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PROJECT REPORT

(Project Semester January-May 2016)

Design of Water Treatment Plant for Water of Kaushalya Dam on river Ghaggar for city of
Panchkula

Submitted by

Arshdeep Singh

12102054

Aditya Aggarwal

12102068

Hritik Walia

12102075

Under the Guidance of

Dr. Shakti Arora,


Associate Professor,
Civil Engineering Department

Department of Civil Engineering


PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the project work entitled Design of Water Treatment Plant for water of Kaushalya Dam on river Ghaggar for
city of Panchkula is an authentic record of my own work carried out at "" as requirement of six month capstone project for the
award of degree of B.E. (Civil Engineering), PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh, under the guidance, during January to
May, 2016.

Arshdeep Singh (12102054)

Aditya Aggarwal (12102068)

Hritik Walia

Date: 11/5/2016

Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief.

Dr. Shakti Arora


ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

(12102075)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and assistance from many people and we are extremely
fortunate to have got this all along the completion of our project work. Whatever we have done is only due to such guidance and
assistance and we would not forget to thank them.
We respect and thank Shakti Arora sir, for giving me an opportunity to do this project work and providing all support and guidance
which made me complete the project on time . We are extremely grateful to him for providing such a nice support and guidance.

CONTENTS
1. Introduction..................................................................4
1.2 Sources of water.................................................................4
1.3 Characteristics of water................................................................4
1.4 Study Area .....................................................................7
1.5 Objectives............................................................8

2.1 Water Purification.........................................................9


2.2Primary Treatment.........................................9
2.3Secondary Treatment.....................................9
2.4Tertiary Treatment.......12
3.1Clarifoculator........13
3.2Feeding Devices.............13
3.3Mixing device.............14
3.4Flocculation tank.......14
4.1Filtration............15
4.2Slow Sand Gravity Filters........16
4.3Rapid Sand Filters........16
5.1Disinfection by Chlorination........21
5.2Introduction.......21
5.3Chlorination Guidelines...........23
5.4Chlorination Demand...........23
6. DESIGN
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Intake canal..................27
Coarse Screens.............28
Pump for lifting water.................29
Primary Sedimentation Tank.............30
Clariflocculator with secondary sedimentation............31
Filtration by Rapid Gravity Sand Filter............34
Underdraiange..............35
Wash water trough..................37
Disinfection.......................38

7. References............40

Table 1: Permissible water quality chacteristics of drinking water IS 10500:2012...........................................................................6


Table 2: Water quality characteristics of water of Kaushalya Dam...................................................................................................7
Table 3 : Permissible concentrations of varios elements in Water IS 10500:2012............................................................................8
Table 4: Disinfection data.....................................................................................................................................................................38

Figure 0: View of Kaushalya Dam.........................................................................................................................................................9


Figure 1: Layout of Water Treatment Plant: .....................................................................................................................................12
Figure 2: Clariflocculator .....................................................................................................................................................................15
Figure 3:Rapid Sand Gravity FIlter....................................................................................................................................................17
Figure 4: Intake Canal...........................................................................................................................................................................27
Figure 5: Rapid Sand Gravity Filter....................................................................................................................................................31
Figure 6: Underdraiange.......................................................................................................................................................................33

1. INTRODUCTION
Growing demands for water and the increasing costs of water supply are resulting in a need for countries to maximize the use of their
existing water supplies and make use of hitherto unexploited resources. Numerous techniques , modem and traditional, for improving
the use and augmenting the availability of availability, of water resources have been developed and implemented in various parts of
the world. These include, among others, wastewater reuse and recycling, desalination and rain water harvesting. In many developing
countries, the application of these technologies has been limited by lack of information on the approaches available and how well
they work.
Water is pumped from wells, rivers, streams, and reservoirs to water treatment plants where it is treated and distributed to customers.
Wastewater travels through customers ,sewer pipes, wastewater treatment plants, where it is either treated and returned to streams,
rivers, oceans or reused for irrigation and landscaping. Operators in both types of plants control equipment and processes that
remove or destroy harmful materials, chemical compounds, and microorganism from re water. They also control pumps, valves, and
other equipment that moves the wafer or wastewater through re various treatment processes, after which they dispose of the removed
waste materials

1.2 SOURCES OF WATER


After estimating the water requirement for the proposed water supply scheme the planners of the scheme must go in for search of
nearby water sources, which may be able to supply the required amount of water. If the available supplies of a particular source or
sources of water chosen in the vicinity of the area are not sufficient to meet the demand, then it becomes imperative upon the
planners to search some other distant source or sources and to make arrangements for bringing water there.
The various sources of water available on the earth can be classified into following categories:
1.

Deep groundwater

2.

Shallow ground waters

3.

Upland lakes and reservoirs

4.

Atmosphere water generation is a new technology that can provide high quality drinking water by extracting water from the

ar by cooing the air and thus condensing water vapour.


5.

Rainwater harvesting or fog collection which collects water from the atmosphere can be used especially in areas with

significant dry seasons and in areas which experience fog even when there is lithe ran.

1.3 CHARACTERISTIC OF WATER


To most people not professionally involved in water quality issues, water is either drinkable (or potable) or contains potentially
harmful or toxic substances (suffering from water pollution). However, the vast majority of surface water on the planet is neither
potable nor toxic. This remains true even if sea water in the oceans (which is too salty to drink, isn't counted. Another general
perception of water quality is that of a simple property that it is niether water is polluted or not. In fact, water quality is a very
complex subject, m part because water is a complex medium intrinsically tied to the ecology of the planet. The raw and treated
waters can be checked and analysed by studying and testing their physical, chemical and characteristics as explained below:

1.3.1 Physical characteristics:


Physical analysis of water is carried out in order to determine the physical characteristics of water. These tests are for determining
turbidity, colour, taste or odour, temperature, specific conductivity etc as explained below:
The important physical characteristics of water are:
1.

Turbidity

2.

Colour

3.

Tastes and odours

4.

Temperature

5.

Specific conductivity of water

6.

pH

Table 1

Organoleptic and Physical Parameters

SI No. Characteristic
(1) (2)
i)
Colour, Hazen units, Max

Requirement
(Acceptable
Limit)
(3)
5

Permissible Limit in the


Absence of Alternate Source
(4)
15

ii)

Odour

Agreeable

Agreeable

iii)
iv)

pH value
Taste

6.5-8.5
Agreeable

No relaxation
Agreeable

v)
vi)

Turbidity. NTU. Max


Total dissolved solids, mg/1. Max

1
500

5
2 000

Table 2
Parameters

January

April

S1

S2

S1

S2

TEMPERATURE

14.9

15

22.5

23

pH

7.6

7.8

7.77

7.96

BOD

0.4

0.5

0.1

0.2

COD

3.8

4.5

4.8

TDS

210

210

158

159

TSS

Table 3
General Parameters Concerning Substances Undesirable in Excessive Amounts
Requirement
SI
No, Characteristic

Permissible Limit
in the Absence of

(Acceptable

Alternate Source

Limit)
(1) (2)
i)
ii)

Aluminium (as Al), mg/1, Max


Ammonia (as total ammonia-N), mg/1, Max

(4)
0.03
(3)
0.5

0.2
No relaxation

iii) Anionic detergents (as MBAS) mg/1, Max

0.2

1.0

iv)

Barium (as Ba), mg/1, Max

0.7

No relaxation

v) Boron (as B), mg/1, Max


vi) Calcium (as Ca), mg/1, Max
vii) Chloramines (as CL,), mg/1, Max

0.5
75
4.0

1.0
200
No relaxation

viii)
ix)
x)
xi)

250
0.05
1.0
0.2

1 000
1.5
1.5
1

xii) Iron (as Fe), mg/1, Max

0.3

No relaxation

xiii) Magnesium (as Mg), mg/1, Max


xiv) Manganese (as Mn), mg/1, Max

30
0.1

100
0.3

xv) Mineral oil, mg/1, Max

0.5

No relaxation

xvi) Nitrate (as NOA mg/1, Max

45

No relaxation

Chloride (as Cl), mg/1, Max


Copper (as Cu), mg/1, Max
Fluoride (as F) mg/1, Max
Free residual chlorine, mg/1, Min

xvii) Phenolic compounds (as C6H3OH), 0.001 mg/1, Max

0.002

xviii)Selenium (as Se), mg/1, Max

0.01

No relaxation

xix) Silver (as Ag), mg/1, Max


xx) Sulphate (as SO*) mg/1, Max

0.1
200

No relaxation
400

xxi) Sulphide (as HjS), mg/1, Max


xxii) Total alkalinity as calcium carbonate, mg/1,

0.05
200

No relaxation
600

xxiii)Max
Total hardness (as CaC03), mg/1, Max

200

600

xxiv) Zinc (as Zn), mg/1, Max

15

1.4 STUDY AREA


The Kaushalya Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Kaushalya river, which is a tributary of Ghaggar-Hakra River (modern
remnant of ancient Sarasvati river), in Pinjore of Haryana state, India. It was constructed between 2008 and 2012 with the primary
purpose of water supply.
1.4.1Location
Kaushalya barrage and resulting upstream dam on Kaushalya river are located 21 km from Chandigarh, 12 km from Panchkula city
and Khol Hi-Raitan Wildlife Sanctuary near Panchkula, 5 km from Pinjore city, and 13 km from Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary
near Pinjore.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Pinjore,Haryana
Coordinates: 304630.93N, 765452.52E
Height
34 m (112 ft)
Length
700 m (2,300 ft)

1.4.2 History
The first plan, which never materialised, for a dam on Ghaggar river was first proposed by the British raj in the mid 19th century to
provide drinking water to Ambala Cantonment.
The proposal was revisited only in the 1960s to construct a dam on Ghaggar river at Gumthala near Chandimandir to provide water
to Chandigarh and control floods in Punjab, India, this plan was abandoned in 1999 as it would have submerged over 4000 acres of
land resulting in relocation of a large number of people.
In 2005, the revised plan to build series of smaller dams on the tributaries of Ghaggar river was approved by the Government of
Haryana and the construction of the Kaushalya dam commenced in 2008 which was completed in 2012.
1.4.3 Construction
Kaushalya dam, built by the Government of Haryana at the cost of INR217 crore, is a 700 meter long and 34 meter high earth-filled
dam.
1.4.4 Purpose
The Government of Haryana built this dam for providing 40 cusecs or 25 MGD (million gallons per day) of raw water to Panchkula
city, recharge ground water, check flash floods, promote tourism and fisheries in reservoir area.
1.4.5 Wildlife
It is an important wetland that is home of many endangered migratory birds.

Figure 2

1.5 OBJECTIVES
1. To understand the functioning and design of a water treatment plant
2. To practically calculate essential water quality characteristics of the River Ghaggar taking sample from Kaushalya Dam
3. To design the following parts of a water treatment process
a. An open channel
b. Coarse Screens
c. Pump for lifting and transporting water
d. Primary Sedimentation Tank
e. Flocculator
f. Rapid Sand Gravity Filter
g. Wash Water Troughs
h. Disinfection of water

Figure 0

10

2.1 WATER PURIFICATION


Water purification is the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for human
consumption or for industrial use. Substances that are removed during the process include parasites (such as Giardia or
Cryptosporidium), bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, minerals (including toxic metals such as Lead, Copper etc.), and man-made
chemical pollutants. Many contaminants can be dangerousbut depending on the quality standards, others are removed to improve
the waters smell, taste, and appearance. A small amount of disinfectant is usually intentionally left in the water at the end of the
treatment process to reduce the risk of re-contamination in the distribution system.

2.2 PRIMARY TREATMENT

1.

Pumping and containment - The majority of water must be pumped from its source or directed into pipes or holding tanks.

To avoid adding contaminants to the water, this physical infrastructure must be made from appropriate materials and constructed so
that accidental contamination does not occur.

2.

Screening - The first step in purifying surface water is to remove large debris such as sticks, leaves, trash and other large

particles which may interfere with subsequent purification steps. Most deep Groundwater does not need screening before other
purification steps.

3.

Storage - Water from rivers may also be stored in bankside reservoirs for periods between a few days and many months to

allow natural biological purification to take place. This is especially important if treatment is by slow sand filters. Storage reservoirs
also provide a buffer against short periods of drought or to allow water supply to be maintained during transitory pollution incidents
in the source river.

4.

Pre-conditioning - Many waters rich in hardness salts are treated with soda-ash (Sodium carbonate) to precipitate calcium

carbonate out utilising the common ion effect.

5.

Pre-chlorination - In many plants the incoming water was chlorinated to minimise the growth of fouling organisms on the

pipe-work and tanks. Because of the potential adverse quality effects, this has largely been discontinued.
2..3 SECONDARY'TREATMENT
There are a wide range of techniques that can be used to remove the fine solids, micro-organisms and some dissolved inorganic and
organic materials. The choice of method will depend on the quality of the water being treated, the cost of the treatment process and
the quality standards expected of the processed water.
1.

pH adjustment - If the water is acidic, lime or soda ash is added to raise the pH. Lime is the more common of the two

additives because it is cheaper, but it also adds to the resulting water hardness. Making the water slightly alkaline ensures that
coagulation and flocculation processes work effectively and also helps to minimise the risk of lead being dissolved from lead pipes
and lead solder in pipe fittings.
2.

Coagulation and flocculation - Together, coagulation and flocculation are purification methods that work by using

chemicals which effectively "glue" small suspended particles together, so that they settle out of the water or stick to sand or other
granules in a granular media filter. Many of the suspended water particles have a negative electrical charge. The charge keeps
particles suspended because they repel similar particles. Coagulation works by eliminating the natural electrical charge of the
suspended particles so they attract and stick to each other. The joining of the particles so that they will form larger settleable particles
is called flocculation. The larger formed particles are called floe. The coagulation chemicals are added in a tank (often called a rapid
mix tank or flash mixer), which typically has rotating paddles. In most treatment plants, the mixture remains in the tank for 10 to 30

11

seconds to ensure full mixing. The amount of coagulant that is added to the water varies widely due to the different source water
quality.
One of the more common coagulants used is aluminum sulfate, sometimes called filter alum. Aluminum sulfate reacts with water to
form floes of aluminium hydroxide.
Coagulation with aluminum compounds may leave a residue of aluminium in the finished water. This is normally about 0.1 to 0.15
mg/L. It has been established that Aluminium can be toxic to humans at high concentrations.
Iron (II) sulfate or iron (III) chloride are other common coagulants. Iron (III) coagulants work over a larger pH range than aluminum
sulfate but are not effective with many source waters. Other benefits of iron (III) are lower costs and in some cases slightly better
removal of natural organic contaminants from some coagulation with iron compounds typically leaves a residue of iron In the
finished water This may impart a slight taste to the water, and may cause brownish stains on porcelain fixtures. the trace levels of
iron are not harmful to humans, and indeed provide a needed trace mineral. Because the taste end stains may lead to customer
complaints. aluminium tends to be favoured over iron for coagulation
cationic and other polymers can also be used. They are often called coagulant aids used in conjunction with other inorganic
coagulants. The long chains of positively charged polymers can help to strengthen
the floc making it larger faster settling and easier to filter out The main advantages of polymer coagulants and aids are that they do
not need the water to be alkaline to work and that they produce less settled waste than other coagulants, which can raduce operating
costs The drawbacks of polymers are that they are expensive, can blind sand filters and that they often have a very narrow range of
effective doses.

3.

Flocculation - In flocculation coagulants are used but the resultant floe is settled out rather than filtered through sand fitters.

The chosen coagulant and the raw water is slowly mixed in a large tank called a flocculation basin. Unlike a rapid mix tank, the
flocculation paddles turn very slowly to minimise turbulence. The principle involved is to allow as many particles to contact other
particles as possible generating targe and robust floc particles. Generally, the retention time of a flocculation basin is at least 30
minutes with speeds between 0.5 feet and 1.5 feet per minute (15 to 45 cm / minute). Flow rates less than 0 5 ft/min cause
undesirable floe settlement within the basin.

4.

Sedimentation - Water exiting the flocculation basin enters the sedimentation basin, also called a ciarifier or settling basin. It

is a large tank with slow flow, allowing floc to settle to the bottom. The sedimentation basin is best located close to the flocculation
basin so the transit between does not permit settlement or floc break up. Sedimentation basins can be in the shape of a rectangle,
where water flows from end to end, or circular where flow is from the center outward. Sedimentation basin outflow is typically over
a weir so only a thin top layer-furthest from the sediment-exits. The amount of floc that settles out of the water is dependent on the
time the water spends in the basin and the depth of the basin. The retention time of the water must therefore be balanced against the
cost of a larger basin. The minimum clarifier retention time is normally 4 hours. A deep basin will allow more floc to settle out than a
shallow basin. This is because large particles settle faster than smaller ones, so large particles bump into and integrate smaller
particles as they settle. In effect, large particles sweep vertically though the basin and clean out smaller particles on their way to the
bottom.As particles settle to the bottom of the basin a layer of sludge is formed on the floor of tie tank This layer of sludge must be
removed and treated. The amount of sludge that Is generated is significant, often 3% 5% of the total volume of water that is treated.
The cost of treating and disposing of the sludge can be a significant part of the operating cost of a water treatment plant The tank

12

may be equipped with mechanical cleaning devices that continually clean the bottom of the tank or the lank can be taken out of
service when the bottom needs to be cleaned.
An increasingly popular method of floc removal is by dissolved air flotation, A proportion of clarified water, typical 5-10% of
throughput, is recycled and air is dissolved In It under pressure This is injected into the bottom of the clarifier tank where tiny air
bubbles are formed which attach themselves to the floc particles and float them to the surface. A sludge blanket Is formed which Is
periodically removed using mechanical scrapers. This method is very efficient at floc removal and reduces loading on filters,
however it is unsuitable for water sources with a high concentration of sediment,

5.

Filtration: After separating most floc, the water Is filtered as the final step to remove remaining suspended particles and

unsettled floc. The most common type of filter Is a rapid sand filter. Water moves vertically through sand which often has a layer of
activated carbon or anthracite coal above the sand. The top layer removes organic compounds Including taste and odour. The space
between sand particles is larger than the smallest suspended particles, so simple filtration Is not enough. Most particles pass through
surface layers but are trapped in pore spaces or adhere to sand particles Effective filtration extends into the depth of the filter. This
property of the filter Is key to its operation: If the top layer of s\and were to block all the particles, the filter would quickly clog. To
clean the filter, water is passed quickly upward through the filter, opposite the normal direction (called back flushing or
backwashing) to remove embedded particles. Prior to this, compressed air may be blown up through the bottom of the filter to break
up the compacted filter media to aid the backwashing process; this Is known as air scouring This contaminated water can be disposed
of along with the sludge from the sedimentation basin, or if can be recycled by mixing with the raw water entering the plant.

Some water treatment plants employ pressure filters. These work on the same principle as rapid gravity filters differing in that the
filter medium is enclosed in a steel vessel and the water Is forced through it under pressure.

6.

Slow sand filters may be used where there is sufficient land and space Those rely on biological treatment processes for their

action rather than physical filtration. Slow sand filters are carefully constructed using graded layers of sand with the coarsest at the
base and the finest at the top Drains at the bass convey treated water away for disinfection. Filtration depends on the development of
a thin biological layer on the surface of the filter. An effective slow sand filter may remain in service for many weeks or even months
if the pre-treatment is well designed and produces an excellent quality of water Which physical methods of treatment rarely achieve.
5.

Ultra filtration membranes are a relatively new development; they use polymer film with chemically formed microscopic

pores that can be used in place of granular media to filter water effectively without coagulants. The type of membrane media
determines how much pressure is needed to drive the water through and what sizes of micro-organisms can be filtered out.

13

2.4 TERTIARY TREATMENT


Disinfection is normally the last step in purifying drinking water. Water is disinfected to destroy any pathogens which passed through
the filters. Possible pathogens include viruses, bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and Shigella, and protozoans,
including G. lamblia and other Cryptosporidium. In most developed countries, public water supplies are required to maintain a
residual disinfecting agent throughout the distribution system, in which water may remain for days before reaching the consumer.
Following the introduction of any chemical disinfecting agent, the water is usually held in temporary storage - often called a contact
tank or clear well to allow the disinfecting action to complete.
1.

Chlorine- The most common disinfection method is some form of chlorine or its compounds such as chloramine or chlorine

dioxide. Chlorine is a strong oxidant that kills many micro-organisms. Because chlorine is a toxic gas, there is a danger of a release
associated with its use. This problem is avoided by the use of sodium hypochlorite, which is a relatively inexpensive solid that
releases free chlorine when dissolved in water. Handling the solid, however, requires greater routine human contact through opening
bags and pouring than the use of gas cylinders which are more easily automated. Both disinfectants are widely used despite their
respective drawbacks. A major drawback to using chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite is that they react with organic compounds in
the water to form potentially harmful levels of the chemical by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids, both of which
are carcinogenic. The formation of THMs and haloacetic acids is minimised by effective removal of as many organics from the water
as possible before disinfection. Although chlorine is effective in killing bacteria, it has limited effectiveness against protozoans that
form cysts in water. (Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium, both of which are pathogenic).
2.

Chlorine dioxide to another fast acting disinfectant it is, however, rarely used, because it may create excessive amounts of

chlorate and chlorite, both of which are regulated to low allowable levels. Chlorine dioxide also poses extreme risks in handling: not
only is the gas toxic, but ft may spontaneously detonate upon release to toe atmosphere in an accident.
3.

Chloramines are another chlorine based disinfectant Although chloramines are not as effective as disinfectants compered to

chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite, they are less prone to form THMs or haloacetic acids, it is possible to convert chlorine to
chloramine by adding ammonia to the water along with the chlorine The chlorine and ammonia react to form chloramine. Water
distribution systems disinfected with chloramines may experience nitrification, wherein ammonia is used a nitrogen source for
bacterial growth, with nitrates being generated as a byproduct'
4.

Ozone (O3) to a relatively unstable molecule of oxygen which readily gives up one atom of oxygen providing a powerful

oxidising agent which to toxic to most water borne organisms, ft to a very strong, broad spectrum disinfectant that to widely used to
Europe. It to an effective method to inactivate harmful protozoans that form cysts, it also works well against almost all other
pathogens. Ozone is made by passing oxygen through ultraviolet light or a ''cold'' electrical discharge. To use ozone as a disinfectant;
it must be created on site and added to the water by bubble contact. Some of the advantages of ozone include the production of
relatively fewer dangerous by-products (in comparison to chlorination) and the lack of taste and odor produced by ozonation.
Although fewer by-products are formed by ozonation, it has been discovered that the use of ozone produces a small amount of the
suspected carcinogen Bromate. Another one of the main disadvantages of ozone is that it leaves no disinfectant residual in the water.
Ozone has been used in drinking water plants since 1906 where the first industrial ozonation plant was built in Nice. France. The
U.S. Food and Drug Administration has accepted ozone as being safe, and it is applied as an anti-microbiological agent for the
treatment, storage, and processing of foods.
5.

UV radiation is very effective at inactivating cysts, as long as the water has a low level of colour so the UV can pass through

without being absorbed. The main drawback to the use of UV radiation is that, like ozone treatment, it leaves no residual disinfectant
in the water. Because neither ozone nor UV radiation leaves a residual disinfectant in the water, it is sometimes necessary to add a
residual disinfectant after they are used. This is often done through the addition of chloramines, discussed above as a primary
disinfectant.

14

3.1 CLARIFLOCULATOR
Clarifloculator contains following four units:
1.

Feeding Device

2.

Mixing Device

3.

Flocculation tank

4.

Sedimentation tank

The chemical coagulant is, first of all, fed into the raw water through the feeding device. This mixture is then thoroughly mixed and
agitated in the mixing basin. The floe which is formed as a result of chemical reaction taking place in the mixing basin is then
allowed to consolidate in the flocculation tank. The flocculated water is finally passed into the sedimentation tank where these
flocculated particles settle down and be removed. The resulted water of low turbidity can be taken out through the outlet of
sedimentation tank, directly to the rapid gravity filters. The complete process of coagulation - sedimentation may help in removing
turbidities up to as low values as 10-20 mg/l. it may also help in reducing the bacteria from the water and thus to reduce the B-Coli
index by as much as 70%.
3.2 FEEDING DEVICES
The chemical coagulant may be fed into the raw water either in powdered form or in a solution form. The former is known as dry
feeding and later is known as wet feeding. Wet feeding equipments are generally costlier than the dry feeding equipment, but they
have the advantage that they can be easily controlled and adjusted. The choice between these two types of equipments depends upon
the following factors :
1.

The characteristics of the coagulant and convenience to use.

2.

The amount of the coagulant to be used.

3.

The cost of the coagulant and the size of the plant.

3.2.1 Wet Feeding Devices


In the wet feeding device, the solution of required strength of coagulant is prepared and stored in a tank, from where it is allowed to
trickle down into the mixing tank through an outlet. The level of coagulant solution in the coagulant feeding tank is maintained
constant by means of a float controlled valve, inorder to ensure a constant rate of discharge for a certain fixed rate of raw water flow
in the mixing basin. When the rate of inflow of raw water changes, the rate of outflow of coagulant must also change, In order to
make these two flows in proportion to each other, a conical plug type arrangement' may be used.
The working of conical plug type arrangement is simple.
The mixing basin and the float chamber are interconnected together, so that the water level remains the same in both of them. As the
flow of raw water increases, the depth of water, and therefore, its level increase in the mixing basin. Correspondingly, the water level
in the float chamber increases and thereby, lifting the float of the float chamber. As the float rises, the pinion and pulley rotates in the
same direction, thereby lifting the conical plug and allowing more quantity of coagulant solution to fall down inti the mixing basin.
When the flow of water decreases, the conical plug, descends down and allows the feeding to continue at a lower rate.

15

3.3 MIXING DEVICE


After the addition of the coagulant to the raw water, the mixture is mixed thoroughly and vigorously mixed, so that the coagulant gets
fully dispersed into the entire mass of water. This violent agitation of water can be achieved by means of mixing devices.
There are two types of mixing basins:
1.

Mixing Basin With Baffle Walls

2.

Mixing Basins Equipped With Mechanical Devices

3.4 FLOCCULATION TANK


3.4.1 Flocculation
A flocculent should in principle also be able to destabilize colloid solutions. If aluminium compounds are able to do that in sea water
is doubtful. A colloid in water containing a low concentration on some ions, will be surrounded by charged particles that create an
electrical double layer around it. The electrical potential of that layer is called the zeta-pbtendal. The higher this zeta potential is, the
stronger the repulsion between the particles and thus the smaller the chance that 2 particles will collide and then coagulate.

Fig 1

Figure 3

16

4.1 FILTRATION
Screening and sedimentation removes a large percentage of the suspended solid and organic matter present in raw supplies. The
percentage of removal of fine colloidal matter increases when coagulants are also used before sedimentation. But, however, the
resultant water will not be pure and may contain some very fine suspended particles and bacteria present in it. To remove or to
reduce the remaining impurities further and to produce potable water, the water is filtered through beds of fine granular materials
such as sand etc. The process of passing tha water through the beds ot such granular materials (called filters) is known as Filtration.
Fltration may help in removing colour, odour, turbidity and pathogenic bacteria from the water.
Filtration is a process tor separating suspended and colloidal impurities from watar by passage trough a porous medium or porous
media. Filtration, with or without pretreatment, has been employed for treatment of water to eftectively remove turbidity (e.g. silt and
clay), colour, microorganisms, precipitated hardness from chemically softened waters and precipitated iron and manganese from
requirement ot aesthetic acceptability but also for efficient disinfection which is difficult in the presence of suspended and colloidal
impurities that serve as hideouts for the microorganisms.
Filters can be classified according to:
1.

The direction of flow

2.

Types of filter media and beds

3.

The driving force

4.

The method of flow rate control and

The filtration rate depending upon the direction of flow through filters, these are designed as down flow, up flow, bi flow, radial flow
and horizontal flow filters.
Based on filter media and beds, filters have been categorized into:
a)

Granular medium filters

b)

Fabric and mat filters and micro-strainers.

The granular medium filters include single -medium, dual -medium and multimedia (usually tri - medium) filters. The sand, coal,
crushed coconut shell, diatomaceous earth and powdered or granular
Activated carbon have been used as filter media but sand filters have been most widely used as sand is widely available, cheap and
effective in removing impurities. The deriving force to overcome the fractional resistance encountered by the flowing water can be
either the force of gravity or applied pressure force. The filters are accordingly referred to as gravity filters and pressure filters in the
fourth category are constant rate and declining or variable rate filters. Lastly dependent upon the flow rate, the filters are classified as
slow or rapid sand filters.
Filtration of municipal water supply is normally accomplished using:
a)

Slow sand filters

b)

Rapid sand filters

Both of these types of filters are down flow, granular medium (single medium) gravity filters. The rapid sand filters have been
conventionally operated at constant rate of filtration.
Two types filter are generally used for the treatment of municipal supplies:

17

4.2 SLOW SAND GRAVITY FILTERS:


Sand filters are not normally used these days due to more area required for its installation and construction. Slow sand filters can
provide a single step treatment for polluted surface water of flow turbidity (<20 NTU) when land, labour and filter sand are readily
available at low cost, chemicals and equipments are difficult to produce and skilled personal to operate and maintain and are not
available locally.
When raw water turbidity is high, simple pre- treatment such as storage, sedimentation of primary filtration will be necessary to
reduce it to within desirable limits. Chemical coagulation and flocculation have also been successfully tried to effective retreat turbid
water without adverse effect on filtrate quality by slow sand filtration
4.2.1 PURIFICATION IN A SLOW SAND FILTER
In a slow filter, water is subjected to various purifying influences as it percolates through the sand bed. Impurities are removed by a
combination of straining, sedimentation, bio-chemical and biological process. Shortly after the start or filtration, a thin slimy layer
called the schmutzdecke" is formed on the surface of sand bed. It consists of a great variety of biological organism, which feed on
the organic matter and converts it into simple, harmless substance. Considerable portion of inert suspended particles is mechanically
strained out in this layer. During its passage through 0.4 to 0.6 m of sand bed the water becomes virtually free from suspended solids,
colloids pathogens, and complex salts in solution. The result is a simultaneous improvement in the physical, chemical and
bacteriological qualities of water. Starting with an average quantity of raw water, a properly design and operated filter can produce a
filtrate satisfying normal drinking water standard. Nevertheless, the filtrate should be disinfected to render it safe.
4.2.2 Advantages of SLOW SAND FILTERS
There are several advantages of slow sand filtration over other methods of water disinfection:
1.

It is a low energy consuming process

2.

It has great adaptability in components and applications maintenance is minimal

3.

Systems can be built and installed by laymen

4.

Costs of building and running significantly lower than other disinfection methods

4.3 RAPID SAND FILTERS:


These filters receive water from the coagulation sedimentation tank and the filtered water is treated with disinfectants so as to obtain
portable supplies. The rapid sand filter comprises of a bed of sand serving as a single medium granular matrix supported on gravel
overlaying an under drainage system. The distinctive features of rapid sand filtration as compared to slow sand filtration include
careful pretreatment of raw water to effectively flocculate the colloidal particles, use of higher filtration rates and coarser but more
uniform filter media to utilize solids without excessive head loss and backwashing of filter bed by reversing the flow direction to
clean the entire depth of filter. Pretreatment of filter influents should be adequate to achieve efficient removal of colloidal and
suspended solids despite fluctuations in raw water quality.
When water containing suspended matter is applied to the top of the filter bed, suspended and colloidal solids are left behind in the
granulation medium matrix. Accumulation of the suspended particles in the pores and on the surface of the filter medium leads to the
build up of the head loss as the pore volume is reduced and greater resistance is offered to the flow of water simultaneously with the
build up of the head loss to the predetermined terminal value, the suspended solids removal efficiency of successive layers of filter
medium is reduced as solids accumulate in the pore space and reach an ultimate value of solid concentration as defined by operating
conditions. This results eventually in break through of suspended solids and the filtrate quality deteriorate. Ideally, a filter run should

18

be terminated when the head loss reaches a predetermined value simultaneously with the suspended solids in filtrate attaining the
preselected of acceptable quality.
4.3.2 COMPONENTS OF A RAPID SAND GRAVITY FILTER:
[a] ENCLOSURE TANK:
It consists of an open watertight rectangular tank, made of masonry concrete. The depth of the tank may vary from 2.5 to 3.5 m. in
order to achieve the uniform distribution of water, the area of the filter unit should not be kept large, and is generally limited about 10
to 80 Sq.m for each unit. There should be at least two filter units in the plant. And for a plant of more than 9 million liters per day
capacity, no single unit should have a capacity greater than one-fourth the capacity of plant.
[b] FILTER MEDIA:
The filtering media consist of sand layers about 60 to 90 cm. in depth, and placed over a gravel support. The effective size (D10) of
the sand varies from 0.35 to 0.55 mm. And the uniformity coefficient (D60/ D10) generally ranges between 1.2 to 1.8 the sand must
be laid in layers. The finer variety towards the bottom.
[c] BASE MATERIALS:
The base material is gravel and is supports the sand. Besides this the sand also distributes the wash water. It consists of 60 to 90 cm
thick gravels of different sizes, placed in layers. In a rapid gravity filter, the distribution of wash water is the critical function of the
gravel layer and hence careful grading and equally careful placing of the materials is important.
Gravel is placed between the sand and the under drainage system to prevent sand from entering the under drains and to avoid uniform
distribution of wash water. The gravel should accomplish both purposes without being displaced by the rising wash water. Sizes of
gravel vary from 50 mm at the bottom to 2 to 5 mm at the top 0.45 m depths. The faster the rate of application of water, the larger the
gravel size required. Reference may be made to IS: 8419 Part (1) 1977 for filter gravel.
The depth will vary according to the type of filter bottom and the strainer system used, except in the case of porous bottom where no
gravel is required. Wheeler bottoms and other false bottoms may be substituted for part of coarser layer of gravel. The filter gravel
should be as spherical as possible, hard, clean and uniform in quality and also shall not contain such impurities as dirt and clay.
Size of gravel and depth of gravel layer shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:
a)

For strainer or wheeler type under drain system, gravel shall be of 2 mm minimum size, 50 mm maximum size and 0.30 m to

0.50 m deep; and


b)

For perforated pipes under drain system, the gravel shall be of 2 mm minimum size, 25 mm maximum size and 0.50 m in

depth.
The filter shall be classified by sieves into four or more size grades, sieves being placed with the coarsest on the top and the finest at
the bottom.
[D] UNDER DRAINAGE SYSTEM:
The under drainage system serves two purposes:
1.

To receive and collect the filtered waters

2.

To allow the backwashing to clean the filter.

19

The under drainage system of the filter is intended to collect the filtered water and to distribute the wash water in such a fashion that
all the portions of the bed may perform nearly the same amount of work and when washed, receive the same amount of cleaning.
Since the rate of wash is several times higher than the rate of filtration, the former is the governing factor in the hydraulic design of
filters, which are cleaned by back washing.
The most common type of under drain is a central manifold with laterals either perforated on the bottoms having umbrella type
strainers on the top. Other types such as wheeler bottom a false bottom with strainers spaced for the entire area at regular intervals or
a porous plate floor supported on concrete pillars are all satisfactory when properly designed and constructed. Porous plates,
however, are likely to be clogged by minute quantities of alumina, which can penetrate through the filter bed. which might lead to
rupture.
In the case of central manifold with lateral system, the manifolds headers and laterals are of cast iron, plastic, asbestos cement,
concrete or other material. The velocity of jets issuing from perforations or orifices is destroyed by directing the openings downward
against the filter bottom and in the coarse gravel rounding the pipes .the lost head therefore will be equal to the driving head during
the wash. In practice this controlling head loss is set between 1 to 4.5 m. A non ferrous under drain system is preferable where the
water has low pH and the water is corrosive and when the correction of pH has to follow the filtration process. However A.C. pipes
have a tendency to dissolve away In the presence of low pH alum treated waters.
The following figures may be used in the design of an under drain system consisting of central manifold and laterals.
1.

The perforations vary from 5 to 12 mm in diameter and should be staggered at slight angle the vertical axis of the pipe.

2.

Spacing of the perforations along the laterals may vary from 80 mm for perforations of 5 mm to 200mm for perforations of 12

mm.
3.

Ratio of total area of perforations in the under drain system to total cross sectional area of the lateral should not exceed 0.5 for

perforations of 12 mm and should decrease to 0.25 for perforations of5mm.


4.

Ratio of total area of perforations to the entire filter area may be 0.3 %.

5.

The ratio of the length to the diameter of the lateral should not exceed 60.

6.

The spacing of laterals closely approximates the spacing

7.

The cross sectional area of the manifold should be preferably 1.5 to 2 times the total area of the laterals to minimize the

of orifices and should be of 300 mm.

frictional losses and to give the best distribution. It is useful to check the design for uniformity of distribution of wash water in
laterals of the under drains.
The central manifold with lateral type of under drainage system is shown in the fig.
The under drain system should therefore be designed in such a way that in addition to collecting the filtered water during its
downward journey, it should be capable of passing the wash water upwards at a high rate of 300 to 900 litres/minute/m 2 of the filter
area, or more, depending on the design, while applying it evenly and uniformly over the under portion of the gravel or sand bed.
The various types of under systems are:
1. Manifold and lateral system
2. The wheeler bottom
3. The porous plate bottom
Materials for wash water gutters include concrete, asbestos cement, plastic, cast iron and steel. While the horizontal travel of dirty
water over the surface of the filter is kept between 0.6 to 1.0 m. before reaching the gutter, there are successful units with troughs

20

eliminated and having only main gutters where the dirty water travel has been as high as 3m. It is uneconomical to place wash water
gutters against the sidewalls of the filter. The upper edge of wash water gutters should be placed efficiently near to the surface of the
sand so that a large quantity of dirty water is not left in the filter after the completion of washing. At the same time, the top of the
wash water gutter should be placed sufficiently high above the surface of the sand so that sand will not be washed into the gutter. The
edge of the trough should be slightly above the highest elevation of the sand as expanded in washing. Where this height cannot be
determined by test a convenient rule is to place the edge of the gutter as far above the undisturbed sand surface as the wash water
rises in one minute. Air and water should not be applied simultaneously with such gutter height. The gutter should be large enough to
carry all the water delivered to it with at least 50 mm between the surface of the water flowing in the gutter and the upper edge of the
gutter. Any submergence of the gutter will reduce the efficiency of the wash. The gutter may be made with the same cross section
through out its length or it might be constructed with varying cross section increasing in size toward the outlet end. The bottom of the
gutter should clear the top of the expanded sand by 50 mm or more.

Figure 4

4.3.3 Rate of filtration:


The rate of filtration that can be obtained is very high and is generally of the order of 3000 to 6000 liters / hour /m this high rate of
filtration leads to considerable saving of space as well as filter material.
4.3.4 Efficiency and performance:
It is less efficient in removing the bacteria and turbidities. They can remove about 80 to 90 % of bacterial load present in the water.
The remaining bacteria are removed in disinfection units. They can remove turbidities to about 30 to 40 mg / liters. But since the
water entering these filters is given pretreatment in coagulation sedimentation tank, they are comparatively less turbid. As far as
colour removal is concerned, they are highly efficient and can bring down the colour to as low value as 10 on the cobalt scale.
4.3.5 Uses:
Rapid gravity filters are the best and the most economical and the fore, invariably used for treating public supplies, especially large
towns and cities the treated water are, however, not so much safe as those obtained from slow sand filters, and need further treatment
before they can be supplied to the general public.

21

4.3.6 LIMITATIONS OF RAPID SAND FILTERS:


The inherent drawback of rapid sand filtration system is the surface-clogging tendency due to favorable certification of sand medium.
A rapid sand filter consists of sand bed, which becomes stratified after back washing. The size gradation is from fine to coarse with
finest sand particles being on the top of the bed since majority of the impurity are removed and stored in the limited pore space
available in top sand layers, it leads to surface clogging with relatively quicker built up of head loss at higher velocity of filtration
leading to the under utilization of the sand bed. Consequently, the rapid sand filters have been operated at lower filtration rate
(around 5m3/m2/hr) with filter run of the order of 24 hours. Another draw back of fine to coarse size gradation of filter medium is
the possibility of poor filtrate quality resulting from the non removal of final floe particle which escape the top sand layers by the
lower layers containing the larger size sand medium.
Various approaches have been recommended to overcome the above limitation of the rapid sand filters. These include up flow
filtration, horizontal flow filtrations and dual - media and multi - media filtration. Central to the development of these concept is the
principle of contacting the impurity laden water first with the layer of the filter medium having pour size and pore space to
accommodate the arrested impurities. As water travel deeper into the filter bed, it come in contact with filter bed layers containing
smaller pore sizes resulting in removal of even very fine floe particles. This leads to better quality filtrate and greater utilization of
lower layers to remove impurities. The dual media and multi media filters which are being increasingly used can be operated at
higher rate of filtration with production of higher quantities of filtered water of good quality per filter run compared to rapid sand
filters.

4.4 PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES


4.4.1 SLOW SAND FILTERS
The following standard of performance for slow sand filters is recommended:
1.

The filtrate should be clear with a turbidity of 1 NTU or less.

2.

The filtrate should be free from colour (3 or less on the cobalt scale).

3.

When the raw water turbidity does not exceed 30 NTU, the filters runs should normally be not less than 6 to 8 weeks, with the

filter head not exceeding 0.6 m.


4.4.2 RAPID SAND FILTERS

For rapid sand filters the performance standards may be based on the following criteria:
1.

The filtrate should be clear with the turbidity of 1 NTU or less.

2.

The filtrate should be free from colour (with 3 or less on the cobalt scale)

3.

The filter runs should normally be not less than 24 hours with a loss of head not exceeding 2m.

4.

For an efficient filter, the wash water consumption should not exceed 2 percent or the quantity filtered in between washing.

22

5.1 DISINFECTION BY CHLORINATION


5.2 INTRODUCTION
Water treatment processes such as storage, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, aeration and water softening are
specifically designed to produce waters that are aesthetically acceptable and economical to use. Though these physiochemical
processes assist in removal or killing of microorganisms to varying degree, these
Can not be relied upon to provide safe WATER. for Utmost safety of water for drinking water purposes, disinfection of water has to
be done for Killing of diseases producing organisms.
Water used for dunking and cooking should be free of pathogenic (disease causing) microorganisms that cause such illnesses as
typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, and gastroenteritis. Whether a person contracts these diseases horn water depends on the type of
pathogen, the number of organisms in the water (density!., the strength of the organism (virulence), the volume of water ingested,
and the susceptibility el the individual Purification of drinking water containing pathogenic microorganisms requires specific
treatment called disinfection.
Although several methods eliminate disease-causing microorganisms in water, chlorination is the most commonly used Chlorination
is effective against many pathogenic bacteria, but at normal dosage rates it does not kill all Viruses, cysts, or worms. When combined
with filtration, chlorination is an excellent way to disinfect drinking water supplies
5.2.1 Disinfection requirements
Disinfection reduces pathogenic microorganisms in water to levels designated safe by public health standards. This prevents the
transmission of disease. An effective disinfection system kills or neutralizes all pathogens in the water, it is automatic. Simply
maintained. safe; and inexpensive An ideal system treats all the water and provide residual (long term disinfection Chemicals should
be easily stored and not make the water unpalatable State and federal governments require public water supplies to be biologically
safe The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed expanded regulations to increase the protection provided by
public water systems. Water supply operators will' be directed to disinfect and, if necessary, fitter the water to prevent contamination
from Giardia lamblia, coliform bacteria, viruses heterotrophic bacteria, turbidity, and Legionella.
Private systems, while not federally regulated, also are vulnerable to biological contamination from sewage, improper well
construction, and poor quality water sources Since more than 30 million people in the United States rely on private wefts for drinking
water, maintaining biologically safe water is a major concern.
5.2.2 Chlorine treatment Chlorine readily combines with chemicals dissolved in water, microorganisms, small animals, plant
material, tastes, odors, and colors. These components "use up" chlorine and comprise the chlorine demand of the treatment system. It
is important to add sufficient chlorine to the water to meet the chlorine demand and provide residual disinfection.
The chlorine that does not combine with other components in the water is free (residual) chlorine, and the breakpoint is the point at
which free chlorine is available for continuous disinfection. An ideal system supplies free chlorine at a concentration of 0.3-0.5 mg/l.
Simple test kits, most commonly the DPD calorimetric test kit (so called because diethyl phenylene diamine produces the color
reaction), are available for testing breakpoint and chlorine residual in private systems. The kit must test free chlorine, not total
chlorine.
5.2.3 Chlorination levels
If a system does not allow adequate contact time with normal dosages of chlorine, superchlorination followed by dechlorination
(chlorine removal) may be necessary.

23

Superchlorination provides a chlorine residual of 3.0-5.0 mg/l, 10 times the recommended minimum breakpoint chlorine
concentration. Retention time for superchlorination is approximately 5 minutes. Activated carbon filtration removes the high chlorine
residual.
5.2.4 Shock chlorination is recommended whenever a well is new, repaired, or found to be contaminated. This treatment introduces
high levels of chlorine to the water. Unlike superchlorination, shock chlorination is a "one time only occurrence, and chlorine is
depleted as water flows through the system; activated carbon treatment is not required. If bacteriological problems persist following
shock chlorination, the system should be evaluated.
5.3 CHLORINATION GUIDELINES
Chlorine solutions lose strength while standing or when exposed to air or sunlight. Make fresh solutions frequently to maintain
necessary residual.
Maintain a free chlorine residual of 0.3-0.5 mg/l after a 10 minute contact time. Measure the residual frequently.
Once the chlorine dosage is increased to meet greater demand, do not decrease it.
Locate and eliminate the source of contamination to avoid continuous chlorination. If a water source is available that does not require
disinfection, use it.
Keep records of pertinent information concerning the chlorination system.
Types of chlorine used in disinfection
Public water systems use chlorine in the gaseous form, which is considered too dangerous and expensive for home use. Private
systems use liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) or dry chlorine (calcium hypochlorite). To avoid hardness deposits on equipment,
manufacturers recommend using soft, distilled, or dematerialized water when making up chlorine solutions.

Liquid Chlorine

Dry Chlorine

household bleach most common form available chlorine


range:

powder dissolved in water


available chlorine: 4%

5,25% (domestic laundry bleach)

produces heavy sediment that clogs equipment; filtration


required

18% (commercial laundry bleach) slightly more stable than


solutions from dry chlorine

dry powder stable when stored property

protect from sun, air, and heal

dry powder fire hazard near flammable materials


solution maintains strength for I week
protect from sun and heat

24

5.4 CHLORINE DEMAND


Chlorine and chlorine compound by virtue of their oxidizing power can be consumed by a
variety of inorganic and organic materials present in water and any disinfection is
achieved.
it is, therefore, essential to provide sufficient time and dose of chlorine to satisfy the
various chem. Reaction and leave some amount of unreacted chlorine as residual ether in
the form of free or combined chlorine adequate for killing pathogenic organism with the
amount of chlorine applied, the time of contact, pH, temp and type and quality of residual
desired.
5.4.1 COMBINED AVAILABLE RESIDUAL CHLORINE:
This method involves the application of chlorine to water to produce with natural or added
ammonia, combined available chlorine residual and to maintain the residual through part
or all of the water treatment plant or distribution system. They are less effective
disinfectants and oxidants than free available chlorine forms. The residual, however, will
persist much longer than free available chlorine, which has a tendency to diffuse and be
lost. A minimum of 30 to 60 minutes contact time must be provided before deliver to the
consumer.
Depending upon the characteristic of water this can be accomplished as follows:
1.

Application of chlorine only, if sufficient ammonia is present in the water

2. Addition of both chlorine and ammonia if it contains ammonia,


3. Addition of ammonia if free available chlorine is already present in water
In order to control chlorine ammonia treatment effectively the optimum ratio of chlorine to
ammonia has been found to be 3:1 or more to ensure the presence of an excess of
ammonia.
This practice is useful after filtration for controlling algae and bacterial after growths, for
reducing red water troubles in distribution systems at the dead ends for providing and
maintaining a stable residual through out the distribution system.

25

5.4.2 POINT OF CHLORINATION


The use of chlorine at various stages of water supply system right from raw water
collection to the distribution network is a common practice and them like pre-post and
rechlorination have come into common usage depending upon the points at which chlorine
is applied.
5.5 CLORINE RESIDUAL
Satisfactory disinfection is obtained by pre - chlorination to maintain 0.3 to 0.4 mg/lts free
available residue through treatment or 0.2 to 0.3 mg/lts free available residual in the plant
effluent at normal pH 8 to 9, at least 0.4 mg/lts is required for complete bacterial killing
with 10 minute contact time for 30 minutes contact time for 30 minutes contact time the
dosage reduce to 0.2 to 0.3 mg/lts
5.6 APPLICATION OF CHLORINE
Chlorine can be applied to water by three methods:
1.

By the addition of a weak solution prepared from bleaching powder, HTH, etc. For

disinfecting small quantity of water can be applied to water by three methods: 2.

By the addition of a weak solution of chlorine prepared by electrolyzing a solution

of brine, where electricity is cheaper;


3.

By the addition of chlorine, either in gaseous form or in the form of a solution

made by dissolving gaseous chlorine in a small auxiliary flow of water, the chlorine being
obtained from cylinders containing gas under pressure.

26

DESIGN OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT


KAUSHALYA DAM

= 8 MLD
= 80,00,000 l/day
= 0.0926m3/s

1.1 DESIGN OF INTAKE CANAL


DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
Q= 0.0926 m3
V= 0.16 m/s
L= 4m,
By Mannings Formula,
V=

, R= , where R is Hydraulic Radius, A is area and P is perimeter -

-- 1
Q= V
-2

--

From 1 & 2,
A= 0.58 m2
Considering a Rectangular Open Channel, with the following ratio = 1.5 and S=
A= D x B, & B=1.5D
This implies, B= 0.9 m,
D = 0.6 m, Considering a free board of 300mm, D = 0.9m
Figure 5

27

2.1 COARSE SCREEN


Max Velocity = 0.16m/s
Area =

= 0.56 m2

Let Area be 1 m2 ; L = 1 m and B = 1 m


Let the openings between the bars be 50 mm
Number of openings

Length occupied by 20 bars of 16 mm each = 320 mm


Total length of screens

= 1.3 m

Breadth of screen

= 1.3 m

A minimum free-board of 300 mm shall be provided; this may be suitably raised where required
by turbulent conditions in the channel.

Figure 6

28

3.1 PUMP

3.1.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Q= 8MLD,
Pumped would work for 8 hours in a day
Velocity

= 2.5m/s

Length

= 1000 m

Qpump

= 0.278m3/s

3.1.2 DESIGN

A= Q/A
= 0.1112 m2
= 0.1112
D

HL

= 0.376m = 40 cm

= 23.86m
Total head, H = 12 + 23.86 = 35.86 m

3.1.3 POWER OF PUMP


B.H.P

(80 % efficiency)

=162.16 HP

29

4.1 PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION TANK


Detention period = 4 hrs
Capacity of tank required for period of 4 hrs = 800000044
24
Provide 2 tanks
Depth of tank = 3m
Area required = 223 m2
Provide B = 6m
Length = 223/6 = 37m
Hence, provide 2 tanks with dimension 3763m
Provide free board = 0.5m
Overflow rate = Q/Area
= 8103 = 18.01 m3/d/m2
3762
[ 15-30 m3/d/m2 ---- Ok]
Settling velocity , Vs = v H
L
= 0.0051 3
37
= 4.1 10 - 4m/s
Horizontal flow velocity
V = Q/BH
= 0.092 = 0.0051m/s
63
Dimension of tank [ 37m 6m 3.5m ]

30

= 1.33 1000 m3

5. DESIGN OF FLOCCULATOR
5.1 MIXING BASIN
Q = 8MLD
= 0.092m3/s
DT = 30 min
Volume of water treated in 30 min = 81061 =

0.6 103 m3

242
Velocity of flow though channels as 0.3 m/s
Length of flow

(0.15 -0.45m/s)

= velocity DT
= 0.3 (3060)
=540m

Required cross sectional area of each channel between the baffles


=
= 1.1 m2
the distance between baffles is kept equal to the minimum permissible i.e. 0.45 m
depth of water in basin

=
=

= 2.46 m

The clear opening between the end of each baffle and the wall may be taken as equal to
1.5 times the distance between the baffles
= 1.5 0.45
= 0.7m
The effective length of each channel may now be taken as the average distance travelled
by this water in the channel
Effective flow length of each channel
= clear width of either half of the tank -2.5 the opening

31

= 6 (2.50.7) = 5.3m
The tank is divided into 2 compartments with longitudinal partition walls and each half
have clear width of 6 m
No. Of channels required
=

= 102

So, there will be 51 channels in each half of the tank


The clear length of the tank excluding the baffle wall and side walls
= no. Of channels 0.45
= 510.45 = 23m
Assuming thickness of each baffle as 7.5cm
Overall inside length of tank
=23 + ((7.5/100) no. Of baffles)
= 26.75m

5.2 COAGULATON CUM SEDIMENTATION TANK


Q = 8MLD
Assume maximum daily demand as 1.8
Hence , the average daily demand =1.8 8
= 14.4 MLD
Quantity of water to be treated during an assumed detention period of 4 hrs (2-4hr)
=14.41064/24
= 2.41000 m3
Hence , the capacity of tank required = 2.410 litres
Assuming overflow rate

=1000l/hr/m2

= 1000
32

(1000-1250l/hr/m2)

Adopt , the water depth as4 m and get the plan area
Area =

= 600m2

Take the width of tank as 15 m , we get L as =

= 40 m

Hence, use tank 40m154m. Provide extra depth for sludge storage say use 4.5 m depth
at the starting end 4.5 +(45/50)= 5.4m at the d/s end (use 1 in 50 slope )
Use a freeboard of 0.5 m above the water level
5.3 FLOC CHAMBER
In addition to 40 m length floc chamber also needs to be provided
Depth of floc chamber is taken half of the depth of tank
Depth = 4.5/2=2.25m
Detention time =20 min
Capacity of chamber =flow required in 20min

= 200m3
Plan area required

=
=89m2

using same width(15m) , we get length of chamber =


= 6m

33

6. RAPID SAND GRAVITY FILTERS


6.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
0.4% of total water would be used for backwashing
Backwash Time IS 30 min
Rate of filtration is 5000L/m2/hr

6.2 DESIGN OF RAPID SAND GRAVITY FILTER


Filtered water required

MLDm3/s

= 8.33 MLD

Filter water required per hour

MLD

(30 min in a day lost to backwashing)

= 0.354

106L

= 354 m3/hr
Rate of flitration

= 5 m3/m2/hr

Plan area

=
= 70.8 m2 ~ 75 m2

Noumber of filters to be constructed = 2


Area of 1 filter

=
=37.5 m2

Let, L/B ratio be 1.5


1.5B2 = 37.5
B= 5m, L= 7.5m
Dimension of filter unit = 7.5 m

5m

34

6.3 DESIGN OF UNDERDRAINAGE


Area of perforation =

= 0.2% of Filter Area


= 0.2*37.5/100
= 0.075 m2

Area of laterals=

=2

area of perforation

= 2* 0.075 = 0.15 m2
Number of laterals on one side of manifold

= 7.5

100/15 = 50

Number of laterals on both sides of manifold

=2

50= 100

Area of manifold

=2

area of laterals

= 2 0.15= 0.3 m2
d2 = 0.3

Diameter of Manifold

= 0.62m ~ 65cm

Laterals are to be provided on both sides of manifold,


Let the length of a lateral be x
5= 2x+ 0.65 where 5m is width of the filter area,
X= 2.175m
laterals be provided with 13 mm dia bars
(0.013)2

area of one perforation

total area of perforations

= 0.075 m2

total perforations

= 750

number of perforations per lateral

Area of perforation per lateral

=8

=7.5 ~ 8
(1.3)2 cm2

= 10.6 cm2
Area of laterals

=2

35

area of perforation

=2
Dia of each lateral

10.6 ~ 22cm2

=
= 5.3 cm

Hence, use 100 laterals each of 6.0 cm dia @ 15 cm c/c, each having 11 perforations of 13
mm size with 65 mm dia manifold.

Figure 7

Figure 8

36

7.1 WASH WATER TROUGHS

7.1.1 CONSIDERATIONS
Rate of washing the filter = 60cm/min
To calculate depth, the following emperical formula is used
Q=1.367by3/2

7.1.2 DESIGN
Wash water discharge ,
q

= 0.6

5 7.5/60

= 0.375 m3/sec
Vlateral = Q/A = 1.3m/s which is < 2.4m/s
To calculate depth,
Q=1.367by3/2, Taking B=y
y = 0.38m ~ 40cm

7.2 WASH WATER TANK


Capacity = 600m3
Depth, d = 4.0 m
Area = 600/4 = 150m2
Let L=B=12.25 m
Dimension of tank = 12.25 12.25 4 (.5m free board)

37

8.1 Design of the Disinfection System


Two polyethylene tanks, each of 30000L shall be installed to mix clear water in the
requisite amount of bleaching water, which will flow by gravity into clear water tank to
have contact period of less than half hour, as to cause disinfection.

Quantity of bleaching powder is worked out as


Normal dose to chlorine to be taken = 3ppm for a contact period of 30min.
Average daily demand of water = 8 MLD
Chlorine required per day =

= 24 kg

As chlorine contact in bleaching powder is 30% it means that 30 kg of chlorine is


contained in 100kg of bleaching powder.
Bleaching powder required per day =

=80 kg

Annual consumption of bleaching powder is 29200 kg.

8.2 Design of the Overhead Service Reservoir


Assumption
Pumping is done for 16 hours during 6-10 a.m. and 4-8 p.m. .
Data Given
No. of tanks = 2
Peak Factor =2.25
Design
Total Demand for one tank = 4 MLD
Hourly Demand (a) =
Pumping rate =

= 0.166 ML

= 3a

38

Period in hours

Hourly Demand Cumulative


Demand

Cumulative
Pumping

04-05
05-06
06-10
10-12
13-14
14-17
17-18
18-20
20-21
21-22
22-23
23-01
01-04

0.4a
0.8a
2.25a
A
2.25a
0.7a
2.25a
0.9a
0.7a
0.7a
0.4a
0.2a
0.2a

1.5a
3a
9a
12a
13.5a
18a
19.5a
22.5a
24a
24a
24a
24a
24a

0.4a
1.2a
10.2a
12.2a
15.05a
17.15a
19.4a
21.2a
21.9a
22.6a
23a
23.4a
24a

Maximum cumulative surplus = 2.1a


Maximum cumulative deficit = 1.55a
Capacity of storage reservoir = 2.1a+1.55a= 3.65a
= 3.65*0.166
= 0.6059 MLD

39

Cumulative
deficit or
surplus
1.1a
1.8a
-1.2a
-.08a
-1.55a
0.85a
-0.1a
1.3a
2.1a
1.4a
1a
0.6a
0

REFERENCE

IS 10553(Part 1):1983 Requirements for chlorination equipment: Part I General guidelines


for chlorination plants including handling, storage and safety of chlorine cylinders and
drums
IS 10553(Part 2):1983 Requirements for chlorination equipment: Part 2 Vacuum feed type
chlorinators
IS 10553(Part 4):1983 Requirements for chlorination equipment: Part 4 Gravity feed type
gaseous chlorinators
IS 10553(Part 5):1987 Requirements of chlorination equipment: Part 5 Bleaching powder
solution feeder displacement type chlorinator
IS 8419(Part 1):1977 Requirements for filtration equipment : Part 1 Filtration media
sand and gravel
IS 8419(Part 2):1984 Requirements for rapid sand gravity filtration equipment: Part 2
Underdrainage system
IS 7208:1992 Guidelines for flocculator devices
IS 10313:1982 Requirements for settling tank (clarifier equipment) for water treatment
plant
IS 14371:1996 Measurement Ofliquid Flow In Open Channels- Parshalland Saniiri Flumes
IS 62680:1996 Specification of Sewage Screens
Indian Standard Requirements For Settling Tank (Clarifier Equipment) For Water
Treatment Plant.

40