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Rotational motion and

Rigid body dynamics


Rigid body: A rigid body is one in which the distance between any molecules remains
unchanged regardless of the forces applied on the body.
The axis with which a rigid body rotates is known as axis of rotation.
Angular displacement: It is defined as the angle swept by the radius
vector in a given time.
Q
Consider a rigid body of rotating about a fixed axis passing

through `O`.
O r P
Let the particle `P` prescribes a circular path of radius `r`. The line

joining O & p is called radius vector. As the body rotates, the radius
vector rotates about O. Here pOq
is the angular displacement.

Angular velocity: Time rate of change of angular displacement is angular velocity. It is


defined by w.
If a particle covers an angle in t seconds, then
angle covered
,
angular velocity=
w=
time taken
t
Its unit is rad/s. It is a vector quantity.
A body is said to rotate with a uniform angular velocity if it describes
angles in equal intervals of time.
A body is said to rotate with a variable angular velocity if it describes equal angles
in unequal intervals of time.
Instantaneous angular velocity: It is defined as

Lt

d
dt

Angular acceleration: The time rate of change of angular velocity is called angular
acceleration. It is defined by
Let w1 & w2 be the angular velocities at times t1 & t 2 .Then average angular
acceleration is given by
Change in angular velocity
Time taken

w2
t2

w1
t1
w
t

The instantaneous angular acceleration is given by


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M.N.Sharath kumar

w
t

lim
t

dw
dt

Angular acceleration is measured in rad s


direction is same as that of angular velocity.

.Its a vector quantity whose

Equations for angular motion:


1) w w0
t
Consider a particle moving in angular acceleration. If angular velocity of the particle
is w0 at t=0 & w at t=t. Then by definition

w0
t

2)

t w
w w0
1 2
t
2

w0 t

w0
t

If be the angular displacement of particle.


= average angular velocity time

w0
2
w0

3) w

w02

and

t w0
t
2
2w0 t
t2
2
1 2
w0 t
t
2

Wkt

w0

2
w0

(1)

(2)

Multiplying (1) & (2)

w0

t
w2

w0
2

w02
t
2t

w2

w02
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M.N.Sharath kumar

w2

w02

Relationship between angular & linear variables:


Consider a body moving in a circular path of radius r. It covers an arc of the circle
`S` in time t making an angle .
From geometry we have

Divide by `t

S
t
v

r.

t
rw

Let v1 & v2 be the linear velocities corresponding to angular velocities w1 & w2 .


Then v1

v2

rw1 , v 2 rw 2
v1 r(w2 w1 )

Rate of change of velocity w.r.t time is

v2

v1
t

w2

w1
t

Moment of inertia: The property of an object to resist changes in its

rotational state of motion is called moment of inertia.


Consider a rigid body capable of rotating about an axis xy. Let a
particle of mass `m` is placed at a distance `r` from the rotational axis
i.e. `r` is the radius of the rotational medium.
Then moment of inertia I of the particle about XY axis is given by

mr2

Thus MOI of a particle about an axis is equal to the product of mass of the particle
& square of the distance between the particle & axis of rotation. It depends on
1) Mass of the body.
2) Position of the axis.
3) Distribution of mass about the axis.
Expression for MOI for a system of particle :
Consider a system of particles of
masses m1 ,m2 ,m3 at the distance r1 ,r2 ,r3 from the
x
axis of rotation XY.
m1
r1
2
The MOI of particle of mass m1 is m1 r1 , that of

m 2 is m 2 r22 & that of m3 is m3r32 .

r2

m2

The total sum of MOI of a body about the


m3
rotation axis is equal to the sum of MOI of all particles
r3
w.r.t the same axis of rotation.
y
The total sum of MOI of a body about the
rotation axis is equal to the sum of MOI of all particles w.r.t the same axis of rotation.
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M.N.Sharath kumar

I
I

m1r12 m2r22
mr 2

Radius of gyration :

m3r32

......

The radius of gyration of a body about a given axis of rotation is the

perpendicular distance from the axis to the point where the entire mass of the body is
assumed to be concentrated.
2
i.e I Mk ; M = Mass of the body
Where k is known as radius of gyration which depends on
1) Distribution of mass from the axis of rotation.
2) The position & direction of the rotation axis.

K.E of rotation:
Wkt K.E

1
mv 2
2

1
m(rw 2 )
2
1
mr 2 w 2
2
2
I
but wkt mr
K.E

1 2
Iw
2

Torque(moment of a force): It is the product of applied force & perpendicular distance


from axis to line of action of force.
Or
Torque about a reference point is the cross-product of the position vector of the
point of application of the force & the force.

It is a vector quantity measured in N-m


x
Torque depends on
F
a) Magnitude of the force.
b) Direction of force.
c) Direction between the point of application of force & the axis of rotation.

Theorem of perpendicular axes:

It states that if there are three mutually perpendicular


axes at a common point in a body, then the sum of moments
of inertia of a plane lamina about the two axes lying in its
plane is equal to the moment of inertia about the third
perpendicular axis.

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M.N.Sharath kumar

Iz

Ix

Iy

Theorem of parallel axes: It states that the MOI of a body about


any axis is equal to the sum of its MOI about a parallel axis through
the centre of mass and the product of mass of the body & square of
the perpendicular
axis between the two axis.

Ic

r
C

Mr 2

Where I c is the MOI of the about the axis through centre of mass.
M mass of the rigid body
Body

Figure

Axis

1.Thin uniform
rod of length L &
mass M.

Passing through
the centre &
perpendicular to
the rod.

2. Cylinder of
radius R, length
L & mass M.
3. Circular ring
of radius R &
mass M.

Passing through
symmetry axis

R
L

Passing through
diameter
R

4. Circular ring
of radius R &
mass M.

5. Solid sphere of
radius R & mass
M

Passing through
the centre &
perpendicular to
its plane

Passing through
the diameter
R

47

MOI

ML
12

MR2
2
MR2
2

MR2

2
MR2
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M.N.Sharath kumar

Angular momentum: The angular momentum of a body rotating about an axis is


defined as the sum of moment of linear momenta of all the particles about the same axis.
It is denoted by L.
x
Consider a rigid body rotation about
XY axis as shown. It is rotating with a
m1
r1
Uniform angular velocity w.
Let the particles m1 ,m2 ,m3 of
m
r2

masses are situated at a distance r1 ,r2 ,r3


from the axis of rotation.
The linear velocity of m1 is given by

r3

m3

v1 =r1 w
The linear momentum of the particle is

= m1 v1
= m1r1w
The moment of linear momentum about the axis of rotation = momentum
distance

= m1r1w r1
= m1r12 w
Similarly the moments of linear momenta of a system of particles is

m2r22 w, m3r32 w.......


Now the angular momentum is

L = m1r12 w

m2r22 w

( mr 2 )w
L Iw
2
It is measured in kgm s

m3r32 w........

Relational between torque and angular momentum:


Wkt

I
dw
I
dt
d
(Iw)
dt
dL
dt

Iw

So torque acting on a body is equal to the rate of change of angular momentum.

Conservation of angular momentum:


W.k.t

dL
if
dt

0 then

dL
dt

0 or L = Constant

If no external force acts on the body, the angular momentum remains constant in
magnitude & direction.
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M.N.Sharath kumar

i.e. I w = Constant
or I1w1
I2 w2 ...
This is known as conservation of angular momentum.

Comparison between translational & rotational motion:


Translational

Rotational

1.Displacement

2. Velocity

3. Acceleration

4. Mass

5. Momentum

p = mv

L = Iw

6. Force

F = ma

7. Work

W = F.s

1
mv2
2

1 2
Iw
2

8.Kinetic energy

v
r
a
r
mr 2

Relative Weakness
Shortly after Albert Einstein fled from Germany (in 1932), one hundred Nazi professors
published a book (One Hundred Authors Against Einstein) condemning his theory of
relativity. "If I were wrong," Einstein said in his defense, "one professor would have been
enough."

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M.N.Sharath kumar