon for the coronaPreparations for that event were set on foot long in advance
tion.
of the time. Expectants of honors and emoluments attempted to
Extraordinary embassies
rival each other in parade and display.

The

early part of the year 1841

were sent out from the

different courts of Europe, in

compliment

to the Brazilian throne.

While diplomatists and

politicians

were intent upon sharing the

honors of this occasion, the artisans and shopkeepers of the metropolis displayed quite as

much

tact in securing the profits of

it.

Exorbitant prices were demanded for every article of ornament

and luxury; but those

articles

aspiring poverty, not less

had now become necessary, and

than grudging avarice, was compelled

to submit to extortion.

Before the next session of the General Assembly

difficulties

occurred which seriously embarrassed the administration.

new appointments

of the provinces had resisted the

and

had

Several

of presidents,

had manifested tendencies to revolution. But the


evil grew out of the long-standing rebellion in Eio

in so doing

most serious

Grande do

In the anxiety of the Cabinet to bring this inter-

Sul.

war to a close, Alvares Machado had been appointed an agent


of the Government to treat with the rebels. Much confidence had

nal

been reposed

in his personal influence

But, with

the

with those in revolt, and he


had been invested with extraordinary and unconstitutional powers.
all

compromise.

facilities offered

them, the insurgents refused to

Machado was then appointed President of the

pro-

vince.

In this

office,

instead of wielding a rod of iron, as his predeces-

had done, or had attempted to do, he adopted conciliatory


measures, and rather entreated a negotiation. This attitude was
sors

stigmatized as dishonorable to the Empire, and such an outcry

made

in regard to

it

was

as to excite general alarm lest the interests

of the throne should be betrayed.


ministry.

On

This outcry was aimed at tho


change was demanded, and was at length obtained

the 23d of March the Andradas and their friends, with a singlo
15

Brazil and the Brazilians.

226

exception, were dismissed


the

new

and thus those who had brought about

order of things were supplanted, just in time for thoir op-

ponents to secure the decorations and the emoluments that were


soon to bo distributed.
Mortifying as this circumstance
bearings,

it

may have

been in some of

its

caused no grief to the Andradas in view of their per-

sonal wishes.

They

could point to the early days of their political

prosperity, in proof of their disinterested devotion to their country.

They

could now, as then, retire in honorable poverty, preserving

the claim of pure patriotism as a more precious treasure than

wealth or

titles.

terity to inquire

they did not receive the honors they had

Other men were welcome to the ignominy of wearing

deserved.
titles

Theirs was the distinction that would cause pos-

why

they had never merited.

When

the General Assembly convened in May,

pedient to postpone the coronation.


this

it

was found

ex-

Thus, for two months longer

anticipated fete continued to be the all-engrossing topic of

conversation and of preparation in every

and Princesses down

to the lowest classes.

for event transpired at length,

circle,

from the Emperor

That anxiously-looked-

on the 18th of July, 1841.

It

magnificent beyond the expectations of the most sanguine.

was
The

the

unnumbered thousands of citizens


the tasteful and costly
streets,
decorations displayed in the public squares and in front of private
houses,
the triumphal arches,
the pealing salutes of music and
of cannon, the perfect order and tranquillity that prevailed in the
public processions and ceremonies of the day, together with nearly
every thing else that could be imagined or wished, seemed to combine and make the occasion one of the most imposing that over
transpired in the New World. The act of consecration was persplendor of the day

itself,

and strangers that thronged the

formed

in tho

Imperial Chapel, and was followed by a levee in the

Tho

palace of the city.


did scale,

and the

illuminations at night were upon a splen-

festivities of the occasion

were prolonged nine

successive days.

So far as pomp and parade could promote the


(lovernment and secure

was dono

for Brazil

a lasting respect for a

stability of a

crown, every thing

on that day that possibly could be done with-

out greater means at command.

There were circumstances, how-

The Council

of State.

ever, connected with the monarchial

pomp and

tures of this coronation, which could not

ing to those

who had

Empire were

to struggle

The money used


of one hundred

in

fail to

bo very embarrassfinances of the

and constantly deteriorating.

support of this grand

fete,

including an expense

thousand dollars for an Imperial crown,

rowed, and added to an immense public debt.

Government was

the

the lavish expendi-

The

with them.

at the very lowest ebb,

227

In addition to

from being stable and

far

councils were divided, and

settled.

borthis,

Jts

The existence

policy vacillating.

its

was

of this state of things formed a principal pretext for the splendid

demonstration alluded

It

to.

was thought

to bo

an object of the

importance to surround the throne with such a degree of

first

splendor as would forever hallow

it

in the eyes of the people.

After the coronation, the sessions of the General Assembly were

resumed.

On

the 23d of

the Conselho de Estado.


basis of the ordinary
Britain.

Among the

November a law was passed establishing


This body was modelled upon the double

and extraordinary Privy Councils of Great

gentlemen composing

this Council

were Lima,

Calmon, Carneiro Leao, and Vasconccllos. The very individuals who


opposed tho Andradas at the period of the young Emperor's elevation,

and who wero then put down by acclamation, had,

short space of a year, not only

managed

to get

favor, but also to secure life-appointments of tho

in

tho

back into public

most

influential

kind.

Vasconccllos,

it is

true, sought

no

titles.

They were playthings

which he could

easily dispense with for the gratification of his

fellow-partisans.

But he loved power, and neither mortifications

nor defeat diverted him an instant from

its pursuit.

lie finally

gained a position which probably suited his inclinations better


than any other, and in which, as the master-spirit of the body,
his influence

On

must be widely

States Charge

the

felt.

the 1st of January, 1842, the Honorable Mr. Hunter,* United

Emperor

d' Affaires at

Eio de Janeiro, presented to His Majesty

his credentials as envoy-extraordinary

* No foreign diplomatist in Brazil

Mr. Hunter, of Rhode Island.


bility as

a gentleman

won

left

warmer

and minister-

friends than the late Honorable

His accomplishments as a scholar and his

the hearts of

all.

afia-

Brazil and the Brazilians.

228

plenipotentiary, to which rank he had been advanced.

This com-

pliment was speedily reciprocated by the appointment of the

Honorable Mr. Lisboa as the minister of Brazil at Washington.


In continuance of the present historical sketch of Brazilian
affairs, it is painful to

add that the year 1842 was marked by

repeated and serious disturbances in different parts of the Empire.

They commenced with the

elections for deputies.

Yarious frauds

had been enacted, by suddenly changing the day, hour, and places
of elections.

What was

worse, bodies of troops and armed

were introduced to influence


brought in from other

votes, while

districts.

men

crowds of voters were

In short, bribery, corruption, and

force triumphed over the free exercise of public opinion.

It is

not to be presumed that one party was guilty of these measures


alone

but

it

appeared, in the issue, that the opposition had suc-

ceeded and that the ministerial party was in the minority.

conduct of the ministry was such

though

The

they acted with some

degree of plausibility in regard to preventing the regular meeting


of the Assembly and in issuing a decree for an extraordinary
session

that

the sounds of rebellion were heard in parts of the

Empire which hitherto had been the most faithful and the most
tranquil.
San Paulo and Minas-Geraes were in commotion and
disorder.

The utmost consternation

prevailed,

and even at the

capital an incendiary proclamation was posted up at the corners

of the streets, calling upon the people to free the

Emperor from

the domination which had been imposed upon him, and to rescue

both the throne and the Constitution from threatened annihilation.


It is interesting to note that the Brazilians, in their internal

commotions, put the blame in the right place, and have ever
rallied

around

I).

Pedro.

He, on the other hand, has always

by his measures, worthy of their


The power of the Emperor of Brazil is not like that
of the monarch of Bussia, but is as limited as that of the sove-

proved, by his character and


devotion.

reign of the British realm.

The Government was now driven to extreme measures. The


was called out, and martial law was proclaimed in the
The supremacy of the law was mainthree disturbed provinces.
The prospects of the Empire were for a short time very
tained.
gloomy and unpromising, but by degrees the storm blew over.
militia

The Imperial Marriages.


Order was gradually restored without actual
of many

lives,

The worst consequences of the

rienced in the districts where

it

229

hostilities or the loss

rebellion

were expe-

occurred, although public con-

fidence and the national revenue suffered severely.

The

more quietEmperor opened the


General Assembly in person, and a new ministry was appointed.
From that time to this there has been a softening down of parties
and factions and, though there has always been a certain amount
elections at the close of the year occurred with

and on the

ness,

1st of January, 1843, the

of corruption and un scrupulousness in the political affairs of the


nation, no great disturbances have affected its welfare,

has been a constant tendency to obedience to law.

with

this,

financial

difficulties

were

diminished

and there

In connection

and national

prosperity increased.

The most remarkable public events that transpired at Eio


They were

during the year 1843 were the Imperial marriages.


celebrated with great rejoicings and

all

possible splendor.

Emperor Dom Pedro II. had ratified a contract of marriage with Her Eoyal Highness the Most
Serene Princess Senhora Donna Theresa Christina Maria, the
august sister of His Majesty the King of the Two Sicilies. The
marriage was duly solemnized at Naples, and, on the 5th of March,
a Brazilian squadron, composed of a frigate and two corvettes,

As

early as July, 1842, the

from Eio de Janeiro to the Mediterranean, to conduct the

sailed

Empress

to her future

In the

mean

command

of His Eoyal Highness Prince de Join-

son of Louis Philippe.

This was Joinville's second visit to

arrived, under the


ville,

home.

time, on the 27th of March, a French squadron

he made matrimonial propositions


Her Imperial Highness Donna Francisca, the third sister of the
Emperor. The customary negotiations were closed with despatch.
On the 1st of. May the marriage was solemnized at Boa Yista.

Brazil.

Soon after

his arrival

to

On

the 13th of

May

the Prince and his Imperial bride sailed for

Europe.

The Empress Donna Theresa arrived

at Eio on the 3d of Sep-

tember, and was received not only with magnificent ceremonies,

but also with sincere cordiality on the part of the Brazilians.


It

may

be mentioned here that the eldest sister of D. Pedro

II.,

;;

Brazil and the Brazilians.

230

Donna Maria, Queen

of Portugal,

had previously taken, as her

royal consort, Prince Fernando Augusto, of Saxe-Coburg

Gotha
and on the 28th of April, 1844, her Imperial Highness Donna

Januaria was also married to a Neapolitan prince,

the

Count

of Aquilla, brother to the Empress of Brazil and the King of the

Two

Thus, in the course of a single

Sicilies.

}'ear,

the Imperial

family of Brazil contracted honorable and nattering alliances with


the courts of Europe.

In 1844, Brazil was rejoiced by the birth of the Imperial Prince

Dom

Affonso

but his untimely death the following year brought

mourning upon the nation.


present heir-presumptive)

Donna Leopoldina.

In 1846, the Princess Isabella (the

was born, and,

in 1847, her sister, the

In case of the death of these princesses, and

Emperor without other

the demise of the

issue, the Constitution

provides that the eldest child (Donna Januaria)

shall

be heir to

But both Princesses have become mothers.*

the Imperial throne.

In 1850, the slave-trade (which had continued despite solemn treaties)

was effectually put down. In 1870, the despotic Lopez of Paraguay

was defeated by the Brazilians commanded by the Count d'Eu, consort of the imperial Princess

The year 1850 witnessed


and now the Empire
lines

the

steamship-line to Europe

first

World by no

united to the Old

less

than nine

while only one line links together the two Americas.

For the

Her

is

and in 1871, slavery was limited b} law.


7

last ten years the progress

public

credit

abroad

is

of Brazil has been onward.

of the highest character.

Internal

improvements have been projected and are being executed on a


large scale

tranquillity has prevailed, undisturbed

provincial revolt
attention of

all is

party spirit has lost

more than ever directed

of agriculture and legitimate commerce

more widely
the masses,

diffused

still, if

and, though

first

much

by the

slightest

early virulence

the

to the peaceful triumphs

public instruction
is

is

being

yet required to elevate

Brazil shall continue to carry out the principles

of her noble Constitution, and

abound

its

in her borders,

if

education

and* morality shall

she will in due time take position in the

rank of nations.

* In October, 1864, the Princess Imperial, Donna Isabella, was married to Prince Louis Philippe
F. Gaston cTOrleans, Count d'Eu, eldest son of the Due de Nemours.
They spent the greater
portion of 1865 in Europe. In December. 1864, the seconl Princess, Donna Leopoldina, was married
to Prince Auguste of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, whose mother was Clementine d'Orl(5ans, so that both
the Princesses married grandsons of Louis Philippe. Da. Leopoldina died in 1871.

M.

<U)

Ml

CHAPTEE
THE EMPEROR OF BRAZIL

XIII.

HIS REMARKABLE TALENTS


THE FIRST SIGHT OF

YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY

ON BOARD AN AMERICAN STEAMSHIP


PITTSBURG"

HOW

D.

AND ACQUIREMENTS

D.

PEDRO

II.

PEDRO

VISIT OF THE

EMPEROR

NEW

EMPEROR

CAPTAIN FOSTER AND THE "CITY OF

THE PALACE OF

S.

AN

DIFFICULTIES OVERCOME

KNOWLEDGE OF AMERICAN AUTHORS

HIS

VISIT TO

AN

WAS RECEIVED BY THE "SOVEREIGNS"

EXHIBITION OF AMERICAN ARTS AND MANUFACTURES

AMONG THE PEOPLE

II.

CHRISTOVAO

SUCCESS

LONGFELLOW,

HAWTHORNE, AND WEBSTER.

We

naturally turn with interest and a laudable curiosity to look

at the character and abilities of the monarch

who

The Emperor

by Providence to the head of a growing nation.


Brazil,

by the various
III.

The

life

of

Alexander

or the achieve-

II.

some crowned heads

official

merit

they are educated, refined, and

may

or

may

In the eye of the legitimist their chief distinction

is

intrinsic

not be affable.

the blood which

has coursed through the veins of generations of kings.


situated half-way between the legitimist

only an

is

one; very few of the Dei gratia rulers possess

of

limits of the Constitution, has not the scope

for kingcraft that is the heritage of

ment of Napoleon

has been called

He who

is

and the red republican

regards with a greater or less degree of veneration the repre-

power which he beholds in the ruler, and is


by the amiable and benevolent character which he who sits upon the throne may possess.
But it is very rare, in the history of nations, to find a monarch
who combines all that the most scrupulous legitimist would exact,
who is limited by all the checks that a constitutionalist would
require, and yet has the greatest claim for the respect of his subsentative of executive

possibly excited to a certain admiration

jects

and the admiration of the world,

his acquisitions in science

meet

in

Dom

Pedro

II.

and

in his native talent

literature.

and in

These rare combinations

In his veins courses the united blood of


231

Brazil and the Brazilians.

232

the Braganzas, the Bourbons, and the Hapsburgs.

he

By

marriage

related to the Boyal and Imperial families of England,

is

His father (Dom Pedro

Prance, Bussia, Spain, and Naples.

I.)

was an energetic Braganza; his mother (Donna Leopoldina) a


Hapsburg, and sister-in-law to Napoleon I. His relatives, it will
be seen, are of every grade, from the constitutional monarch to

the most absolute ruler.

His powers, modified by the Brazilian Constitution, have already


been considered; and

manding

He

title to

remains to point out his chief and com-

it

the regard of his nation and the world.

has devoted

much time

laboratory at San Christovao

to the science of chemistry,


is

and his

always the scene of new experi-

Lieutenant Strain, the noble hero of the Darien Expedi-

ments.

whose science as well known as his kindness and bravery,


to Bio de Janeiro more than ten
informed me that, on a
tion,

is

visit

years ago, he found the Emperor a thorough devotee to the studies


of natural phenomena.

who has spent many years

Dr. Beinhardt

visited

in Brazil as a naturalist

the capital of the Empire

when

was not yet out of his teens the latter heard that an
American savant was about to enter upon a scientific exploration
of the Empire, and sent for him to aid him in performing certain
new chemical experiments, accounts of which had been perused by
Dr. Beinhardt
his Majesty in the European journals of science.
further added, that the young monarch, in his enthusiasm, paid no
attention to the time that flew by as they, in a tropic clime and a
D. Pedro

II.

close room,
It

is

were cooped up

well

known

for hours over fumigating chemicals.

at Bio de Janeiro that he

is

a good topo-

graphical engineer, and his theoretical knowledge of perspective

sometimes put

in practice;

for the

German Prince

is

Adalbert, in

the published account of his visit to Brazil, states that the

Emperor

presented him with a very creditable painting from the Imperial


palette.

He

has a great penchant for philological studies.

have

heard him speak three different languages, and know, by report,


that he converses in three more; and, so far as translating
cerned, he

is

His library abounds


pedias.

is

con-

acquainted with every principal European tongue.


in the best histories, biographies,

Some one has remarked that

a subject in regard to his

and encyclo-

a stranger can scarcely start

own country

that would be foreign to

The Accomplishments of D. Pedro

Dom

Pedro

There

II.

Society from which he


literature of

not a session of the Brazilian Historical

is

absent

is

and he

is

familiar with the

he

As a

the points, as fluently as

works which he has read

me

Longfellow and Whittier.

His favorite American poets are

In 1864, I had the pleasure of taking to

these gentlemen translations in Portuguese,

two

poems by these American

favorite

His large librae


In

C} clop8edias.

As to the Greek
was simply amazed when

he had been a Jew.

if

in the original, I

number of them.

the

made by

his Majesty, of

writers.

stocked with choice books, especially with en-

is

literature

and science he

large tomes, but a portion of each

however, confined to

is not,

morning

allotted to the perusal

is

of Brazilian papers and foreign periodicals and journals.

emanates from his own pen


lege of seeing

many

rarely seen

is

That which

but I have had the privi-

of his letters, which show him to be a most

The

thoughtful and intellectual correspondent.


"Whittier

linguist

I have heard him read the Hebrew, without

very remarkable.

he told

modern

England, Germany, Southern Europe, and the United

States, to a degree of minuteness absolutely surprising.


is

233

II.

and Longfellow indicate

our language.

Mr. Longfellow

Robert of Sicily

"

his

told

translations from

thorough comprehension of

me

that "

The Story of King

had been translated into Portuguese by three poets

but that b}T the Emperor was the best of

In 1856, the Honorable Luther Bradish, the President of the

York

June meeting of that

Historical Society, at the

posed

Dom

Pedro

II. as

The proposition was,


The same society, on
is

and by

as true as
his

taste,

it is

New

association, pro-

an honorary member of that learned body.

by acclamation.

I need hardly add, carried


a subsequent evening,

by the Rev. Dr. Osgood, whose remark


Brazil

all.

forcible

application,

was

briefly

in regard to the

" Dom Pedro

II.,

and acquisitions

addressed

Emperor of

by his

character,

in literature

and

science, ascends from his mere fortuitous position as Emperor, and

takes his place in the world as a man."

The
Pedro

Brazilian ruler receives his


I.

talents

was a man of great energy and

in

a direct line

abimrr,

Dom

and Donna Leo-

poldina was not without some of that power which characterized

Maria Theresa.

The

early studies of

ducted by the Franklin of Brazil,

and we know not how much

Dom

Jose

Pedro

II.

were con-

Bonifacio de Andrada

his tastes for science

may have been

Brazil and the Brazilians.

234

by that ardent admirer of the study of nature. His


became imbued with such pursuits, and, when growing
up to manhood, as we have already seen, he omitted no opportunity for making additions to his store of knowledge.
The first time that I saw the Emperor he was in citizen's dress,
accompanied by the Empress. They were in a coach-and-six, preceded and followed by horse-guards. He likes a rapid movement,
influenced

mind

early

and, whether on horseback or in a carriage, his chamberlains and

guards are kept at a pace contrary to the usual manifestations

among

of activity

the coach at
is

Two

the Brazilians.

full gallop,

of the dragoons precede

and, at the blast of their bugles, the street

cleared of every encumbrance in the shape of promenaders and

vehicles.

It has,

however, occurred to

me

that the neck-muscles

must be exceedingly fatigued after their frequent


and suburban rides, for the humblest subject who salutes them

of their Majesties
city
is

Their usual afternoon-drive

reciprocated in his attention.

is

through the Catete and Botafogo to the Botanical Garden.

me

combination of circumstances brought

much

afterward into a

closer relation with his Majesty than as a

of his fine form

when he passed

rapidly by.

mere spectator

In 1852, during the

temporary absence of Mr. Ferdinand Coxe, the Secretary of the


United States Legation at Bio de Janeiro, I was chosen to
place,

and

Secretary.

finally, after his resignation, I

In September, 1852,

became

it

fill

his

was appointed Acting

my

duty to go to the

Palace of San Christovao in company with Governor Kent, who, in


the absence of the Minister-Plenipotentiary, held the post of Charge
d' Affaires in

that

addition to that of

demanded

American Consul.

The occasion

Governor Kent was,

this official visit of

in accord-

ance with court-etiquette, to thank his Majesty for having accepted


the invitation of the American Captain Foster to visit the "City
of Pittsburg."

This large merchant-steamer was on

its

way

to

California via the Straits of Majellan, and, while stopping for coals
in the

and

harbor of Bio de Janeiro, the captain invited the Emperor

his court to

an excursion on board the splendid specimen of

The Emperor
his command.
was made ready, and, at eleven

American naval architecture under


having signified his acceptance,
o'clock, the

guns of the

forts

all

and of the men-of-war told that the

Imperial party were embarking in the state-barges for the steamer.

The Emperor on an American Steamer.


The day was most
adorning his

beautiful,

235

and Captain Foster spared no pains in

steamer in a manner worthy of his guests.

fine

Flags

and streamers were suspended from every mast, the standards of


the North American Eepublic and the South American Empire
from the flower-strewn

floated in unison, while a full orchestra

deck sent forth the national anthems of Brazil and the Union.
When the barges reached the " City of Pittsburg," Captain

American Charge

Foster, with the

the Emperor, and,

d' Affaires

by

when welcoming him on

his side, received

board, placed the

steamer at his Majesty's order.

Dom

Pedro

II.

was accompanied by the Empress, and

the

officers of

army and navy.

All

also

by

household, and the chief

the Cabinet Ministers, the Imperial

were

in full court-dress, with

the exception of their Majesties.

The excursion was

of unusual interest.

twenty-two hundred tons ploughed her

The

fine

steamer of

way through

the various

anchorages until she reached the men-of-war; the cannon of the


forts

saluted her as she pfssed, and the vessels-of-war not only

sent forth their

booming

salvos, but the

yards were manned, and

In the mean
II.
Emperor examined the " City of Pittsburg" from the coal-

the sailors shouted their loud vivas to D. Pedro


while, the

bunkers to her engine


the explanations,

it

and, as

it fell

to

my

duty to make

many

afforded an opportunity for observing the

and forgetting the unbending features of the Emperor.

of

man

He was

not content with beholding the mere upper- works of the machinery,

but descended into the hot and oily quarters of the lower part
of the ship, where the most intricate portion of the engine was
a half-hour was

situated:

afterward devoted to

studying the

engraved plan of the machinery, which was further explained by


the chief engineer of the steamer, and
engineer,

who has

by Mr. Grundy, an English

long been connected with the Brazilian navy.

When the investigation of the engine was concluded,


wished to

visit

the vessel

Now, Americans

the forward-deck.

people in the world, and

Dom

we were

all

the

Emperor

are the vainest

afraid that on this part of

Pedro would not only be shocked with the ap-

pearance of some very rough specimens of humanity on their


to the gold-regions of the Pacific,

but that the said specimens

not give His Majesty the reception which

was due

way

would

to his station as

Brazil and the Brazilians.

236

the Executive head of the most powerful South American Govern-

The Emperor's

ment.

attention, however, could not be diverted to

a different point; and the captain, fearing and trembling, was led

There, upon the

to the forward-deck.

of the

New York

The

more " Plug-ugly."


proud of
little

his ship,

their

him: he was

captain's heart sank within

some of

in

unterrified,

his passengers,

who were even more

especially

the

picturesque after

The Emperor now apnear enough to have them "betwixt


Then occurred a scone, rich beyond

voyage than upon election-day.

proached the sovereigns,

ay,

the wind and his nobility."


description,

Americans

up

representatives

proud of his illustrious guest, but he had very

proud of

to bo

unkempt and

railing, sat

"Mose," the Philadelphia "Killer," and the Balti-

which could never have taken place with others than

for actors.

One

of the unshaven, whoso tobacco had,

to this time, occupied the

greater portion of his

thoughts, suddenly tumblod from tho

taffrail,

mouth and

discharged his quid

into the ocean, and, hat in hand, yelled forth, in a well-meaning

but terrific voice, "Boys, three choars for the Emperor of the
Brazils!"
feet;

In a twinkle of an eye every California!! was upon his

and never,

in thoir oft-fought battles for the "glorious

Demo-

cracy," did they send forth such round and hearty huzzas as they
did that day to D. Pedro

good

intention,

Tho suddenness, the

II.

earnestness, the

and the enthusiasm of the whole procedure were

The

most mirth-provoking.

captain's fears subsided

norum was crossed, and he took breath and laughed

Emperor returned
for the occasion,

the

impromptu

his pons asifreely.

The

salute with groat respect, and,

with becoming gravity.

The Empress and her

suite

were not

pleased with the com-

less

modious saloons and richly-decorated cabins of tho steamer than


her Imperial spouse had boon with

all its

mechanical appoint-

ments.

The "City of Pittsburg" was


but on

we

exceedingly sea-sick.

new

at the

command

of the Emperor;

steamed, notwithstanding a portion of the court became

His Majosty was too well pleased with his

floating-dominion to resign

it

so soon;

and thus we passed ten

miles beyond tho Sugar-Loaf before tho order

was given

The panorama of coast-mountains never appeared


magnificent than on that bright September day.

to

to return.

me more

How

the "Sovereigns" receive an Emperor.

237

The captain had prepared a sumptuous collation, but there was


an obstacle which seemed more difficult to surmount than the
forward-deck. The Imperial pair were not even in the habit of
dining with their suite, and, except on rare state-occasions, eminent
Ministers-Plenipotentiary had never been invited to partake of a
repast in the same

room with

There was no pre-

their Majesties.

cedent of a collation having been given on the deck of an American


vessel, and,

above

all,

on board of a mere commercial

affair ap-

parently so trifling as to the manner in which he desired to

and therefore Captain Foster, who

is

as

modest as he

is

No

ship.

one liked the idea of consulting the Emperor about an

eat,

hospitable,

took the whole matter into his own hands and made a precedent.

The "City of Pittsburg" was constructively a part of the United


and the captain was determined to do the honors of his
country as he would have done them on the banks of the Hudson.
Their Majesties were accommodated with an entire table to themselves, which, like six others in the ship, was separated from its
The American party occupied
fellows by the space of two feet.
States,

the adjoining table; the ministers and noblemen were seated at

another in a different part of the saloon, while the chamberlains


stood near the Emperor.

Perhaps D. Pedro had no objection

the proximity of the Americans, considering that they were

* sovereigns/'

Captain Foster,

who spoke French,

to
all

proposed, with

a dignity becoming the occasion, the health of their Majesties;

and

all

passed

off as easily

and as happily as

if

there had been

a thousand and one ceremonies and precedents to have been

supported and followed.

We

entered the harbor amid the booming of cannon, and at

sunset the Imperial party again

embarked

in

having spent what they afterward declared to


of the most agreeable days of their
I

lives.

the state-barges,

have been one

Again and again have

heard their Majesties express their remembrance of that excur-

sion;

and none of Captain Foster's personal friends

sympathy

for

him than

did D. Pedro II.

felt

a deeper

and Donna Theresa when

they learned, through the public journals, the sad fate of the "City
of Pittsburg" in the harbor of Yalparaiso.

In 1854, I returned for a few months to the United States.


Having often had occasion while in Brazil to remark the igno-

Brazil and the Brazilians.

238

ranee which prevailed in regard to

my own

country, and the re-

ciprocal ignorance of the people of the United States in regard to

do

Brazil, I desired to

that

all

was

power of a

in the

single indi-

vidual to remove erroneous impressions and to bring about a better

between

understanding

motion of commerce
little

effort

two

the

mere

objects in view than the

now

and,

was undertaken,

There were

countries.

diffusion of

higher

knowledge and the pro-

that years have elapsed since this

have the satisfaction of knowing that

new avenues of reciprocit}^ have been opened, and that it only needs
Government to show energy and manifest encour-

individuals and the

agement

to increase our trade with Brazil.

I shall here introduce, even at the hazard of

greater part of a letter addressed to the

Commerce

"

'
'

some

repetition, the

New York

Journal of

and the " Philadelphia Ledger," which gives an account

of the effort to which I have referred.

mation contained was old


Brazil has even

grown

less

It

may seem

as if the infor-

but as the proportion of our exports to

than in 1855, I believe that the facts

given will prove of interest to our commercial men.

In 1855, we

exported to Brazil $5,094,904, and we imported from her $19,262,657.

In 1878, we exported $8,610,646, and we imported $42,972,036.

"Rio de Janeiro, May


" Messrs. Editors
as follows
affair

:]

23, 1855.

[After a few preliminary remarks, I wrote

The motives which prompted me

to undertake this

were simply the good of the United States and

When

Brazil,

laboring for several years as a missionary-chaplain at

Rio de

Janeiro, I found great ignorance in regard to our country, its pro-

and

gress,

its

producing-resources.

I also discovered a reciprocal

ignorance in the United "States concerning Brazil.

country we were

known

as a bold,

hardy

race,

two-thirds of the Brazilian coffee-crop, for which


flour

and a few

articles of

no great note.

In the latter

which consumed

we

sent, in return,

In the United States,

was often classed among the Spanish countries of America


few people were aware that the Portuguese language was spoken,
and that here was the only monarchy in America, and the only
other constitutional Government on the' Western continent which

Brazil

has marched forward in tranquillity and material prosperity. I here

found English, German, and French goods and publications, with

some few exceptions, the mode,

and

this, too,

when many

of the

Exposition of American Manufactures at Rio.

same

articles

were to be bought cheaper in the United States; and

came

I also ascertained that our ships often

paying

for

European

239

in ballast for coffee,

when

cash at most exorbitant rates of exchange,

it

payment

vessels brought cargoes at a profit in

for the

chief staples of Brazil.

"In Brazil
and

New

pleton,

Grenada

and

is

awakening

associations of our

my

with the

own

for the

youth of Brazil, where

to the subject of education.

which rank,

scientific societies

belles-lettres,

"It was

same

I desired to see the

observed here

In Chili

saw Spanish books published by Messrs. Ap-

very great attention

tion to

very great want of school-books.

I found a

New York

in dignity

and devo-

Historical Society, and like

land.

ardent wish,

to see this

first,

seven millions of

tolerant people possessing sound morality and true religipn.

was

my

next desire to see

men

It

of science and learning in Brazil

linked with the kindred spirits of our vigorous land; to behold

good school-books

in the

hands of Brazilian children; and to see

oar manufactures taking their stand in this country, which

is

so

great a consumer.

"In 1854, on account of the


I

was compelled

States.

ill

health of a

my

to leave suddenly

There, after several months,

should have to abandon the land of


ever, necessary for
affairs.

my

field

It

me

was then

services to*

it

my

member

became evident that I


adoption.

that,

I,

my

through the public journals, I offered

Emperor,

and for exposition to the

months was

up

convey to Eio de Janeiro, free of charge to the

objects I solicited for the


ciations,

how-

It was,

to return to Brazil, in order to settle

donors, any articles that might be sent to

I thought that

of my family,

of labor for the United

me

more or

less,

engaged

regret to say that

many

persons

at

address.

asso-

was a clergyman, and


For two
own expense in making

of speculation.

my

by the press and by

who

These

and literary

public.

no one could accuse

solicitations in person, as well as

my

for scientific

letters.

should have been interested

such an enterprise did not choose to respond to the solicitations

in

unknown name, and thus the Exposition was not so rich


some departments as it otherwise would have been, although.

of an
in
I

with pleasure record that there were some influential men

ient the

weight of their names to the project.

who

Brazil and the Brazilians.

240
" At length a

number of artists, publishers, merchants, and manuwere induced to send specimens of books, engravings,
sculpture, and manufactures ; but these were few in comparison to
facturers

who might have contributed to their own future benefit.


& Sons, of Baltimore, generously placed their

those

"Messrs. Corner

my

bark at

Mr.

Huntingdon'

'

Bobert

board.

W.

In the month of March,

disposal for a free passage.

the good bark

C.

left

Wright, Esq., of that

and

them more than

to

his first clerk,

power

to facilitate the

am

to others I

my

the successful consummation of

packages on

and

city,

B. Jackson, did every thing in their

enterprise,

my

Baltimore with

indebted for

In April we

desired object.

arrived at Bio de Janeiro, and for three weeks I had such vexation

and delay that I almost despaired of a prosperous termination.


Through the kindness of the Baron of Penedo, then Brazilian
Minister at Washington, and by a letter from Hon. William
Trousdale, the American Minister,

my

country are exceedingly

strict,

As

values,

as

many

of the

this

and I had to give an account of

every thing that I had brought for the


Minister of Finance.

boxes and packages were

The custom-house regulations of

admitted free of duty.

had no

list

statistical

purpose of the

of the articles nor of their

boxes contained one hundred different

tightly-made packages, and as there were

many

objects of a fragile

nature, and as every thing had to be opened by officers

who might

not be the most careful, I suffered mentally and physically both


before
so

and

many

It was no easy matter to undo


was hard to restore again %ome fine specia clumsy underling had put a nail through them.

after the examination.

parcels,

mens after
"The chief

and

it

collector of the custom-house believed,

that I arrived until the


tating
told

some plot against the finances of the country, and openly

some of the merchants that I intended to

[That gentleman afterward became a very


friend.]

tion

from the day

day of the examination, that I was medi-

box

But when

after box,

sell

these things.

warm and an

had patiently assisted in opening

for

attentive

examina-

and we came to one containing the splendid

photographs of Fredricks of

New

one of the others, 'Go

the second collector.'

call

York, the chief examiner said to

He

came, and,

after expressing his astonishment at such perfection in photography,

he sent for the

collector-in-chief.

This latter gentleman

left his

Obstacles Overcome.

241

platform in the large public hall of the custom-house, and found his

way

His admiration knew no bounds when he

to the store-room.

saw the large

life-sized

of the great statesman.

regard to

my

photograph of Webster,

From

project ceased.

last likeness

time onward, his suspicions in

this

He

the

looked with great pleasure into

Colton's fine maps, and delighted in a critical examination of the

& Wright and that of


Toppan & Carpenter, who had contributed some most beautiful
exquisite bank-note engraving of Danforth

specimens of this mingling of the beautiful with the useful in

art.

The examination and noting down the contents of the boxes went
on very swiftly from the time of this

:'

4i

visit of the chief collector.

&^ilrljlhii,j

THE

"

One week

Jjlllll

NATIONAL MUSEUM.

after the custom-house

was

cleared, I received an order

from the Minister of the Empire, granting

me

a large hall in the

The same
Emperor that
next day, (May 16,)

National Museum, for the purposes of an Exposition.

day

went to the palace, and communicated

I should be

to the

ready to receive him at eleven a.m.


1G

Brazil and the Brazilians.

242

Museum.

at the

His Majesty received me,

more amiability than


I

his usual serious

it

seemed to me, with

countenance indicated, and

soon discovered, from a remark which he made, that I was

debted to His Excellency Senhor Carvalho de Moreiro for a

in-

full

my project, which was on my part


more philanthropic than commercial.
"That night sleep did not visit me, so busily was I engaged in
',he arrangement of the whole affair.
The next day, at five minutes
explanation to His Majesty of

far

before eleven, (His Majesty

is

noted for his punctuality,) I heard

the well-known bugle-blast of the Imperial horse-guards; and, before

my

assistants

Pedro

II.

"By

had time to withdraw, the coaches containing

Dom

and the chamberlains drew up at the Museum.

the aid of some kind friends, I had so disposed the six hun-

dred different objects that the exhibition was not wanting in an

The American and Brazilian flags fell in


Washington and the likenesses
the Emperor and his father. The maps of Colton and others,

imposing appearance.

graceful folds over the portrait of

of

and engravings from


the walls.

New

York, Philadelphia, and Boston, covered

Books and small manufactured

articles occupied tables;

beautifully-designed wall-papers and sample-books of mousseline de


laines

were suspended; and large agricultural implements were

arranged on platforms provided for the occasion.

"His Majesty commenced

at one end,

and interest examined every thing


quiries,

and with great earnestness

in detail.

He made many

in-

and manifested a most intimate knowledge with the pro-

gress of our country.

specimens of books,

He was
steel

filled

engravings,

with admiration at the


chromo-lithography,

(of

Every now and then


you might have heard him calling to some of his noblemen or
chamberlains to come and admire with him this or that work of
Philadelphia,) and agricultural implements.

He was not, however, indiscriminate


was perfectly frank in his criticism.

the useful or beautiful arts.


in his praise, but

"Being himself a thorough student of physical

science,

and a

good engineer, he examined with minuteness the splendid edition


of the United States Coast Survey, from the bureau of the United

and he appreciated at their


works that occupied a conspi-

States Coast Survey, Washington;


just value the various scientific

cuous table.

Admiration for Mr. Longfellow.

243

"For half an hour he pored over Youman's Atlas

of Chemistry,

and praised

thorough excellence and simplicity.

its

While exa-

mining a work on physiology, I heard him remarking upon the


superiority of the Craniology by the late Dr. Morton
and he in;

me that he possessed the writings of that eminent student


human frame. He was also well read in the immense tomes

formed
of the

of the pains-taking, erudite, and conscientious Schoolcraft, whose


works on the aborigines of North America were sent out by the
Chief of the Bureau of Indian Affairs at Washington.

"His Majesty was deeply interested in the various maps, geographies, and school-books sent out by Colton, Appletons, Woodford

&

The

Erace, T. Cowperthwait, and Barnes.

finely-illustrated

publications of the various benevolent societies of our land were


sent out for the Imperial family, and attracted deserved attention.

The Emperor was much pleased with the only specimens of woodengraving, which were forwarded by Mr. Yan Ingen, of the firm of
Van Ingen & Snyder, whose skill has illustrated this work.

"The

earnest examination which he gave the machinery, manu-

factures,

after

and

Dom

which

implements

agricultural

Pedro

II.

the

justified

reputation

Howell's wall-papers,

enjoys in this respect.

drawings by the students of the Philadelphia Academy of

Design, and the beautiful silk manufactures of Horstman,

Evans,
forth

which

much

"He

ought to be classed among works of

and

called

praise.

next approached the table where were the books presented

by the Appletons and Parry & McMillan.


lican Court,'
ing.'

art,

he

I replied,

said, 'I
'

am

And none

Taking up the 'Eepub-

astonished at such perfection in bindof those volumes were bound expressly

The binding of Appletons' books was superb.


He opened the Homes of the American Authors,' and surprised
me by his knowledge of our literature. He made remarks on Irving, Cooper, and Prescott,
showing an intimate acquaintance
with each. His eye falling on the name of Longfellow, he asked
for

your Majesty."
'

me, with great haste


Monsieur Longfellow

Pedro

II.

?'

and
It

eagerness, 'Avez-vouz

was the

first

manifest an enthusiasm which, in

simplicity, resembled

possess itself of

the

warmth

its

of childhood

some long-cherished

les

poemes de

time that I ever saw

object.

Dom

earnestness and

when about

I replied,

to

I believe

244
not,

Brazil and the Brazilians.


your Majesty.'

'Oh/ said

he, 'I

am

exceedingly sorry, for

have sought in every bookstore of Eio de Janeiro for Longfellow,


and I cannot find him. I have a number of beautiful morceaux,
I

but I wish the whole work; I admire him so very

much/

evening I found, among the books sent by Parry

McMillan, the

'

Poets and Poetry of America.'

In this volume

&

is

That

a biographical

sketch of Longfellow, as well as some of the choicest selections

from his pen.

This, with T.

Buchanan Kead's 'New Pastoral/

were afterward commented on and received with the most


pleasure

visible

by His Majesty.

Dom Pedro IL
was looking at the engravings of the American Bank-NoteCompany ,)
and when I returned I found him engaged in a discussion with his
first chamberlain as to John Quincy Adams,
the chamberlain (as
"I was absent from the part of the hall where

the majority of even well-educated foreigners) supposing that John

Quincy Adams was the elder Adams. The Emperor insisted 'that
John Quincy Adams was not the early advocate of liberty and
the 'comrade/ as he termed him, of Washington,

was the son of John Adams,


of the United States.

And

but

that he

and, like his father, was a President

soon after he gave a very thorough

re-examination of the 'Kepublican Court/ and pointed out to the

chamberlain the distinguished mother of John Quincy Adams.

He was

very anxious to see a portrait of Jefferson.

One

assistants found a very neatly-engraved portrait of the

Monticello from the burin of Toppan

&

of

sage of

When

Carpenter.

my
he

you should have heard him, without pedantry or


affectation, expatiate with great minuteness, correctness, and
judgment on the character of Jefferson as compared with that

received

it,

of Washington.

"Approaching some very

&

Stephens, of

New

fine lithographs published

by Williams

York, I introduced His Majesty to 'Young

America/ that handsome but independent-looking lad, and to


'Uncle Sam's Youngest Son, Citizen Know-Nothing.' I thought
that I had

now

a subject of which His Majesty really

knew

no-

was mistaken, as he recounted to some one


the pranks that this young fellow had been playing, and added that
he was a citizen of some power and knowledge, judging from the

thing; but I found that I

recent (1855) elections in the United States.

Success of the Exposition.


"

Thus the whole day was occupied


planation of the American collection.

"A few

245

in the examination

and ex-

many

days after the Exposition was closed, I had the

things destined for the Imperial family taken to the large palacete
of the Marquis d'Abrantes, situated in one of the most charming

environs of Kio,

viz.

the shore of the Neapolitan-shaped

Bay

of

His Majesty was spending some weeks here for the

Botafogo.

benefit of sea-bathing.

passed the guards at the gate, and as I

ascended the steps the Emperor saw me, and, meeting


door,

thanked

allow

me

to

me

heartily for

what

had done.

me

I desired

at the

him

to

remain a few moments until the boxes arrived, as I

must give him some explanations as to the secret lock of the most
excellent trunk sent him by Peddie & Morrison, of Newark, 1ST. J.

With

his permission I

went

into the beautiful garden,

where were

the richest and rarest of flowers in a land of perpetual bloom.

The

air

was truly loaded with sweet fragrance.

and statuary, many brilliant-plumaged

tains

There were founbirds, and, indeed,

every thing in nature and in art to please and to gratify those alive
to the beautiful.

When

looking upon a scene so enchanting I

could only desire that this land, for which


in a natural point of view,

God has done

might possess the

solid

much

so

mental and

moral advantages which belong to our more rugged North through


the instrumentality of education and religion.

"The

blacks soon arrived with the heavy boxes and the nicely-

by B. Myers, of Newark, N.J.,) all of which,


by the order of the chamberlain, were placed in the ante-room,
where His Majesty again examined and admired them. The first
finished plough, (sent

thing that he inquired for was

'My

Longfellow,' (in the

'

Poets

and Poetry of America/) the next, 'Youman's Atlas of Chemistry

he then asked for the beautiful specimens of chromo-litho-

:'

graphy, (by Sinclair, and Duval, of Philadelphia,) and finally


quired after the steam fire-engine which
Cincinnati to Boston last spring.
of

He

instantly took

a French savant

it,

who was

its

travels

him with

I furnished

which had been given me by a clerk

it

office.

was

made

a plan

in the Baltimore

and began to explain

visiting the palace.

its

Empress,

who

Sun

operations to

For one hour he

engaged in a review of the products of our country.

called the

in-

from

Ho

also expressed her gratification in the

Brazil and the Brazilians.

246

highest terms as I displayed the beautiful books sent for herself

and the princesses. Her Majesty was not only pleased with what
had drawn forth the praises of her Imperial spouse, but she, as
well as her maids of honor, displayed the

woman

in the delight

manifested at the fancy soaps and other articles of toilette sent


out by H. P.
of

New

& W.

York.

C. Taylor, of Philadelphia,

Many

thanks were given to

and Colgate &

me

for those

Co.,

who had

been so kind in remembering the Imperial family of Brazil, and


I left the palace, feeling that, so far as the

head of the Brazilian

Government was concerned, all was most successful.


" With His Majesty's subjects the enterprise was not less fortunate.
On the 17th and 18th the Museum was visited by some
thousands, and astonishment and admiration were constantly upon
the lips of the Brazilians. Each evening I was completely worn
out by answering the many questions that were propounded from
every side. I have no doubt that a proper exhibition of American
arts and manufactures, arranged by business-men and those who
have means to carry
benefit of

those

would redound a thousandfold to the

American commerce.

who were examining

which convinced
productions
since

out,

it

me

known

that

it

For, during

my

walks among

the various articles, I heard remarks

only required to have our country's

to cause a large importation.

the Exposition, I have had

many

During and

orders for books, en-

gravings, wall-papers, and Manchester prints; and this morning

came

applications for a sugar-cane crushing

My reply

lithographic printing-press.

not a commercial

man

am

machine,

and a

in all cases has been,

large
i

am

not here for that purpose ; I have

no pecuniary interest whatever

in

this

matter: but there are

houses here which have correspondents in America.'


"

Upon

held

its

the evening of the 16th, the Statistical Society of Brazil

meeting in the same hall where were the products of the

The Viscount Itaborahy presided, and invited me


I was very glad to have the opportunity
of explaining my plans to such a body of gentlemen, and found
them most sympathetic: they freely expressed their desire to see
the United States and Brazil more closely united. These remarks
were reported for the press, and my motives were thus more
widely made known to the people.

United

States.

to address the Society.

A
"

Pleasing Incident.

247

The contributions from Washington, from the Bureau of the

Coast Survey, and from the Patent-Office, and the splendid work

on the North American Indians, to which Schoolcraft has devoted


life, were looked upon by the Historical and other Societies as

his

In this connection I

a very great acquisition to their libraries.

must not omit to mention some important medical works sent out

by Lippincott, Grambo &

Co.,

Academy

From

of Medicine.

which were presented

to the Imperial

these associations I received letters

of thanks, showing that the contributions of the various donors

The Brazilian

are justly appreciated.

Historical and Geographical

Society published in the daily press the

list

of historical and other

works and library-catalogues that had been thus added to their

own

increasing literary stores.

"I have already occupied too much of your space, and I must
still

beg leave to add a few remarks.

"I do not claim the Exposition' to have been a perfect collection


of what the United States can produce. It was far from it; but,
'

from the interest

it

has created in this city of three hundred

thousand inhabitants, from the independent approbatory remarks


of the daily press, and from the desires which come from

all

quar-

ters that the exhibition should continue, I think that a favorable

impression has been made, and I also believe that, from this
affair,

we may

legitimately argue that there

is

little

a most favorable

opening here for the various manufactures, &c. of our country.

would require patience and


something at

first;

It

and perhaps the hazarding of

capital,

but I believe that the end would more than

One or two Americans, a few years


commenced the importation of American agricultural implements, &c, and now there is quite a commerce in this line. If importation should be extended, and this people could know what we
produce, our commerce would be most rapidly increased. Specurecompense the adventurers.
ago,

lators are not

who

wanted, but moral, sound, enterprising business-men,

will furnish the best articles at the lowest price.

"In conclusion, without wishing


will not be realized, or

which has been done

to excite expectations

which

without desiring to overestimate any thing

in this Exposition, I can only say that,

ever far short I

may have come

been good, and,

when

in

my

efforts,

my

how-

intentions have

I shall leave Brazil to return to the

work of


Brazil and the Brazilians.

248

my

Master

my own

in

have at

land, I shall

least the consolation of

having endeavored to bring about a closer relation between the

Government of South America and the great Bepublic

strongest

of the North.

"I remain, gentlemen, very

respectfully,

" Your obedient servant,


" J. C. Fletcher."

pleasing incident connected with this affair grew out of the

late arrival at

Bio of one of the presents destined for the Emperor.

After the "Exposition," I departed from the city and became en-

gaged
the

in

my

legitimate labors in another part of the Empire.

month of July

I returned

In

from the Southern provinces, and

found that the Messrs. Merriam, of Springfield, Massachusetts, had


sent out a superb edition of Webster's unabridged quarto Dictionary.
I

had

also a

own

peror's

few more books which were to be placed in the Em-

An

library.

account of the presentation of these

volumes was given in a private

Mr.

letter to

Boston, from which I extract the following

"The

gift of Messrs.

Merriam arrived during

Southern provinces; but so soon as I returned


custom-house, and in due time conveyed
it

was too

J.

it

have

ment of the patient and


to define

and

it

faithful labors of a

from the

Of course

Museum

May,
specimen of Massachusetts publication, and

to

this

absence in the

to the palace.

late for the Exposition in the National

your State had been very poorly represented

much

my

procured

as

so

P. Blanchard, of

in

but,

was glad
this monuI

man who

has done

classify our mother-tongue.

"It was within two days of

my

departure for Bahia and Per-

nambuco that I stole a few hours to go out to the Imperial Quinta


of Boa Yista,
the Palace of S. Christovao. It is usual to go thither
in a coach drawn by at least two horses; but, finding a nice new

tilbury

and a bright mulatto

driver, I entered his vehicle, and,

'Webster's Dictionary/ Hawthorne's

'

with

Mosses from an Old Manse/

and Longfellow's 'Hyperion/ I was soon whirling, through the


garden-lined streets of
of

S.

Christovao

is

of Eio de Janeiro.

Engenho Yelho,

to the palace.

situated in one of the

The Palace

most picturesque environs

It stands in bold relief against the lofty green

mountains of Tijuca, and

is

surrounded by the beautifully-foliaged

Webster, Hawthorne, and Longfellow.


trees of the tropics.

It has

every adjunct that can

delightful residence.

As we

rolled

249

make

it

through the long avenue of

mango-trees, I saw the coach of one of the Ministers bowling along

with the servants in livery.

My

establishment looked small in

comparison with this brilliant equipage; but I


books which I bore with

me would

that the three

felt

delight His Majesty

mere than

all the carriages of the court.

" I descended after the Minister


to

had entered, and was conducted

an ante-room by a chamberlain, to

whom

my visit and the nature of my


my precious load to any servant, I

made known the


Not wishing

purport of

volumes.

to trust

carried the three tomes

After passing many corridors, I came


which overlooked a courtyard where
bright fountains were playing and the choicest and most fragrant
flowers were blooming.
(no light burden) before me.
to a large, wide gallery,

"I had supposed that


long gallery was

filled

it

was a day

for private audience; but the

with gentlemen in waiting,

noblemen,

Judges of the Supreme Court, Ministers, Charges, and

officers en

grande tenue, and some of them covered with decorations.


learned from Senhor Leal, and from the Neapolitan Charge
that the 13th of July

I then

d' Affaires,

was the anniversary of the Imperial Princess

Leopoldina, and these gentlemen had come to felicitate their Majesties

on the return of this anniversary.

extreme end of the waiting


chosen a day

Pedro

II.

train,

I took

my

stand at the

thinking that I had better have

when His Majesty was

Presently

less occupied.

Dom

appeared, his fine manly form towering above every

star

He was dressed in black and, with the exception of a


which sparkled upon his left breast, his costume was simple,

and

its

other.

brilliant

good taste was most apparent when contrasted with the


uniforms of the court.

"I conjectured that His Majesty would

first

receive the con-

gratulations of the glittering throng that stood between

the plainly-dressed clergyman.

Judge, then, of

merely bowing, he passed by the

many

titled

my

him and

surprise when,

gentlemen and repre-

came directly to the 'Webster/


'Hawthorne/ and 'Longfellow.' With a pleasant smile, he addressed

sentatives of foreign courts, and

me, and led

me to an open

limpid fountain.

arch that overlooked the flowers and the

There he examined the books and bestowed high

Brazil and the Brazilians.

250

eulogium upon the Dictionary,

which

not only

had been prepared by the publishers, but

it

encyclopedic character of the work.


as an author of
1

whom

'

He

Celestial Eailroad/

I called his attention particularly

which caused an

allusion to

'guide and road-book to the Celestial City.'


of

May

for the almost

spoke of Mr. Hawthorne

he had heard, and was glad to possess the

Mosses from an Old Manse.'

to the

for the beautiful style in

he had procured

all

Bunyan's

Since the

the poetical works of

Mi*.

month

Longfellow

but had not yet added to his library any of his (Mr. Longfellow's;
prose compositions.

He

therefore considered

'

Hyperion' a most

interesting acquisition.

"His Majesty conversed for a long time on the objects for which
came to Brazil, and expressed his gratitude for the souvenirs
which he had received from citizens of the United States. I
stated to him that I would visit the Northern provinces and then
I

return to

my

native land.

He

expressed the customary wishes of

a bon voyage, &c, but, with great earnestness, said to me, in con-

when you return to your country, have the


kindness to say to Mr. Longfellow how much pleasure he has given
me, and be pleased to tell him combien je Vestime, combien je Vaime!
how much I esteem him, how much I love him.' "
clusion, 'Mr. Fletcher,

Thus ended,
which

so far as

my own

undertook to do.

personal effort

is

concerned, that

CHAPTEE
BRAZILIAN LITERATURE

XIV.

ADVERTISEMENTS
EFFORT TO PUT DOWN BIBLE-DISTRIBUTION ITS
LIBRARY MUSEUM IMPERIAL ACADEMIES OF FINE ARTS

THE

JOURNALS OF RIO DE JANEIRO

THE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS


FAILURE

NATIONAL

BRAZILIAN HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL INSTITUTE

SOCIETIES

TION OF BRAZILIAN

The

LAW

Brazilians, having a ruler with such literary

tastes, will assuredly

ADMINISTRA-

CURIOUS TRIAL.

make more

and

scientific

progress in this direction than

formerly.

On
press

account of the restrictive policy of Portugal, no printing-

was introduced

into

this

country until 1808.

taste for reading is mostly confined to the


lations of

the

Authors are by no means numerous in

French novels.

Empire

The general

newspapers and the trans-

but there have been within the

last

few years a number

of very creditable provincial histories, scientific disquisitions, one or

two attempts

at the

general history of Brazil, and several good

volumes of original poetry.

The bookstores abound with French

works on science, history, and (too often)

There
in the

is,

infidel philosophy.

however, a Government bookmaking which

most interesting

details.

I refer to the

is

prolific

annual Relatorios or

Eeports of the Ministers of the Empire, Finance, Justice, Foreign


Affairs,

printed,

War, and the Navy. These are well written and well
and contain the most valuable matter for the statesman,

The
demand an amount of

the statistician, or the general reader.

Minister of Justice must


officials in

Eelatorio of the
labor

unknown

to

the United States or in England; for every case that goes

must come under his


proper table. The crime, age,

before a jury in each of the twenty provinces

and must be placed in its


and nationality of the criminal are given, together with the
punishment. In addition to this, matters of prison-discipline and

revision
sex,

the varied interests of ecclesiastical aifairs are not forgotten.


251

Brazil and the Brazilians.

252

The

periodical literature of Rio

improved

and

in

has, within

few years, been

character b}T the establishment of a Medical Review

been conducted with great

prise,

and promises

there

is

spirit

to be of utility to the country

only take the time to write, and make the

would soon

and
;

literary enter-

yet even in this

If Brazilians would

a too frequent resort to translations.

selves, foreigners

The last-mentioned

and Foreign Quarterly.

also of a Brazilian

periodical has

effort to think for

find their productions to

them-

be interesting

and valuable, and would prize them accordingly.

The

press being free, I doubt whether any journals in the United

States,

England, or the Continent, contain so

tions from subscribers as those of Rio de Janeiro.

many communicaAs all of these

communicagoes must be accompanied with the cash, journalism in


Brazil

is

Some

a lucrative "institution."

Jornal do

Commercio, the

New York

favorably with those of

The appearance of

Cruzeiro,

of the editorials of the

and the Diario

compare

will

or London.

the newspapers of Rio

that

like

is

of the

Parisian journals, only the Brazilian dailies are larger, in clearer


type,

and upon superior paper.

tains

the

reading,

light

Sunday the various journals


(gossip).

the

The Jornal

is

called the folhetim

have several

columns

sheet con;

and each

of pacotilha

do Commercio, the Cruzeiro, the Diario do JRio,

and the Diario

Gazetta,

The bottom of each

what

in

Official are better printed

than French

dailies.

The newspaper-press
dailies,

and

in

tri- weeklies,

Rio

quite prolific.

is

It issues

several

and a varying number of from six to

ten weeklies and irregular sheets,

some of which are

illustrated.

During the session of the National Assembly, verbatim reports of


the proceedings and debates of that bod}T are published at length
like those of the

on the morning

English Parliament and the American Congress

after their occurrence.

Perhaps the most ably edited Brazilian periodicals, judging from


the American and English stand-point, are the Novo

Revista Industrial.

of the

Law

The

editor,

School at Sao Paulo.

Mundo and

the

Sr. J. C. Rodrigues, is a graduate

He came

to the United States in

1867, and has here seriously studied the advantages and disadvantages of his native land.

He

is

thoroughly patriotic, but impartial.

"Faithful are the wounds of a friend,"

is

his motto.

Printed and


The Journals of Rio de
illustrated in

New

Janeiro.

253

York, the Novo Mundo and the Revista Industrial

are the finest typographical specimens of journalism in the Portu-

guese language.

The

Jornal do Commercio, already referred to, has the largest

culation,

and

is

under the direction of

Portuguese Southey's "History of Brazil."


mercio

a very large sheet.

is

It

has the honor of having the greatest

number of advertisements of any journal


London Times and the New York Herald.

in

the world, except ttu

has the best foreign

It

The

correspondence of any Brazilian newspaper.

one of

editorial corps Sr.

its

The Anglo-Brazilian Times


by Mr. Scully, with more
and is a valuable addition

The most
mert, in the

is

a semi-monthly English sheet, edited

sprightliness than the Brazilian papers,


to the journals of Rio.

Invalidos.

is

is

Laem-

that of the Brothers

Perhaps the most beautiful printing in

Rio de Janeiro is done hj Leuzinger


tising

Cruzeiro has as

Bocayuva, who wields a powerful pen.

enterprising typographia

Rua dos

cir-

who translated into


The Jornal do Com-

Sr. Castro,

&

The matter of

Sons.

columns of the various newspapers

is

renewed almost

the adver-

uancj7 and its variet}\ Several peculiar customs

and

daily,

perused by great numbers of general readers for the sake of

its

piq-

may be noticed, growing

out of the Church and Brotherhood advertisements, and of the numerous lotteries, the curse of Brazil. Persons frequently form companies for
the purchase of tickets, and those at a distance order their correspond-

In order to avoid any subsequent transfer

ents to purchase for them.

or dispute, the purchaser announces, through the newspaper, the

number

of the ticket bought and for

example

tickets,

" M. F.

S.

whose account,

purchased, by order of

J. T.

Pinto,

as, for

two

half-

Nos. 1513 and 4817, of the lottery in behalf of the theatre

of Itaborahy."

"

The treasurer of the company

entitled

The

Friends of Good Luck' has purchased, on the company's account,


half-tickets Nos. 3885

and 5430, of the lottery of the cathedral

who wish to publish


some pert thing usually announce it as the name of a company
for the purchase of lottery-tickets, although that name extends

of Goyaz."

Following this custom, individuals

sometimes through a dozen

lines of

The Brazilians have a most


ought to be made known
of the world.

The

recipe

rhyme.

effectual

way

of collecting debts, which

for the benefit of creditors in other portions


is

found in the following advertisement

"

Brazil and the Brazilians.

254

"Senhor Jose Domingos da Costa

Eua

de

S. Jose,

the

sum

is

requested to pay, at No. 35

of six hundred milreis

and in case he

shall

not do so in three days, his conduct will be exposed in this journal,


together with the manner in which this debt was contracted.

Another

will

show that the clergy

" Mr. Editor:


instant,

having said mass with

all

turned round to the people and

we have no

'As

are not always spared

his

accustomed

affectation,

said,

with an air of mockery,

festival to-day, let us

say over the Litany/ &c,

I would respond, that the reverend vicar

why

Since the vicar of a certain parish, on the 8th

knows

well the reason

Let him be assured, however, that

there was no festival.

when

intrigue shall disappear the festival will take place; but,

he

in a hurry, let

is

him undertake

it

whosoever says the paternoster gets the

own

if

expense, since

benefit.*

An Enemy

" (Signed)

at his

to Hypocrites."

school-teacher, after announcing his terms for tuition, thus

continues and concludes,

"The

first-class

the

italics

day-scholars

are

being his

own

instructed

in

the

different

branches of science and literature, including the English, French,


Portuguese, and Latin languages.

Second-class pupils receive a

plain education, consisting of reading, writing,

grammar,

arith-

metic, and Christian doctrine.

"

The

director, not being in the habit of

making splendid advertise-

ments or puffs in the daily papers, or of throwing dust in the eyes


of the public, can only promise that, being the father of a large

family and knowing what care and attention children require as

and education, he

to their morals

will

do his duty toward them

accordingly."

The

last

specimen which I give illustrates the early marriages

which frequently take place

in

Brazil;

but I defy any other

country to furnish the like of the following advertisement, which

appeared in the Jornal do Commercio of Eio de Janeiro in 1852.


is

so unique that I furnish the original as well as the translation

"Precisa-se de

uma

It
:

senhora branca de afian^ada conducta, e com

intelligencia bastante para fazer

* " Quern rese

companhia a uma menina casada

Pater noster come o pao."


Freedom
de

menor

of the Press.

255

idade, aqual precisa de algumas instrucgoes proprias de

Quern estiver nestas circumstancias annuneie por esta

seu estado.

folha para ser procurada."

"Wanted.

A white lady of
young

pany''] of a

bride

who

is

some instructions appropriate

[or, literally, " to

a minor, and

to her state.

may make known

these qualifications

and with

faithful character

companion

intelligence to be the

sufficient

makft the com-

who is in need of
Whoever possesses

her address in the columns

of this journal."

Various allusions to the entire freedom of the press have already


been

made

and

it

may be mentioned;

in this connection, that there

was an interesting example of its use for advertisements for promoting the Bible in Brazil, and also its employment to put down
an

effort for

the diffusion of the Sacred Scriptures.

My

co-author,

(Dr. Kidder,) in the early part of his religious labors in Brazil, com-

menced by
in his

own

circulating the Bible.

I prefer to give his experience

After speaking of the general influence of the

words.

mother-country upon Brazil, he says,

"Portugal has never published the Bible or countenanced


circulation save in connection with notes

been approved by inquisitorial censorship.

The Bible was not

enumerated among the books that might be admitted to her


nies

when under

the absolute dominion.

Yet the

their political disenthralment, adopted a liberal

Although

stitution.

it

that of the State, yet

made the Eoman


it

allowed

all

held and practised, save in buildings

By

opinions.
toleration

Catholic apostolic religion

'

having the exterior form of


on the ground of religious

degrees, enlightened views of the great subjects of

and hence many were prepared to hail any movement


them what had so long been sys-

promised to give
withheld,

tematically
perusal.

and tolerant Con-

and religious liberty became widely disseminated among

the people,

which

colo-

Brazilians, on

other forms of religion to be

It also forbade persecution

a temple.'

its

and comments that had

the

Scriptures

of truth for their

own

Copies exposed for sale and advertised in the news-

papers found

many

purchasers, not only from the city, but also

from the distant provinces.

"At the

mission-house

many

copies

tously; and on several occasions there

were distributed gratuiwas what might be called

Brazil and the Brazilians,

256

One

a rush of applicants for the sacred volume.

my

of these occurred

was known that a supply of books had


been received, and our house was literally thronged with persons
of all ages and conditions of life,
from the gray-headed man to
soon after

arrival.

It

the prattling child,

from the gentleman

in high

bringing notes from their parents or masters.

as

poor

to the

life

Most of the children and servants came

slave.

messengers,

These notes were

invariably couched in respectful, and often in beseeching, lanSeveral were from poor

guage.

books for their children, but

widows who had no money to buy


desired Testaments for them to

who

Another was from one of the

read at school.

^Ministers of the

Imperial Government, asking for a supply for an entire school out


of the city.

"Among

who called in person were several


many students of different grades.

prin-

also in English, as well as Portuguese,

were

the gentlemen

cipals of eollegios.

sions in French,

and

and

sometimes desired by amateur

linguists.

We

dealt out the pre-

cious volumes according to our best judgment, with joy

trembling.

were

This being the nrst general

at times inclined to fear that

for getting the

movement

we

some plan had been concerted

books destroyed, or for involving us in some species

the circumstances within our observation

made

and with

of the kind,

These apprehensions were contradicted, however, by

of difficulty.
all

Ver-

their errand on the

ground of

listened with deep attention to

and

its intrinsic

all

who came

importance, and

whatever we had time or

ability to

address to them concerning Christ and the Bible.


It

was not

to be

presumed, however, that so great an amount

of scriptural truth could at once be scattered

without exciting great jealousy and commotion


the padres.

One aged

received by special request

priest,

copies in

English, on retiring, said. -The like

Another sent

le

youveau Testament.

tributed,

come,

who

the people
certain of

among

the

called in person,

and

Nevertheless, others of this class were

applicants themselves.

country.'

among
among

Portuguese. French, and

was never before done

note in French, asking for

in this

&A

In three days two hundred copies were

dis-

and our stock was exhausted: but applicants continued to

till it

called for.

was estimated that four times that number had been


we could respond to these persons was to inform

All

Failure of Opposition to the Bible.


them where Bibles were kept on
some future day.

257

and that we anticipated a

sale,

fresh supply at

"

We

were not disappointed

to be called forth

by

the Scriptures.

in the opposition

which was likely

this manifestation of the popular desire for

series of

low and

vile attacks

were made upon

us in a certain newspaper, corresponding in style with the well-

known

spirit

and character of their authors.

Indeed, in immediate

movement a periodical was started,


under the title of
Catholico, with the avowed object of combating
us and our evangelical operations. It was an insignificant weekly,
of anonymous editorship.
After extravagant promises, and repeated efforts to secure permanent subscribers, it made out to
connection with this interesting

struggle against public contempt for the space of an entire month.

Yielding to the stress of circumstances,

An

effort

imposing

was made

to revive

of

title

it

then came to a pause.

some time

it

Catholico Fluminense.

after,

Thus

with the more


its

proprietors

appealed as strongly as possible to the sympathy and patriotism

by the use

of the people,

of a term of which the citizens of Rio de

Janeiro are particularly proud.

Under

this

heading

it

barely suc-

ceeded in surviving four additional numbers, in only one of which

was the
the pure

least

mention made of the parties whose

word

of

God had given

it

efforts to

spread

origin.

"This species of opposition almost always had the

effect to

awaken greater inquiry after the Bible and many were the indicoming to procure the Scriptures, said their attention was first called to the subject by the unreasonable and fanatical
attempts of certain priests to hinder their circulation. They
j

viduals who, on

contemned the

idea, as

absurd and ridiculous, that these

men

should

attempt to dictate to them what they should not read, or set up an


They wished it, and if for
inquisitorial crusade against the Bible.

no other reason, that they might show that they possessed religious
They poured inexpressiliberty, and were determined to enjoy it.
and even the immofanaticism,
ignorance,
ble contempt upon the
which characterized some of the pretended ministers of
religion, who dreaded to have their lives brought into comparison

rality,

with the requirements of God's word.


"Those of our friends who were consulted on the subject almost
invariably counselled us to take no notice of the low and virulent

Brazil and the Brazilians.

258
attacks

made upon

with which the people at large had no sym-

us,

pathy, and of which every intelligent

worthy

Such

object.

articles

man would

perceive the un-

would refute themselves, and injure

their authors rather than us.

"

The

results justified such

One gentleman

an opinion.

guese) in particular said to us, with emphasis,


of these things,
scatter truth

and

it is

now

you ought

among

to continue

With

the people.'

(a Portu-

Taking no notice

your holy mission, and


this advice

we

complied,

a pleasing reflection that our energies and time were

devoted to vastly higher and nobler objects than the refutation of


the baseless but rancorous falsehoods which were put forth against
us.

We knew full well that this opposition was not so much against

us as against the cause of the Bible, with which

and we were content to


Lord.'

And most

'

delightful

it

we were

identified,

still

and see the salvation of the

was

to witness the results of that

stand

overruling Providence which can

make

the wrath of

man

tributary

to the divine praise.

a The malignity of this worse than infidel opposition to the


truth excited the cariosity of numbers to examine whether indeed

word of God was not profitable for instruction and for doctrine/
The results of such an examination upon every candid
mind may be easily conjectured. Thus the truths of inspiration

the

'

found free course to hundreds of families and scores of schools,

where they might be

safely left to do their

own

office

upon the

minds and hearts of the people.

"Some

instances of the

the Bible

came

to our

happy and immediate

knowledge

but

it is

to reveal the full extent of the benefit.

effects of circulating

reserved for eternity

While subsequently

tra-

velling in distant provinces, I found that the sacred volumes put


in circulation at

Rio de Janeiro had sometimes gone before me, and

wherever they went an interest had been awakened which led the
people to seek for more."

There are other means than newspapers for the progress of the
Brazilians in knowledge and

belles-lettres.

In addition to the various colleges and academies described

another chapter, there are a number of public institutions and


sociations

and

whose object

is

in
as-

the cultivation of literature and science,

the diffusion of knowledge.

National Library.
The

of the books originally belonging to the Royal Library

of Portugal, which were brought over by


collection
It

aid.

and

Dom

John VI.
and

annually augmented by donations

is

The
Government

was thrown open to the public bj the Portuguese monarch,


ever since remained under suitable regulations,

lias

access to
is

These con-

100,000 volumes.

Bibliotheca Nacional contains

sist chiefly

259

all

who choose

open daily from nine a.m.

Rua

tered from the

and read.

to enter its saloon


till

of

This library

two p.m., and was formerly en-

do Carmo

detraz

free

but the

Government not

long ago purchased the commodious private residence of Sr. Vianna,

which

beautifully situated in the vicinity of the Passeio Publico,

is

where

the

which

accommodations

very greatly superior

are

When

has hitherto possessed.

it

it

Tables

with

covered

on

cloth,

and frames designed

to the lofty

ceiling,

those

which

were

arranged

writing-

The

shelves, rising from the

were covered with books of every lan-

You might

guage and date.

to

in the old

to support large volumes, extended

through the room from end to end.


floor

was located

presented an interesting sight to the visitor.

library-buildings,

materials,

it

here call for any volume the library

contained, or the city newspapers and European magazines, and

down
also

to read

and take notes

at

your pleasure.

sit

This collection has

been increased by valuable private donations, among which that

of the books of the late Jose Bonifacio de Andrada deserves especial

By

mention.
titled

Imperial decree in 1876, a most important work, en-

Annaes da Bibliotheca Nacional do R. de Janeiro, was begun.

Sr. Pascual de

Ga} angos,
T

in the

Academy (London), gives the

five

volumes, which have appeared, the highest praise.

The

publicity of such a library cannot fail to have a beneficial

influence

upon the

of the metropolis,

literary taste

which,

whole community.
he

may

by degrees,

will extend itself to the

While the student at Rio

National Library nearly


literature,

and acquirements of the students

all

may

find in the

that he can desire in the field of ancient

also easily gain access to

more modern works

in the subscription-libraries.

The English, the German, and the Portuguese

residents have

severally established such libraries for their respective use.

That
somewhat extensive and valuable.
Among the Government institutions must be classed the National

of the English

is

Brazil and the Brazilians.

260

Museum, on the Campo de Santa Anna, which is gratuitously thrown


open to visitors and great numbers avail themselves of this pleaThe collection of minerals has been
sant and instructive resort.
much augmented in value by a donation from the heirs of Jose
They presented to the Museum the entire
Bonifacio de Andrada.
cabinet of their father, who in his long public career had rare
opportunities for making a most valuable collection. At an early
period of his life he was Professor of Mineralogy in the University
of Coimbra, Portugal, where he published several works that gained
him a reputation among the scientific men of Europe. Through
;

his life

he had been

industrious in

thering

ga-

together

models of machines

and mechanical improvements,

toge-

with

choice

engravings

and

ther

coins

and

heirs

could

made

his

certainly

have

not

a more mag-

nanimous disposal
of the whole than
to

them

confer

upon

the

nation.

The department of
mineralogy

is

well

arranged, but contains

many more

foreign than native

specimens.

The

same lack of Brazilian


P

EAGLE.

curiosities

formerly prevailed
in

other

depart-

ments, although in that of aboriginal relics there has been from


the establishment of the

Museum

a rich collection of ornaments

Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute. 261


and feather-dresses from Para and Matto Grosso.
stant enlargement and

may

improvement

There

is

in every respect.

a con-

Still,

it

be said that while the cabinets of Munich and Vienna, Paris,

Petersburg, London, and Edinburgh have been enriched by

St.

splendid collections from Brazil, in various departments of natural


history, yet in the Imperial

Museum of Eio

de Janeiro but a meagre

idea can be formed of the interesting productions

and animal

table,

was here that

It

harpy

eagle,

There

is

mineral, vege-

in which the Empire abounds.


I

saw a very

from the

fine living

specimen of the great

Amazon.

forests of the

an Imperial Academy of the Fine Arts, which was

founded in 1824, by a decree of the National Assembly.


present organized with a Director and four Professors,

It is at

viz. : of paint-

ing and landscape, of architecture, of sculpture and of design, and


a corresponding

who wish

all

number

of substitutes.

This institution

seventy students are annually matriculated,


in the

This

department of design.

is

open to

and about

to be instructed in either department,

the greater proportion

Academy

also provides funds

number of its most meritorious alumni


alumni who have attracted attention in

for the support of a certain


at

Amongst

Rome.

the

Europe, the names of V. Meirelles and Pedro Americo stand highest.

The

Conservatorio de Musica is a State

in instrumental

professors.

and vocal music

It has the

is

Academy where

instruction

given to both sexes by competent

honor of having instructed Antonio Carlos

Gomes, the composer of the " Guarany." There is a Conservatorio


Dramatico, to whose censorship were submitted, in one year, 250 plays,
of which 170 were approved, 54 were amended, and 33 were of such
a character as to be suppressed and to merit unqualified rebuke.

The

imperial Agricultural,

Societies enroll

first in all

Statistical,

public- spirited

association which in

the
the

many

the

its

South America

men and good

character,
is

and the Auxiliadora


writers.

But

and numbers

dignity,

is

the Brazilian Historical and Geo-

graphical Institute, organized at Rio de Janeiro in 1838, which has


clone

more than any other

literary enterprise.

society to

awaken the

spirit

This association adopted as

its

of Brazilian

fundamental

plan the design of collecting, arranging, and publishing or preserving documents


Brazil.

illustrative

of

the history and

geography of

Several distinguished persons took a deep interest in

it

Brazil and the Brazilians.

262

The Government also lent a fostering hand. The


General Assembly voted an annual subsidy in aid of its objects, and
the Department of Foreign Affairs instructed the attaches of the
Brazilian embassies in Europe to procure and to copy papers of
from the

first.

interest that exist in the archives of different courts, relative to

By

the early history of Brazil.

were aroused, and the

this

movement
was

spirit of inquiry

individual exertions

excited in different

parts of the Empire as well as abroad, and interesting results have

already been accomplished.

During the

first

year of

its

existence, this Institute

numbered

near four hundred members and correspondents, and had collected


over three hundred manuscripts, of various length and value.

most important of these

it

with some valuable discourses and essays furnished by

Two

The

has already given to the world, together


its

members.

Fridays of each month are devoted to the sittings of this

association;

and none of

its

members and patrons

or take so deep an interest in

all its

are so punctual

proceedings as

Dom

Pedro

II.

Review and Journal, which publishes the


proceedings of the society at length, together with all the more
Its

organ

is

a Quarterly

important documents read before


interested in the articles

it

We

it.

have been particularly

has contained upon the aboriginal tribes

of South America, and also in

its

biographical sketches of dis-

tinguished Brazilians.

On

the whole,

it

may

be questioned whether the Portuguese

language contains a more valuable collection of miscellany than

thrown together

in the

is

pages of the Bevista Trimensal ou Jornal

do Instituto Historico Brazileiro.

Almost

all

the leading

men

of Brazil belong to the learned pro-

Such a thing as an eminent mechanic or merchant holding high position in the State I believe to be unknown. There
are certain officers who hold their appointment and receive pay
fessions.

under Government, in accordance with a rule which deserves par-

The professors of some of the public institutions,


ticular mention.
and perhaps the attaches of some of the Government bureaux,
receive a certain annual salary.

holding

office for

a stipulated

It

number

may

conduct has been without reproach, can


Imperial Treasury a

sum

not be large

but, after

of years, the employee,


retire,

and

is

if his

paid from the

equal to the added salaries of his whole

Administration of Justice.
term of

service.

This

is

263

a strong inducement to the faithful dis-

charge of duty, and perhaps operates to keep unscrupulous dema-

gogues from seeking

office

reward

as a

party exertions.

for

It is

thus that the under-officers in the Brazilian Government acquire a


full

knowledge of the

difficult

routine of the various Departments;

and the changes of ministry leave no

surmount

to

in carrying

mode

Brazilian

difficulties for

the

new Cabinet

on the machinery of government.

certainly seems

more

in accordance with

The

common

sense than the rotation-in-office principle which prevails in the

United States.
In another chapter will be found the course of study pursued in

The administration

the chief law-school of the Empire.

much

is

simpler than in England or the United States.

of justice

There are

almost the same magistrates and judges, under different names.

The

delegado or subdelegado

the justice of the peace; the juiz

is

municipal answers to the circuit judge or the presiding officer of


the Court of

Common

is the Judge of
Supreme Court.
There are district supreme judges in all the provinces, and there is
a Supremo Tribunal de Justicia, which corresponds to the Supreme
Court of the United States.

Pleas; the Juiz dos Orphaos

Probate; the Juiz de Direito

From
bunals,

the Judge of the

is

the experience of Governor

and from the interesting

Kent with the

letters of

Brazilian

tri-

Eev. Charles N. Stewart,

mode of conducting a
The party accused is first brought

the following facts in regard to the

I cull

criminal trial at Eio de Janeiro.

before the subdelegado in whose district the crime has been committed.

He

is

verbally examined, and his replies, as well as the

The accused

questions, are all recorded.


sion, &c. as

minutely as the magistrate thinks proper.

compelled to answer, but his silence


ferences.

who

The administration
sive character,

and

are sworn

all

is

not

lead to unfavorable in-

is followed by that of
by placing the hand upon the Bible.

of the oath

and

is

of the most solemn and impres-

in this respect at least the Brazilians read us a

wholesome and a needful

When

may

He

The examination of the prisoner

the witnesses,

spectators

asked his age, profes-

is

lesson.

All rise

court, officers, bar,

and

stand in profound silence during the ceremony.

the jury retires there

is

also a great manifestation of respect,

standing until the twelve have

left

the court-room.

Brazil and the Brazilians.

264

The

whether the accused

preliminary examination, decides

the

subdelegado, after

be held for

shall

with his decision to a superior


the accused

In

is

and submits the papers

trial,

who

officer,

imprisoned or released on

usually confirms

The jury

summoned

"Forty-eight are

panel for each trial

who hands

boy,

selected

is

by

the names being drawn by a

lot,

demand

being sworn and empannelled, the prisoner

sometimes

not only as to his

acts,

trial.

The record
is

be again examined,
us, to

of the

then read.
if

If

pre-

appear at the

Hence, the examination of the accused and the witnesses at

the preliminary process

it

may

but they are not bound over, as with

instances, the case

as

is

the testimony,

either party desire, the witnesses

sent

The jury
again examined by

but as to his motives.


all

In capital cases

of cause.

and with great minuteness

at great length

former proceedings, including

consists of

term; and the

for the

the paper to the presiding judge.

challenges are allowed without the

the judge

and

unless of very great importance, the jury does not

civil cases,

form a part of the judicial administration.


twelve men.

it,

bail.

comes up."

When

is

is

tried

very important and material.

Brazil and

the record

is

In

many

and determined entirely upon the record

La

Plata.

read, witnesses are produced on the side of

the Government, and the prosecuting-attorney addresses the jury.

The testimony, or the witnesses of the defendant, are then


duced, and his advocate addresses

sometimes

intro-

at great length

the twelve on whose decision hangs the destiny of his client.

prosecutor replies

if

he deem

it

best

after

which the judge

The

briefly

charges the jury and gives them a series of questions in writing,


the answers to which constitute the verdict
seen, special pleading

defeated.

The

and

decision in each case

unanimity, as with

us.

and thus,

legal skirmishing is in a great

case

begun

an adjournment of the court, though

it

will be

measure

by majority, and not by

is

generally finished without

is
it

should continue through

the day arfd the entire night.

The arrangement

of the court-room

that in the United States.


side of the hall,

is

somewhat

The judge, with

different

his clerk, sits

The
two semicircular
of the judge. The lawyers

and the prosecuting-attorney on the other.

jury, instead of being in a "box," are seated at


tables placed at the right

and

at the left

from

on one


Trial by Jury.

265

do not stand when they address the jury, but, like the professores

on examination-day, the
cathedra.

always make their speeches ex

collegios

The lawyers not engaged

before the court occupy a kind of

in the suit

which may be
the box for

pew which resembles

criminals in English and American halls of justice.

The following verdict of a jury was returned in a case of homiwhich occurred in Eio in 1851. The trial came off in the

cide

spring of 1852, and the "return"

newspapers printed at the

translated from one of the daily

is

capital,

and gives a clear and concise

notion of the nature of the questions propounded by the judge, and

come

the ease with which a jury can

to a speedy conclusion in

regard to the guilt or innocence of any accused individual


Questions propounded by the Judge to the Jury,
in the

In this case the

first

and

the Verdict rendered,

Second Trial of B.

jury fully acquitted the respondent.

The

presiding judge appealed to the Court of Kela^ao, consisting of

the judges, twelve in number.


the appeal and ordered a

new

all

This court, on hearing, sustained

trial.

Questions.
1.

year,

Did the defendant,


kill,

B.,

by discharging a

on the 23d of September of the

pistol,

C,

the Italian,

in D.'s hotel

last
?

Answer. Yes; (by twelve votes.)


2.

Did he commit the offence in the night-time

Ans. Yes; (by eight votes.)


3.

Did the defendant commit the offence with superiority

of

arms, in a manner that C. could not defend himself with a probability of repelling the attack?

Ans. Yes; (by eleven votes.)


4.

Did the defendant commit the

cealment or surprise
Ans.
5.

JSTo;

offence proceeding with con-

(by seven votes.)

Are there any circumstances extenuating the

of the defendant

Ans. Yes;

Code: "If

offence in favor

(by eight votes.)

By Act

18, 3, of the

Criminal

the defendant commits the crime in defence of his

proper person;" and

ditto,

4 of same article

"If the defendant

Brazil and the Brazilians.

266

commits the offence or crime

in retaliation or

revenge of an injury

or dishonor which he has suffered."

Do

6.

the jury find

that

respondent commits the

the

(or offence) in defence of his person

Yes

Arts.

Was

7.

(by seven votes.)

the defendant certain of the injury (or evil) which he

intended to avoid (or escape from)


Ans. Yes

Was

8.

No

Had

9.

absolutely

without

other

means

less

(by eight votes.)

eight votes.)

the defendant done any

wrong which occasioned the

No

Ans.
11

defendant

the defendant provoked the occasion for the conflict?

Had

conflict

(by seven votes.)

No; (by

Ans.
10.

the

prejudicial

Ans.

act

and

(by eight votes.)

and 10,) in reference to the family of the dehad provoked, &c. and answered, No, (by twelve

12, (like 9

fendant, if they

votes each.)

Upon
him

this verdict the court

adjudged B. guilty, and sentenced

to twelve years' imprisonment at hard labor

An appeal was again taken to the same


He was pardoned by the Emperor, October,

and the

costs.

Court of the Eelacao.


1852,

of the Minister-Plenipotentiary of his (B.'s)

upon application

country and by the

petition of others.

The following

is

a curious case of some legal interest

February, 1853, a black

man was

put on

trial before

charge of having a pocket-knife, (jack-knife, as

we

white

man

It did

call it.)

claim was

During the

appeared and claimed the negro as his

made

part of the case on

trial,

In

the jury on

not appear that the black had done or threatened any injury
the crime was, having a prohibited article.

but

trial,

slave.

This

and the jury were directed

to determine whether he was free or the slave of the claimant.

by the judge giving the casting vote, that he was


by ten votes, that he was guilty of the crime. He
was sentenced to one month's imprisonment as a freeman. Thus

They
free,

found,

and,

he obtained a judicial sentence which secured his freedom

and

Complaints of Corruption.
had to stay one month as a lodger
to

in jail.

267

lucky jack-knife

him
It is impossible, in a

work

like this, to enter fully into the merits

and demerits of the mode of administering law


time to time

many

rumor, against those


cases,

From

in Brazil.

charges of corruption have been brought, by

who

administer

corruption has existed.

it,

and doubtless,

in

some

Those who have had property

awaiting Certain decisions of the Juizes dos Orphaos have com-

was much reduced before judgment was rendered.


murmured at what they termed unfairness,
and have hinted that some of the magistrates have not been above

plained that

it

Foreigners have also

bribery.
It

would not be altogether just to compare the administration

of law in Brazil to that of England

but I hazard nothing in saying

that in no country of South America

is

there greater personal

security and a fairer dispensation of justice than in this Empire.

Each year the various codes are becoming better digested

number

of eminent

men

and the

in the legal profession has placed

point of mental ability, in the

first

it,

in

rank of the learned vocations.

CHAPTEK XT.
THE CLIMATE OF BRAZIL
RESORTS

TRIP TO

ITS

ST.

SUPERIORITY TO OTHER TROPICAL COUNTRIES

ALEIXO

LADY'S IMPRESSIONS

A YANKEE HOUSE

THE RIDE UP THE

IMPROVISOR

SYDNEY SMITH'S " IMMORTAL" SURPASSED

OF TRAVEL

AN AMERICAN FACTORY

FORESTS, FLOWERS, AND SCENERY

ORGAN MOUNTAINS
LOTS

BOA

HEIGHT OF THE

VISTA

"HAPPY VALLEY"
CONCLUSION

TODD'S

" STUDENT'S MANUAL"


OF

SPECULATION

SERRA DOS ORGOES

THE TWO SWISS BACHELORS

EXPENSES

FIRE-FLIES

COOL

THE MULATTO

BRAZILIAN JUPITER PLUVIUS

TRAVELLING

YOUTH RENEWED

THE TAPIR

IN TOWN-

CONSTANCIA

THE

PROSAIC

THE TOUCAN THE


CANTA GALLO-

NOVA FRIBOURGO

PETROPOLIS.

Those whose

tropical experience has been in the East Indies or

the western coast of Africa can have no just conception of the


delightful climate of the greater portion of Brazil.

had designed

as if Providence

Nature has heaped up her bounties of every description

nation.

cool breezes, lofty mountains, vast rivers,

and

territory.

gems and the

which abound within the borders of

No

and desolate

provinces.

strong

men

burning sirocco wafts over this

and no vast desert, as

it,

this

Empire.

fair

become weak

to

cities of

While

of south latitude,

as infants,

from Copiapo

has never been

is

constantly

disturbs no dweller

in a large part of Mexico,

rain

extended

which causes

and which

Spanish America,

west coast of South America,

this

land to wither

in Africa, separates its fer-

That awful scourge, the earthquake,

devastating the

plentiful pluvial irri-

gation, are treasures far surpassing the sparkling


rich minerals

tile

would seem

It

this land as the residence of a great

and

in

also on the

to the fifth degree

known

to

fall,

Brazil

is

endowed with broad, flowing


The Amazon, or, as the
with his mighty
aborigines term it, Para, "the father of waters,"
branches, irrigates a surface equal to two-thirds of Europe; and

refreshed by copious showers, and


rivers, cataracts,

is

and sparkling streams.

the San Francisco, the Parahiba do Sul, the vast affluents of the
268

The Climate of
La

Plata, under the

269

Brazil.

names of the Paraguay, Parana, Cuiaba, Para-

nahiba, and a hundred other streams of lesser note, moisten the


fertile soil and bear their tributes to the ocean through the southern
and eastern portions of the Empire. Perhaps an exception may be

found in the small Province of Ceara, but that does not


that this land

Now,
fertility

there

alter the fact

designed by nature for the sustenance of millions.

is

must be some reason

for this bountiful irrigation, this

of soil and salubrity of climate.

who seems almost literally to have taken


and to have flown to the uttermost
morning"
"the wings of the
Lieutenant Maury

parts of the sea

has

shown conclusively why

it is

that Brazil

South

so blessed above corresponding latitudes in other lands.

America

is

upon the

Pacific.

the longest

like

a great irregular triangle, whose longest side

Of the two

extending

sides

which

lie

upon the

from Cape Horn to Cape

St.

is

is

Atlantic,

Eoque

is

three thousand five hundred miles, and looks out upon the southeast

while the shortest

looking

northeastward

has a length of

two thousand five hundred miles. This configuration has a powerThe


ful effect upon the temperature and the irrigation of Brazil.
from
those
wonderful
result
from
it,
and
La Plata and the Amazon
winds, called the trades, which blow upon the two Atlantic sides
These winds, which sweep from the northof the great triangle.
east and from the southeast, come laden, in their journey over the
They bear their vapory
ocean, with humidity and with clouds.
burdens over the land,

upon the vast


up by the

distilling, as

and the

forests

they

fly,

refreshing moisture

lesser mountains, until, finalty

lofty Andes, in that rarefied

caught

and cool atmosphere they

are wholly condensed, and descend in the copious rains which per-

world.

two of the mightiest rivers of the


The prevailing winds on the Pacific coast are north and

south.

No

petually nourish the sources of

moisture

is

borne from the ocean to the huge barrier

of mountains within sight of the dashing waves, and hence the


aridity of so

much

of the hypothenuse of the triangle.

have

beheld the western -and eastern coasts of South America within


thirty days of each other,

pared with the

No

and the former seemed a desert com-

latter.

other tropic country

Though

is

so

generally elevated as Brazil

there are no very lofty mountains except upon

its

extreme

Brazil and the Brazilians.

270

western border, yet the whole Empire has an average elevation


of more than seven hundred feet above the level of the sea.

This great elevation and those strong trade-winds combine to

much

produce a climate

cooler

and more healthful than the

The

responding latitudes of Africa and Southern Asia.

cor-

traveller,

the naturalist, the merchant, and the missionary do not have their

months of pleasure or usefulness thrown away, or

first

by acclimating

stitutions impaired

their con-

fevers.

The mean temperature of Brazil

which

extends from nearly

the fifth degree of north latitude to the thirty-third of south


latitude (almost

an

region)

intertropical

is

from 81 to 88

At Rio de
mean tempera-

Fahrenheit, according to different seasons of the year.


Janeiro,

on

the authority of Br. Dundas,

ture of thirty years

was

73.

the

In Becember, (which corresponds to

June in the Northern Hemisphere,) maximum, 89 ; minimum,


70

mean,

mum,

In July, (coldest month,) maximum, 79

79.

66; mean, 73 J.

I can add,

from

my own

saw 90 attained

several years, that I never

mini-

observations for

in the summer-time,

and the lowest in the winter (June, July, and August) was 60,
this was early in the morning.
The heat of summer is never so oppressive

and

as that which I have

New

and August, at

often experienced, in the hot days of July

York and Boston, where frequently the high point of 104 or


105 Fahrenheit has been reached.
that three

It must,

however, be conceded

months of weather ranging between 73 and 89 would

be intolerable

if it

which generally

were not

sets

in

for the cool sea-breeze

at eleven a.m.,

and the

on the coast

delicious

land-

breeze which so gently fans the earth until the morning sun has
flashed over the mountains.
cool;

and

it

may

In the interior the nights are always

be added that, one hundred miles from the sea-

coast, the climate is entirely different.

Rio

An

is

happily situated in

hour's ride leaves

Tijuca

six

its accessibility to

the elevated regions.

you among the cascades and coolness of

hours by steamer, railway, and coach

the mountain-city of Petropolis

lift

amid the sublimities of the Serra dos Orgaos and the


refreshing shades of Constancia,

away from

the dust, din,

you up to

or twelve hours will bring

where, in truth,

silent

we ma}' be

you
and
far

and diplomacy which are the constant

Trip to St. Aleixo.


concomitants

commercial and

of the

may

Again, we

271

political

of Brazil.

capital

vary our route and ascend the mountains to the

vated uplands upon which are situated the prosperous towns of

ele-

Nova

Friburgo and Cantagallo, with their adjacent flourishing coffee-planAll of these are delightful resorts, formerly reached only

tations.

on horseback, but now the

last two are attainable by rail.


from the usual route to Constancia is the sweet

far

ISTot

valley of St. Aleixo,

where an American has erected a

little

cotton-

factory in the midst of the most beautiful tropic scenery.

some

it

To

might be a profanation that these wilds should be startled

by any other sounds than the leaping streams from the Serra, or
the songs of birds

there are few

and the

who would

music of the cicada

shrill

but perhaps

not be content to behold industry taking

the place of indolence, though they might yield to none in love for

the beautiful.

number of

I visited St. Aleixo a

hospitality of its director,

triumphed

who through many

had

obstacles

at last

in establishing the first successful cotton-manufactory

in the province of

My

and enjoyed the kind

times,

Eio de Janeiro.

made under such circumstances


of weather that 1 am constrained to give it as an instance of what
must be expected at certain seasons of the year. Though in the
last visit to St.

Aleixo was

province of Rio de Janeiro there


called,

yet early visitors

to the

is

no "rainy season/' properly so


not soon forget the

capital will

drenching rains, made doubly perceptible by the uncouth waterspouts which for

many

years have been done

away, but which

formerly poured more than a miniature cascade upon the passersby.

But of these spouts

gone," and by
is,

among

the

city

it

may now

be said their

ordinance they are

curiosities

of

Rio

that

really

have

'
'

occupation's

where

only a

Intrude*

historical

existence.

The

usual

mode

Piedade, and thence

of getting

by

to

or ten miles from the landing-place.


referred to, I

St.

Aleixo

is

by steamer

carriage to the secluded valley

On

to

some eight

the occasion of the visit

was accompanied by a number of

friends,

among

whom was

Mr. M., the worthy director and one of the owners of


the "Fabrica."

We

left

the Quai dos Mineiros (not far from the Convent of San

Brazil and the Brazilians.

272

Ben to)

in the little

clumsy steamer that

soon overtaken by a thunder-storm.


zones

we fancy

plies

The morning was

upper end of the bay.

between Eio and the


bright, but

Such rain!

we were

In temperate

we know what is meant by rain. Quite a


when compared to the pouring tor-

that

It is child's play

mistake!

There was no cabin, and the curtains but

rents of the tropics.


half performed their

under our

feet,

In rushed the water over our clothes,

office.

and out

day on

at the scuppers, like holy-stone

board ship.

When we were sufficiently wet, the rain abated and the curtain
rose.
And well that it did so; for the bad weather had driven in
all

the motley crowd of troupeiros usually occupying, along with

more respectable animals, the forward-deck of the boat; and


unkempt
muleteers, and the damp darkies, was not the most agreeable to
the lady portion of our company.

their

the hot steam arising from the greasy cattle-drivers, the

The time was beguiled

in looking at the glorious scenery

listening to the improvisation of a mulatto


festa in Maje, there to sell his wit
stories in verse,

When

and imitated

and

his

different voices

with admirable

asked to improvise on Paqueta, the lovely insular

we were

and in

who was going


doces.
He told

to a

long
skill.

gem

that

passing, he immediately dashed off in a strain of poetry,

describing the beauties of the island, and then descanted on the


faults

and

failings of its inhabitants,

and in a

satiric strain

of Juvenal lashed the proceedings of the people


religious festas that are annually held

on

its

who

frequented the

bright shores.

He

who

here

concluded with a eulogy on Jose Bonifacio de Andrada,

ended his days.

worthy

In short, had Corinne heard him, jealousy would

have saved her the trouble of dying for love.

Jesting apart, the

man's talent was of a high order, and the harmonious and flowing
verse

showed the adaptation of the Portuguese

language to

rhythmical composition
After a hasty repast at a rude inn near the landing-place of

Piedade,

we prepared

for the road.

Up came

our equipage.

must, in justice to our worthy host, say that his nice American
vehicle

had received some

injury, so that he could only send his

mules and engage the best conveyance afforded by the village of


Maje.

We

felt

some

slight

remorse at the destruction of

life

that

Lady's Impressions or Travel.

278

our entrance into the venerable vehicle must have caused, as

seemed

it

have served as a temporary refuge to some gay, locked-out

to

But we ought not to speak ill of the aged. Guiltless


alike of paint and washing, it far outdid Sydney Smith's "Immortal," which, doubtless, was kept in perfect cleanliness by his tidy
rooster.

However, the sight of a good team reconciled


Four fine mules plunged along

Yorkshire servants.

us to the rudeness of the vehicle.

through

was

mud and

water: I then understood

to avoid the trouble of

washing

how

philosophical

it

The Hyde Park

a carriage.

turn-out of Count D'Orsay or the Earl of Harrington, in one short

rivers

would have been on a par with ours. We forded juvenile


and newly-made brooks; we lumbered up hill and down

dale;

now

mile,

made

the coachman

a skilful detour close to a bank to

avoid a deep mud-hole on the other side, and

now he was

obliged to

pass under some tree whose overhanging branches gave us a capital

douche.

After some miles of this travel

we

stopped at a venda to

give the animals breath and water before the gallop

Soon we were

Their gaze of wonder as

there

was

slope.

off again.
" On, on we hasten' d, and

And

down the

we drew
we flew!"

as black a tempest gathering for us poor Giaours as

ever threatened to wet that uncomfortable, sword-waving rider of

Down came

the "blackest steed!"

What had

night and Brazilian rain!

formerly been the hood of the carriage was transformed

into a sort of a kitchen-sink, with a hole in the middle, through

which poured the water.

Luckily,

we had an umbrella

inserted in the hole, and thus the stream

this was
was averted from our de:

voted heads.

In the midst of

this

all

our driver gave a loud whistle, and

thereupon out rushed four dark figures from a hut by the roadside

lady of the party afterward described her romantic impressions

of this scene as follows


"

What my companions

able for me, a poor,


or, at least,

huge

know

not; but

it

was

quite allow-

weak woman, to give myself over as robbed,


One man jumped on the box with a

'murthered!'

stick in his hand,

series of

felt I

and the others followed behind, uttering a

unearthly yells and undesirable epithets, but

to the mules;

and, as I

knew

ail

addressed

that the skins and skulls of those


18

274

Brazil and the Brazilians.

beasts were thicker than mine, I

was

consoled.

sent to push us up a steep hill; for be

it

It

known

was a party

to all

who

are

ignorant of the idiosyncrasy of these animals, that, when once they


consider the task assigned to them unreasonable, no persuasion

can induce them to set shoulder to the work.


to Jupiter, but

No doubt they cry


he will not help them; and so they stand still, or

allow the vehicle to draw

them backward; and on the edge of

THE FABRICA AT

precipice this

is

not a pleasant

way

of travelling.

So, after each

mule had clearly learned from the yelling quartette the estimation
in

which he was

rolled

down

we gained

held,

the summit.

into that beautiful valley

white walls!

We

afterward beheld

Southey's remark that

'

How

gladly

where the factory


it

we

raises its

under a bright sun, and

even nature herself abhors a factory, and

refuses to clothe its walls with climbers/

is

here contradicted, for

Grove

the lovely glen in whose

of Sensitive Trees.

bosom

275

this building reposes

would lend

grace to any structure.

"How

hearty was our welcome from the pretty Virginia hostess

who met

us as

we

Eight gayly we recounted

entered, all forlorn!

our fright and adventures, and

it

was the

old story over again

" She loved us for the dangers we had pass'd,


'

And we
"

loved her that she did pity them.'

Byron could not bear to

Strictly speaking,

into a hole in

it is

see a lady eat,

a singular process,

it

so unethereal.

is

throwing sundry morsels

your face and using your chin as a

Of

mill.

course,

was only the masculine part of the company who partook of


the Westphalia ham, broiled chicken, and other dainties prepared
it

by the good hostess.

Such proceedings did not agree with the

my more celestial nature!"


The following morning we surveyed the

poetical feelings of

The

locality.

pro-

from the factory, and

prietor's house stands at a short distance

both were actually framed in the United States, brought out in


pieces,

and put together

in Brazil.

The pine used

has, in spite of predictions to the contrary,

durability to

away from
rains,

may

Norwegian

pine.

A meadow

for the house

proved superior in

of bright green slopes

the house toward a clear, rapid brook, which, after


well be called a river; but in dry weather

traversed on the stones that strew

its

painful researches to find a stream that never dries

hottest season.

At

took up his abode.

last

The

he discovered this
hills rise

easily

it is

Mr. M. had long and

bed.

little

up even

river,

in the

and here

around, covered with the most

luxuriant growth; here and there a stately palm rises like a chieftain above its fellows; farther on, the mountains stretch

blend with the clear blue of the heavens.

On

away and

the branches sing

bright-plumaged birds, that seem, in the early morning, to


the sensitive-plant trees to

was, indeed, hard for

which

me

had looked upon

awake from

call

their night's slumber.

on
It

to realize that the little sensitive-plant


at

home

as

among

the most delicate of

here reproduced in almost giant forms.

Its family abounds


and the grove that surrounds the residence of Mr. M. is
actually composed of trees which quietly fold their leaves in repose

exotics

is

in Brazil,

at vespers, only to be

awakened by the morning sun and the

sing-

Brazil and the Brazilians.

276

The city-friends of Mrs. M. used to offer their condowas so far removed from society in that retired vale;
but they were always cut short in their proffered sympathy by the
ing-birds.

lence that she

information that no sense of loneliness prevailed in that sweet


spot.

There one

may

find

companionship in those majestic moun-

tains "precipitously steep/' the flowering woods, the forest- voices,

and the gushing music of brooks and fountains.

YANKEE HOUSE

The remembrance of

St.

Alexio

is

like that of a pleasant

dream,

or the sunny memories of the secluded vales and sparkling waters


at the base of the Dent du Midi,

not a day's

ride from the upper

end of the Lake of Geneva.


Mr. M. deserves the greatest credit for his persevering

which placed here


province.

efforts

this first successful cotton-manufactory in the

Others had endeavored to establish similar fabricas, to

be driven by steam-power, in the city; but they were failures.

Not

only had Mr. M. to contend with nature, but probably his worst

As
German colony

annoyances came from a dilatory Government.


the factory

is

supplied from the

to operatives,

of Petropolis.

Another has paid a just tribute of merit to Mr. M.


heartily subscribe to the sentiments
it is

only in the more

common

and

I can

therein contained: "Though

fabrics in cotton that the

manufac-

turer can yet compete with British and American goods, yet he


Blooming Forests of the Serra dos Orgaos.

277

[Mr M.] deserves a medal of honor from the Government, and


the patronage of the whole Empire, not only for the establish-

ment of the manufactory, but

the

for

before a whole province of indolent and

example

living

sluggish natives

set

of

Yankee energy, ingenuity, indefatigable industry, and unyielding


(Mr. M. died in 1857.)
It is a comfortable day's ride from St. Alexio to Constancia,
though the usual manner of procedure is to start at mid-day from

perseverance."

Kio in the steamer, arrive at Piedade at three o'clock, where


mules and guides are awaiting those
to

announce by

the

letter to

who have been prudent enough

"jolly

Heath"

their intention of

spending a few days amid the Serra dos Orgaos.


across the lowlands bring us through the

town of Maje

few hours
to Frechal,

where the weary and the lazy often spend a night

in

a dirty inn, surrounded by crowds of children, (the proprietor

is

(or Freixal,)

the father of twenty-three meninos,) and by vast troops of mules,

which, laden with coffee, are on their

way

to the steamer at

But for those who love a dashing ride up the mountains,


on a road in some places paved as the old Eoman causeways,
those who wish to feel an evening atmosphere which in coolness
Piedade.

and

reminds one of the temperate zone,

chilliness

Here

will be the resting-place.

tain mule-path,

paved

the

Barreira

the toll-gate of this fine moun-

which must have been

as several miles are

We

is

built at

an immense

cost,

like the streets of a city.

zigzag up the steep sides of the Serra, looking

down upon

the tops of majestic forest-trees whose very names are unfamiliar,

and whose appearance


of the

is

as curious as picturesque

vegetal riches of this lofty range, and those


descriptions
dr.ce,

and

beautiful.

who made

a most thorough investigation of the flora


Organ Mountains, has recorded in his interesting travels the

Dr. Gardner,

who would

revel in

of palms, Cassice, Lauri, Bignonias, Myrtacece, Orchi-

Bromeliacece, ferns, &c. &c.

must turn to the pages of a work

which, though necessarily deficient in the history, politics, and


present condition of Brazil,

is

the most unassuming and charming

book ever written on the natural aspect of the tropic land under
consideration.

In the months of April and May, (October and


Brazil,) only the

autumnal

tints of

November

in

our gorgeous North American

Brazil and the Brazilians.

278

woods can compare with the sight of the forest of the Serra dos
Orgaos. Then the various species of the Laurus are blooming, and
the atmosphere

is

loaded with the rich perfume of their tiny snow-

The

white blossoms.

Cassioa

then put forth their millions of golden

same time, huge trees whose native names


would be more unintelligible, though less pedantic, than their

flowers, while, at the

botanic terms of Lasiandra, Fontanesia, and others of the Melas-

toma tribe

are

in full bloom, and, joining

rich purple

to the

brightest yellow, present, together with gorgeously-clothed shrubs,

"flowers of more mingled hue than her

From time

can show."

shoots

speciosa)

up

its

purpled scarf

[Iris's]

to time a silk-cotton-tree (the Chorisia


lofty hemispherical

covered with

top,

thousands of beautiful large rose-colored blossoms, which gratefully contrast

with the masses of vivid green, purple, and yellow

that clothe the surrounding trees.

on every

side.

Wild

vines, twisted into

hanging in graceful festoons,

and fuchsias
form
is

most

fantastic forms or

passion-flowers, trumpet-flowers,

in their native glory,

only surpassed by the

is

Floral treasures are heaped

tall,

tree-ferns,

whose elegance of

gently-curved palmito, which

the very embodiment of the line of beauty,

orchids, whose

flowers are of as soft a tint as the blossom of the peach-tree, or as


brilliant as red spikes of fire,

curious

and eccentric epiphytes

draping naked rocks or the decaying branches of old forest-monarchs,

all

ing with

form a scene enrapturing to the naturalist, and bewilder-

Hand
when

who

richness to the uninitiated,

its

beauty and the splendor that


Divine.

entering an extensive conservatory

that (multiplied a thousandfold) which

for the first

appreciate the

scattered on every side

plants, exotics of the rarest description,


is

still

by the
The overpowering sensation which one experiences
is

filled

with the choicest

and odor-laden flowers,

my mind

filled

time upon the landscape, with

its tiers

robed in such drapery as that described above

as I gazed

of mountains

and yet there was

such a feeling of liberty, incompatible with the sensation expressed

by the word "overpowering," that it is impossible to define


the province of Minas-Geraes, from a commanding point,
beheld the magnificent forest in bloom
lating plains stretched far

away

it.

In

once

and, as the hills and undu-

to the horizon, they

enveloped in a fairy-mist of purple and of gold.

seemed to be

Speculation in Town-Lots.

The Barreira

is

279

situated in a spot of great wildness and sublimity;

seem

for the Organ-peaks, that rise thousands of feet above,

which

the aiguilles

like

from the glaciers of Mont

start fantastically

and the rushing, leaping, thundering cascades are com-

Blanc;

parable to the five wild mountain-torrents, " fiercely glad," that

pour into the Vale of Chamouny.


a tropic storm, and

down with

was once

at the Barreira during

the foaming, roaring rivers, which hurried

fearful leap

from the very region of dread lightning

madly dashed against the huge masses of granite, as


if they would have hurled them from their mighty fastenings, and

and

clouds,

way into the deep valley beneath with sounds that


among the giant peaks above, giving me a new commentary on the sublime description in the Apocalypse
"And I
heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters and as the
tore

their

reverberated

voice of a great thunder."

From

the Barreira

we ascend by zigzags

so often visited

His residence

be numbered among the things that were

enterprise

a new
among

the

Brazil.

and monej'-making has

resort

by Langsdorf, the celebrated Russian voyager,

Burchell, the African traveller, and Gardner, the botanist


to

where

to the uplands,

former fazenda of Mr. March.

situated the

is

for

laid

the Fluminenses,

it

may

the

is

now

spirit

of

out in this elevated valley

and speculation

Organ Mountains soon became


hope that

for

rife in

town-lots

in

these uplands of

prove a successful enterprise

for here

the wearied and jaded from the city will find coolness and salubrity,
at the

town of Theresopolis,

in the

midst of the most imposing

sceneiy.

Before reaching March's and the former mountain-home of Mr.

n,

(whose hospitality

sion to remember,)

many

a visitor to Brazil will have occa-

we climb along the very


Hence is

precipitous of the Organ-pipes.

most
commanding

sides of one of the

a view of

extent,
of mountain, plain, bay, and ocean,
embracing, it is said,
a panorama of more than two hundred miles in circumference, in
the midst of which, though distant, the capital of the Empire is
seen gleaming amid its verdant and lofty environs.
The point
for

beholding this landscape

(" beautiful view.")

is

appropriately called

Boa

Vista,

So

enraptured was the Eev. Charles N.


Stewart with the grandeur of the scene, that he doubts ifin its

combination of mountain, valley, and water

it

has a rival

and

Brazil and the Brazilians.

280

adds that, in his wide experience in various continents, he only

remembers one other prospect that approximates

to

it,

viz.

view of the 'Vega,' with the

city, the walls,

the

pass "through the mountains of Granada, followed by the

first

and the towers of the

Alhambra, and the snow-covered heights of the Nevada above


gloriously lighted

At the

by the glowing hues of the setting sun/'

Boa Yista the climate

elevation of

very much cooler

to fall as low as 32 Fahrenheit just before daybreak;

this is rare

of the day

are the

but

40 in the morning and 70 in the warmest portion

is

the winter regime;

two extremes.

and, in the summer, 60 and 80

In January and February, (the July and

August of the Southern


occur,

is

In the month of June the thermometer has been

than at Bio.

known

all,

tropics,)

generally in the afternoon,

violent thunder-storms often

and

then pass over, leaving

the evening delightfully cool.

Here and

at Oonstancia nearly all the

tables thrive

European

fruits

and vege-

and, as at Madeira and Teneriffe, the apple and the

orange, the pear and the banana, the vine and the coffee-plant,

may

be seen growing side by

side.

Mr. Heath received quite an

income from the productions of his vegetable-gardens; and, at Bio,


the fine cauliflower, (so difficult of cultivation in the tropics,) the
best asparagus,

and most of the artichokes, peas,

from Constancia, and are esteemed as rare

carrots, &c.

come

in that land as the

carefully-cultivated hothouse pineapple in England.

Two

English

shillings per head are given for the largest Constancia cauliflower

This kind of garden,

at Bio.

creased in

many
cool

number

in the

it

has seemed to me, might be in-

upper region of the Semi, where are

by small streams of
managed with the care,
and perseverance which Mr. Heath had brought to bear

fertile little valleys, "all well irrigated

and limpid water.

industry,

upon such

cultivation,

to their proprietors,

growing

If they could be

they could not but bring a lucrative return

and would confer a great

upon the

benefit

city of Bio de Janeiro.

Like the mountains of Tijuca and the curious elevations around


Bio, the
soil is

whole of the Organ range consists of granite. The

very deep and rich in the valleys, and underneath

the same red-colored, slaty, ferrugineous clay which

throughout Brazil.

is

so

alluvial
it

exists

common

The Altitude

of the Mountains.

281

The scenery becomes more tame as we leave Boa Vista, and we


seem to be far removed from the climate of the plains, though
around us the palms,

ferns, cacti, tillandsias, &c. tell us that

not beyond the limits of Capricorn.


bright flowers and foliage,

monkeys hold

TOa

are

Occasionally, howling

your head, or a flock of bright

*^r
THE

ORGAN

parrots glides swiftly over the

which are a

abound.

still

a noisy caucus over

we

Creeping and drooping plants,

MOUNTAINS.

tall

and gracefully-bending bamboos,

distinctive feature in the landscape.

This giant of the


has frequently been found in these mountains from
eighty to one hundred feet in height and eighteen inches in dia-

grass-tribe

meter.

They do

not, however,

singly, but, in vast groups, shoot

grow perpendicularly, nor often


up fifty and sixty feet, and then

curve gently downward, forming most cool and beautiful domes.

As we look back, we have


aspect which they present

is

view of the Organ-pipes, and the

entirely different from that ragged,

Brazil and the Brazilians.

282

show when seen


from the bay. From our nearness and our altitude they seem like
sharp naked mountains rising above a sea of foliage. The range
from which they are detached is still more lofty, and is most
massive in its character. Few persons have ascended these mounpointed, and diminutive appearance which they

and those have either been naturalists or daring hunters.

tains,

Dr. Gardner

made probably

the most thorough scientific explora-

and up these heights Heath has often pursued the clumsy

tion,

The

tapir or the lithe jaguar.

sloth,

howling monkeys, the Bra-

zilian otter, a little deer, (Cervus nemorivagus,)

may

peccari,

still

and two kinds of

prove attractions to the naturalist and the sports-

man but every year they are becoming more rare. Of birds there
are many varieties, remarkable for their brilliant plumage, and a
few are much sought after for their delicacy, the jacu and jacutinga
;

being the most esteemed.

The

of the ascension of these mountains consist of

difficulties

the thickets of underwood, the serried ranks of great ferns and

The

trailing bamboos, in addition to the steepness of the Serra.

paths

of the tapir,

however, render the undertaking much more

would

otherwise

feasible

than

attempts,

the latter made

it

Dr. Gardner, after two

be.

several years after the

the highest summit of the range.

attained
known

first,

These mountains

in

geographies as a portion of the Brazilian Andes, the Serra do Mar,

and the Organ Mountains have been variously estimated to possess an altitude ranging from five thousand seven hundred feet up
Gardner gave

to eight thousand feet.

peak

his estimate of the highest

at 7,500 feet above the level of the sea.

proximate.*

M.

of the highest peak of the Organ Mountains

6,550

feet.

Baron

Homem

on the Theresopolis road

* In the

made a

first ascent,

is

but,

altitude

at 2,015 metres, or about

de Mello states that one of the peaks

3,576 feet high.

Dr Gardner accidentally broke

single observation

This was only ap-

French astronomer, gives the

Liais, the

when on

his

barometer before he had

his last excursion he attained the highest

summit, with the aid of the thermometer he made the estimate in the manner thus
recorded:

"At mid-day the

thermometer indicated 64 in the shade, and

that water boiled at a heat of 198


tain

from which

above the sea-level to be 7800

feet.

I estimate the

register of the

found

height of the moun-

thermometer

kept

CONSTANCIA.

From March's au
of Constancia.

283

hour's brisk trotting will bring us within


sight

Mr. Heath,

when expecting

was almost

guests,

HEATH'S, (CONSTANCIA.)

sure to meet

from

them

at an inner gate of his estate,


about a half-mile

his residence, the

main building of which

rises

from the midst

dunng our

stay in the upper regions of


the Serra and observed on
the level of
a mean difference of
temperature between the two
places of 12 V.
Baron Humboldt estimates the
mean decrement of heat within
the trop.cs at 1 for every 344
feet of elevation, and
considers this ratio as uniform
up to the hetght cf 8000 feet, beyond
which it is reduced to three-fifths
of that
quantity, as far as the elevation
of 20,000 feet.
It has, however, since
been found
hat, tn general, the effect
of elevation above the
level of the sea, in diminishing
e
e ls
a latit des - nearly in
proportion to the

Mr. March's

^,-pn

zn

"

of h
v;for every 352
:
heat
feet of altitude
elevatton of the highest peah of
the

bang

and, as thts

hei

^-

would give 4400


Organ Mountains above Mr.
Mar

ts

e.evauon ,500

3100 feet above the


feet.

'-Owner's

this

feet for the

ch^I

level of the sea, we


have for the
Travel* in Brazil, second
edition, p 405

total^st

Brazil and the Brazilians.

284
of the

little

a huge Bernese

cottages like

buildings were

up to enjoy the cool


the cascade which

The smaller
who came

chalet.

in the summer-time, with boarders

filled,

of Constancia and the bracing douche of

air

down from

rushes

quiet cul-de-sac the Northerner

the

In this

opposite.

hill

was reminded, by the moss-roses and

own far-off land in springtime. Not far from the


we approached the main edifice, were large clumps of
of a diminutive kind, growing in wild profusion.
The tubethe Cape jessamine, and the delicate heliotrope, filled the air

violets,

of his

front-door, as

roses
rose,

with sweets

and these and the arbors, with

their

honeysuckles,

attracted the tiny humming-birds, which sparkled in the sunshine like

winged "emeralds of richest hue.

Who

that has been to Constancia will forget the material com-

forts with

resorts

which Heath surrounded one?

for

health

proprietor seemed

more

visited

where the

like a host entertaining his friends

than a land-

His anecdotes kept up a constant cheer-

lord fleecing his boarders.

fulness, while his adventures

of Brazil were

many

was one of the few

It

and recreation that I have

among

of instruction.

full

the forests and the mountains

He accompanied Gardner on

of his excursions, and has been a perfect Nimrod.

When

the felis-onga abounded, the neighbors were sure to send for Heath
to avenge depredations
bullet

from his

rifle

upon their

folds;

and many a well-sent

has brought the beautiful jaguar

of the feline tribe in the Western World

to terms, which no troops


He

of hounds or Brazilian guns could have effected.


that

many

years ago his

the tapir which had

first visit

the monarch

to Constancia

made such havoc

me

informed

was

in

hunting

in the fields of Indian corn

belonging to March' sfazenda, of which he was then the major-domo.

The number of these huge animals that he has


killed in one season at Constancia has

merely in the

line of

duty

for, if

he could have "bagged" more


year than ever Gordon

game

tapirs, jaguars, peccari, &c. in

Cumming

it,

one

or Gerard did of their giant

(Heath died

been a subject of wonder to

the largest animal of South America, so


also derives

This was

he had made a business of

in the wilds of Kaffraria or Algeria.

It has often

in former years

been thirty-two.

little

me

in 1864.)

that of the tapir,

should be known.

It

an interest from the fact that, though one of its species

exists in the Old World,

it

was not discovered

until long after the

The American Tapir.

285

Tapir Americanus ; for the Malay tapir differing but


;

little

from

its

Occidental congener, was never described until the governorship

of Sir Stamford Baffles in Java.

The

tapir forms one of the connecting-links

phant and the hog.

between the

ele-

lengthened into a kind of pro-

with the exception of the trunk of the elephant, which

boscis, and,
it

Its snout is

resembles,

quadruped.

the longest nasal appendage belonging to any

is

It

is,

however, devoid of that clever

little-finger

which nature has enriched the trunk of the land-leviathan.


curious animal has
species (two of

many

fossil relatives,

them belonging

to

with
This

but only three living

South America) have as yei

been discovered.

,,Q-^

Nk^

The

tapir

is

extensively distributed over South America east of

the Andes, but especially abounds in the tropical portions.

seems to be a nocturnal vegetarian,


sallying forth at night, feeds

wild

fruits,

maize, &c. &c.

It

sleeping during the day, and.

upon the young shoots of

It is of a

trees, buds,

deep-brown color throughout,

approaching to black, between three and four feet in height, and


from five to six in length. The hair of the body, with the exception of the

mane,

that

scarcely perceived at a short distance.

it

is

is

scanty, and so closely depressed to the surface


Its

muscular

Brazil and the Brazilians.

286

power

is

enormous; and

this,

with the tough, thick hide (almost

impervious to musket-ball) which defends

its

tear through thickets in whatever direction

frequently springs upon


of the tapir,

body, enables

to

it

The jaguar

chooses.

it

by the activity
who rushes through the bushes and underwood and

endeavors to brush
ordinary pace

is

it,

off his

but

is

enemy

often dislodged

against the thick branches.

a sort of trot; but

it

Its

sometimes gallops, though

awkwardly and with the head down. It is very fond of the water,
and high up on the Organ Mountains are pools where it delights
to wallow.

Its disposition is peaceful, and, if not attacked, it will

neither molest
dogs,

time

can

it

man nor

seizes a

it

beast; but,

inflict terrible bites.

dog with

its

The

by the Indians of the

often eaten

set

teeth the flesh

the bone of the canine intruder.


is

when

upon by the hunter's

Mr. Heath informed

with spears and poisoned arrows.

is

me

that each

cut completely from

flesh of the tapir is dry,

interior,

by

whom

it is

It takes to the water,

and

hunted
and

is

not only a good swimmer, but appears almost amphibious, being


enabled to sustain itself a long time beneath the surface

has sometimes been called Hippopotamus

hence

The

terrestris.

it

largest

which Mr. Heath ever shot weighed fourteen Portuguese arrobas,


(about four hundred and

Amazonian

exist in the

tapir into
tains,

but

two

the

little

regions.

is

Naturalists divide the American

that of the lowlands and that of the moun-

often

swine

men nor

with impunity.

is

met with in the woods of Brazil and this


the most pugnacious fellow imaginable.
;

dogs inspire reverence; for he will attack both


It is gregarious in its habits,

and

companions, charge most vehemently, no matter


odds.

It

much larger

found on eastern slopes of the Andes, differing

latter,

native

Neither

species,

pounds,) though doubtless

from the one already depicted and described.

The peccari
little

fifty

is,

I believe, one of the very

will,

how

with

its

great the

few animals that has no

fear of the detonation of fire-arms.

There are

many

beautiful

vicinity of Constancia,

and secluded walks and rides

in the

and frequently Mr. Heath accompanied

guests in the wild and romantic spots which here abound.

his

I once

climbed with two companions to the top of the mountain seen on the
right in the sketch of Constancia, (page 283;) and, though I have

made many ascensions among the Alps and the Apennines,

Todd's "Student's Manual"

The " Happy Valley."

have never experienced so much fatigue and

We

occasion.

were the

first,

difficulty as

a sketch of the

on that

with one exception, to stand upon

that height and behold the wondrous view around.

made

287

Organ Mountains

at a point

I afterward

some miles

dis-

tant from Heath's, and where the peaks presented the appearance
of irregular saw-teeth and I could then appreciate better than
;

before the Spanish


for

and Portuguese terms (Serra and

Sierra,

a saw)

mountains.

The sketch alluded to (though not engraved) was made on the


fly-leaf of a book which I reread in the Serra dos OrgSos, and which
has since circumnavigated with

me

the Continent of South

Ame-

That book was an English edition of Todd's " Student's


Manual," a work which delighted my boyhood, which gave me

rica.

new

resolution in college,

and whose cheerful

trations, and healthy thought cause

it

to be a

style, beautiful illus-

most agreeable com-

panion when no longer under tutors and governors.


Mr. Heath once took our company, through a
to a valley not

From

more than two miles

the edge of the woods

narrow end was next to


tain-spurs

which formed the

of forest,

from Constancia.

we looked down upon

whose

a dell

valley,

were the clark-green


tea-plant.

coffee-

Far beneath

almost embowered amid giant bananeiras and orange-trees, we

perceived the red

path to

tiles of

a cottage.

this half-hidden habitation,

prietors,
lish

little belt

Beyond, on either side of the moun-

and the pretty shrubs of the Chinese

trees
us,

us.

distant

two Swiss brothers, who,

We

descended by a

and were introduced


after

little

to the pro-

having served in the Eng-

army, retired upon a good pension, and here, in

quiet,

were

enjoying life in one of the healthiest and most delightful places upon
the earth.
years.

The

He had

elder brother
visited the

had not been to the city

for eighteen

United States when a younger man, but

only that portion which constitutes the northern border of

New

While we were conversing with them, a flock of wild parrots came swooping into the open windows, screaming with delight
as they ate the sunflower-seeds which these benevolent old bachelors

York.

had scattered

for them.

The edges of the

coSee-terreno (where

the berries are spread out to dry) were lined with large orangetrees,

whose boughs bent downward with their golden burden;

running roses had festooned themselves upon shrubs,

trees,

and

Brazil and the Brazilians.

288

outhouses, diffusing grateful fragrance from the thick clusters of

buds and blossoms; purling brooks mingled their noisy, gleesome

music with the more softened cadence of a distant waterfall, and


the whole scene had so much of peace and felicity pervading it,
that

the "

here to find

its

many

I paid

valley

Happy Yalley"

of Dr. Johnson's imagination seemed

counterpart in reality.
pleasant visits to this pretty spot, and the lovely

grew upon me by the hour.

In the cottage of the two

Swiss I found the best current periodicals, in French, German,


English, and Portuguese,

all

of which languages they speak with

The contrast was, however, most

fluency.

striking, as

we

con-

versed about Grindenwald, Martigny, the Riga, and the shores of

Lake Leman, (accurate paintings

of which

hung on the

walls,)

and then looked forth upon a landscape of perennial bloom and of

They took me

unchanging verdure.

where they

to their garden,

were, for their pleasure, cultivating moss-roses (which grow with

and vines brought from the warmer parts of

difficulty in Brazil)

their native Switzerland.

During one of
chased this

my

visits

me

they informed

that they had pur-

plantation from a gentleman now residing

when

of Indiana, and they were equally surprised


that that State

was

my

terre natale.

in the State

informed them

They had kept up an

correspondence with the former proprietor,


as a lover of music

and Goethe, but that

whom

active

they represented

since 1849 they

had

re-

ceived no intelligence from him, and they feared that he had fallen
victim to the cholera, which had swept through the Mississippi

Yalley daring the year mentioned.


friend to see if Mr. R.

were dead or

They
alive

desired

me

to write to a

accordingly, I wrote to

one of the professors of South Hanover College, Indiana; and


correspondent ascertained that Mr. R. was

still

my

in the land of the

living.

Professor T. visited him, and found Mr. R. a venerable

German

of

more than threescore years and

ten; but his love for

music had not abated, and he was ready to battle for Goethe at a

moment's

notice.

He had

not forgotten his friends in Brazil, but,

from some cause unknown, had not written to them and hence
When, however, he heard the description of
their apprehensions.
;

the " Happy Yalley" in the sunny land of the Southern Cross, the
vision of

its roses,

golden

fruits, fadeless

green, and

murmuring

Prosaic Conclusion.

289

brooks came so vividly before him, that, aged as he was, his youth

seemed renewed, and he resolved to return once more

if

which

to that

and beautiful home

in the

New

he carried his resolution into

effect,

but I can readily imagine

was

his first

how powerfully one may be


which

World.

know

not

up by the memory of beauty

stirred

inseparable from that peaceful dale in

is

dos

the Serra

Orgoes.
In October, 1868, 1 again visited the "
tation of the elder brother,

built

since

Schiller,

Happy

Valley," at the invi-

found a cheerful hale


the

in

and died

Lucerne,

at

Switzerland,

a pilgrimage to the

The " Happ}' Valley" has

scenes

from a cold caught


" Wilhelm

of Schiller's

none of

its
it.

In one of

my

early walks

struck with a

trunk was a

re-

1860 he visited the haunts of Goethe and

pleasant recollections will always cluster around

much

of

year (1857) of

last

Mr. Rinke never

1855 on March's old plantation.

making

Tell."

man

an attempt to plant a colony near Theresopolis, a town

turned to Brazil

while

The younger brother spent

seventy-six.
his life in

whom

tall tree

little inclined,

lost

and

loveliness,

on Heath's plantation, I was very

that shot up near the pathway.

otherwise remarkably straight;

Its

but

its

was the long and venerable moss which hung from


the wide-spreading branches and was gently swayed by the perI sat down to sketch it, and while
fume-laden morning-breeze.
thus engaged I was startled by a loud chattering; and in an
chief attraction

instant a flock of brilliantly-colored birds, in curious flight,

came

from the neighboring wood and alighted upon the solitary

tree.

Though

their mo.tion on the

were most nimble

up

as

wing was exceedingly clumsy, they

they leaped from limb to limb.

a continual chattering, as if they

their plans for the day.

their brilliant plumage,

had been awkward

had met together to arrange

I soon perceived that, notwithstar ding

which made the

large golden oranges, they

They kept

lofty tree

were as uncouth

in flight.

seem laden with

in appearance as they

Their bilfwas apparently of most

dis-

proportionate length, which did not, however, hinder their active

movements among the gnarled branches and pendent moss. Prehaving settled upon their arrangements for the day, they
took a unanimous vote, which was uttered in such a viva voce scream
sently,

that the very mountains resounded with wild, unearthly notes.


19

Brazil and the Brazilians.

290

my

This was

appearance
tribe.

is

The

first

acquaintance with the toucan, which in

its

one of the most eccentric members of the feathered

feathers of tho breast of the ramphastos dicolorus are

of the most brilliant orange, chrome, and deep-rose colors, and

form a prominent feature

in the feather-dresses

the wild Indians of the interior.

and ornaments of

In the sixteenth century the

"high-born" dames of the courts of Europe esteemed as their most

THE MOSS-COVERED TREE.

gorgeous and picturesque robes those trimmed with the breastfeathers of the toucan.

edged with
taking

little,

its food.

corn; and

it

Its

tongue

hairlike feathers.
I

its

long,
It

stiff,

and

is

tipped and

has a singular manner of

have watched one in a tame state eating Indian

would take one grain

head, elevating

is

in its

huge

bill,

throw up

its

long appendage, and by a series of quick jeike

the grain would be tossed along the

stiff

tongue into the throat.

The Toucan.
The toucan belongs
in front

and

to climbing-birds,

woodpeckers, and cuckoos.

rots,

291

and two behind,

climbing and clinging.

is

Its foot,

admirably adapted to the purposes of

Its bill is

be termed honey-combed in

classed with par-

is

provided with two toes

its

by no means

structure,

solid,

and hence

and might
This

is light.

long and heavy -looking instrument seems to be very sensitive and


well supplied with nerves, as

ing the curious organ with

its

owner may be often seen

its foot.

Waterton speaks of one species of the toucan

in

Northern Brazil

(the toucans are only found in Tropical America) which

suppose that

its

scratch-

"seems

beauty can be increased by trimming his

which undergoes the same operation as our hair


only with this difference,

that

it

uses

rated) in lieu of a pair of scissors.

its

in a barber's shop;

own beak (which

As soon

to

tail,

is ser-

as his tail is full-

grown, he begins about an inch

from the extremity of the two


longest feathers in

away

the

the shaft,

an

inch

it,

and cuts

web on both sides of


making a gap about
both male and

long:

female adorn their

tails in

this

manner, which gives them a

markable appearance
all

re-

amongst

other birds."

The toucan is a most grotesque


specimen of ornithology, and the
Aracari, (Pteroglossus,) with his

huge

bill

and goggle-eyes, ap-

pears like a melancholy Jaques,

or a spectacled

who

German

THE TOUCAN.

idealist,

has banished himself far from the haunts of men, to speculate

on the miseries of human nature and the exalted excellence of the


"populous solitude of bees and birds

And

fairy-form'd and many-color'd things."

The student of natural history can find much to gratify him in


the Organ Mountains. There are many beautifully-colored snakes,
(only a few of which are very venomous,) a vast variety of lizards,

Brazil and the Brazilians.

292

curious frogs and toads,

as

some one has remarked,

from the

small tree-kind, not more than an inch long, to those marsh ones

which are nearly large enough to

brilliant

fill

which from time

vie with the flowers

Beautiful butterflies

a hat.

to time they taste, or their

wings are reflected from the small pools on whose banks

they alight in countless numbers.

Large wasp-nests as well as

tropical leaves adorn the branches of trees.

gems attach themselves


shrubs, and at night the air
Gardner compares,

In some places, beetles

to the foliage

like

and flowers of low

lighted up with

is

in brilliancy, to " stars that

fire-flies

have

which

fallen

from

the firmament and are floating about without a resting-place."

One evening I walked from Heath's toward the " Happy Yalley,' r
but, not prolonging my promenade far in that direction, I entered
a forest and pursued

my way

to the

edge of a precipice, or rather

me

a crater-like hollow whose centre was a thousand feet below

and whose
and

it

had

sides

fallen so

my

trees.

The night was dark,

suddenly after the brief twilight, that, so far as

was concerned,

anticipation

tracing

were covered with


I

was unprepared

for

Before re-

it.

moments looking down into the


the gulf beneath me; and, while thus

steps I stood for a few

Cimmerian blackness of

gazing, a luminous mass seemed to start from the very centre.

watched

it

as

leaves of the Euterpe edulis


It

came

directly

and the minuter

foliage of other trees.

toward me, lighting up the gloom around with

now distinctly see. This was


known to every traveller in

three luminosities, which I could

pyrophorus noctilucus, so well


Antilles

and

in

floated up, revealing, in its slow flight, the long

it

Tropical America.

brown, and the body

is

It is of

its

the
the

an obscure, blackish

everywhere covered with a

short, light-

brown pubescence. When it walks or is at rest, the principal light


it emits issues from the two yellow tubercles; but, wdien the wings
are

expanded

in the act of flight,

another luminous spot

closed in the hinder part of the abdomen.

These luminosities

posed to be phosphoric in their composition


that the

fire-fly is

often

employed

are

in the countries

is

dis-

sup-

so considerable

where

it

prevails

as a substitute for artificial light.

In the mountains of Tijuca I have read the finest print of


per's

"Har-

Magazine" by the light of one of these natural lamps placed

under a

common

glass tumbler,

and with distinctness

I could tell


The Fire-Fly and the Iguana.

293

the hour of the night, and discern the very small figures which

marked the seconds

of a

little

The Indians formerly

Swiss watch.

used them instead of flambeaux in their hunting and fishing expeditions;

and when travelling

fasten

them

they are used by

In some parts of the tropics

the senhoritas for adorning their tresses, or their

by fastening them within a thin gauze-work; and through


become indeed "bright particular stars." It

robes,

them

the night they are accustomed to

in

and hands.

to their feet

their bearers

was of

this fire-fly

(which resembles, in every thing but

color,

the

" snapping-bug" of the Mississippi Yalley) that Mr. Prescott, in his

"Conquest of Mexico," narrates the terror which they inspired in


"The air was filled with 'cocuyos/
the Spaniards in 1520.
(pyrophorus noctilucus,) a species of large beetle which emits an
intense phosphoric light from its body, strong
to enable one to read

enough

wandering

fires,

seen in the darkness of the

army with matchlocks."


In one of
in the

me

my

Such

is

the report

old Bernal Diaz.

of an eye-witness,

to

These

it.

were converted by the besieged into an

night,

saw

by

rides

THE

toward Canta Gallo,

BRILLIANT

road the large lizard called the iguana. There

is

is

nothing

disgusting in this clean-looking reptile, whose skin, composed

of bright, small scales, resembles the finest bead- work.

seen

FIRE-FLY.

them

at

had often

Eio spitted and hawked about the city; for the flesh

esteemed a great delicacy,

resembling

in its

appearance and

taste that bonne bouche for epicures, a frog's hind-leg.

tures of the iguana do not render

full justice;

it

The usual

pic-

they represent

it

as horrid in appearance as the imaginary baleful-breathed, javelin-

tongued dragon from which good


devoted

and

is

virgins.

The iguana

oviparous.

favorite,

some notes on her

pet.

George delivered so

many

from three to five feet in length,

member

lady

which was a great

is

St.

of

my

family possessed one

and she has kindly furnished me with

them verbatim.
me much amusement. From his
the snake-tribe, it was difficult for strangers
I insert

" Pedro [the iguana] afforded


close resemblance to

mind of the impression that he was venomous. Such


Their only means of defence is their
very powerful tail and a sportsman told me that he has had a
to rid their
is

not the case with iguanas.


;

Brazil and the Brazilians.

294

My

poor

however, was not warlike, having been long in captivity.

He

dog's ribs laid bare


pet,

by a stroke of an iguana's

tail.

was given me as a Christmas-box' by a friend, and soon became


tame enough to go at liberty. He was about three feet long, and
subsisted upon raw meat, milk, and bananas.
He had a basket in
my room, and when he felt the weather cool would take refuge
i

between the mattresses of

would be found
from

all his

usual

was

lost;

that he
tail

There, in the morning, he

bed.

One evening we missed him


hiding-places, and reluctantly made up our minds
but, on rising in the morning, two inches of his

hanging out of the pillow-case told where he had passed a

My

snug night!

little

Spanish poodle and he were sworn

The moment Chico made


bite

my

in all possible comfort.

his appearance,

Pedro; but Chico thought, with

part of valor
fast as his

is

discretion.'

he would dash forward to