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Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRPStructures

Structures
- Lecture: Dr. Ann Schumacher, ann.schumacher@empa.ch
- Exercise: Dr. Andrin Herwig, andrin.herwig@empa.ch

References:
Bank, L. Composites for Construction - Structural Design with FRP Materials,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006. (Chapters 12 - 15)
Fiberline. Fiberline Design Manual, www.fiberline.dk, 2003.
Clarke, JL. (Ed.) Structural Design of Polymer Composites - EUROCOMP
Design Code and Handbook, E & FN Spon, 1996.

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Outline

Introduction
(Pros and cons of FRP / Examples)

Materials
(Manufacturing process / Materials / Durability)

Design Concept
(Concept / Basic assumptions / )

Bending Beam
(Timoshenko theory / Stresses / Deformations / Buckling )

Axial Members
(Serviceability and ultimate limit states)

Connections
(Bolted joints / Glued joints)
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Pros and cons

Pros
High specific strength:

CFRP

Material
lmax =

max
g

138.4 km

GFRP
27.8 km

Steel S500
6.4 km

Good in-plane mechanical properties


High fatigue and environmental resistance
Adjustable mechanical properties
Lightweight
Quick assembly / erection
Low maintenance
Highly cost-effective (2-10 /kg)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Pros and cons

Cons
Lightweight
Brittle
High initial costs
Low to moderate application temperature (-20 up to 80 C)
Low fire resistance (sometimes with unhealthy gases)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Common profiles

Structural profiles
Most structural profiles produced in conventional profile shapes similar to
metallic materials

Similarity in geom. and properties, however no standard geom.,


mechanical and physical properties used by all manufacturers

Structural profiles

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

Non-structural profiles

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Footbridges

Pontresina bridge, Switzerland


Span: 2 x 12.5 m
Weight: 3.3 tons (installation by helicopter)
http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case1830.asp

Fiberline Bridge in Kolding, DK


Span: 40 m
Cost: 0.5 mio CHF
Only Fiberline standard profiles used
http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case1837.asp

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Footbridges

Composite pedestrian bridge in Lleida, Spain


Span: 38 m
Width: 3.0 m
http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case2828.asp

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples (ASSET Profile)

Road bridges

West Mill Bridge, England

Klipphausen Bridge, Germany

Span: 10 m
Width: 6.8 m
Load capacity: 46 tons

Span: 6.8 m
Width: 6.0 m
Load capacity: 40 tons

http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case3903.asp

http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case6314.asp

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Bridgedeck (Footbridges)
Wrenlos, Switzerland

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Loopersteg, Switzerland

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Buildings

Eyecatcher Building, Basel, Switzerland


Height: 15 m
Storeys: 5
http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case1835.asp

Project: Maagtechnic

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Laboratory bridge
Empa Laboratory Bridge, Switzerland
Span: 19 m
Width: 1.6 m
Load capacity: 15 tons

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Noise barrier SBB

Gschenen, Switzerland
Project: Maagtechnic

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Balconies

Switzerland
Project: Maagtechnic
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Railings
Oensingen, Switzerland

Heineken brewery, Switzerland

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Application

Applications where GFRP structures are competitive:


Significant corrosion and chemical resistance is required
(Food and chemical processing plants, cooling towers, offshore platforms )

Electromagnetic transparency or electrical insulation is required.


Light-weight is cost essential
(fast deployment )

Prestige and demonstration objects


(e.g. Novartis Campus Entrance Building)

Photo: Prof. Th. Keller, EPFL

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Pultrusion process

Only pultruded GFRP profiles will be considered in this lecture

Pultrusion line

Production of profiles with constant cross-section along the length


High quality
Continuous longitudinal fiber bundles and filament mats

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Components

Pultruded profiles contain three primary components:


reinforcement
Matrix
polyester
epoxy
phenol

Supplementary
constituents
polymerisation agents
fillers
additives

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Shapes of pultruded profiles


Available Profiles on Stock:

Length up to 12 m!

Special cross-sections can be designed and ordered


(several kilometres are necessary special tools have to be designed)
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Durability
Various environmental and load conditions that affect durability of
(G)FRPs in terms of strength, stiffness, fiber/matrix interface integrity,
cracking:

water/sea water
chemical solutions
prolonged freezing
thermal cycling (freeze-thaw)
elevated temperature exposure
UV radiation
creep and relaxation
fatigue
fire

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Durability
Environmental reduction factor for different FRP systems and
exposure conditions
Exposure condition

Fiber / resin type

Environ. reduction

Carbon/epoxy

0.95

Glass/epoxy

0.75

Aramid/epoxy

0.85

Carbon/epoxy

0.85

Glass/epoxy

0.65

parking garages)

Aramid/epoxy

0.75

Agressive environ.

Carbon/epoxy

0.85

Glass/epoxy

0.50

Aramid/epoxy

0.70

Interior exposure

Exterior exposure
(bridges, piers

(chemical plants)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Durability
GFRP is more susceptible to degradation than CFRP by the
following effects:

alkaline effects (caution when GFRP in contact with concrete!)


acid effects
salt effects
fatigue
UV radiation

Fire protection is a major (unsolved) issue for (G)FRP structural


elements and components

Smoke generation and toxicity must be considered

Strength of GFRP is affected by fatigue loading


(more than CFRP)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Manufacturers

GFRP profiles available on stock


In Europe two companies pultrude FRP-Profiles:

Fiberline Composites, Denmark


www.fiberline.com
Fiberline Design Manual (www.fiberline.dk)
helpful tool to design structures
(material properties, geometries, connections, )

Top Glass, Italy


www.topglass.it

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Manufacturers

GFRP profiles available on stock


In North America:

Strongwell, USA
www.strongwell.com

Creative Pultrusions, USA


www.creativepultrusions.com

Bedford Reinforced Plastics, USA


www.bedfordplastics.com

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept: Basic Assumptions


Definitions and directions

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept

Codes
Every manufacturer has its own profile design No European Design
Code is available! (only EN13706, about testing and notation)

There exists European guidelines: EUROCOMP 1996 Design Code


EUROCOMP 1996 Handbook

Fiberline Design Manual is based on Eurocomp 1996.


Design concept (according to Eurocodes and Swisscodes)
Partial safety factors
Measured material parameters
Rules for bolted connections

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept

Concept of Limit State Design (According to Euro Codes and Swiss Codes)
Ultimate limit stress
Ed Rd
Ed

Calculated stress (including load factors) SIA260 / 261

Rd

Rated value of the resistance capability


where

Rk

Rd =

Rk the calculated resistance capability

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept
m = m,1 m,2 m,3 m,4

Reduction coefficient
Coefficient

Description

Max.

Min.

Fiberline

m,1

Derivation of mat. properties

2.25

1.15

1.15

m,2

Degree of postcuring

1.6

1.1

1.1

m,3

Production process

2.0

1.0

1.0

m,4

Operating temperature
Operating
temperature C

m,4
Short-term load

Long-term load

-20 ... +60

1.0

2.5

80

1.25

3.13

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept

Serviceability limit states


Ed Cd
Ed

the crucial action effect due to the load cases considered in


the investigated dimensioning situation. Typically maximal
deflection response of the structure.

Cd

corresponding serviceability limit. SIA 261

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept: Basic Assumptions


Material Properties, stength values (Fiberline Profiles)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept: Basic Assumptions


Material Properties, stiffness values (Fiberline Profiles)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept: Basic Assumptions


Typical data sheet of a profile (Fiberline I-Profile)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Design of


Calculate bending moments Md and shear forces Qd acting on the profile,
using the partial coefficient (SIA 260 / 261)

Ultimate limit state


Bending:

Md,y,max Md,z,max f b,0


+

max =
Wy
Wz m

Shear:

Qd,y,max f
max =

Ak,y
m
Ak relevant shear area

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Design of


Serviceability limit state
Deflection limit: wmax < 1
L

typically selected between 200 and 400


given by SIA 261 or the building owner

wmax calculated including shear deformations

Vibrations
Light-weighted and soft structures are susceptible to vibrations (traffic, wind,
the movement of people )!!

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Timoshenko Theory


Pultruded profiles have a low shear modulus shear deformation
must be taken into account!

Several bending theories have been published for beams:


Euler-Bernoulli theory (1702)
Timoshenko theory (1968)
Higher order beam theory

A simply supported beam with a symmetric cross-section is discussed

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Timoshenko Theory

Cross-sections plane
and perpendicular

Cross-sections plane but


NOT perpendicular

Cross-sections do NOT
remain plane

1 degree of freedom

2 degrees of freedom

3+ degrees of freedom

w and

w, and

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory


Kinematic relationships

ux = y w( x),x
u y = w( x)

ux = y ( x)
u y = w( x)

x = ux = y w( x),xx

x = ux = y ( x),x

x
u y

u
x
+
=0
2 xy =
y x

x
u y

u
x
+
= ( x) + w( x),x
2 xy =
y x

Hooks law

x = E0 x and xy = G 2 xy
M z = y x dydz = w,xx E0 Iz
QS

M z = y x dydz = ,x E0Iz
QS

Qy = dydz = ( w,x ) GA
QS

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory


Equilibrium
In a first approximation, the
deflections are calculated by direct
integration of:

w,xx = M ( x)
E0 Iz

Equilibrium on an infinitesimal
beam element:

q( x) = Q,x = ( w,xx ,x ) GA

M ,x Q = ,xx E0Iz + ( w,x ) GA = 0


Coupled second order differential equation

Solution for the simply supported beam (distributed load)


M ( x) =
w, xx =

1
1
qLx qx 2 , w(0) = 0 and w( L) = 0
2
2

1 1
1 2
qLx qx
E 0 I z 2
2

w( x) =

qx
( L3 2 Lx 2 + x 3 )
24 E 0 I z

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

w(0) = 0 and w( L) = 0
M (0) = 0 , x (0) = 0 and M ( L) = 0 , x ( L) = 0

Functions:
w( x) = A1 x 4 + A2 x 3 + A3 x 2 + A4 x + A5

( x) = B1 x3 + B2 x 2 + B3 x + B4

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory


Put in , E I + ( w, ) GA = 0 and
solve for the coefficients
xx

0 z

24 A1 E 0 I z
GA
6A E I
, B4 = 2 0 z A4
GA

B1 = 4 A1 , B3 = 2 A3
B2 = 3 A2

Use the boundary conditions and


the second differential eq. to
calculate A1 A5:
2
2
qx ( L x ) qx ( L x ) ( L + Lx x )
w( x) =
+
2 GA
24 E 0 I z

Deflection at midspan
4
w L = 5 qL
2 384 E I z
0
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

4
2
w L = 5 qL + q L
2 384 E I z 8 GA
0
Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory


General expression for the total beam deflection as a sum of the deflection
due to bending and shear:

Beam
Simply supported
Uniformly distr. load (q)
Concentrated load (P)
Cantilever beam
Uniformly distr. load (q)
Concentrated load (P)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

f1 ( x) f 2 ( x)
w( x) =
+
E0 I z GA
f1 ( wmax )

f1 ( wmax )

x( wmax )

5 qL4
384
PL3
48

qL2
8
PL
4

L
2
L
2

qL4
8
PL3
3

qL2
2

PL

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory


Example: influence of the shear deformation
Profile: 300 x 150 mm I-beam
Load: uniformly distributed

General rule of thumb:


for GFRP beams with
span/depth > 25, shear
deformation can be
ignored

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Example

Choose an appropriate Profile for the following specifications


L

3.0 m

qd,uls

13 kN/m

qd,ser

10 kN/m

wmax/L

1/300 wmax=0.01 m

1. Deflections and loading


5 qd ,ser L4 qd ,ser L2
+
wmax =
384 E0I z 8 GA

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

qd ,uls L2 h
max =

8
2 Iz

Fibre Composites, FS09

qd ,uls L 1
max =

2 Ak,y

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Example


2. Find a profile with sufficient bending stiffness.
Shear deformations are neglected in a first step:

5 qd ,ser L4
= 1.054 106 Nm2
E0I z
384 wmax
from specification table: choose I 240x120x12 E I z =1.369 106 Nm2
0

3. Check the bending and shear stresses


qd ,uls L2 h
max =

= 35.8 MPa
8
2 Iz

f b,0,d =185 MPa

qd ,uls L 1
max =

= 7.1 MPa
2 Ak,y

f ,d = 20 MPa

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Example


4. Check deflection (including shear deformation)
wmax =

wmax =

5 qd , ser L4
384 E0 I z

qd , ser L2
8 GA

(7.7 mm)

(1.6 mm)

5 qd , ser L4

qd , ser L2

384 E0 I z

8 GAweb

= 9.3 10 3 m

wmax = 0.01 m

= 9.110 3 m

5. Remarks:
The design of GFRP-profiles is mostly driven by serviceability criteria.
Start the design iteration procedure using the maximal deflection criterion.
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Stability problems


Lateral-torsional buckling

Flange (compressive) displace laterally to the


transverse load direction.

Torsional stiffness is too low (especially for


open section profiles)

Theoretical calculations or design measures.

see e.g. L.P. Kollr 2003,


Mechanics of composite structures.

Example:

Compressive flanges are kept in


place by connection to the bridge
deck.
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Stability problems


Local buckling of walls due to in-plane compression
Flange (compressive) displaces in the
direction of the transverse load.

Low bending stiffness perpendicular to the


pultrusion direction.

Weak fiber mats.

Local buckling of walls due to in-plane shear


Web crushing and web buckling in transverse direction
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Axial Members

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Axial Members: Tension


Ultimate limit state under axial tension Nd
Nd f t,0
A m

Serviceability limit state


x = N L

E0 A

Remark: The critical aspect of axial members in tension are neither the serviceability
nor the ultimate limit state. Critical is the load transfer to the GFRP profile!

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Axial Members: Compression


Ultimate limit state under axial compression Nd
Nd

Fc
1+ Fc
NEuler
A f c,0

FC =
m

maximal compressive load

2 E0 I
NEuler =
m,E Lk2

Euler load

Lk Buckling length for columns

m,E coefficient for Youngs modulus = 1.3


Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Axial Members: Compression


The influence of shear deformation should be considered, but in the most
cases, the influence will be small (less than 5%).

Local buckling should be considered for short columns.


For more information on the various buckling modes and effects
see L.P. Kollr 2003, Mechanics of composite structures

Global buckling
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Local buckling
Fibre Composites, FS09

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Connections

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Introduction

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Introduction
(from Eurocomp Design Code 1996)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bolted joints


Bolts = Stress concentration in the profile and the bolt.
It is necessary to ensure that the bolts and the profile
can withstand this concentrated local stress compression.

It is necessary to ensure that the region surrounding


a group of bolts will not be torn out of the profile.

Basic failure modes


in bolted shear
connections:

bolt shear failure


Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bolted joints


The design procedure is comparable to the one for steel connections, but
since there exist no standard GFRP material each manufacturer has its
own design rules for bolted joints.

IMPORTANT REMARKS:
The direction of pultrusion and the direction of the force is RELEVANT!!!
(anisotropic material)

Use stainless or galvanised steel


Do not cut threads in the composite material!
Use screws with shafts

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Connections: Bolted joints (Fiberline recommendations)


Calculation of load bearing capacity of bolts
Shear in longitudinal direction (0)
Shear in transverse direction (90)
Tensile force

Minimum distances

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bolted joints (Fiberline recommendations)


Joint capacity tables, available for shear and tension

Shear in longitudinal direction 0

PB,d = d t 150 MPa


m (=1.3)
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Shear in transverse direction 90

PB,d = d t 70 MPa
m (=1.3)
Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bolted joints (Fiberline recommendations)


Bolted connection in shear: e.g. shear in longitudinal direction

mPBolt dt720 MPa

mPBolt dt240 MPa

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

mPBolt dt240 MPa

mPBolt dt150 MPa

Fibre Composites, FS09

mPBolt dt240 MPa

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bolted joints (Fiberline recommendations)


Bolted connections in tension
Static conditions

As f yk

Bolt: Tearing of bolt in threaded cross-section

Pd
m

Laminate: Shear fracture at rim of washer

Pd 2 d t f

Geometry and strength:


d

...

Diameter of the bolt

As

...

Stress area of the bolt

...

Thickness of laminate

2d

...

Diameter of washer

fyk

Tensile strength of bolt

Shear strength of laminate

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bonded joints


Using an adhesive agent for joining profiles can have advantages:
Easy to use / easy to make aesthetic joints
Typically more rigid than bolted joints
Glued joints subjected to dynamic loads are good

But be careful
Adhesive agents have properties that depend on time, temperature, humidity
Failure in glued joints takes place suddenly (brittle behaviour)
The load-bearing capacity is not proportional to the area which is glued

The design of bonded joints may be based on:


Analytical models for plate-to-plate connections (see Eurocomp 1996 Design Code)
Design guidelines supplemented by testing
Finite element analysis

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bonded joints


A bonded joint has the following three primary failure modes:
adhesive failure
cohesive failure of adhesive
cohesive failure of adherend

The design of any bonded joint shall satisfy the following conditions:

allowable shear stress in the adhesive is not exceeded.


allowable tensile (peel) stress in the adhesive is not exceeded.
allowable through-thickness tensile stress of the adhesive is not exceeded.
allowable in-plane shear stress of the adherend should not be exceeded.

The calculation of the stresses has to be done very carefully! Often


calculations are supplemented by testing.

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bonded joints


Different types of bonded joint configurations

Research on bonded joints for structural


applications

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Other joints


Brackets for assembly (Fiberline)

Custom pultruded connections

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

GFRP: Some final remarks


Perpendicular to the direction of pultrusion, the material is WEAK and SOFT!
avoid such loadings if possible

In order to use pultruded GFRP-profiles economically, the design must be done


in a clever way!
e.g.: for bridges, the railings should be used as part of the load-bearing structure

GFRP structures are very light vibration problems may occur

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009