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Cover Story

Assess the Performance

of Positive-Displacement
AICHEs Equipment Testing
Procedures Committee*
Positive Displacement Pumps
Procedure Subcommittee

Heres how to evaluate rotary pumps

gear, lobe, vane and multiple-screw designs
regardless of whether the material being handled
is a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid.

everal standards (13) address the testing of pumps,

primarily at the pump manufacturers test facilities.
Such tests are accurate, repeatable and reliable, but
are difficult to duplicate in the field, where access to the
necessary specialized test instrumentation is often limited.
While previous AIChE field-testing procedures (4, 5)
bridged the gap between the (more-accurate) pump manufacturer test facilities and field testing methods, they apply
to Newtonian liquids only. Since the first version was published in 1968, many new chemicals have been introduced
by the rapidly expanding process industries. Sometimes the
pumpage is not liquid, but rather a fluid in a more general
sense, such as paper pulp, slurries, waste sludge and adhesives which, at least based on appearance, do not resemble a liquid. Non-Newtonian fluids are no longer an exception that can be ignored, and pump-testing procedures must
be applicable to such materials.

Key terminology
Positive-displacement pump. The term pump typically
refers to the equipment from flange to flange, i.e., between
the suction and discharge flanges, while the term pump system includes the motor, coupling, baseplate, tanks, connect* The authors of the book from which this article is excerpted are:
Lev Nelik, Pumping Machinery Co., and Luis F. Rizo, SABIC Innovative
Plastics. Contributing to the Procedure were: Gordon Kirk, Univ. of
Virginia; Gary Lent, Wilden Pumps; Alan Wild, Moyno Industrial
Products; Les Warren, Cat Pumps; John Joseph, Amoco; Jim Brennan,
IMO Pump; John Purcell, Roper Pump; and Jim Netzel, John Crane.
The members of the ETPC who coordinated the Procedure were: Prashant
Agrawal, Kellogg Brown and Root; S. Dennis Fegan, Hermetic Pumps,
Inc.; and Robert J. Hart, du Pont (retired).



December 2007


ing piping and controls. A positive-displacement (PD) pump

can be thought of as a flow generator, whereas a centrifugal
pump can be considered a pressure (or head) generator.
Flow. The ideal flow disregards slip (i.e., the portion of
flow that slips back through the internal clearances from
the discharge side to suction, driven by the differential pressure across the pump). The net flow is what actually leaves
the pump exit into the discharge pipe. Another term often
used interchangeably with flow is capacity.
Pressure. Relevant pump pressures include the discharge
(pd), suction (ps) and differential (p) pressures. It is important to specify gage (psig), absolute (psia) or differential
(psid) pressure; mistakes are common, especially for suction vacuum. The actual available suction pressure must be
greater than the minimum required suction pressure (MRSP,
or ps,min) to avoid adverse effects on pump operation, such
as flow loss, cavitation, noise, vibration, etc.
Net positive inlet pressure (NPIP). NPIP is analogous to
net positive suction head (NPSH) in centrifugal pumps. Inlet
conditions for PD pumps are traditionally defined in pressure terms, rather than in head terms. NPSH, given in ft (or
m) of liquid, is basically the pump inlet head minus the head
equivalent to the vapor pressure of the pumped fluid. Since
density has already been used to convert pressure terms into
head, NPSHR (required NPSH) is not a function of density
(or specific gravity), but depends on the centrifugal pumps
inlet geometry and rotating speed (approximately as a square
of speed [in rpm]).
NPIP, on the other hand, is the pump inlet pressure minus
the fluid vapor pressures. PD pumps typically operate in sys-

tems with low inlet velocities, and in these cases, the velocity head portion (dynamic head) has generally been ignored.
NPIPR (required NPIP) is the difference between the
inlet pressure and the vapor pressure (corrected to the centerline of the pump inlet port) necessary for the pump to
operate without a reduction in flow. The Hydraulic Institute
defines the minimum required pressure (or equivalent
NPIPR) as the pressure where 5% of the flow reduction
occurs due to cavitation.
For PD pumps, an increase in the available NPIP
(NPIPA) has no effect on volumetric efficiency, as long as
NPIPA is greater than NPIPR. Low values of NPIPA may
result not only in flow reduction, but also in significant
pressure spikes, vibrations, noise and possible damage to
the pump.
Power. The gross power delivered by the driver to the
pump is the brake horsepower (BHP), while the net power
delivered to the fluid by the pump is the hydraulic (or fluid)
horsepower (FHP). The difference between the brake and
hydraulic power is due to internal mechanical and volumetric losses in the pump.
Efficiency. Historically, overall pump efficiency () has
not been as widely used in connection with PD pumps as
for centrifugal pumps. Instead, a volumetric efficiency
(vol) is more commonly used to compare different designs
and applications.
PD pumps are, inherently, approximately constant-flow
machines with regard to differential pressure. In theory, a
constant volume of fluid is displaced (hence the name) with
every rotation, stroke or cycle. However, because of the
internal clearances, a certain amount of fluid slips back
from the discharge side to suction. This slip depends on the
lateral and radial clearances and on the overall differential
pressure that drives the slip. The higher the viscosity of the
fluid, the more it resists the slip.
For More Information
This article is based on the new book,
Positive Displacement Pumps: A Guide
to Performance Evaluation, 1st edition,
published by AIChE and prepared by the
AIChE Equipment Testing Procedures
Committee (ETPC). The book is
designed to provide pump users with
simple, easy to read and understand
procedures that take into account the
imperfect realities of actual fields conditions. In addition to
rotary pumps, the book also covers progressive cavity, airoperated diaphragm and reciprocating positive-displacement
pumps, as well as auxiliaries such as seals, bearings, rotors
and piping, plus installation. The book (ISBN 978-0-47018097-6) is available from Wiley (www.wiley.com); the AIChE
member price is $32.00 ($39.95 nonmembers).

The net actual flow is the difference between the ideal

(theoretical) flow and slip:
Qa = Q0 Qslip


which can be expressed in terms of volumetric efficiency:

vol =

Q0 Qslip



The overall efficiency (often called mechanical efficiency

in PD pumps) is the ratio of useful hydraulic power transmitted to the fluid exiting the pump to total power absorbed
by the pump:


Viscosity. Viscosity is the property that characterizes a

fluids ability to resist motion. Dynamic viscosity () is the
ratio of the fluids shear stress to the associated strain rate.
Kinematic viscosity () is equal to the dynamic viscosity
divided by the specific gravity.
Viscosity has a major influence on pump operation.
Pump power goes up with viscosity to overcome the internal hydraulic viscous drag. Suction conditions become more
demanding with increased viscosity, reflecting the ability of
the fluid to get to the pump suction port and fill its displacement mechanism (gears, screws, etc.).
Drive shaft speed. This term has become synonymous

= pump input power or brake horsepower, hp

= fluid, or hydraulic, horsepower, hp
= current, amps
= discharge pressure, usually in gage units, psig
= suction pressure, usually in absolute units, psia
= minimum required suction pressure (MRSP), psia
= differential pressure, psi or psid
= power, kW
= motor power factor
= flow through the pump, gal/min
= actual net flow, gal/min
= theoretical flow, disregarding slip, gal/min
= slip flow, gal/min
= pump drive-shaft rotational speed, rev/min
= voltage, V

Greek Letters

= overall efficiency
= volumetric efficiency
motor = motor efficiency

= dynamic viscosity, cP

= kinematic viscosity, cSt


December 2007



Cover Story

with RPM, the speed in revolutions per minute. In the

1980s, it became common to use smaller, faster-running,
pumps rather than larger, slower-running pumps, for obvious cost reasons. However, with speed came trouble, as
many maintenance and reliability plant personnel discovered. A faster-running pump requires more suction pressure,
and also wears out disproportionately faster. Iit is important
to consider not only the first cost, but also wear, suction
requirements, vibration, etc., to strike a balance between
speed and reliability for a given set of flow requirements.

 Figure 1. External gear pump (top) and internal gear pump (bottom).

 Figure 2. Lobe pump.



December 2007


Types of PD pumps
The two major classes of PD pumps are rotary and reciprocating. The majority of industrial applications are handled
by the following types of pumps:
rotary (gear, lobe, screw and vane)
progressive cavity
This article covers the various rotary pumps. Testing procedures for the other types of PD pumps can be found in
Positive Displacement Pumps: A Guide to Performance
Evaluation (box, p. 33).
Gear pumps (Figure 1) may be of the external or internal
design. Internal designs may have a crescent between gears.
Fluid entering the pump fills the cavities between the gear
teeth and the casing. The fluid is then moved circumferentially to the outlet port, and from there it is discharged.
Radial hydraulic forces are unbalanced, and bearings or
bushings are required to support the rotors. Since the gears
touch, the materials of construction should be dissimilar,
especially for low-viscosity or poorly lubricated applications. For example, a stainless-steel drive gear, if running
against a stainless idler gear, will tend to gall and so should
not be used. Typically, a stainless-steel drive gear is run
against a nonmetallic (e.g., Teflon) idler gear.
Lobe pumps (Figure 2) are similar to gear pumps, except
that the lobes are not in contact, and a timing mechanism is
used to transfer the rotation of the drive rotor to the idler.
The number of lobes varies between one and five.
Screw pumps (Figure 3) usually have a two-screw timed
design or a three-screw untimed design. Entering fluid fills
the cavities between the screws and the casing or liner. The
fluid is moved axially to the outlet port, then discharged.
Radial forces are unbalanced in the two-screw pump, but
are balanced in the three-screw design.
The Hydraulic Institute classifies progressive cavity
pumps as a single-screw design variation. However, there is
much more similarity between the two- and three-screw
designs than between either of those and a progressive cavity design. For this reason, progressive cavity pumps are

treated separately in the procedure, and due to space limitations are not covered in this article.
Vane pumps (Figure 4) employ stationary or rotating
vanes in the form of blades, buckets, rollers or slippers,
which cooperate with a cam action to allow liquid to fill the
cavity between the vane and the casing liner. The fluid is
moved circumferentially to the outlet port and discharged.
Radial hydraulic forces may be balanced or unbalanced.
Some designs provide variable flow by varying the cam
action eccentricity. (Figure 4 illustrates a vane-in-rotor, constant-displacement, unbalanced vane pump.)

Testing rotary pumps

The objective of a field test is to measure the performance of the pump under a known set of conditions. The performance of a pump may be defined by a group of six interrelated variables: flow through the pump (Q), power input
(BHP), drive shaft speed (RPM), pressure at the pumps
suction port (ps), pressure at the pumps discharge port (pd),
and the kinematic viscosity of the liquid being pumped ().
Usually, flow and power are considered the dependent variables, while the others are considered independent variables.
The first step in any field test is to decide which variables will be set and which will be measured as the results.
When the test is performed in the field, some of the variables will be difficult, or impossible, to change from the
normal values that are determined by the system in which
the pump is installed. For example, a constant-speed motor
without variable-speed control cannot operate at different
speeds for the test; in this case, shaft speed would be an
independent (set) variable instead of measured.
All applicable plant safety rules should be reviewed and
followed whenever attempting to test any rotating equipment. In some cases, it may be advisable to complete a
plant safety review prior to testing. Finally, make sure the
operating team at the moment of the test is, at a minimum,
aware of your plans and is in communication with you.
Each independent and dependent variable should have
an instrument dedicated to recording its quantity during
the test. Even variables that are supposed to be fixed, such
as the speed of a fixed-speed electric motor, should be
recorded during the test to ensure that no unknown influences are introduced. For example, motor speed tends to
decrease as the motor load increases, and this should be
observed and recorded.
Instruments and methods of measurement
Temperature. In the field, fluid temperature and the
pump skin temperature are determined to make sure they
are not excessive and thus affecting internal clearances.
For certain types of pumps (especially for progressive

cavity pumps), the internal clearances change dramatically

with temperature, affecting slip, mechanical friction, efficiency and pump life.
Fluid viscosity over a range of temperatures. The simplest way to get an idea of the viscosity during a pump test
is to measure the liquid temperature, then find the viscosity
from a chart of temperature vs. viscosity for the test liquid.
Such charts are available for many liquids in reference
books or from the manufacturer of the liquid.

 Figure 3. Multiple-screw pumps can have two screws (top) or three

screws (one around the shaft, one above and one below, bottom).

 Figure 4. Vane pump.


December 2007



Cover Story

If no chart is available, a test with a viscometer at

several different temperatures will allow you to create such
a chart. The thermometer or thermocouple used to measure
the temperature should be accurate to within 5% at the
test temperature.
If the fluid to be pumped is Newtonian (i.e., it has a viscosity that is constant with changing shear rate), it is acceptable to test a range of viscosities by using several liquids
that have different viscosities at the same temperature. This
is often easier than heating or cooling a single fluid to
obtain a range of viscosities. PD pumps are not very sensitive to changes in liquid density or specific gravity, so one
liquid can substitute for another in the test.
This must not be done, however, if the liquid is nonNewtonian (thixotropic or dilatant). If a pump is intended to
operate on a non-Newtonian liquid, the test should only be
done using that liquid. Dilatant liquids (which increase in
viscosity as shear rate increases) are especially tricky,
because a test on a Newtonian liquid would understate the
necessary input power and in operation the pumps driver
could be overloaded.
Two persistent problems when a viscous fluid is
involved are (1) establishing a reasonably accurate system
curve for the fluid to be pumped at the (2) actual viscosity
of the fluid. Emphasis is placed on the actual viscosity,
which typically is a function of temperature. Startup conditions frequently result in lower temperatures and higher viscosities than at operating temperatures, and, in turn, higher
horsepower than anticipated. Unless motors, pumps and
relief systems are selected appropriately, this can cause a
major delay in the startup of a new system or in conducting
tests that may pass through auxiliary piping.
Pump vendors have compiled technical manuals that
graphically establish the relationship between pressure loss,
viscosity and pipe size. Calculations for precise values are
often laborious, so estimates are frequently employed. Such
methods approximate performance and do not generate a
true bench-test performance curve.
Flow. For PD pumps, the key measured parameter is
flow. Because a PD pump moves a fixed volume during
each revolution of the drive shaft, volumetric flowrate is
most closely tied to pump performance. It is also possible to
measure mass flow and divide by the density of the liquid.
A flowmeter in line with the pump is the simplest and most
commonly used method to measure flow.
To ensure accuracy, the flowmeters should be periodically
cleaned and calibrated. In theory, the viscosity of the measured fluid must be similar to that of the calibration fluid. In
practice, though, there can be a wide variation in viscosity
(1,000 cP), and the flow measurement error would be within 2%, which is acceptable for most field tests.


December 2007


Shaft speed. Since the theoretical flow of a PD pump is

directly proportional to speed, another simple method is to
measure the pump shaft speed in rpm, and multiply that by
the pump unit flow (gal/rev). The unit flow is constant for a
given pump and can be calculated from the pump performance curve at zero differential pressure. The net (actual)
flow is the difference between the theoretical (zero pressure
differential) flow and slip. Slip can be obtained from the
pump curve at a given differential pressure and fluid viscosity. In practice, for high-viscosity fluids (> 100 cP) and/or
low differential pressures (< 20 psi), the slip can be neglected and the net flow simply calculated as the measured speed
times the unit flow from the curve.
It is a good practice to conduct a field test of a pump
soon after it has been installed, in order to generate a baseline field-specific curve for the future test comparisons.
Many types of tachometers can be used on either the
pump or motor shaft, as long as a device that maintains a
constant speed ratio between the two shafts is used to connect the shafts. If a device that varies the speed ratio
between the shafts, such as an eddy current drive, is used,
the tachometer must only be used on the pump shaft.
Suction and discharge pressures. A common mistake is
to assume the pressure at the pump inlet flange from the
known pressure (such as tank level) and adjust by calculating the losses (or assuming the losses are negligible). This
approach is particularly wrong for the suction pressure,
because collapsed filters, debris, solids or other obstructions
can render the pressure estimates invalid. The only reliable
way to determine pressure is to install gages to measure the
pressure in the suction and discharge pipes as close to the
pump flanges as possible.
Pressure gages (or transducers) should be accurate to
within 5% at the test pressures, and the test pressure should
be between 20% and 80% of a gages range. The suction
and discharge pressure gages usually have different pressure
ranges. Suction pressure is typically recorded in absolute
units (psia), discharge pressure in gage units (psig).
Power and efficiency. The most practical way to measure
pump input power is to measure the electric current (I) and
voltage (V) of the motor and then calculate the available
shaft power (BHP):
for single-phase motors:

I V motor
1, 000

( 4a )

for 3-phase motors:


I V 1.732 motor PF
1, 000

( 4b )

The power factor (PF) and motor efficiency (motor) can

normally be obtained from the motor manufacturer, at least
for full-load conditions. Both vary widely from motor to
motor and with changes in load on the motor.
If power factor and efficiency cannot be accurately determined at the motors operating conditions, it may not be
possible to accurately determine the pumps input power. In
that case, the only test for input power may be to check that
the motor current is not above the nameplate rated current
at pump operating conditions.
If the system has a gear reducer or another device that
absorbs motor output power coupled between the motor
and pump, some estimate of its power losses must be
found. This is often available from the manufacturer of the
device. If the pump and motor are directly coupled, the
motor output power can be used as the pump input power.
In most cases, the power factor and motor efficiency
are not readily known, and obtaining the exact values is
impractical. However, as an approximation, the efficiency
of the electric motor can be assumed to be 95%, and the
power factor can also be assumed to be 0.95, so their
product is approximately 0.90. As long as the performance
does not change over time, such an approximation is valid.
Any approximations used should be reviewed and confirmed, since a motor efficiency of 95% and power factor
of 0.95 are high estimates and ususally apply to motors of
200 hp and above.
The hydraulic (net) fluid power is:


Flow Indicator






 Figure 5. Typical set-up for a pump performance field test.

five (i.e., a six-point test). The result is the amount to

increase the discharge pressure for each subsequent
test point.
To begin, operate the pump with the throttling valve
open, and record the values of all six variables on a
Performance Test Report Form such as the one at the end of
this article. Close the discharge throttling valve slowly and
record all six variables. Continue increasing the pressure
incrementally and recording the six variables. Plot the data
in the form of graphs, as shown in Figure 6.


The current used to calculate power must be read at the

actual operating differential pressure. The overall pump efficiency is then obtained from Eq. 3 ( = FHP/BHP).

Standardized performance test

The purpose of a performance test is to generate graphs
of flowrate vs. differential (discharge minus suction) pressure, and input power vs. differential pressure, at a constant
liquid viscosity, suction pressure and shaft speed. In addition to the test equipment discussed previously, this test
also requires a valve near the outlet port of the pump that
can be used to throttle the flow to increase the pressure at
the pump. The highest pressure during the test should not
exceed 90% of the opening pressure of any relief valve in
the system or in the pump. Any restrictions in the system
downstream of the pump should be reduced as much as
possible to reach lower pressures at the pump during the
test. Figure 5 illustrates the typical field-test setup.
Estimate the range of discharge pressures to be tested,
and divide the maximum expected differential pressure by

Flowrate, gal/min

p Q0
+ viscous losses
1, 714

Tank Overflow


p, psi

Input Power (BHP), hp




p, psi

 Figure 6. Plot the recorded input power and flowrate at various

pressure drops.

December 2007



Cover Story

Tank Overflow


Flow Indicator





(used during
testing for ps,min)

 Figure 7. Typical set-up for a minimum required suction

pressure (MRSP) test.
5% Drop in Flow

Flowrate, gal/min


10% Pressure Drop


close as possible to the theoretical (Q0) when the suction

valve is open.
An abbreviated version of the performance test report
form, modified so that only suction pressure and the flow
are recorded, can be used. Other parameters of interest may
also be recorded. During this test, shaft speed, discharge
pressure and liquid viscosity are held constant; input power
does not change much, so it is usually not measured.
Operate the pump with both throttling valves open, and
record the values of all of the variables. Start slowly closing
the suction-side throttling valve until the suction pressure
drops 2 psi below its previous value. Record the values of all
the variables again. Repeat this process using increments of 2
psi in the suction pressure until the pumps flow has dropped
to 90% of what it was at the beginning of the test. Do not
operate the pump in this condition for any longer than is necessary to record the data, and never close the suction-side
valve all the way while the pump is running. Plot the flow at
various pressures in the form of a graph such as Figure 8.
If increased noise or vibrations are encountered, do not
operate beyond that point. In this case, the MRSP would be
determined not based on a 5% flow decrease, but rather by
the mechanical and structural limitations of the pump or the
system. Discuss these results with the pump manufacturer.
If the MRSP thus determined is significantly different from
the value in the manufacturers catalog, pump and/or system
troubleshooting is advisable.

Decreasing Suction Pressure, psi

 Figure 8. Plot MRSP test results in terms of flowrate vs.

suction pressure.

Standardized MRSP test

This test determines the effect of changing suction pressure on the performance of the pump. Below a certain pressure, the flow out of the pump will drop dramatically.
Above this pressure, the flow asymptotically approaches the
theoretical flow of the pump. The suction pressure that
causes the flow to drop 5% below this asymptote is considered to be the pumps minimum required suction pressure
(MRSP or ps,min). This test requires a throttling valve in the
suction piping near the pump, as well as another valve on
the discharge side. Figure 7 shows this test setup.
At the beginning of the test, all valves on the discharge
side of the pump should be open, to lower the pumps discharge pressure as much as possible. The pumps supply
tank should be full or, if it is portable, raised as high above
the pump as possible. This is to increase the pressure at the
pumps suction so that during the test, the flow will be as


December 2007


Other tests
Many other tests may be performed on pumps other than
the two just described (performance and suction). The three
most common are sound pressure-level, vibration and temperature measurements.
Sound pressure level. Sound pressure-level measurements may be taken at the pumps normal operating condition, or may be made in conjunction with one of the tests
described earlier to create a record of the sound pressure
levels across a wide range of conditions. The microphones
for the test should be located approximately 5 ft above the
floor or walkway nearest the pump. (All of the readings are
taken 5 ft above the floor.)
One reading should be taken at each end of the pump and
motor set, approximately 3 ft from the housing of the pump
or motor. Other readings should be taken at the pumps inlet
and discharge ports and on both sides of the motor. If the
pump and motor are mounted vertically, take a reading at
four positions, 90 deg. apart around the pump, 3 ft away
from the nearest part of the pump or motor housing.
Note that the environment around the pump, such as
acoustically reflective or absorbent surfaces, can have a
large influence on the measured sound pressure value. Other

equipment operating nearby will also influence the sound

pressure measurements.
Vibration and temperature. Vibration and temperature
measurements are usually taken for maintenance reasons.
They can be used to predict an impending failure so the
problem can be corrected before it occurs. To do this, it is
very important to take baseline measurements before any
problems occur. Then changes in these quantities over time
can signal a potential problem.
Vibration and temperature measurements are typically
taken at the pumps normal operating condition. The key
parts of the pump that affect its reliability must be determined, and the measurements taken as near as possible to
those components. Measurements are usually taken on the
surface of the pump housing; instrumentation can be put
inside the pump before installation to monitor particularly
critical components. The most commonly monitored components are bearings, rotors and shaft seals.
The Time Trending of Basic Pump Parameters form
below can be used to record pump parameter trends over
time to detect the changes. However, the basic parameters,
such as speed, operating pressure, pumped liquid, etc., must
remain the same in order to obtain a valid comparison of the
parameters that are truly changing with time.

Literature Cited


The Hydraulic Institute, Rotary Pump Standards,

Publication No. ANSI/HI 3.13.5, 3.6, 4.14.6, The
Hydraulic Institute, Parsippany, NJ, www.pumps.org (2000).
American Petroleum Institute, API 610 Standard for
Centrifugal Pumps, Revision 4, ISO 13709, API,
Washington, DC (Oct. 2004).
American Petroleum Institute, API 676 Standard for
Rotary Pumps, Revision 4, ISO 13709, API, Washington,
DC (Mar. 2004).
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Centrifugal
Pumps (Newtonian Liquids), 3rd Edition: A Guide to
Performance Evaluation, AIChE Equipment Testing
Procedure, AIChE, New York, NY (June 2002).
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Rotary
Positive Displacement Pumps (Newtownian Liquids), 2nd
Edition, AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure, AIChE, New
York, NY (1968).

Further Reading
Heald, C. C., ed., Cameron Hydraulic Data Book, 19th ed.,
Flowserve Corp., Irving, TX, www.flowserve.com.
Nelik, L., Extending the Life of Positive Displacement Pumps,
Part 1: Gear Pumps, Pumps and Systems, 7 (4), pp. 3031
(Apr. 1999).
Nelik, L., 10 Steps to Proper Pump to Piping Alignment,
Pumps and Systems, 13 (9), pp. 1617, (Sept. 2005), 13 (10),
pp. 2021 (Oct. 2005), and 13 (11), p. 19 (Nov. 2005).
Stepanoff, A. J., Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps: Theory,
Design and Application, 2nd ed., Krieger Publishing Co.,
Melbourne, FL (1992).

Performance Test Report Form



Suction Pressure,








Time Trending of Basic Pump Parameters










December 2007