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Scalars and vectors

Scalars: It is a physical quantity having only magnitude but no direction.Ex: Distance,


speed, mass, time, energy, density, temperature

Vectors: The physical quantities which has both magnitude as well as direction are called
vectors.Ex: Displacement, velocity, weight, momentum etc.

Representation of a vector: Vectors are represented by an arrow drawn to a particular scale.


Here the length PQ is proportional to the magnitude & the arrow head refers the direction.
Avector is represented by a letter with an arrow over it i.e A .

Classification of vectors:
1)

Unit vector ( A ): A vector having unit magnitude is called unit vector. It is


.
represented as A

A
A

i.e

unit vector

Vector
magnitude of that vector

Note: 1)The unit vectors along x, y, z axis are given by i, j

&

respectively.
2) In a unit vector its magnitude is non-zero i.e A
1.

Equal vectors: Two vectors are said to be equal if they have same
magnitude as well as in the same direction.

2.

Null or Zero vector: A vector with which zero magnitude.

3.

Parallel vectors: Two or more vectors are said to be parallel if they have same
direction.
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4.

Antiparallel: Two or more vectors are said to be antiparallel if they are opposite in
direction

5.

Negative vectors: Two anti-parallel vectors with


same magnitude are said to be negative of each
other.

6.

Concurrent vectors: Vectors which intersect at a


point or vectors which have common initial
point.
1)Co planar: Vectors in a same plane are called co-planar vectors.
2)Collinear vectors: vectors along the same line.

Triangle law of addition:


Statement: If two vectors a

&

b are

represented by two sides of a triangle in


the same order, then the third side
drawn in opposite sense represents the
sum of vectors.

Parallelogram law of vector addition:


Statement: If two vectors acting at a point are represented both in magnitude & in
direction by the adjacent sides of a parallelogram drawn from a point, then the resultant
is represented both in magnitude & in direction by the diagonal of the parallelogram
drawn from that point.
Let p & q be the two vectors at O.
The diagonal Oc of the parallelogram
OACB is given by the diagonal

Subtraction of vectors:
Suppose a vector b is to be subtracted from another vector a ,
mathematically it can be written as

Its a reverse process of addition.


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Resolution of a vector: The process of splitting up a vector into two or more vectors is
known as resolution of a vector.
If a vector is resolved into 2 vectors which are mutually perpendicular, then these
vectors are called rectangular components of the given vector.
Let us suppose the vector p has to be resolved into its rectangular components. To do
this, taking the initial point of p has to be resolved along Ox & Oy direction. Draw
perpendicular from c to x & y axis to meet at A &B. Let the components be px & p y .
From the rectangle OABC

px

py

The magnitude of rectangular components are given by:


From

le

OCA

cos

px

sin

OA p x
OC
p
pcos
py
Ac

p
OC
psin

py
Again in

le

CA
OA

OCA tan
tan

(1)

(2)

py
Px

py
px

This gives the direction of p


To find magnitude, square & add equation (1) & (2)

px2

p2y

p2 cos2

p2 sin2

p2 (cos2
sin2 )
p2 px2
p2y
p

px2

p2y

Multiplication of a vector by a scalar:


On multiplying a vector P by a scalar or a number
`n`, a vector R is obtained such that

nP

The direction of R is same as that of P .


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M.N.Sharath

Scalar or Dot product:


If the product of 2 vectors results in a scalar quantity, it is a scalar product.
If A and B are two vectors &
can be represented by

A.B

be the angle between them, then the scalar product

ABcos

Hence Dot product can be defined as the product of 2 vectors is equal to the product of the
magnitude of one vector & the component of the second in the direction of the first vector.
Ex: Work = F displacement

= FS cos
In terms of components, dot product can be expressed as follows:
Let a

ax i

ay j

az k

bx i

by j

b zk

(ax i

(b i b j b k)

ay j azk).
x
z
y
ax bx i.i ax by i.j ax b z i. k

a b j.i a b j.j a b j.k

Then a . b

y x

y y

az bx k.i

a zby k.j


a zb zk.k

Here the dot product of 2 mutually perpendicular vectors are zero.


i.e i . j

a.b

j. k

ax bx

i .k

ax by

az bz

Cross or vector product:


If the product of two vectors results in a vector, then it is called as vector product.
If A & B are the 2 vectors & be the angle between them, then the vector product is
written as

ABsin n

Where n is the unit vector in the direction of its resultant.


Ex: 1) Angular momentum L
2) Torque

B A
Note : 1) A B
2) Cross product is non-distributive

c
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M.N.Sharath kumar

3) i

i
4) i j
j i

j j

k;

k;

j k i ; k
i ; i
k j

i
k

j
j

5) The Cross product is given by

i
ax

j
ay

az

bx

by

bz

Faraday
Michael Faraday's interest in knowledge for its own sake often baffled people of a more practical bent.
British Prime Minister William Gladstone, observing Faraday performing a particularly unlikely
experiment one day, pointedly asked him how useful such a 'discovery' could possibly be. "Why," Faraday
smartly replied, "you will soon be able to tax it!"

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M.N.Sharath kumar