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Work, Power and Energy

Work: work is said to be done if the body displaces from one position to another by the
application of force.
For work to be done, the following conditions has to be satisfied
a) A force must be applied.
b) The applied force should displace the body.
The amount of work done is measured by the product of the applied force & the
distance through which it moves in the direction of force.
If a body displaces through a distance `s` by the application of force F then work
done is given by

F. s

It is clear that work done is Zero if there is no displacement.


Consider a body of mass m. Let F be a force acting on the body at A which takes
the body to B making an angle w.r.t horizontal. The component of displacement along
the direction of force F is scos.
Work done

B
S

F. s
= F s cos

When
0 the displacement of the body takes place
in the direction of force.

W = Fs
Note: 1) When

90 ,W = Fs cos 90 =0 i.e. if the applied force is perpendicular to

the displacement, work done is zero.


2) If s=0, W=0, i.e. no work is done.
3) Work done is a scalar quantity.

Units of work: The work done is said to be 1 joule when a force of 1 Newton moves a
body through a distance of 1 meter.

Graphical determination of work by a force:


Work done by a constant force:
Consider a constant force F acting on a body which
takes the body from initial position x i to final position x f .
Then the total displacement

x
W

xf

xi

F.x

xi

xf

This is nothing but the area under the force position curve.

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M.N.Sharath kumar

Work done by a variable force:


If a variable force acts on the body, then the total
curve can be divided into short segments
s1, s2 , s3..... . This displacement takes place by the
force F1 cos , F2 cos .....
The total work is given by

F1 cos

s1

F2 cos

s2

.....

Thus, the total work done by a varying force for a given displacement is equal to
the total area under the force curve & the displacement axis.
Power: It is defined as the time rate of doing work. It is measured by the amount of work
done in 1 second.
If W is the work done in `t` seconds then
Workdone W
P
time
t
Thus more the time, less the power & less the time more the power. Power is a scalar
quantity.

W
but W F.s
t
s
F. s
,
F
t
t

Wkt P

P
P

F.v

Power is the dot product of constant force & the velocity of the point application of the
force.
SI unit of Power: SI unit is watt (W). The power is said to be 1W if one joule of work is
done in one second. But we usually use the unit called as horse power.

1 HP = 746W

Energy: It is the capacity to do work by a body. It represents the total amount of work
that a body can perform. Its a scalar quantity. Thermal, nuclear, mechanical,
electrostatic are the different forms of energy. Mechanical energy is of two types:
a) Kinetic energy
b) Potential energy
Potential energy: It is the energy possessed by virtue of its position is known as potential
energy.
Expression for potential energy:
Consider a body of mass `m` be raised to a height `h` from the
ground. Due to its position, it possess potential energy. The work done
in
lifting the body is stored as potential energy in the body.
By definition
Work done = force displacement
Work done = F h
But the weight `mg` acting downwards is the force.
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M.N.Sharath kumar

By Newtons second law of motion

F = mg
Work done = mgh
Since the work done is nothing but the potential energy stored in the body.

P.E=mgh
This is the expression of potential energy possessed by a body placed at a height `h`
above the ground.

Expression for P.E of a spring:


When a spring is compressed or stretched, it possess potential energy. Let the
spring be stretched through a distance `x` along its length from its mean position.
Then the P.E of a spring is given by

P.E

1 2
kx
2

Where K is known as spring constant.


Note: 1) P.E is independent of path.
2) It depends on the final position.
Kinetic energy: It is the energy possessed by the body due to the virtue of its motion. It is
measured by the amount of work that the body can do before coming to rest.

Expression for kinetic energy:


Let a body of mass `m` moving with a velocity v is brought to rest by applying a

F
. Let the
m
body travels a distance `s` before coming to rest. The work done is equal to F. s
2
u 2 2as
Consider v
constant force F . Then the uniform retardation produced in the body is a

In this initial velocity is v & final velocity is zero.

0 v 2 2as
v 2 2as
v2
a
2s
But K.E=Work done before the body comes to rest.

K.E = F.s
=mas
v2
m .s
2s
1
K.E
mv 2
2

James Watt

This is the expression for the kinetic energy of a body.

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M.N.Sharath kumar

Work Energy theorem: It states that the work done by a force acting on a body is equal
to the change in K.E of the body.

W K.E2 K.E1
1
1
mv22
mv12
2
2
1
W
m v22
v12
2
One can notice that
a) When Work done is + ve, K.E increases.
b) When Work done is ve , K.E decreases.
Principle of conservation of energy:
Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be changed from one form
to another so that the total energy always remains constant.
Illustrations of conservation of energy:
A freely falling body:
Let a particle of mass `m` be at A at a height `h` from the ground. Let it fall freely
to B.
a) At point A the body is at rest. Since it is not moving its velocity is zero so K.E is also
zero.

P.E = mgh
Total energy = P.E + K.E
mgh

(1)

b) Let the body fall through a distance `x` below A. Then it is at a


height (h x) from B.
At c, P.E = mg(h x)
If v1 is the velocity attained by the body at c then,

v12
v12

u 2 2gx
0 2gx
1
K.E
mv12
2
1
m 2gx
2
K.E = mgx
T.E = P.E + K.E
=mg(h-x)+mgx
=mgh-mgx-mgx
T.E mgh
(2)
c)At point B, let v 2 be the velocity of the body.
P.E at B is zero because h=0
v 2 u 2 2gs
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M.N.Sharath kumar

v2

2gh
1
K.E
mv22
2
1
m 2gh
2
K.E = mgh
Total energy =P.E + K.E
= 0 + mgh
mgh
(3)
From equations (1), (2) & (3) it is clear that the total energy of a body remains constant
throughout its motion. Thus total energy is conserved.

A body moving on a smooth inclined plane:


AB is a smooth inclined plane of height H. Let l be the total length of plane & be the
angle between the inclined plane & horizontal.
a) At A, the body of mass m has only
P.E since it is at rest.

P.E = mgh
K.E = 0
T.E = P.E + K.E
= mgH + 0
T.E = mgH

(1)

b) As the body moves down, its velocity increases which in turn decreases the P.E
and height also decreases. Consider a point D along the path with velocity v1 . The
body is pulled down by acceleration due to gravity g & it can be resolved as gsin
along the direction of motion of particle and gcos perpendicular to gsin. Only
parallel component causes the motion of the body down the plane . If `x` is the
distance traveled then,

v12 0 2gsin .x
v12 2gsin .x
1
K.E at D
mv12
2
1
m.2gxsin
2
K.E = mgxsin
H
From le ADE sin

h
x

xsin
H h
K.Eat D mg(H h)
P.Eat D mgh
T.E mgH mgh mgh
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M.N.Sharath kumar

T.E mgH

(2)

c) Let the velocity of body at B be v. It has K.E but no P.E

v2

2gsin .l

From

le

ABC sin

v2

K.E

H
l

2gH
1
mv 2
2

1
2gH m mgH
2
T.E = mgH+0
T.E mgH
(3)
From equations (1), (2) & (3) we see that the total energy is conserved.
Conservative forces: If the work done in moving a particle by a force depends on
initial & final positions of the particle but not on the path taken, then the force is said to
be conservative.
1) Work done by a conservative force along a circular path is zero.
2) The work done by a conservative force is completely recoverable.
Ex: Gravitational force, elastic force in a stretched or compressed spring, magnetic force
between 2 magnetic poles ,electrostatic force between 2 charges.
Non conservative force: A force is said to be conservative if the work done by or
against the force in moving a body depends on the path taken between initial & final
positions.
Ex: Frictional force, viscous force, tension in a rope.
Collisions: It is also even in which either of the bodies come in physical contact with
each other or one body is affected by the force exerted due
to other. In collisions, the total momentum of bodies is always conserved i.e. momentum
before collision is equal to momentum after collision.
Elastic collision: A collision is said to be elastic if both K.E & momentum are conserved.
The equations are

m1u1 m2u2 m1 v1 m2 v 2
1
1
1
2
and m1 v1
m 2 v22
m1u12
2
2
2

1
m 2u22
2

Inelastic collision: The collision is said to be inelastic when only momentum is conserved
but not the energy.
Ex: Collision between 2 automobiles, hammering a nail, bullet fired into a block. The
equation is given by

m1u1

m 2 u2

(m1

m2 )v

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M.N.Sharath kumar

1
m1u12
2

1
m 2u22
2

1
(m1
2

m 2 )v 2

Co efficient of restitution: It is defined as the ratio of relative velocity of the body after
collision to its relative velocity before collision.
Let u1 & u 2 be the velocities of 2 bodies before collision & v1 & v 2 be the
velocities after collision. Then the co- efficient of restitution is give n by

(v1
(u1

v2 )
u2 )

For a perfectly elastic collision e =1

u1
u1

(v1 v 2 )
(u1 u 2 )
u2
v1 v 2
u 2 v 2 v1

Velocity of separation is equal to velocity of approach.


For a perfect inelastic collision e = 0

(v1 v 2 ) u1 u2
(v1 v 2 )
Or
0
u1 u 2
v1 v 2 0
Or v1 v2
i.e. body stick together after collision & move with a same velocity.

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M.N.Sharath kumar