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Interpersonal Skills 1

Leadership and Interpersonal Skills; the art of surviving within the corporate world
David G. Caban, MBA
June 2010

Importance of Leadership

The importance of any leadership within any corporation as well as government is

to orchestrate society, because leaders help cultivate values and beliefs systems, which

affects daily living. For instance, government within society institutes rules and

regulations to maintain social order and survivorship; in addition, corporations are

allowed to create corporate rules such as policies, which guides society to conform to an

attitude and social behavior that is socially accepted within that particular environment.

Concept of effective leadership

Organizations such as government and corporations utilize social influences the

attitude and social behavior within society (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2008, pg. 434).

Therefore, information provided by leadership is vitally important to influence society,

because it fulfills the objective strategy. Objective strategy is a general term, which has

several distinct meanings, such as pursuing educational goals, making corporate profits to

benefit society, and enhancing human ability (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2008).

According to Kreitner & Kinicki (2008), purported that there are nine tactics to

influence human behavior within the organization (434-435):

1. Rational persuasive, which is the concept of influencing someone with reason,

logic and facts.

2. Inspirational appeals are instilling values and beliefs system into society.
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3. Consultation is to gather others for planning and making decisions, which benefits

society, such as society within the organization.

4. Ingratiation is influencing someone through praises based on performances.

5. A personal appeal is referring to friendship as means of loyalty to both the

employee or subordinate and the organization, which the employee is a part of.

6. Exchange is to implied promises to employees subordinates to request specific

favors, such as additional duties that benefits the organization. For example,

driving to the post office to drop of mail, but the employee could leave early to

complete that task.

7. Coalition tactics is to influences others to support a specific employee.

8. Pressure is demanding full compliance or consequences could be impose

9. Legitimating tactics is the authority right that all employees either adjust to

certain changes or must comply to corporate policies.

All of these concepts described above promote personal worldview perception of

inner maturity, because of the fact it is a system already imposed into societal since its

inception (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2008). Therefore, certain sociological changes may not be

imposing, because the leadership such as government may not deem suitable for any

particular sociological change (Tomlinson & Egan, 2002, pg. 79). Sociological changes

that may impact and-or influence society. For example, the technological changes within

society, just about every mechanical devices has computerize operations; such as cars,

cell phones and laptops. However, through all the changes that had, and still occurred

within society management still learn how to be leaders through observational learning.
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Because of the fact, leadership is a learn behavior, for example, parents, teachers,

students, just to mentioned a few. Anyone can poses the characteristics of leadership,

however, depending on the type of environment one is exposed can determine how one

can become an effective leader. For example, does the manager poses good product

knowledge? Service and product knowledge as well as good social interactions within the

environment can determine one’s success (Stone, 2009; Tomlinson & Edgar, 2002).

The importance of servant leadership

Regarding self-awareness, self-concept and emotional intelligence are vital

characteristics for every leader to poses, because all three characteristics resemble

elements of internal control, ability and leadership to drive an organization (Kreitner &

Kinicki, 2008). For instance, all three elements are required too institute sociological

changes within an organizational environment.

The changes that exist within any organization are the technological changes,

which occur within organization (Tomlinson & Egan, 2002). However, it is vital to

remain competitive (Wang & Rafiq, 2009). For example, corporate changes as a result to

economic climates, as well as becoming adaptable within the corporate environment,

such as corporate mergers, buyouts and closure, which can result to changes in value and

belief systems (Bianco & Schermerhorn, 2006, pg. 457-458; Tomlinson & Egan, 2002).

It not only affects within a corporate setting such as banks and other profitable

institution, but also within any environment (Bianco & Schermerhorn, 2006, pg. 458).

Managing conflict within the workplace

In regards to active listening within a corporate setting it is very imperative to

grasp the concept regarding changes, because it involves the concept of adaptability
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(Stone, 2009). For instance, though active listening an employee can learn about

individual and corporate culture that benefits the environment. However, depending on

the subject it can create potential diversity issues such as the inequality of wages

(Sorenson, 2009, pg. 660). To overcome barriers within the workplace is to recognize the

problem by analyzing the situation (Alma, 2008, pg. 27). For instance, analyzing the

situation is the problem with my approach? Should I approach the matter differently?

Also, discovering newer ways to communicate with a fellow employee within a

professional sphere that can communicate information positively that can result

accomplishing any task. In other words, learning how to relate to other cultures in their

respective perspective (Stone, 2009).

Cultural diversity is not just the attention of races, sex, and cultural background,

but also, the corporate and governmental background (Tomlinson & Edgar, 2002).

Because of the fact, corporation recognizes two sets of culture, the culture of its

employee’s (Stone, 2009), and the culture of the organization (Tomlinson & Edgar,

2002). Primary concept of any successful organization is for both employee as well as the

entity to become successful (Stone, 2009). The key is to become adaptable within the

work environment (Knouse, 2009). Within any successful organization will experience

conflict; such as, management competing along with its team to provide better services

that will both inspire the overall organization and secondly maintain its position (Wang &

Rafiq, 2009). Conflict still persists within management, as conflict exists within familial

institutions, therefore, existing within any corporate institution.

Conflict first exist during the communication processes, which occurs through

either face to face, and-or Internet communication, such as emails and so forth (Stone,
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2009). In either case management must recognize were the problem exist, and it is the

responsibility of management to resolve the problem, as well as its employees to resolve

the problem. Because of the fact, of individual background difference is where cultural

diversity is the main medium to help resolve any difference existing with any conflict

existing within the organization (Alma, 2008).

Servant leadership as in Christian Faith

In regards to Robert Greenleaf some researchers suggested combining

management and subordinates into one positive organization that describes the concept of

servant leadership. It can potentially lead into a successful organization, which suit the

aims of cultural diversity (Vargas & Hanlon, 2007, pg. 45-46). In addition, it brings

together the employees the “empowerment” resembling management concept, which is

also the aim of cultural diversity (Stone, 2009).

Robert Greenleaf interpretation of servant leadership is services to the employee’s

or subordinates. The key idea is earning the trust and respect of our subordinates to lead

and guide them (Vargas & Hanlon, 2007).

A Philosophical approach to Leadership

The philosophy of servant leadership is the central concept of Christianity, for

instance, most Christian leader view themselves as servants to their parishioner’s. The

ideology of Jesus Christ who was a leader of twelve disciples was the feet of His

disciples, which symbolizes a servant type leadership. Therefore, to gain or to earn the

respect from leadership must bear some resemblance. Because of the fact, subordinates
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must determine whether or not he or she can either join or maintain relationship within

the organization (Vargas & Hanlon, 2009; Stone, 2009).


Alma, I. (2008). Managing and sustaining a world of workplace diversity: The Accenture
experience. Strategic HR Review, Vol. 75, pp. 11-16.

Bianco, A.T. & Schermerhorn, Jr. J. (2006). Self-regulation, strategic leadership and
paradox in organizational change. Journal of Organizational Change
Management. Bradford. Vol. 19, Iss. 4, pgs. 457-470

Knouse, S.B. (2009). Targeted Recruiting for Diversity: Strategy, Impression

Management, Realistic Expectations, and Diversity Climate. International Journal
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Kreitner, R. & Kinicki, A. (2008). Organizational Behavior (8th Ed.). McGraw Hill
Publishing Co. Boston, Ma.

Stone, M. (2005). Building a successful workforce diversity program. American Water

Works Association Journal. Vol, 97 Num. 9 pg. 46-49

Sorensen, J.B. (2007). Organizational Diversity, Labor Markets and Wage Inequality.
American Behavior Science, Vol. 50 Num., 5 pp. 659-676.

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setting: Limits to the va’…Management Learning. Vol, 33, No. 1, pgs. 79-97

Vargas, P.A. & Hanlon, J. (2007). Celebrating a Profession: The Servant Leadership
Perspective. The Journal of Research Administration. Vol, 38, pgs. 45-49
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Wang, C.L. & Rafiq, M. (2009). Organizational Diversity and Shared Visions. Resolving
the Paradox of exploratory and exploitative learning. European Journal of
Innovation Management, Vol., 12, Num., 1 pp. 85-101.