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Plate No.

1 – Climate Change, Conservation, Dam and Energy

1. Define or describe the following terms:


1.1 Climate change Global climate change is caused by the accumulation of
greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere. The global concentration of these
gases is increasing, mainly due to human activities, such as the combustion of
fossil fuels (which release carbon dioxide) and deforestation (because forests
remove carbon from the atmosphere). The atmospheric concentration of
carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, has increased by 30 percent since
preindustrial times..
1.2 Global warmingAn increase in the average temperature of the earth's
atmosphere, especially a sustained increase sufficient to cause climatic
change.
1.3 Global dimmingis the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct
irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the
start of systematic measurements in the 1950s. The effect varies by location,
but worldwide it has been estimated to be of the order of a 4% reduction over
the three decades from 1960–1990. However, after discounting an anomaly
caused by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, a very slight reversal in the
overall trend has been observed.[1]
1.4 Plate tectonicsA theory that explains the global distribution of geological
phenomena such as seismicity, volcanism, continental drift, and mountain
building in terms of the formation, destruction, movement, and interaction of
the earth's lithospheric plates.
1.5 Glacial geologyThe scientific study of the effects of glaciers on the broad land
areas, on the oceans, and on climate, of their erosion and deposition, and of
their modification of the Earth's surface in detail. Included in the realm of
glacial geology is the history of glacial theory, consideration of the origin of
glacial ages, extent and times of past glaciations, erosion and sculpturing of
plains and mountains, deposition of ice-contact and meltwater sediments, and
the consequences of glaciers on worldwide climate, and also on local climate
around their edges. Quite distinct from glacial geology, however, is the
separate, growing subscience of glaciology, the study of glaciers themselves.
1.6 Fossil fuels Any naturally occurring carbon-containing material which when
burned with air (or oxygen) produces (directly) heat or (indirectly) energy.
1.7 Sea level rise sea level rise has occurred at a mean rate of 1.8 mm per year for
the past century,[1][2] and more recently, during the satellite era of sea level
measurement, at rates estimated near 2.8 ± 0.4[3] to 3.1 ± 0.7[4] mm per year
(1993–2003). Current sea level rise is due significantly to global warming,[5]
which will increase sea level over the coming century and longer periods. [6][7]
Increasing temperatures result in sea level rise by the thermal expansion of
water and through the addition of water to the oceans from the melting of
mountain glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. At the end of the 20th century,
thermal expansion and melting of land ice contributed roughly equally to sea
level rise, while thermal expansion is expected to contribute more than half of
the rise in the upcoming century.
1.8 Arctic amplification"Polar amplification (greater temperature increases in the
Arctic compared to the earth as a whole) is a result of the collective effect of
these feedbacks and other processes."[1] It does not apply to the Antarctic,
because the Southern Ocean acts as a heat sink.[2] It is common to see it stated
that "Climate models generally predict amplified warming in polar regions",
e.g. Doran et al. [3]. However, climate models predict amplified warming for
the Arctic but only modest warming for Antarctica. [2]
1.9 Orbital variations
1.10 Greenhouse gasare gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation
within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the
greenhouse effect.[1] The main greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are
water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
1.11 Conservationis an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection. Its
primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world.
1.12 Species extinctionis the end of an organism or group of taxa. The moment
of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of
that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost
before this point).
1.13 Pollinator declinerefers to the reduction in abundance of pollinators in
many ecosystems worldwide during the end of the twentieth century.
1.14 Coral bleaching refers to the reduction in abundance of pollinators in
many ecosystems worldwide during the end of the twentieth century.
1.15 Holocene extinctionThe Holocene extinction is the widespread, ongoing
extinction of species during the present Holocene epoch.
1.16 Invasive speciesis a nomenclature term and categorization phrase used for
flora and fauna, and for specific restoration-preservation processes in native
habitats, with several definitions.
1.17 Poachingis the illegal taking of wild plants or animals contrary to local
and international conservation and wildlife management laws. Violations of
hunting laws and regulations are normally punishable by law and, collectively,
such violations are known as poaching.
1.18 Endangered speciesis a population of organisms which is at risk of
becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, or threatened by
changing environmental or predation parameters. Also it could mean that due
to deforestation there may be a lack of food and/or water.
1.19 Damss a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams
generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures
such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or
prevent water flow into specific land regions.
1.20 Energy conservationrefers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption
in order to preserve resources for the future and reduce environmental
pollution. It can be achieved through efficient energy use (when energy use is
decreased while achieving a similar outcome), or by reduced consumption of
energy services. Energy conservation may result in increase of financial
capital, environmental value, national security, personal security, and human
comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy
may want to conserve energy in order to reduce energy costs and promote
economic security.
1.21 Renewable energyis energy which comes from natural resources such as
sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable
(naturally replenished).
1.22 Efficient energy usesometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using
less energy to provide the same level of energy service. For example,
insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to
achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. Another example would be
installing fluorescent lights and/or skylights instead of incandescent lights to
attain the same level of illumination. Compact fluorescent lights use two-
thirds less energy and may last 6 to 10 times longer than incandescent light
bulbs. Efficient energy use is achieved primarily by means of a more efficient
technology or processes rather than by changes in individual behaviour.
1.23 Renewable energy commercializationinvolves the diffusion of three
generations of technologies dating back more than 100 years. First-generation
technologies, which are already mature and economically competitive, include
biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal power and heat. Second-generation
technologies are market-ready and are being deployed at the present time;
they include solar heating, photovoltaics, wind power, solar thermal power
stations, and modern forms of bioenergy. Third-generation technologies
require continued R&D efforts in order to make large contributions on a
global scale and include advanced biomass gasification, biorefinery
technologies, hot-dry-rock geothermal power, and ocean energy.

2. What are the factors of climate change? Discuss each briefly.


Volcanoes
When a volcano erupts it throws out large volumes of sulphur dioxide (SO2), water
vapour, dust, and ash into the atmosphere. Although the volcanic activity may last
only a few days, yet the large volumes of gases and ash can influence climatic
patterns for years. Millions of tonnes of sulphur dioxide gas can reach the upper
levels of the atmosphere (called the stratosphere) from a major eruption. The
gases and dust particles partially block the incoming rays of the sun, leading to
cooling. Sulphur dioxide combines with water to form tiny droplets of sulphuric
acid. These droplets are so small that many of them can stay aloft for several
years. They are efficient reflectors of sunlight, and screen the ground from some of
the energy that it would ordinarily receive from the sun. Winds in the upper levels
of the atmopshere, called the stratosphere, carry the aerosols rapidly around the
globe in either an easterly or westerly direction. Movement of aerosols north and
south is always much slower. This should give you some idea of the ways by
which cooling can be brought about for a few years after a major volcanic eruption.
The earth's tilt
The earth makes one full orbit around the sun each year. It is tilted at an angle of
23.5° to the perpendicular plane of its orbital path. For one half of the year when it
is summer, the northern hemisphere tilts towards the sun. In the other half when it
is winter, the earth is tilted away from the sun. If there was no tilt we would not
have experienced seasons. Changes in the tilt of the earth can affect the severity
of the seasons - more tilt means warmer summers and colder winters; less tilt
means cooler summers and milder winters.
Greenhouse gases and their sources
Carbon dioxide is undoubtedly, the most important greenhouse gas in the
atmosphere. Changes in land use pattern, deforestation, land clearing, agriculture,
and other activities have all led to a rise in the emission of carbon dioxide.
How we all contribute every day
All of us in our daily lives contribute our bit to this change in the climate. Give
these points a good, serious thought:
- Electricity is the main source of power in urban areas. All our gadgets run on
electricity generated mainly from thermal power plants. These thermal power plants
are run on fossil fuels (mostly coal) and are responsible for the emission of huge
amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants.
- Cars, buses, and trucks are the principal ways by which goods and people are
transported in most of our cities. These are run mainly on petrol or diesel, both fossil
fuels.
- We generate large quantities of waste in the form of plastics that remain in the
environment for many years and cause damage.

3. What is the effect of plate tectonics to existing climate in continents? plate


movement also generates more volcanic activity
• hence, when the plates are on the move, have more volcanic eruptions
-> emit more CO2 into atmosphere
• this would cause global temps to rise.
• if there is little movement, volcanic activity decreases -> so CO2
concentrations are lower in the atmosphere -> avg temp decreases

4. What are the three dominant cycles that make up the variations in Earth's orbit?

Explain each. Eccentricity


The first of the three Milankovitch Cycles is the Earth's
eccentricity. Eccentricity is, simply, the shape of the Earth's orbit
around the Sun. This constantly fluctuating, orbital shape ranges
between more and less elliptical (0 to 5% ellipticity) on a cycle of
about 100,000 years. These oscillations, from more elliptic to less
elliptic, are of prime importance to glaciation in that it alters the
distance from the Earth to the Sun, thus changing the distance the
Sun's short wave radiation must travel to reach Earth,
subsequently reducing or increasing the amount of radiation
received at the Earth's surface in different seasons.

Axial Tilt
Axial tilt, the second of the three Milankovitch Cycles, is the
inclination of the Earth's axis in relation to its plane of orbit
around the Sun. Oscillations in the degree of Earth's axial tilt
occur on a periodicity of 41,000 years from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees.
Precession
The third and final of the Milankovitch Cycles is Earth's
precession. Precession is the Earth's slow wobble as it spins on
axis. This wobbling of the Earth on its axis can be likened to a top
running down, and beginning to wobble back and forth on its
axis. The precession of Earth wobbles from pointing at Polaris
(North Star) to pointing at the star Vega. When this shift to the
axis pointing at Vega occurs, Vega would then be considered the
North Star. This top-like wobble, or precession, has a periodicity
of 23,000 years.

5. Why did the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 affect climate substantially?
Mount Pinatubo, in the Philippine islands erupted in April 1991 emitting thousands of
tonnes of gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic eruptions of this magnitude can reduce
the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface, lowering temperatures in the
lower levels of the atmosphere (called the troposphere), and changing atmospheric
circulation patterns. The extent to which this occurs is an ongoing debate.
6. Explain: “Volcanoes are part of the extended carbon cycle.” part of the extended
carbon cycle. Over very long (geological) time periods, they release carbon
dioxide from the earth's interior, counteracting the uptake by sedimentary rocks
and other geological carbon dioxide sinks.
7. Discuss thermohaline circulation. What is El Niño? (THC) refers to the part of
the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created
by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. El Niño-Southern Oscillation, or ENSO,
is a climate pattern that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean on average every
five years, but over a period which varies from three to seven years, and is
therefore, widely and significantly, known as "quasi-periodic". ENSO is best-
known for its association with floods, droughts and other weather disturbances in
many regions of the world, which vary with each event. Developing countries
dependent upon agriculture and fishing, particularly those bordering the Pacific
Ocean, are the most affected.

8. Why is human influence on the climate direct and unambiguous?

Enumerate the physical evidence of climate change. Discuss each briefly.

Extra-strength weather

*Numerous long-term changes in the climate have been observed, including extreme
weather such as droughts, heavy precipitation, heat waves and the intensity of tropical
cyclones.

* Trends towards more powerful storms and hotter, longer dry periods have been
observed and are assessed in the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. Warmer
temperatures mean greater evaporation, and a warmer atmosphere is able to hold more
moisture -- hence there is more water aloft that can fall as precipitation. Similarly, dry
regions are apt to lose still more moisture if the weather is hotter; this exacerbates
droughts and desertification.

The decline of winter

* Average Arctic temperatures increased at almost twice the global rate in the past
100 years. Temperatures at the top of the permafrost layer have generally increased
since the 1980s by up to 3°C. In the Russian Arctic, buildings are collapsing because
permafrost under their foundations has melted.

* Snow cover has declined by some 10 per cent in the mid- and high latitudes of the
Northern Hemisphere since the late 1960s. Mountain glaciers and snow cover have
declined in both hemispheres and widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps have
contributed to sea level rise. New data evaluated by the IPCC shows that losses from the
ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica have very likely contributed to sea level rise from
1993 to 2003. The average global sea level rose at an average rate of 1.8 mm per year
between 1961 and 2003, but between 1993 and 2003 it rose by 3.1 mm per year.

Shifts in the natural world

* Scientists have observed climate-induced changes in at least 420 physical processes and
biological species or communities.

* In the Alps, some plant species have been migrating upward by one to four meters per
decade, and some plants previously found only on mountaintops have disappeared.

9.
10. Explain dendrochronology. was developed during the first half of the 20th
century originally by the astronomer A. E. Douglass, the founder of the
Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona. Douglass sought
to better understand cycles of sunspot activity and reasoned (correctly) that
changes in solar activity would affect climate patterns on earth which would
subsequently be recorded by tree-ring growth patterns
11. What is palynology? is the science that studies contemporary and fossil
palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, orbicules, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs,
chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM)
and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. Palynology does not
include diatoms, foraminiferans or other organisms with silicaceous or calcareous
exoskeletons.
12. What are the attributed and expected effects of global warming? The effects, or
impacts, of climate change may be physical, ecological, social or economic.
Evidence of observed climate change includes the instrumental temperature
record, rising sea levels, and decreased snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere.[3]
According to IPCC (2007a:10), "[most] of the observed increase in global average
temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase
in [human greenhouse gas] concentrations". It is predicted that future climate
changes will include further global warming (i.e., an upward trend in global mean
temperature), sea level rise, and a probable increase in the frequency of some
extreme weather events.
13. What are the current responses to global warming? Explain each. Reducing the
amount of future climate change is called mitigation of climate change. The IPCC
defines mitigation as activities that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, or
enhance the capacity of carbon sinks to absorb GHGs from the atmosphere.[82]
Many countries, both developing and developed, are aiming to use cleaner, less
polluting, technologies.[83] Use of these technologies aids mitigation and could
result in substantial reductions in CO2 emissions. Policies include targets for
emissions reductions, increased use of renewable energy, and increased energy
efficiency. Studies indicate substantial potential for future reductions in
emissions.[84]
Other policy responses include adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate
change may be planned, e.g., by local or national government, or spontaneous, i.e., done
privately without government intervention.[85] The ability to adapt (called "adaptive
capacity") is closely linked to social and economic development.[84] Even societies with
high capacities to adapt are still vulnerable to climate change. Planned adaptation is
already occurring on a limited basis. The barriers, limits, and costs of future adaptation
are not fully understood.
Another policy response is engineering of the climate (geoengineering). This policy
response is sometimes grouped together with mitigation.[86] Geoengineering is largely
unproven, and reliable cost estimates for it have not yet been published.

14. Discuss the causes and effects of global dimming. It is now thought that the
effect is probably due to the increased presence of aerosols particles in the
atmosphere. Aerosol particles absorb solar energy and reflect sunlight back to
space. The pollutants can also become nuclei for cloud droplets. It is thought
that the water droplets in clouds coalesce around the particles, and more
aerosol particles result in the clouds consisting of a greater number of smaller
droplets, which in turn makes them more reflective: bouncing more sunlight
back into space.

Clouds intercept both heat from the sun and heat radiated from the Earth.
Their effects are complex and vary in time, location and height. Usually,
during the day the interception of sunlight predominates, giving a cooling
effect; however, at night the re-radiation of heat to the Earth slows the earth's
heat loss.
15. Discuss: “Global dimming has interfered with the hydrological cycle.” Global
dimming has interfered with the hydrological cycle by reducing evaporation and
may have reduced rainfall in some areas. Global dimming also creates a cooling
effect that may have partially masked the effect of greenhouse gases on global
warming.
16. How is global dimming related to global warming? Global dimming interacts with
global warming by blocking sunlight that would otherwise cause evaporation and
the particulates bind to water droplets. Water vapor is the major greenhouse gas.
On the other hand, global dimming is affected by evaporation and rain. Rain has
the effect of clearing out polluted skies.
17. What are there alternatives to fossil fuels? Enumerate them and discuss. Bio-
Diesel

Bio-Diesel is a kind of diesel fuel derived from vegetable oil and animal fat. It is
an alkyl ester which is obtained by trans - esterification of vegetable oil using
ethyl alcohol. It is often used in a blended form along with the normal diesel. So,
currently it is mostly used as a diesel fuel additive. This blending of bio-diesel
with normal diesel, reduces emission of pollutants. It has excellent lubrication
properties. It is being widely introduced all around the world in every form of
locomotive.

Bio-Alcohol

Alcohol derived from plant sources can be used as an effective alternative to


fossil fuel. Ethanol, Butanol, Methanol and Propanol are the alcohols of interest
which can be used as fuels. These four types of alcohol can be easily derived from
biological sources. They have properties which make them useful as fuels in
automobile engines. In fact, Butanol is very similar to gasoline and has a
comparable energy density! Methanol and ethanol have high octane rates. Ethanol
can be produced from sugar fermentation and is indeed widely produced around
the world, now as an alternative fuel.

Hydrogen

The properties of liquid Hydrogen, make it an ideal candidate for use as an


alternative to fossil fuel. In normal conditions of temperature and pressure,
molecular Hydrogen has a peaceful co-existence with oxygen and does not burn
without input of extra energy. Hydrogen fuel cells have been developed which use
molecular Hydrogen as an effective form of alternative fuel. The Hydrogen Fuel
cell, convert chemical energy contained in a Hydrogen molecule, to electrical
energy. The major advantage of Hydrogen as alternative fuel is, that its unit mass
contains 2.8 times the energy contained in the same mass of gasoline. Hydrogen
powered cars are already a reality but the problem lies in the cost of production.
Until that cost is brought down, this technology is not commercially viable.

Liquid Nitrogen

Liquid Nitrogen based cars have been developed using nitrogen powered internal
combustion engines. Regenerative braking technology, which stores the impulse
generated through braking, uses liquid nitrogen as fuel. A liquid nitrogen car is
much like an electric car in its circuitry, except that the batteries are replaced by
liquid nitrogen fuel tanks.

Vegetable Oil
Diesel engines have been run on fuel which is a blend of processed vegetable oil
and normal diesel. It has been tested as a fuel and is found to be an eco-friendly
alternative.

These are some of the alternatives to fossil fuels, available currently. The list is
short but certainly promising! In the future, more and more such alternatives will
be made available, as the new promising technologies like hydrogen fuel cell and
hybrid car technology is made more affordable. By promoting the use of these
alternatives to fossil fuels, we can make our world a greener and a safer place to
live!
18. Name some effects of sea-level rise.

Rising seas will increase coastal erosion, pollution, storm damage, and

flooding. They'll pose threats to coastal roads, bridges, jetties,

breakwaters, docks, piers, and waterfront property. Intruding salt water

might contaminate groundwater supplies and threaten landfill and

hazardous-waste sites.

19. Discuss the following figure:

20. What are the effects of snowline and permafrost to sea-level rising?
21. Explain greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a process by which radiative
energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by some atmospheric gases, called
greenhouse gases. They transfer this energy to other components of the
atmosphere, and it is re-radiated in all directions, including back down towards
the surface. This transfers energy to the surface and lower atmosphere, so the
temperature there is higher than it would be if direct heating by solar radiation
were the only warming mechanism
22. State and discuss Kyoto Protocol and Montreal Protocol. he Kyoto Protocol is a
protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming. The UNFCCC is an
international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of
greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The Montreal
Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international
treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a
number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion.
23. Discuss the causes of species extinction.
Habitat Destruction
Our planet is continually changing, causing habitats to be altered and
modified. Natural changes tend to occur at a gradual pace, usually causing
only a slight impact on individual species. However, when changes occur at
a fast pace, there is little or no time for individual species to react and adjust
to new circumstances. This can create disastrous results, and for this reason,
rapid habitat loss is the primary cause of species endangerment. The
strongest forces in rapid habitat loss are human beings. Nearly every region
of the earth has been affected by human activity, particularly during this past
century. The loss of microbes in soils that formerly supported tropical
forests, the extinction of fish and various aquatic species in polluted habitats,
and changes in global climate brought about by the release of greenhouse
gases are all results of human activity.
It can be difficult for an individual to recognize the effects that humans have
had on specific species. It is hard to identify or predict human effects on
individual species and habitats, especially during a human lifetime. But it is
quite apparent that human activity has greatly contributed to species
endangerment. For example, although tropical forests may look as though
they are lush, they are actually highly susceptible to destruction. This is
because the soils in which they grow are lacking in nutrients. It may take
Centuries to re-grow a forest that was cut down by humans or destroyed by
fire, and many of the world's severely threatened animals and plants live in
these forests. If the current rate of forest loss continues, huge quantities of
plant and animal species will disappear.
Introduction of Exotic Species
Native species are those plants and animals that are part of a specific
geographic area, and have ordinarily been a part of that particular biological
landscape for a lengthy period of time. They are well adapted to their local
environment and are accustomed to the presence of other native species
within the same general habitat. Exotic species, however, are interlopers.
These species are introduced into new environments by way of human
activities, either intentionally or accidentally. These interlopers are viewed
by the native species as foreign elements. They may cause no obvious
problems and may eventual be considered as natural as any native species in
the habitat. However, exotic species may also seriously disrupt delicate
ecological balances and may produce a plethora of unintended yet harmful
consequences.
The worst of these unintended yet harmful consequences arise when
introduced exotic species put native species in jeopardy by preying on them.
This can alter the natural habitat and can cause a greater competition for
food. Species have been biologically introduced to environments all over the
world, and the most destructive effects have occurred on islands. Introduced
insects, rats, pigs, cats, and other foreign species have actually caused the
endangerment and extinction of hundreds of species during the past five
centuries. Exotic species are certainly a factor leading to endangerment.
Overexploitation
A species that faces overexploitation is one that may become severely
endangered or even extinct due to the rate in which the species is being used.
Unrestricted whaling during the 20th century is an example of
overexploitation, and the whaling industry brought many species of whales
to extremely low population sizes. When several whale species were nearly
extinct, a number of nations (including the United States) agreed to abide by
an international moratorium on whaling. Due to this moratorium, some
whale species, such as the grey whale, have made remarkable comebacks,
while others remain threatened or endangered.
Due to the trade in animal parts, many species continue to suffer high rates
of exploitation. Even today, there are demands for items such as rhino horns
and tiger bones in several areas of Asia. It is here that there exists a strong
market for traditional medicines made from these animal parts.

24. Explain pseudoextinction. Pseudoextinction (or phyletic extinction) of a


species occurs where there are no more living members of that species, but
members of a daughter species or subspecies remain alive. As all species must
have an ancestor of a previous species, much of evolution is believed to occur
through pseudoextinction. However, it is difficult to prove that any particular
fossil species is pseudoextinct unless genetic information has been preserved. For
example, it is sometimes claimed that the extinct Hyracotherium (an ancient
horse-like animal commonly known as an eohippus) is pseudoextinct, rather than
extinct, because several species of horse, including the zebra and the donkey, are
extant today. However, it is not known, and probably cannot be known, whether
modern horses actually descend from members of the genus Hyracotherium, or
whether they simply share a common ancestor.
25. What is genetic extinction? Refers to the extinction of a genetic variation but
not the specie itself.
26. Name some possible explanations for pollinator decline. 3.1 Pesticide misuse
• 3.2 Rapid transfer of parasites and diseases of pollinator species around the world
• 3.3 Loss of habitat and forage
• 3.4 Nectar corridors
• 3.5 Hive destruction
• 3.6 Light pollution
• 3.7 Threat by invasive honey bees
• 3.8 Air pollution
27. What are the solutions to pollinator decline? 4.1 Conservation and
restoration efforts
• 4.2 Use of alternative pollinators
28. Explain pathogen infection. Aka Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a species of
Chlamydophila bacteria[1][2][3] that infects humans and is a major cause of
pneumonia.
Until recently it was known as Chlamydia pneumoniae, and that name is used as an
alternate in some sources.[4] In some cases, to avoid confusion, both names are given.[5]
C. pneumoniae has a complex life cycle and must infect another cell in order to reproduce
and thus is classified as an obligate intracellular pathogen. In addition to its role in
pneumonia, there is evidence associating C. pneumoniae with atherosclerosis,
Alzheimer's disease and with asthma.
29. Name some common invasive species traits. capable of doing significant harm to
ecosystems, economy or public health;
• capable of spreading without apparent natural controls (natural predators,
disease);
• population levels that are unchecked;
• causing major change faster than native ecosystems can accommodate;
• changing major ecological processes (nutrient cycling, hydrology, fire regime,
energy);
• destabilizing environmental (physical or community) structure;
• forming undesirable monotypic stands of vegetation that replace diverse
communities;
• reducing biodiversity/integrity, causing extirpations and extinctions;
• reducing or eliminating a natural product, ecological service or other valued
attribute.
30. Name some ways to minimize poaching. Some game wardens have made use of
robotic decoy animals placed in high visibility areas to draw out poachers for
arrest after the "animals" get shot.
31. What are the ways to preserve the endangered species? Organizations like
Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund have dedicated themselves to preserve the
earth and its ecology. Many volunteers join organizations like these and work for
the environment. You can find some international/local organizations like these
and join them.
Organizations like Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund have dedicated
themselves to preserve the earth and its ecology. Many volunteers join
organizations like these and work for the environment. You can find some
international/local organizations like these and join them.
Raise your voice against this injustice. Peaceful protest, human chain, petition and
rally are some ways to do it. You can also write a heart felt and logical letter to
the government stating your ideas about this issue and how it can be solved.
Recycle and reuse. It will reduce the need to have more raw materials to produce
something. As a result a lot of trees will be spared and wild animals’ habitat will be
undisturbed.
32. Enumerate impacts of dams. Interrupting Natural CyclesArmoring the
RiverbedRemoving SedimentStarving the RiverChanging
Temperatures
Stopping
Fish
Migration
Erosion
33. State and discuss the controversy between Davao City Water District and Hedcor
over Tamugan River. The continuing saga of the Tamugan River row between
Aboitiz’s Hedcor Inc and the Davao City Water District (DCWD) has the
former calling a press conference to appeal to DCWD to pave the way for joint
development of the area.
This river row sparked from Hedcor’s plans to setup a Hydro Electric Power plant in the
area. DCWD blocked the plans by claiming prior approved rights over the river. The city
mayor and city council tried to mediate but DCWD just wouldn’t budge saying that a
hydro electric plant in the river would stem the flow of water to the area.

34. State some best practices to conserve energy at home and offices.
Use compact fluorescent ligthings instead of the conventional incadescent
ones. The former is thrice as efficient and lights five times brighter.
Always turn off electrical appliances and lights when unnecessary. Unplug Appliances
when not in use because the appliance will continue to consume electricy even when it is
turned off.
Follow these and ull save two things, your money and more importantly
wolrdwide energy consumption.
35. Name some sources of renewable energy. Discuss each. Wind power
Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around
600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have
become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function
of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases
dramatically.

Hydropower
Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than
air,[22][23] even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield
considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy:

Solar energy
Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar
powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaics and heat engines. A partial list of
other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture,
daylighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for
industrial purposes.

Biomass
Biomass (plant material) is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains
comes from the sun. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants capture the sun's
energy. When the plants are burned, they release the sun's energy they contain. In this
way, biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy. As long as
biomass is produced sustainably, with only as much used as is grown, the battery will last
indefinitely.

Biofuel
Liquid biofuel is usually either bioalcohol such as bioethanol or an oil such as biodiesel.
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and
it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops.

Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from
kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in some places of the globe or from some meters in
geothermal heat pump in all the places of the planet . It is expensive to build a power
station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites.
Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.
36. Discuss the issues: sustainability, transmission, and market development of
renewable energy. Sustainability Renewable energy sources are generally
sustainable in the sense that they cannot ‘run out’ – although, as noted above, both
biomass and geothermal energy need wise management if they are to be used
sustainably. For all of the other renewables, almost any realistic rate of
exploitation by humans would be unlikely to approach their rate of replenishment
by nature, though of course the use of all renewables is subject to various
practical constraints.
Transmission Unfortunately, the need for new transmission can put
renewable energy advocates atodds with more traditional environmentalists, who
are concerned about the local damage to views and habitat caused by new
transmission lines.

37. What are biofuels? Biofuels are a wide range of fuels which are in some way
derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various
biogases.[1] Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven
by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, and
concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.
38. How do we tap energy from the ocean? Through Ocean Wave Energy technology
39. What are nanotechnology thin-film solar panels?
Thin film is a more cost-effective solution and uses a cheap support onto
which the active

component is applied as a thin coating. As a result much less material is required (as low
as

1% compared with wafers) and costs are decreased. Most such cells utilize amorphous

silicon, which, as its name suggests, does not have a crystalline structure and
consequently

has a much lower efficiency (8%), however it is much cheaper to manufacture

40. State and discuss "non-technical barriers" to renewable energy use.

*Lack of government policy supporting EE/RE. This includes the lack of policies and

regulations supporting development of solar and other EE/RE technologies and the
presence of

policies and regulations hindering EE/RE development and supporting conventional


energy

development. Examples include fossil-fuel subsidies, insufficient consumer-based EE/RE

incentives, government underwriting for nuclear plant accidents, and difficult zoning and

permitting processes for renewable energy.


*Difficulty overcoming established energy systems. This includes difficulty introducing

innovative energy systems, particularly for distributed generation such as PV, because of

technological lock-in, electricity markets designed for centralized power plants, and
market

control by established generators.

*Failure to account for all costs and benefits of energy choices. This includes failure to

internalize all costs of conventional energy (e.g., effects of air pollution, risk of supply

disruption) and failure to internalize all benefits of EE/RE (e.g., cleaner air, energy
security).

*Inadequate workforce skills and training. This includes lack in the workforce of
adequate

scientific, technical, and manufacturing skills required for EE/RE development; lack of
reliable

installation, maintenance, and inspection services; and failure of the educational system
to

provide adequate training in new technologies

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