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vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

DECLARATION

ii

DEDICATION

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iv

ABSTRACT

ABSTRAK

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

vii

LIST OF TABLES

xi

LIST OF FIGURES

xii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES

xiv

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Introduction

1.2

Research Background

1.3

Organization Background

1.4

Problem Statement

1.5

Purpose of the Study

11

1.6

Research Objectives

11

1.7

Research Questions

11

1.8

Significance of Study

12

1.9

Scope of the Study

13

1.10

Conceptual Definitions

14

1.10.1

13

Knowledge Commercialization

viii
1.10.2

Entrepreneurship

14

1.10.3

Entrepreneurial Characteristics

14

1.10.4

Attitude

15

towards

Knowledge

Commercialization

LITERATURE REVIEW

16

2.1

Introduction

16

2.2

Commercialization of University Research

17

2.3

Entrepreneurship

22

2.3.1

Academic Entrepreneurship

23

2.3.2

Entrepreneurial Characteristics

25

2.3.2.1

Need for Achievement

30

2.3.2.2

Locus of Control

31

2.3.2.3

Leadership

32

2.3.2.4

Commitment

and

Determination

32

2.3.2.5

Risk Taking Propensity

33

2.3.2.6

Tolerance of Ambiguity and


Uncertainty

34

2.3.2.7

Self-Confidence

34

2.3.2.8

Creativity, Self-Reliance and


Ability to Adapt

35

2.3.2.9

Innovativeness

36

2.3.2.10

Opportunity Recognition

37

2.3.2.11

Motivation to Excel

38

2.4

Attitude towards Commercialization

2.5

The

Relationship

between

39

Entrepreneurial

Characteristics and Attitude towards Knowledge

Commercialization

40

2.6

Conceptual Framework of the Study

49

2.7

Chapter Summary

50

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

51

ix
3.1

Introduction

51

3.2

Research Design

52

3.3

Population and Sample

53

3.3.1 Population

54

3.3.2 Sampling Procedure

54

3.4

Research Instrument

55

3.5

Data Collection Procedure

57

3.6

Data Analysis Techniques

57

3.6.1 Reliability and Validity

58

3.6.2 Descriptive Statistics

58

3.6.3 Inferential Statistics

59

3.6.4 Regression Analysis

59

Chapter Summary

60

3.7

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

61

4.1

Introduction

61

4.2

Reliability

62

4.3

Demographic Profile

63

4.4

Descriptive Statistics

67

4.5

Hypothesis Testing for the Relationship of Each


Entrepreneurial

Characteristic

with

Attitude

towards Knowledge Commercialization


4.6

68

Hypotheses Testing between All Entrepreneurial


Characteristics and Attitude towards Knowledge

4.7

Commercialization

72

Chapter Summary

75

DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION

77

5.1

Introduction

77

5.2

Overview of the Study

77

5.3

Summary of the Main Findings

79

5.4

Discussion of the Study

81

5.4.1

Research Question 1:What are the

81

x
entrepreneurial

characteristics

of

academicians in Universiti Teknologi


Malaysia

(UTM)

that

influences

commercialization in UTM?
5.4.2

Research

Question

attitude

of

2:What

academicians

is

the

towards

knowledge commercialization in UTM?


5.4.3

Research

Question

relationship

between

3:What

is

83

the

entrepreneurship

characteristics and academics attitude


towards knowledge commercialization in
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)?

84

5.5

Implication of the Findings

86

5.6

Recommendations

87

5.6.1

Research Limitation and Potentials for


Future Works

88

REFERENCES

90

Appendix A

105

xi

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO

1.1

TITLE

PAGE

Commercialization Activities in Malaysian Public


Universities (2010)

2.1

Key Stakeholders of Commercialization

19

2.2

Summary

of

Literature

on

Entrepreneurial

Characteristics
3.1

28

Research Objectives, Research Questions and


Analytical Technique

53

3.2

Questionnaire Structure

57

4.1

Reliability of the Research Instrument

62

4.2

Age, Gender and Education

64

4.3

Faculty and Designation of the respondents

65

4.4

Work

Experience

and

Industrial

Research

Experience
4.5

Descriptive

66
Statistics

for

Entrepreneurship

Characteristics
4.6

Relationships

67
between

Entrepreneurship

Characteristics and Academic Attitude towards


Commercialization

70

4.7

Regression Analysis

73

4.8

Summary of the hypotheses

76

5.1

Summary of the hypotheses

80

xii

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO

1.1

TITLE

PAGE

Commercialization of Technology and Shaping


Factors

18

2.1

Framework of Study

50

3.1

Research design of the study

52

xiii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

NIM

National Innovation Model

MOSTI

Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation

MOHE

Ministry of Higher Education

NKEA

National Key Economic Areas

NA

Need for Achievement

LC

Locus of Control

LS

Leadership

CD

Commitment and Determination

TAU

Tolerance of Ambiguity and Uncertainty

SC

Self-Confidence

CSAA

Creativity, Self-reliance and ability to adapt

IN

Innovativeness

ME

Motivation to Excel

RTP

Risk Taking Propensity

OR

Opportunity Recognition

ATKC

Attitude towards Knowledge Commercialization

EC

Entrepreneurial Characteristic

xiv

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX

TITLE

Questionnaire

PAGE

105