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Introduction to the Mathematical


Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Introduction to the Mathematical


Physics of Nonlinear Waves
Minoru Fujimoto

Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014


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ISBN
ISBN

978-1-627-05276-4 (ebook)
978-1-627-05275-7 (print)

DOI 10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4
Version: 20140301
IOP Concise Physics
ISSN 2053-2571 (online)
ISSN 2054-7307 (print)
A Morgan & Claypool publication as part of IOP Concise Physics
Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 40 Oak Drive, San Rafael, CA, 94903, USA

Contents
1

Nonlinearity in classical mechanics

1.1

A pendulum
1.1.1 Oscillation
1.1.2 Vertical rotation
Vibration by a nonlinear spring force
A jumping rope
Hyperbolic and elliptic functions
1.4.1 Definitions
1.4.2 Differentiation
1.4.3 Reverse functions cn1 and dn1
1.4.4 Periodicity of Jacobis sn-function
Variation principle
Buckling deformation of a rod
Exercise

1.2
1.3
1.4

1.5
1.6

Wave propagation, singularities and boundaries

2.1

Elastic waves along a linear string of infinite length


2.1.1 Phase of propagation
2.1.2 Energy flow
2.1.3 Scattering by an oscillator
Microwave transmission
Schrdingers equation
Scattering by the potential V x V o sech2 x
Two-dimensional waves in inhomogeneous medium
Sound propagation in air
Exercises

2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

1-1
1-1
1-1
1-3
1-5
1-6
1-8
1-8
1-10
1-10
1-11
1-12
1-14
1-17
2-1
2-1
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-10
2-13
2-16

Solitons and adiabatic potentials

3-1

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

The KortewegdeVries equation


Steady solutions of the KortewegdeVries equation
Developing equations of nonlinear vector waves
Bargmanns theorem
3.4.1 One-soliton solution
3.4.2 Two-soliton solution

3-1
3-4
3-6
3-8
3-8
3-9

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

3.5
3.6
3.7

Riccatis theorem
Properties of the Eckart potential in the soliton field
ZabuskyKruskals computational analysis
Exercises

Structural phase transitions

4.1

Initial uncertainties and transition anomalies


4.1.1 Specific heat anomalies
4.1.2 Landaus theory
Dynamical theory of collective motion
4.2.1 Longitudinal waves
4.2.2 Transverse waves
Pseudopotential and sine-Gordon equation
Exercises

4.2

4.3

3-11
3-14
3-16
3-18
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-11

Nonlinear waves

5-1

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Elemental waves
Matrix formulation for nonlinear development
Heat dissipation of wave motion
BornHuang transitions in crystals
Symmetry of media for the KortewegdeVries equation
Soliton description
Exercise

5-1
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-9

Scattering theory

6-1

6.1

One-component waves
6.1.1 Scatterings of elemental waves
6.1.2 Singularity of a soliton potential
Two-component scatterings
6.2.1 A two-component wave
6.2.2 Reflection and transmission
6.2.3 Poles of transmission and reflection coefficients
6.2.4 Soliton potentials
6.2.5 Asymptotic expansion
Exercises

6.2

vi

6-1
6-1
6-4
6-7
6-7
6-8
6-10
6-11
6-13
6-14

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

7-1

Method of inverse scatterings

7.1

Coherent wave packets and Marchenkos equation


7.1.1 Delta and truncated step functions for coherent wave packets
7.1.2 Fourier transforms and Marchenkos equations
Reflectionless multi-soliton potentials
Two-component systems
7.3.1 Inverse scatterings
7.3.2 Matrix method
7.3.3 Modified KortewegdeVries equation, part 1
Exercises

7.2
7.3

8-1

Quasi-static soliton states

8.1

Developing the KortewegdeVries equation


8.1.1 Nonstationary states
8.1.2 Thermal perturbation
Multi-soliton potentials in unsteady states
The modified Korteweg-deVries equation, part 2
Thermodynamic instability and Breezer potentials
The third-order Schrdinger equation
Exercises

8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

7-1
7-1
7-3
7-8
7-10
7-10
7-12
7-13
7-15

8-1
8-1
8-2
8-4
8-6
8-7
8-10
8-11

The Bcklund transformation and sine-Gordon equations

9-1

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6

The KleinGordon equation


The Bcklund transformation
The sine-Gordon equation
Numerical analysis of the sine-Gordon equation
Inverse scatterings and the Bcklund transformation
Scatterings by a pseudopotential

9-1
9-2
9-5
9-6
9-8
9-9

10

Miscellaneous applications

10-1

10.1 Surface waves


10.1.1 The first approximation
10.1.2 The second approximation
10.2 Vortex motion in fluid media
10.2.1 A vortex
10.2.2 Vortex motion

10-1
10-1
10-4
10-6
10-7
10-8

vii

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

10.3 Plasma oscillation


10.4 Laser light transmission through absorbing media
10.4.1 Two-level atom in an intense radiation field
10.4.2 Scattering of intense radiation
10.4.3 Sine-Gordon limit
10.5 Periodic lattices
10.5.1 Todas lattice
10.5.2 Aperiodic transitions by pseudopotentials

viii

10-11
10-13
10-13
10-15
10-16
10-17
10-17
10-19

Preface
Nonlinear problems can be analyzed using inhomogeneous differential equations to
obtain information on the nonlinear content, which was harder to do using traditional approaches. Nevertheless, recent mathematical studies have revealed that
equations of SturmLiouvilles type can be specied by soliton solutions, representing potential energies of the surrounding medium, subject to the law of conservation that is fundamental for all physical applications.
Nonlinearity arises from the dynamical response from the surroundings, which is
essentially related to boundaries and interactions. Properties of a medium can
therefore be analyzed from mathematical consequences, but the thermodynamic
environment must also be considered. In contrast, in weather and extra-terrestrial
phenomena, for instance, the unspeciable conditions make it difcult to interpret
the nature of objects.
Nonlinear equations are generally restricted by conditions in the thermodynamic
environment, but microscopic systems are usually idealized as determined only by
external pressure and temperature. Justied by the least action principle, the Hamiltonian function is restricted to its eigenstates, so that nonlinear physics always deals
with canonical systems determined by Hamiltons equations, which enables properties of the system to be evaluated with minimized Gibbss potential.
In practice, nonlinearity, leading to a singular behavior of the dynamical system,
originates from the surroundings, as in the cases of radiation eld, shock-sound in
ultrasonic propagation, phase transitions in crystals and other phenomena. Interactions between relevant variables and their surroundings should therefore be treated
using dynamical systems; this constitutes the basic objective of nonlinear physics.
In thermodynamic equilibrium, the dynamical system is specied by eigenvalues
of the Hamiltonian function, hence postulating canonical ensembles in statistical
mechanics. The system may otherwise be chaotic, to which the traditional law of
conservation cannot be applied. In this paradigm of nonlinear physics, the
dynamical soliton theory should be incorporated within thermodynamical discipline. In Lagrangian formalism, this situation can be evaluated via a canonical
transformation H0 S1HS, where the action variable S between H and H0 is
associated in practice with phonon scatterings. Accordingly, the dynamical system
can be regarded as requiring canonical ensembles to be evaluated using Boltzmann
statistics. Dealing with nonlinear phenomena in media, it is signicant that noncanonical solutions do not correspond to equilibrium, although they are compatible with Kirkwoods denition of thermodynamical states. Experimentally,
observed anomalies at the threshold of nonlinearity are characterized by bifurcation
and chaotic uncertainties, while the dynamical system in equilibrium states is
clearly canonical. In the general theory of crystalline lattices, Born and Huang
postulated for such transitions from chaotic to canonical states to be evaluated by
minimizing the Gibbs function as calculated using the variation principle. We shall
therefore call such a chaotic-to-equilibrium process BornHuangs transition,
exhibiting experimentally a soft mode or relaxation process, depending on the

ix

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

timescale of observation. In this book, nonlinear dynamics is regarded as being


restricted by practical surroundings, reviewing representative cases for physical
reality, then proceeding via general theory to its applications.
This book was written for students at upper undergraduate and graduate levels, as
a textbook for upgraded physics courses on nonlinear physics. Nevertheless, nonlinear mathematics is dominated by hyperbolic and elliptic functions, which are
relatively unfamiliar topics in the traditional physics curriculum. From the pedagogical viewpoint, I have therefore included a short account of elliptic functions
in the rst chapter of this book.

Acknowledgement
and dedication
As an experimental worker myself, I have benetted enormously from Elements
of Soliton Theory and Lecture Notes on Nonlinear Waves in writing this book. My
sincere thanks are therefore expressed to Professor G L Lamb Jr and Professors
T Taniuti and K Nishihara. I also thank my wife Haruko for her continuous
encouragement that has made this publication possible.
Minoru Fujimoto

August 2013

xi

About the book


Nonlinear physics is a well-established discipline in physics today, and this book
offers a comprehensive account of the basic soliton theory and its applications.
Although primarily mathematical, the theory for nonlinear phenomena in practical
environments needs to be understood at upper undergraduate level, with particular
attention given to the presence of media where nonlinearity takes place. This book
addresses mathematical theories, but also suggests possible theoretical innovations
for many issues, providing a stimulating reference for both students and researchers.

xii

Author biography
Minoru Fujimoto
Minoru Fujimoto is a retired professor of the University of Guelph,
Ontario, Canada. Engaged in experimental work on magnetic
resonance on structural phase transitions, his books Physics of
Classical Electromagnetism and Thermodynamics of Crystalline
States were published by Springer.

xiii

IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 1
Nonlinearity in classical mechanics

In this chapter, we discuss the origin of nonlinearity, which is often dismissed in


classical mechanics as insignicant or bypassed by using idealized models to simplify
mathematical analysis. Energy damping during oscillatory motion, for example, is
attributed to air friction, where dynamical stability can be evaluated by thermal
relaxation. Such damping in microscopic physics should also be considered with
respect to surrounding media, at least for normal terrestrial phenomena. Referring to
the least action principle, dynamical systems may not necessarily be canonical, so the
compatibility of models with the thermodynamic environment should be determined
in many cases of nonlinearity, as will be discussed in the following chapters.

1.1 A pendulum
1.1.1 Oscillation
An oscillating mass m of a pendulum in a gravitational eld is a standard problem in
classical mechanics, providing the principle for studying mechanical stability.
Attributed to work by the restoring gravitational force, its excitation at a small
amplitude is sufcient for evaluating stability at a minimum potential energy.
However, at a nite amplitude, the motion cannot be steady against air friction and
supporting devices, and ceases eventually at zero amplitude.
Figure 1.1 illustrates a simple pendulum of mass m that is hung with an inexible
string or a rod of length l. Assuming the supporting point P xed at the rigid ceiling,
we can write the equation of motion with respect to coordinate axes xed in space as
ml

d2
mg cos
dt 2

and

T mg sin ;

1:1

where (t) is the angle of rotation around P in the vertical plane; g and T are the
gravitational acceleration and tension in the string, respectively. Further, we postulate somewhat unrealistically that the motion is restricted in the vertical plane.
doi:10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4ch1

1-1

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 1.1. A simple pendulum.

The Earths rotation is in fact ignored in this postulate, which nevertheless is an


acceptable assumption for a normal observation within a short period of time.
The equation of angular motion (1.1) is mathematically nonlinear. Expanding
cos 1 12 2    for small , however, we can reduce it to a linear differential
equation by cutting the expansion at the second-order term; otherwise (1.1) remains
nonlinear. Nevertheless, integrating (1.1) once, we obtain
1 2_2
ml mgl1  cos E;
2

1:2

where E mgl1  cos is an integration constant, which implies the total energy
of the pendulum determined by the initial angle t0 ; here the angle is mea_
sured from the vertical direction at t 0. Solving (1.2) for the derivative ,
we obtain
r r
d
g

2
where
sin :
2  sin2 ;
dt
l
2
2
Setting sin

sin for another angle for 0  < 1, we can write


r
d
g
2 cos d
2
cos ; and d p
:
dt
l
1  2 sin2
Rt
In this case, the time interval dened by t 0 dt between 0 and
s Z
s
Z t
l
d
l
p
dt
F; ;
2
g 0
g
0
1  2 sin

1-2

is given by
1:3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 1.2. Jacobis amplitude function amu for sn u.

indicating the repetition time specied by the angle 0   2. Here, the integral
R
d
is an elliptic integral of the rst kind, which is one of
F; 0 p
2
2
1 sin

the standard forms of elliptic integrals. The period of oscillation can therefore be
dened by
s
Z
  Z 2
2
l  
d
p;
T 4
dt
F ; ;
where
K F ;

g
2
2
0
0
1  2 sin2
hence
s
l
K:
T 4
g

1:4

Writing z sin , the inverse function of u F; can be dened from the


relation
Z
d
p sn1 z;
u
1:5
0
1  2 sin2
where z sn u is Jacobis elliptic sn-function; originally, the angle amu was
dened as the amplitude function of u. We note that the elliptic function sn u is
periodic, with amplitude related to the relation sn u sin , and hence the effective
phase is given by am u. Figure 1.2 shows the graph of the u- relation plotted
against representative values of the parameter , called the modulus.
1.1.2 Vertical rotation
Equation (1.2) expresses the law of conservation of energy, where the rst and
second terms are the kinetic and potential energies K and V, respectively. The kinetic
1-3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

energy K 12 ml 2 _ is at a maximum at 0, but at a minimum at K 0 at ,


so that the motion is restricted in the range    at sufciently small K.
On the other hand, as shown in gure 1.1, a circular motion can take place in a
vertical plane, if the kinetic energy K  12 ml 2 _ 2 is sufciently large. Oscillatory
motion can take place in the range 0 < < 2; no circular motion occurs, unless _ is
larger than _ , for which however the string of length l must always be taut. Usually,
values of and _ are specied as the initial conditions.
For a circular motion, the centrifugal force should be sufciently large, although
this can be ignored for a pendulum with a small amplitude. In circular motion, the
centrifugal force should be considered, expressed by
T  mg cos  T;
ml

1:6

_ which is not
in the radial direction, so that the tension T can be a function of ,
constant in general. Writing (1.6) as
Z
1 2_2 1 2_ 2
ml  ml
Tl d;
2
2

2
we notice that the kinetic energy 12 ml 2 _ should be sufciently larger than the initial
_ 2 in order to rotate the mass completely. The criteria for
kinetic energy 12 ml 2
rotation can therefore be expressed in terms of the total energy by E  E_ , where

1
2
E ml 2 _ Tl
2

and

1
E_ ml 2 _ 2 T l  2mgl:
2

The energy criteria for oscillation and rotation are illustrated in gure 1.1, where we
must have E > 2mgl for rotation.
q
E
E
For oscillation, from (1.2) we obtain 1  cos mgl
and 2mgl
. On the other
hand, with the condition E > 2mgl, the time of rotation can be dened by an elliptic
integral with a different modulus
r
2mgl
< 1:
1:7
o
E
Writing therefore
o
t
2

s Z
s 

l
d
l

q o
F o ; ;
g 0
g
2
1  2o sin2 2

1:8

the period of rotation is given by

s
l
K o :
T 2o
g

1:9

In the range 2mgl > E > mgl, the motion cannot be fully described by this
model, unless an additional condition is imposed for the string to be straight during

1-4

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

motion; accordingly, the system belongs to the non-canonical category. With welldened kinetic and potential energies, the system can be classied as canonical, but
remains non-canonical otherwise.

1.2 Vibration by a nonlinear spring force


Anharmonic vibration is usually discussed with a force characterized by a potential
energy V(z) of non-Hooke type, which can however be harmonic if V(z) is approximated as proportional to z2. The nonlinearity arises from unharmonic parts of
V(z), and one-dimensional anharmonic motion along the z axis can be described by
 
1 dz 2
V z E;
1:10
2 dt
where the mass is assumed as m 1 for simplicity. Accordingly, from (1.11) we
obtain the expression
Z z
dz
p:
t
1:11
2fE  V zg
0
3
The restoring force is determined by  @V
@z z  z , hence the potential energy
can be expressed as

V z z2 z4 :
2
4

1:12

Analogous to a pendulum, we can nd a singularity of the potential determined by


E V z. Considering an oscillating range a  z  a, the condition can be
written as

E  V z E  z2  z4 a  za zb2 z2 0;
2
2
where
a2

p
1
 2 4E

and

b2 a2

2
:

Dening vz 2 b2 z2 , we write the equation


2fE  V zg a  za zvz;
conrming the oscillation in the range a < z < a. In this case, the phase angle of
oscillation can be dened by z acos , and so that vz 2 b2 a2 cos2 . The
oscillation time t between  and determined by (1.8) can therefore be expressed
by an elliptic integral
sZ

2
d
p;
t
2
2
a b 
1  2 sin2

1-5

where

a2

a2
:
b2

1:13

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 1.3. E  V z versus z. Roots of E  V z 0 are indicated by 1, 10 , 3 and 4 for specic solutions.

Owing to asymmetric potential V z 2 z2  3 z3 , the equation f z 2fE


V zg 0 is an algebraic equation of the third order, characterized by three roots.
These are either three real or one real and two complex roots, as shown by points 1,
10 and 3 crossing the z axis in gure 1.3, among which two real roots may be
degenerate at the point 4 as a1 a and a2 a. Considering the oscillation in the
range a1 < z < a2 , this equation f(z) 0 is shown by the curve A, crossing the z
axis at 1 and 10 . A symmetric oscillation can take place in the range a < z < a at
the bottom, which is approximately symmetric in the curve B that is signied by
roots a1 ; a2 a and a3. The curve C is characterized only by one real root a3; two
others are complex conjugate a1, a2. The roots z a3 in these curves represent nonoscillatory motion, which can be ignored.
In terms of the total energy E, the oscillatory modes are separated discontinuously from non-oscillatory cases, as in a simple pendulum; they are characterized by
an energy gap E, where the system cannot be identied as canonical; and a possible
transition may be considered by bringing in an external agent.

1.3 A jumping rope


We discuss here another classical example of a jumping rope, swinging or rotating
around the xed axis AA0 , as shown in gure 1.4(a). To turn the rope, an additional
energy is required as given by the energy difference between these modes. It is noted
that the rope in steady rotation is similar to the hanging rope, but has a different
shape in the coordinate system on the ground.
Figure 1.4(a) shows ropes in swinging, rotating and hanging modes, as indicated
by 1, 2 and 3, respectively. As remarked, these shapes are similar but not quite
identical, depending on the angular frequency and the mass density of the rope.
_ whereas
To set the rope in rotation, we need sufciently high initial angular speed ,
for the swinging case 1, the initial angle can be sufciently small. Gravity can be
ignored in the former case of rotation.
The rope is assumed to be exible but of a xed length l, for simplicity. However,
the tension is not uniformly distributed along the rope, where the centrifugal force is
balanced with the deformed shape. Figure 1.4(b) illustrates for equilibrium situation
in case 2.
1-6

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 1.4. (a) Jumping rope. (b) Balanced tensions on a differential rope ds.

We dene the curvilinear coordinate s along the curved rope, thereby considering
the tension as given by a function T(s), where s is a measure from one end, say A,
and 0  s  l. Since the rope is in stationary shape in the rotating frame of reference
xy0 z, a segment of mass ds at an arbitrary position must be balanced as indicated
by the relations


 
dTy0
ds 2 y0 ds:
Tz1 ds Tz2 ds
and
Ty0 1 ds  Ty0 2 ds 
ds
dT

Here, we assume that dsy To cos where To const, and cos dy


dz where
represents geometrical bend angle of the rope from the z axis. Therefore, we obtain
 
d dy0
2 0

y 0;
1:14
ds dz
To
0

which is the equation for the function y0 f z.


Equation (1.14) can be solved with a standard elliptic integral as in the following.
0
2
02
2
we obtain
Setting p dy
dz for convenience, from the relation ds dy dz
ds
2
2
1 p . Accordingly, (1.14) can be modied as
dz
p

dp
2 y0 p2

1p :
dy0
To

Integrating this, we have


p
2 2
b  y02 ;
1 p2 1
2To

1-7

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where b is a constant that can be0 determined by p 0, corresponding to y0 max.


In solving this for y0 , we dene yb Y and
2

2 b2 =4To
1 2 b2 =4To

for

0 < < 1;

thereby writing
d
dz
q ;
c
1  2 1  2 2

1:15

with
1

s


2
2 2 b2
2
:
1

1  2 b
To
4To

Expressing (1.15) by reverse elliptic function, we have


z
b
2
where

y0 b sn
:
c
c 1  2

1:16

Using the conditions y0 0 at z 0 and 2a and y0 b (max.) at z a, the ropes


shape is expressed by an sn-function determined by a value of the modulus .
For a hanging rope, replacing the centrifugal potential 2 y02 ds in (1.14) by the
gravity potential gy ds, we have


d
dy
To
g 0;
1
ds
ds
with which the ropes shape can be expressed by
y a cosh

z  zo
 g:
a

1:17

Here zo and are the center position on AA0 determined by dy


dz 0 and the length of
the rope, respectively.

1.4 Hyperbolic and elliptic functions


We used the elliptic sn-function in the foregoing discussion. Useful formulas of
elliptic functions and related hyperbolic functions are briey summarized in this
section for those readers who are not particularly familiar with these functions [1].
1.4.1 Denitions
The elliptic function z sn u was dened as the reverse function of elliptic integral
(1.6). Here, the mathematical properties of elliptic functions, known as Jacobis
functions, and related hyperbolic functions are summarized.
1-8

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 1.5. Comparing (a) jsin1 zj  =2 with (b) jsn1 zj  K 0 < < 1.

Understandably, the reason for dening z sn u is due to the similarity of (1.6) to


the integral formula for trigonometric sin1 z, i.e.
Z z
dz
p sin1 z
u
and
z sin u:
1:18a
1  z2
0
In parallel, we dened z sn u from the integral
Z z
dz
p:
u
1  z2 1  2 z2
0

1:18b

We notice that (1.6) and (1.8) are identical if 0, whereas (1.5) can be expressed by
a hyperbolic function if 1, as shown later. Graphically, the correspondence
between sin1 z and sn1 z is illustrated by comparison in gure 1.5. The elliptic
function is characterized by the modulus , so customarily (1.18a) and (1.18b) are
expressed as u sn1 z; or z snu; , which is called Jacobis sn-function.
Analogous to trigonometric cos-functions, we can dene cn u by the relation
sn2 u cn2 u 1;

1:19

but further we write


dn2 u

1
:
1 2

1:20

At 0, these are trigonometric as veried from


snu; 0 sin u; cnu; 0 cos u

and

dnu; 0 1:

1:21

In the range of 0 < < 1, elliptic functions are similar but deformed from trigonometric shape, as shown in gure 1.5. For 1 however,
Z z
dz
u
tanh1 z;
2
0 1z
1-9

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 1.6. Curves of z sn u.

hence
snu; 1 tanh u

and cnu; 1 dnu; 1 sech u:

1:22

Graphs of snu; are compared for representative values of the modulus , illustrating their periodic feature in gure 1.6.
1.4.2 Differentiation
From the denition of (1.18a), we can derive the relation
du
1
p :
dz
1  z2 1  2 z2
Using (1.5), we obtain immediately that
dz p
1  sn2 u1  2 sn2 u cn udn u;
du
which is rewritten as the differentiation formula of sn u, i.e.
d
sn u cn udn u:
du

1:23

d
d p
sn u d sn u
cn u
1  sn2 u p
sn u dn u
du
du
1  sn2 u du

1:24

d
d p
2 sn u d sn u
dn u
2 sn u cn u:
1  2 sn2 u p
2
2
du
du
du
1  sn u

1:25

For cn u and dn u,

and

1.4.3 Reverse functions cn1 and dn1


The reverse function of sn can be expressed by sn1, which is essentially the elliptic
integral. We can similarly obtain such integral expressions from cn and dn functions.
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Letting cn u z, equation (1.18b) can be rewritten by denitions (1.19) and (1.20) as


p
dz p2 p
1  z 1  2 1  z2 1  z2 02 2 z2 ;
du
Hence

Z
u

z
1

where

dz
p cn1 z; ;
1  z2 02 2 z2

p
1  2 :

1:26

where the lower limit of integral is determined by z 1, corresponding to cn u 1.


Similarly, we can derive
Z z
dz
p:
1:27
dn1 z; 
1  z2 z2  02
1
1.4.4 Periodicity of Jacobis sn-function
Equation (1.17) describes a general form of a jumping rope with both ends xed.
Here, the expression for the length of the curve between z a and a is obtained,
referring to gure 1.4. The sn-function is periodic in extended z axis with period
4K(), hence the shape indicates standing waves of half period 2a 2K() between A
and A0 , which take up the impacts at the joints. Rigid supports at A and A0 are
assumed to simplify the analysis, ignoring the

physical reality however. Nevertheless, using (1.23) we differentiate y0 b sn cz to obtain


dy0 b z z
dn
;
cn
c
c
c
dz
hence
 2
ds
b2
z
z
b2 1  2 2 z
b2
z

1 2 cn2 dn2 1  2
dn
dn4 :
2
2
2
dz
c
c
c c
c
c
c

2
Because of the relation bc 1
2 from (1.16), this can be simplied as
 2 
2
ds
2
2z
1
dn
:
dz
1  2
c

Accordingly,
2
sz
1  2

Z z
0

dn2

z
dz  z;
c

1:28a

which expresses the phase angle as dened by z cu and sin sn u at A and A0 ,


respectively. It is noted that thus dened is not the same as in (1.13), but both of
these represent the sinusoidal phase that corresponds to sn u. Using this time, we
differentiate the relation sin sn u to obtain
cos d cn u dn udu:

1-11

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Comparing with the relation


cos2 1  sin2 1  sn2 u cn2 u;
we can write cn u d (cn u dn u) du, and therefore d dn udu. Hence
Z

u
0

dn u du

q
1  2 sin2 d E; ;

which is called the elliptic integral of the second kind. Writing that
Z
E u

u
0

dn2 udu E; ;

the length s(z) of (1.28a) can be expressed as


z
2c
 z:
sz
E
1  2
c

1:28b

Considering that A and A0 are specied by z a and z a, the value of sn u


vanishes at u 2K(), where
Z q
Z K
2
2
2
K
dn2 u du E K;
1  sin d
0

and the ropes curve length is given by


l

4cE
4aE
 2a:
 2a
2
1
1  2 K

1.5 Variation principle


In section 1.3, we considered that the rotating rope is in equilibrium with centrifugal
force in the rotating frame of reference xy0 z in gure 1.4(a). For a hanging rope, on
the other hand, it is in equilibrium with gravity, but the situation can be treated
in the same way as for the rotating rope. In these cases, it is noted that the expression
for the curved rope can be derived mathematically by the variation principle for the
potential energy to take a minimum value under the restriction of a constant length l,
as the laws of physics allow only for canonical dynamics to be associated with
thermodynamic equilibrium with the surroundings.
Rl
For a rotating rope, we consider
for potential energy U 0 y02 ds to be miniRl
mized under a constant l 0 ds. Writing that
s
s
 0 2
 0 2
Z 2a
Z 2a
dy
dy
02
U
y
1
dz max:
with l
1
dz const:;
dz
dz
0
0

1-12

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

the principle can be applied to U as I l 0, where I U/ and is an arbitrary multiplier, namely





 0 )
Z z2 
Z z2 (
0
0
dy
dy
@F
@F
dy

dz
dz:
I y0 ;
F y0 ;
y0 dy0

0
@y
dz
dz
dz
@ dz
z1
z1
Considering y0 0 at both limits z1 and z2, after integration by parts, we obtain
)
Z z2 (
@F d @F
I

0
y0 dz 0:
@y0 dz @ dy
z1
dz
Hence, for an arbitrary y0 in between, we have the Euler equation
d @F
@F
0
 0 0:
dz @ dy
@y
dz
By denition, we have I U  l, hence the Euler equation can be written
explicitly as
8
9
s
>
 0 2
dy0 >
<
02
d y  dz =
dy
0
q
0;
 2y 1

2
0
dz >
dz
: 1 dy >
;
dz
which can be manipulated as
y02  d2 y0
0
dy0
2 dz2  2y 0:
1 dz
Integrating this, we arrive at
(
 0 2 )
1
dy
ln 1
ln  y02 const:
2
dz
We can therefore write
 0 2
dy
1
 y02 2 ;
dz

1=  b2 2 ; as y0 b at

where

Therefore

dy0
0:
dz

 0 2


dy
2
b2  y02
2
02
;

b  y 1
 b2
dz
2  b2
 0 2
dy
which is identical
to
derived in section 1.3; and the same as (1.16), if writing
dz
2

2
b2 To .
Rl
For a hanging rope, we consider for the gravitational potential U 0 gy ds to
Rl
be minimized with a constant length l 0 ds. Therefore, the variation principle
1-13

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 1.7. (a) Model for a buckled rod. (b) Energies of unbuckled rod Uo and buckled rod U o ; Uo > Uo .

q

2
R 2a
demands for the integral 0 y g 1 dy
dz dz to be minimized, leading to the
dy
2
2
relation dz y g , which can be solved as y a cosh az  g.

1.6 Buckling deformation of a rod


Buckling, in the example of a compressed elastic rod, is a fundamental issue for
structural stability. In addition, it provides an example of a bifurcation that is
characteristic in nonlinear phenomena. In this section, a compressed elastic rod at
both ends is discussed, exhibiting a nonlinear deformation, as shown in gure 1.7.
When the forces F and F are sufciently weak at both ends, the rod can just be
compressed with no deformation, but deformed as illustrated in the gure, if F
exceeds a critical strength Fo. Normally, F > Fo and such a deformation is bifurcate.
For a rod bent as described by the angle d and radius of curvature R, as shown in
gure 1.7, we have the relation
1
d F
 y;
R
ds B
where B is a constant determined by properties of the rod and its cross-sectional
area. Since dy
ds sin , we can write the equation
d2
F
1:29
c2 sin
where
c2 :
ds2
B
This is the same as (1.1) for a pendulum, if replacing the time t by the curved
length s.

1-14

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

We solve (1.29) with the boundary conditions at A and A0 , where the rod is
attached with no distortion, and we can assume R N. Therefore, there should be
discontinuous changes of the curvature for the buckled rod both at A and A0 , for
which the constant c is determined by physical properties of the rod and the strength
of F. Specifying A and A0 by coordinates x1, x2, and letting AA00 2l as constant, we
calculate s along the curved rod from the center.
Referring to (1.1), we write sin 2 sin , and obtain
Z
d
p cs
or
amcs;
0
1  2 sin2
and
cos

p
1  2 sn2 cs dncs:
2

Hence
dy
2sncsdncs;
ds
from which we derive that
y

2
cncs;
c

1:30

where the integration constant is zero,


because y 0 at s l/2, hence cl K().
p
For a small , the expression 1  2 sin2 1 can be expanded in series of
, and

Z 
2
2 2

2
K
1 sin    d 1    cl:
2
2
4
0
p
Since c F=B, we can dene the bifurcation point by such a specic value of Fo
q
that FBo l 2. Therefore, the rod can be buckled with > 0 for F > Fo, otherwise

remaining straight with no deformation for F < Fo.


The energy of buckling can be calculated as composed of strain energy and the
potential energy due to the applied forces F, which is expressed as
)
Z l (  2
Z l
B d
U
F cos ds
V ds
1:31
2 ds
0
0
where V is the energy density per unit length. Using the variation for U to be
minimized, we can obtain the Euler equation dsd @@Vd  @V
0, which is written as the
ds @
same as (1.30).

1-15

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Equation (1.31) can then be expressed as


2

U  Uo 2 F

l
0

fcn2 cs  sn2 csgds;

1:32a

where Uo Fl represents the potential energy of the straight rod. Using the relation
cl K() and sin sn u, we arrive at
U  Uo

22 Fl
K

K
0

cn2 u  sn2 udu:

1:32b

Ru
Ru
Manipulating further with the relation E; 0 dn2 udu 0 1  2 sn2 udu,
and setting u K() and sin sn u, we obtain
Z K
2
E K 
sn2 udu;
0

and




4Fl
2
E  1 
K :
U  Uo
K
2
2

1:32c
2

Using expansion formulas, K 2 1 4    and E 2 1  4    , we


notice that U < Uo for 6 0, implying that the buckled rod has always a lower
energy than the straight one. Therefore, we may consider that represents the strain
energy in the rod.
For a small value of , we can consider the stressed rod by assuming the angle d
as innitesimally small. In this case, the rod cannot be modeled as innitely thin, but
as a nite cross-section that is stressed as proportional to ds. The strain energy per
2
unit length of the rod can then be expressed as 12 2l , where is constant. Referring to
gure 1.7(a), the potential energy for bending can be expressed as 2R sin  lF,
where R 2l. Expanding sin for a small , we have therefore
U





2
sin
Fl 2 Fl 4
1 Fl

   ;

2l 24
5!
2l

which indicates that if F < Fo 12


l 2 , U min. at 0; if F > Fo , from
bifurcate angle Fo can be determined by

@U
@

0 the


p
Fl
Fo l 2


Fo 0; and hence Fo F  Fo :
2l 24
24

It is noted that equation (1.29) can be linearized for F < Fo , and buckling can be
attributed to the nonlinear equation for F > Fo as a typical nonlinear effect.

1-16

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Exercise
Reviewing classical problems in this chapter with respect to the total mechanical
energy E, construct energy level diagrams to indicate the presence of forbidden
energy bands, which are characteristically due to a model that is either inadequate or
not properly dened.

Reference
[1] Bowman F 1961 Introduction to Elliptic Functions with Applications (New York: Dover);
Greenhill A G 1959 The Application of Elliptic Functions (New York: Dover); Hancock H
1958 Lecture on the Theory of Elliptic Functions (New York: Dover)

1-17

IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 2
Wave propagation, singularities and boundaries

In this chapter, the origin of nonlinearity of wave propagation in media is discussed,


where mutual interactions, singularities and boundary conditions are responsible for
deviation from linearity at low energies. Nevertheless, these are considered as perturbations in linear physics, providing somewhat insecure results to deal with physical
reality. Therefore, it is necessary to interpret the mathematical consequences in light
of the principles of physics. Specic properties of the Eckart potential are studied here
in particular, as required for discussion in the following chapters.

2.1 Elastic waves along a linear string of infinite length


2.1.1 Phase of propagation
Basic excitations in a condensed matter exhibit propagating waves in one dimension,
occurring as the consequence of an adapted dynamical model.
Considering a string of innite length embedded in a medium, we describe the
displacement y y(x, t) of a differential segment of mass ds, where and ds are
the density and differential length, respectively, obeying the equation
@2y 1 @2y

0:
@x2 v2 @t2

2:1

With respect to the spacetime coordinates x and t along the string, v is the speed of
propagation determined by the tension of the string Ts and the density (x, t). The
general solution of (2.1) can be expressed as
y f x  vt gx vt;

2:2

representing propagating waves in opposite directions x. Analyzing with Fourier


expansion, (2.2) can be written as
Z
1 N
y
Y eikxt d;
2:3
2 N

doi:10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4ch2

2-1

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where the amplitude Y() should be a real quantity, i.e. Y*() Y(). Here, is
the angular frequency, related to the corresponding wavevector k as vk, and the
variable kx  t is the phase of propagation. Using these notations, Fouriers
component waves at a frequency are expressed by  A ei , where A are
amplitudes that can be complex functions for convenience. In practice, it is practical
to dene real amplitudes, so that we can write A aei and A bei for (2.3)
with a single phase , namely
y aei bei :
Mathematically, the phase is an angle in the range (0, 2) in repetition, which is
invariant for the spacetime transformation x  vt ! x0  vt0 , so that the propagation can be restricted to the nite range 0   2. On the other hand,
the amplitude is related to the energy of propagation, which is determined by the
physical excitation mechanism. The amplitude can therefore be assumed as
unchanged with propagation, if there is no mechanism considered for energy dissipation; the phase determines linear propagation, described by equation (2.1).
2.1.2 Energy ow
Physically waves represent propagating excitation energy that is transported through
the medium. For a one-dimensional region between x x1 and x x2, we can
dene the kinetic and potential energies K and V, composing the vibration energy
E K V per unit length of the string. Here, arising from the speed y_ x; t and the
displacement dy(x, t), respectively, K and V can be expressed as
1
K
2

x2
x1

 2
@y

dx
@t

and
Z
V Ts

x2
x1

0s
1
 2
Z  
@y
Ts x2 @y 2
@ 1
A
dx;
 1 dx 
@x
2 x1 @x

where the latter represents balanced tensions on a displaced differential segment


between x2  x1 dx of the string. Therefore, at a small vibration amplitude,
E is written as
 2 )
Z (  2
x2
@y
@y
Ts
dx; where v2 :
E
v2
2 x1
@t
@x

Using (2.10), we express




Z x2 
Z x2
2 
dE
@y @ 2 y
@ @y @y
2 @y @ y
2

dx:
dx  v
v
dt
@t @t2
@x @x2
x1
x1 @x @t @x

2-2

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Rx
Dening the energy density and the corresponding current density by E x12 E dx
@y
and J x; t v2 @y
@t @x, respectively, the continuity of energy ow can be
expressed by
Z x2
Z
d x2
@
E dx 
J x; tdx Jx1 t Jx2 t;
dt x1
x1 @x
which can be rewritten at an arbitrary time as
dE
Jx1  Jx2 :
dt

2:4a

This implies that the amount of energy in the range x2  x1 2=k is a


constant of time for a steady ow, for which in-going and out-going ows are equal,
i.e. Jx1 Jx2 ; otherwise E is not constant, due to an unknown mechanism that is not
yet concerned with this model. In any case, we have the equation for continuity
@E @J
0;

@x
@t

2:4b

where the current density J plays a signicant role for time-dependent E that can
often be dispersed from a specic part of the string signied by a current ow. If so,
J Jout  Jin 6 0 is responsible for the singularity as usually related to energy loss,
while suggesting a possible connection to outside at this point.
@J
E
According to (2.4b), a steady ow of energy means that @
@t 0 and @x 0, hence
J const. On the contrary, if J 6 const., the dynamical system is not necessarily
in thermodynamic equilibrium with the surroundings.
2.1.3 Scattering by an oscillator
Figure 2.1 shows an elastic string connected vertically with a spring at one end, M,
whereas the two ends, A and B, are connected at xed points. Such a spring system
can be employed as a model of singularity for wave propagation along the string,

Figure 2.1. (a) A long elastic string held horizontally with a vertical spring attached at M. The spring constant
is Ko . (b) Tensions Ts balanced with the spring force.

2-3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

whereby scatterings of waves can be calculated. The equation of motion of the


effective mass m at the joint M is given as


 

d2 y
@y >
@y <
eit ;
m 2 Ko y Ts

2:5
dt
@x x0
@x x0
where Ko and are the restoring constant and frequency of the spring, respectively.
We solve (2.5) for the transverse displacement y y0; keikvt , where vk.
Writing
y < x; k eikx Rkeikx
y > x; k T xeikx ;

2:6

and setting the condition


y0; k y > 0; k y< 0; k;
we obtain the relation
y0; k

k2

2ik
;
 ko2 2ik

2:7

p
p
where ko v Ko =m is a resonant frequency and is dened as v Ts =m. In
addition, we have
T k y0; k
and
Rk T k  1

k 2  ko2
:
k 2  ko2 2ik

If k ko, we have R(k) 0 and T(k) 1, indicating that there is no reection, and
the wave in resonance at ko propagates through the singularity. On the other hand, if
k 6 ko the singular behavior of y(0, k) determined by k 2  ko2 2ik 0 gives rise to
q
k i  ko2  2 ;
2:8
p
indicating that the two poles of y(0, k) at k i  ko2  2 are close to the
imaginary axis, if ko , which become a single pole at k i and ko .
The singular force for propagation is therefore expressed as


 

dy >
dy >
Ts

eit ikTs f2T k  1geit :
dx x0
dx x0
Using (2.6), we write dydt> iT keit , so that this force may be considered as if
an external force is applied on the string on the right side; equation (2.5) can then be
written as
q
d2 y >
dy >
2 2

2v
v
y

iT
ko2  2 eit ;
>
s
dt2
dt

2-4

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where the second term on the left side of this equation represents damping of
propagating energy on the string. It should be noted that normally such damping
occurs with owing energy toward the surrounding medium, establishing thermodynamical equilibrium with the string. It is signicant that a force on the right side is
responsible for dispersion of the frequency. In general, nonlinear waves caused by
such a singularity are always dissipative as well as dispersive in character. Particularly, it is further noticeable that at resonance, ko , phases of y> and y< are
identical, i.e. x  t, corresponding to R 0 and T 1.

2.2 Microwave transmission


Electromagnetic waves between parallel conducting plates are a well-studied model
for practical microwave transmission in waveguides [1]. Such guided waves transmit
waves reected zigzag between parallel metal walls, traveling as a group of plane
waves at a group velocity vg along the direction of propagation. Therefore, the
guided wave at a frequency can be characterized effectively by the wavevector
k vg .
Figure 2.2 shows such a waveguide as simplied by parallel plates, which conne
propagating microwaves in the space between them. Here, two end regions marked
in and out act as obstacles of propagation, where waves can reect back and
transmit through, if waves come from the left, and are going to the right out of the
waveguide. Ignoring the detail of such obstacles, we can consider a scattering process of plane waves in one dimension, as illustrated in the gure.
First, denoting the gap width between the plates as 2d, we can write the wave
equation
@2y
1 @2y

0;
@t 2 v2gc @x2

where

2
1
k2  2 ;
2
4d
vgc

2:9

in this waveguide. Noted from the -k relation in (2.9), the frequency should be
1
for the wave to propagate in this space; 2d c is called the
restricted as k > 2d
cut-off frequency. Letting y yxexpit, we can derive the stationary equation
for y(x),
d2 y
k 2 y Kxy;
dx2
where Kx 4d1 2 , effectively like a spring constant, signies that electromagnetic
energy can be conned to this region, for which the restoring potential 12 Kxy2 is
responsible. The region between obstacles in length xo, called a cavity resonator in
microwave engineering, can accommodate stationary waves in large amplitude, if

Figure 2.2. Microwave transmission line through a cavity resonator.

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

xo ngc =2, where n indicates integers at resonance; a large amount of electromagnetic energy can be stored in the resonant space 0 < x < xo.
Ignoring details of the coupling area, a scattering process can be described in a
simple way. In the three regions for propagation marked 1, 2 and 3 in gure 2.2,
waves traveling from left to right can be expressed by
y < x eikx Reikx ;
0

yx Aeik x Beik x ;

where

k0

;
vgc

and
y > x T eikx :
Here the wavevector k0 in the space 2 should be equal to k at resonance, for which
the above relations are written.
At the obstacles, we normally apply two boundary conditions:
 


dy <
dy
y < 0 y0;

at x 0;
dx x0
dx x0
and

 


dy
dy >

dx xxo
dx xxo

y < xo yxo ;

at

x xo ;

respectively. Hence, at x 0 we have


1RAB

ik1  R ik 0 A  B;

and

and at x xo
0

Aeik xo Beik xo T eikxo

ik 0 Aeik xo  Beik xo ikT eikxo :

Solving these equations for R and T for k k0 , we obtain R B at x 0, and T A


at x xo, which signify that the energy of waves is transmitted through the obstacles
when the space is at resonance, i.e. g ngc , where n is a discrete integer. In this
case, the resonant space behaves as if described by such an attractive potential for
K(x) > 0.
In microwave electronics, such obstacles and resonators are fabricated for practical use, and the reection and transmission are detected by observing resonance
phenomena. The detected R and T contain more information of the obstacles,
serving as informative quantities in microwave spectroscopy.

2.3 Schrdingers equation


In quantum mechanics, scatterings of an electron by atomic species can be discussed
in one dimension with a Schrdingers equation,


2 d2
V x E:
2m dx2
2-6

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Letting 2mE=2 k 2 and 2mV x=2 U x, we can write


d2
fk 2  U xg 0:
dx2

2:10

Noting that U(x) is a highly localized potential, and that x  expikx


approximately for distant points x ! N, the scattering can be discussed in terms
of reection factor R and transmission factor T as
< Aeikx AReikx ;

> AT eikx :

2:11

2
Supposing that
R a the potential can be written as U x Uo x, where Uo 2mVo =
and x a dx, we can derive

iUo a
k iUo a

and

k
:
k iUo a

Accordingly, at k iUo a and Uo < 0, Ra N and Ta N, although


equation (2.11) indicates that < a < x AeU o ax and > x < a AeU o ax , implying
that a particle is trapped in the range a < x < a of the potential U(x). It can be
signied by stating that a wavevector k for the singularity is located on the imaginary axis in the upper half of the complex k-plane, whose property can be investigated from observed coefcients R and T.

2.4 Scattering by the potential V x V o sech2 x


It is a signicant mathematical nding in early physics that a wave (x) cosh x
expressed by a linear combination of eix satises the equation

d2  2

k

U
x
0;
dx2
as the eigenvalue k 1 is characterized by no reection from the potential U(x)
2 sech2x. This means that the wave scattered by the potential U(x) is given by
(x) 0 at x N, and invariant for all coordinate transformations along the
x-axis. In this section, we analyze this specic scattering from sech2-potential
mathematically, leaving its physical signicance to later discussions.
For convenience, we write
V x Vo sech2

x
;
d

where

Vo > 0;

2:12a

showing a negative potential with the width 2d, as shown in gure 2.3. The above
wave equation can then be expressed as
d2
v sech2 z 0;
dz2
where x zd, and 2md 2 E=2 , v 2md 2 Vo =2 .
2-7

2:12b

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 2.3. An Eckarts potential.

Following Morse and Feshbach [2], by changing (z) to a function Y(u) by


1
ez
A sech zY z and then u 1  tanh z z
;
2
e ez

2:12c

we can transform (2.12b) to the hypergeometric differential equation, namely,


d2 Y
dY
v  2  sech2 zY 0:
 2tanh z
2
dz
dz
This can then be re-expressed as
uu  1

d2 Y
dY
 abu 0;
fc  a b 1ug
2
du
du

2:13

where
c 1 ;

a b 1 21

ab 2  v:

and

2:14

Equation (2.13) is the standard form of hypergeometric equation, whose nite


solution for z ! N can be expressed as
Y u Fa; b; c; u 1

ab
u   :
c

By denition, z ! N corresponds to u ! 0 and Y ! 1; hence we have


z!N ! A2 ez :
2 2

In order for this z!N to represent propagating wave eikz, where E 2mk , we
should have the relation ikd. Solving (2.14), the values of a, b and c are
determined as
1
a  ikd
2

r
1
v ;
4

1
b  ikd 
2

2-8

r
1
v
4

and

c 1  ikd: 2:15

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

For z!N , on the other hand, it is convenient to expand F(a, b, c; u) around


u 1. From [2], we obtain the formula
Fa; b; c; u

cc  a  b
Fa; b; a b  c 1; 1  u
c  ac  b
1  ucab

ca b  c
Fc  a; c  b; c  a  b 1; 1  u:
ac
2:16

Noticing that in (2.15) the functions F::; ::; ::; 1  u approach 1, when u ! 1, and
that the factor 1  ucab exp2z, z!N in (2.12a) characterizes the
amplitude A, so that Fa; b; c; u ! 1 ! 1. Further, using the relations from
sech z  2 ez and ikd, we can write

ca b  c ikx cc  a  b ikx
e
e
x!N  A2

:
ab
c  ac  b
It is interesting to notice at this point that these coefcients have singularities arising
from the properties of gamma-functions; namely, ab ! N occur if
a; b m 1; 2; 3; : : :;

2:17a

as seen from gure 2.4; in addition from the mathematical relation


r!
r!
1
1
1
1

 v

c  ac  b v
 q ;
2
4
2
4
cos v 1
4

which becomes N if
r
1 2n 1
;
v
4
2

where n 1; 2; : : : ;

Figure 2.4. Properties of the Gamma function.

2-9

2:17b

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

and hence
v nn 1;

2:17c

at which the potential (2.12a) causes no reection. Applying (2.17b) to the incident
wave, (2.17a) is allowed to write for > 0 that

2n 1
1
 m  n  m;
2
2

where m 0; 1; 2; : : : ; n  1;

or
p p n; n  1; n  2; : : : ; 1:

2:18

Summarizing the above mathematics, the wave equation for the potential sech2 x
can be signied by discrete integers p and n, namely

d2 p;n 2
p nn 1sech2 z p;n 0;
dz2

2:19

indicating a close relation between the sech2-potential and eigenvalue of the


propagating wave n. The above is just a mathematical result, but the potential
n(n 1)sech2 z in (2.19) can physically be interpreted as an attractive potential in
the nonlinear mechanism, which was represented only in mean-eld accuracy
in traditional theories. In addition, we need to interpret physically why such a
sech2-potential is discrete in exhibiting singularities at n0 6 n.

2.5 Two-dimensional waves in inhomogeneous medium


It was a signicant nding that the Eckart potential was proven as a reection-free
potential in the nonlinear problem. In this section we discuss two-dimensional waves,
where such a sech2-potential should exist in water of inhomogeneous distributed
densities. In addition, we see that one-dimensional waves are not an adequate model
to describe practical wave motion in media. Furthermore, such a model for twodimensional waves discussed here is consistent with the symmetry of terrestrial
gravity. Although considered as obvious for mathematical simplicity, it provides a
restricted boundary condition for still water that is not stated as obvious, indicating
the signicance of the symmetry of surroundings for nonlinear phenomena.
Figure 2.5 sketches deep water where the density (z) is a function of depth z
measured from the surface, which is nevertheless consistent with symmetry of the
gravitational eld. Although implicit in the present problem, such symmetry is
explicit in crystalline media, as will be discussed in later chapters.
With such a density function (z), the medium can be regarded of innite extent
except the depth, where the sound pressure p(x, z) can propagate along the
x-direction, disregarding the y-direction. We therefore write the wave equation as
@2p @2p
2

p 0;
@x2 @z2 vz2

2-10

2:20

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 2.5. Sound propagation under water of a variable density. (a) The speed of propagation vo z vs
depth z. (b) Horizontal layer for sound propagation.

where the sound velocity is a function of depth z, and written as


vz2

v2o

1 z2

Setting px; z Az exp ikx; we can obtain the equation


d2 A
fk 2  V zgA 0;
dz2
where
k2

2
v2o

and

V z 

2 z2
:
v2o

In the presence of a sound source of intensity Q located at a point (x,z), we note


that the above equation for A is modied
by the localized potential V(z), and sol 
,
where
ko vo . In this case, (2.20) can be
uble, if assuming z2 2 sech2 z
vo
expressed as
@2p @2p

ko2 1 2 sech2 ko zp Qxz;


@x2 @z2

2:21

allowing consideration of the potential 2ko2 sech2 ko z for representing the


responding medium in the z-direction. It looks very hypothetical, though such a
potential as proportional to sech2 ko z arises as the consequence of the soliton theory,
as veried in later discussions.
It is noted that (2.21) satises boundary conditions for p 0 at x, z ! N.
However, in practice, the wavevector ko cannot be dened precisely because of
2-11

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

distributed components kx, for which we redene the sound pressure as given by the
Fourier transform pkx ; z:
Z
Z
1 N
1 N ikx x
ikx x
pk; z
pkx ; ze d kx
and
x
e dkx :
2 N
2 N
We therefore write the equation for pkx ; z as
d2 p
ko2  kx2 2ko2 sech2 ko zp Qz at
dz2

x 0;

2:22a

indicating that pressures p > and p < above and below the source, respectively, are
related as




dp >
dp <

Q at x 0:
2:22b
dz x0
dz x0
On the other hand, at x > 0 and x < 0, we have the homogeneous equation
d2 p > ;<
ko2  kx2 2ko2 sech2 ko zp > ;< 0:
dz2

2:23

Letting ko2  kx2 kz2 , solutions of (2.23) can be written as


p > Akx eikz z ikz  ko tanh ko z
and
p < Akx eikz z ikz ko tanh ko z;

2:24

with the same factor A(kx). At z 0, we should have the relation p > p < , so that
Akx

Q
:
 kx2

22ko2

2:25

The two-dimensional eld of sound is therefore expressed by


px; z

Q
4

N
N

dkx eikx xkz jzj

ikz  ko tanh ko jzj


;
2ko2  kx2

2:26

which is composed of two independent waves characterized as orthogonal.


Such a complex integral as (2.26) can be evaluated with Cauchys theorem of the
mathematical theory of complex functions, using a circular path for integration in
the k-space. In the present case, gure 2.6 illustrates the analysis in p
the
kx  kz
space. From (2.26), we note that there are singular points at kx  2ko . Here,
uctuations kz and kx restricted by kz2 kx2 ko2 can be expressed by a complex
notation ko k 0 ik 00 , showing the anomalies signied by the broadened

2-12

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 2.6. Cauchys semi-circle diagram for the k-vector of sound wave propagation.

hyperbolic curve k 0 k 00 const: in the gure. Choosing a semi-circular path for


integration to exclude these singularity poles and anomalies, Cauchys calculation
results in the expression:
p

Q
Q
px; z p ei 2kx x2 sech ko z
4
4 2

N
N

d kz eikz z ikz  ko tanh ko zFkz ; 2:27a

where
p
2
2
kz eikx ko kz
Fkz p
:
ko2  kz2 ko2 kz2

2:27b

It is noted that (2.27a) at the origin, (x, z) 0, is expressed in a complex form, so


that the real and imaginary parts should be perpendicular in directions. In fact, we
can show that
Z N
sech kx xfikz  ko tanh ko zgeikz z dz 0;
N

implying that the solutions along (x, z) axes are perpendicular.

2.6 Sound propagation in air


We now consider the problem of sound propagation in still air. It is noted that the
propagation is dissipative, however the dynamics remain as in free space, unless
the energy transfer to the surrounding air is considered. The sound wave is basically
longitudinal to the direction of propagation, but practically transverse as well; the
transport of energy is performed by a pressure gradient exerted on the latter, which is
responsible for nonlinear sound propagation. We consider the density of air (x, t) as
a function of phase kx  t, however modulated by the surrounding air for
nonlinear propagation.

2-13

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

In the classical view, the sound propagation occurs as related to the


momentum change due to pressure variation, which may be expressed as given by
the equation
@v
@v
1 @p
v

;
@t
@x
o @x

as considering a representative air mass m o(Al ) in a cylindrical volume of


density o, where A and l x are cross-sectional area and height, respectively.
Here, the pressure variation p is a function of x at a still pressure po.
In reality, the wave density is not restricted in the geometrical x-axis, spreading
out in the perpendicular as well, so that we can logically assume that x z,
allowing the writing of continuity equations as
@x
@v
0
o
@x
@t

@z
0:
@t

and

ii

Further, to express that z is conned to narrow vicinity around the x-axis, we


assume the relation
@ 2 z
z  o p;
@t 2

iii

where is a constant.
Equation (i) is nonlinear because of the term v @v
@x on the left, whereas (ii) and (iii)
are linear. The density components x and z are both functions of
px, z,0 butpwe

0
assume jx j jz j o . Introducing a set of reduced variables x x, t t,


p
0 x;z o and 12 k 3 t 0 , we can write p0 for these relations to be linearized by
o
o
neglecting v @v
@x , which are
@v @p0

0;
@t0 @x0

@0 @v

0
@t0 @x0

@ 2 0
0 p0 :
@t 02

and
0

iv

Assuming that 0 , v, p0 are all proportional to eikx  t , we can obtain the relation
for their amplitudes. Then, the following dispersion relation can be derived from
2
(iv), namely 2 1 k k 2 . For small values of k, we have an approximate relation
1
 k  k 3:
2
0

i 3 0

Therefore, writing eikx t eikx t e2k t , we can dene kx0  t0 and


12 k 3 t 0 for a coordinate change x0 ; t 0 ! ; on the perturbed equations (i)
and (ii), using transformations,
@
@
k
@x0
@

and

@
@ 1 @
k k 3 :
@t0
@ 2 @

2-14

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Perturbed equations (i) and (ii) expressed with these reduced variables x0 , t0 , 0 and
p are
0

@v
@v @p0

0
@t 0
@x0 @x0

@0 @v @0 v

0:
@x0
@t 0 @x0

and

vi

Combining the second relation in (iv) with transformed (vi) by the above, we have


@v 1 2 @v
@v @p0
k
v
0
@ 2 @
@ @

and

@0 1 2 @0 @v @0 v
0: viia
k

@
@ 2 @ @

The third equation in (iv) is transformed as


p0 0 k 2

2 0
2 0
@ 2 0
4 @
6@

k

k
:
@@
@2
@2

viib

Equations (viia) and (viib) can be solved with respect to k2 in asymptotic approximation, where variables 0 , vvo and p0 are attributed to emerging nonlinear quantities in media under critical conditions. Expanding in power series of k2, we write
0 k 2 01 k 4 02   
v  vo k 2 v01 k 4 v02   
and
p0 k 2 p01 k 4 p02   
Substituting these in (viia) and (viib), factors of terms of k 2 ; k 4 ; : : : are compared
separately.
From terms of k2, we obtain


@01 @v
0;

@ @

@v @p01

0
@ @

and

p01 01 ;

but integrating the rst two relations, we have


p01 01 v1 ; where is an arbitrary function of :
From terms of k4,
@02 1 @01 @v2 @01 v1
0;

@
@ 2 @
@
@v2 1 @v1
@v1 @p02


v1

0
@ 2 @
@
@


and
p02 02

2-15

@ 2 01
:
@2

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Using the last expression in the rst two, we can eliminate 02 ; p02 ; v2 to obtain
relations among 01 , p02 and v01 , which are
@v01
@v0 @ 2 v0
@v0 @
0
3v01 1 31 1
@
@
@
@
@
and
@01
@0 @ 3 0
@0 @
0:
301 1 31  1 
@
@
@
@
@
@v0 ; 0

1
1
Choosing the function () to satisfy the relation @
@
@ 0, we obtain the
0
0
0
following expression for V1 to represent all of 1 ; v1 ; p1 , namely,

@V1
@V1 @ 3 V1
3V1

0;
@
@
@3

2:28

which is known as the KortewegdeVries equation. It is noted that the third-order


derivative on the left side of (2.28) originates from the dispersion relation (v) that
includes k3-term in particular, describing the nonlinear effect. It is physically
essential that 01 ; v01 ; p01 can be specied in a common steady development process,
whereby (2.28) is called a development equation.
So interpreting the relation (i), the
@p0
nonlinearity is developed by a force 1 @x1 that is attributed to the surrounding
o
medium. In chapter 3, we will discuss that equation (2.28) holds for the medium to
react against the dynamical change at a steady rate, determining nonlinear waves.
Above all, we will learn that the KortewegdeVries equation has a specic solution
in sech2-type.

Exercises
(1) In section 2.2, we derived expressions to determine R and T, for an idealized
one-dimensional resonator. Conrm for the relation jRj2 jT j2 1 to be satised in this case that characterizes it as conservative.
(2) How can a system of a particle interacting with a local potential be characterized as conservative? Discuss it in one dimension as in section 2.3.
(3) Discuss the reason why Galilean invariance is a signicant criterion in single
crystals.
(4) In section 2.6, a spacetime coordinate change, x0 ; t 0 ! ; , was performed
to derive the KortewegdeVries equation mathematically. What is the significance of the transformation? Does it not violate physical spacetime? Discuss
this issue.

References
[1] Fujimoto M 2007 Physics of Classical Electromagnetism (New York: Springer) chapter 19
[2] Morse P M and Feshbach H 1953 Methods of Theoretical Physics (New York: McGraw-Hill)

2-16

IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 3
Solitons and adiabatic potentials

Using soliton solutions discovered mathematically, we can deal with interactions in


the medium regarding Newtons actionreaction principle, yielding useful information about responding surroundings. Corresponding to the adiabatic potential in
thermodynamics, the soliton potential represents the properties of a medium,
allowing a better expression of media response than does mean-eld accuracy,
constituting a basic objective in modern physics on nonlinearity.

3.1 The KortewegdeVries equation


Models in mechanics cannot necessarily be adapted for use in dynamical applications
in microscopic systems, unless they are signied by eigenstates of the Hamiltonian
function. In principle, the model should be supported for dynamical systems to be
used in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings; in other words, the system should
be conservative in character.
The pressure from the surrounding medium, for example, is traditionally
assumed to be constant for a system in thermodynamic equilibrium. On the other
hand, the perturbing pressure gradient p01 6p represents a force by the reacting
surroundings, by which we can dene a potential V1 as related with p01 V1 ,
corresponding to an adiabatic potential in thermodynamics. In section 2.6, we found
that such a potential V1() is in phase with the related 01 () and v01 () in the rstorder asymptotic approximation, so that V1 interacts with 01 in the coordinate
system moving at a speed v01 , where 01 is considered to be scattered by V1().
Arising from V1(), the nonlinearity is developed as a function of that is normally a developing time, or otherwise related to the temperature T in the thermodynamic environment. In the latter, it is essential to include lattice phonons in the
Hamiltonian to facilitate thermal interactions [1], although can remain as a time
variable in general discussion. In the thermal case, any change V1 can be attributed
to a temperature change T.

doi:10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4ch3

3-1

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

In nonlinear dynamics, we consider the development equation for the nonlinear


wave to be described by the equation
@
B;
@

3:1

where B is called a developing operator, and represents the time variable for progressing nonlinearity; accordingly, (3.1) is called the development equation.
Expanding the Hamiltonian H of the responsible elements in a BornOppenheimer
approximation, we write
2

H Ho k H1 k H2   ;
2

where k is dened as related to the mass-ratio between the responsible element and
the corresponding constituent, which is considered as legitimate in this case.
In the presence of an adiabatic potential, the wave equation due to the perturbing
2
Hamiltonian k H1 can be expressed as
H1 D2  V1 1 ;

3:2

for which the phase variable can be expressed as k(x  v), so is a function of
2
2
x and ; k V1 is a potential arising from the medium in the accuracy of k , as related
to the corresponding adiabatic potential U(); here 1 is an eigenvalue of the
@
a differential operator.
Hamiltonian H1, and D @x
However, in order for (3.2) to be compatible with the thermodynamic environment, the Hamiltonian H1 for the order variable must be canonical for a steady state
to be specied by the eigenvalue, which should therefore be independent of .
Therefore, we postulate that the Hamiltonian H1 is conservative, constituting a
canonical ensemble in the thermodynamic environment. Applying the condition
@1
@ 0 to equation (3.2), we obtain the relations
@
@H1
@
@V1
H1

H1
H1 B
@
@
@
@
and
@
@1
@
1
1 B BH1 ;
1
@
@
@
which should be equal, so we obtain the equation
@V1
H1 B  BH1 0:
@
Dening a communitatorH1 ; B H1 B  BH1 , this relation can be expressed as


@V1
H1 ; B x; 0:

3:3
@

3-2

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

For the developing operator in the above asymptotic expansion, we assume


B a1 D a2 D2 a3 D3   ;
where a1, a2, a3, : : : are all functions of x. If the development is determined by the rst
@
term only, namely if B B1 a1 D, (3.3) can be written as @
@ a1 @x , where
x  a1 is a simple wave with a constant phase velocity a1, assuming B2 a2D2,
the propagation can remain as linear, as signied also by the phase x  a2. On the
other hand, considering B3 a3 D3 a1 D ao , we can show that these coefcients
a3, a1 and ao can be determined as functions of x by V1 and its derivatives.
The commutator term in (3.3) can be written as


 2

@a1
@V1 2
@ a1
@ao
@ 2 V1
3a3
D
2a3
H1 ; B3  2
2
D
@x
@x
@x2
@x
@x2
 2

@ ao
@ 3 V1
@V1
:

3
1
@x2
@x3
@x
Since the terms of D2 and D are not required, we let their coefcients be zero, and
obtain the relations
2

@a1
@V1
3a3
0
@x
@x

@ 2 a1
@ao
@ 2 V1

3a

2
0;
3
@x2
@x
@x2

and

respectively, which can be integrated separately as


3
a1  a3 V1 c
2

and

3 @V1
c0 ;
ao  a3
4
@x

3:4

where c and c0 are integration constants. In this case,


  3


a3 @ V1
@V1
@V1
c
;
H1 ; B3 
 6V1
4 @x3
@x
@x
and (3.3) can be expressed as


a3 @ 3 V1
@V1 @V1

0:

6V

c
1
4 @x3
@x
@

3:5

Choosing a3 4 and c 0, this equation can be specically written as


@V1
@V1 @ 3 V1
 6V1

0;
@
@x
@x3

3:6

which is the standard form of the KortewegdeVries equation1.

Note that (3.6) is not exactly the same as (2.28): it is a matter of denition, as will be claried below.

3-3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

It is noted that for the potential V1 given by a solution of equation (3.6), the
function (x,) is developed by the equation


@
@V1
3
B3 4D 6V1 D 3
;
3:7
@
@x
while the eigenvalue 1 is kept unchanged, i.e.
D2  V1 1

and

@1
0:
@

3:8

Accordingly, characterized by an eigenvalue independent of , the system is


canonical and in equilibrium with the surroundings thermodynamically. Contrary to
the above, if assuming c 6 0, the system is not conservative, and does interact with
the surroundings.
In a canonical system, the phase is specied as x  a1 at a speed of prop2
agation a1 6V1 in the presence of a perturbing potential k V1 , for which we
assumed c 0 for (3.5) to obtain a steady solution of equations (3.6) and (3.8),
which is invariant under the Galilean transformation x  6V1 ! 0 x. Considering as pinned by a moving coordinate system, the potential V1() propagates at
a phase velocity v 6V1 with respect to the moving framework. In section 2.6, we
discussed a typical case, where V1 and the density 01 T move
together at the speed 6V1(), all in phase.
In the thermodynamic environment, equation (3.1) can be written with respect to
temperature, where possible changes can all refer to a temperature change T [1].
Although the potential V1() basically emerges adiabatically, the related energy
should be dissipated at a slow rate T in isothermal changes. However, this process
was not considered in the foregoing, unless phonons are included in Ho.

3.2 Steady solutions of the KortewegdeVries equation


It is signicant that the KortewegdeVries equation has an analytical solution for
steady nonlinear phenomena in the thermodynamic environment.
For the potential pinned by the moving Galilean system, we have the equation
@V1
@V1
@ v @x , whereby the KortewegdeVries equation can be solved for the potential V1(xv) with respect to the phase x  v. Accordingly, (3.6) can be
expressed as


dV1
dV1 2 d d2 V1

3
v
0;
dx
dx dx2
dx
where we set x, for convenience, as supported by Galilean invariance, which can
be integrated rst as
d2 V1
3V12  vV1 a;
dx2
3-4

where a is a constant:

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 3.1. Curves V1x 2 vs V1. Curve 1: an oscillatory case; Curve 2: a soliton solution.

dV 2
1
1
1
Multiplying by dV
3V12  vV1 adV1 , which is
dx on both sides, we have 2 d dx
integrated again to arrive at the expression


1 dV1 2
v
V13  V12 aV1 b;
2 dx
2
where b is another integration constant. The right side is an algebraic expression of
third order with respect to V1, which can generally be factorized as


dV1 2
2V1  V1A V1  V1B V1  V1C ;
3:9a
dx
 1 2
where V1A,V1B and V1C are three roots of the algebraic equation dV
0. Curves
dx
of (3.9a) are illustrated in gure 3.1 for two representative sets of roots, in analogy to
gure 1.3. There are cases for three or two real roots, as shown in cases (a) and (b);
otherwise the case is for only one real and two complex conjugates. Case (a) gives
rise to an oscillatory solution between V1A and V1B.
Dening V1V1C g in the case (a), we rewrite (3.9a) as
 2
dg
2gV1C  V1A  gV1C  V1B  g:
dx
Further, introducing another variable by writing g V1C  V1B 2 , the above
 2 V1C V1A
V1B
equation can be expressed as d
2 1  2 1  2 2 , where 2 VV1C
.
dx
1C V1A
p
Expressing the phase of as V1C  V1A x, the above turns out to be
 2
d
2
1  2 1  2 2 ;
d
which can then be integrated as

p1
2

1
0

d
q:
2
1  1  2 2

3-5

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Here 1 is determined by the upper limit 1; this is the elliptic integral, as dened
in section 1.1, and its reverse function is Jacobis sn-function


1
1 sn p ; :
2
The potential V1 can therefore be expressed as
p
V1 V1C  V1C  V1B sn2 V1C  V1A ;

for

0 < < 1:

3:9b

Here, the sn2 - function is a periodic function with the period


Z 1
d
q;
2K
0
1  2 1  2 2
2K
while V1() has a periodic interval p
, corresponding to the nite amplitude
V1C V1B
V1C  V1B.
If V1B ! V1A, on the other hand, we have the limiting case of curve (b) in the
gure, where ! 1, K(1) ! N and
p
V1 V1C V1C  V1B sech2 V1C  V1A ;
3:9c
p
showing a pulse-shaped
potential with height V1C  V1B that propagates with the
p
effective phase V1C  V1A . As will be explained later, such a potential as (3.9c)
represents an adiabatic potential in the thermodynamic environment, behaving like
a free particle, and it is called the soliton.
In another specic case of V1B ! V1C, (3.9c) turns into a sinusoidal potential
with innitesimal amplitude V1C  V1B  0, namely
p
V1 V1C V1C  V1B sin2 V1C  V1A :
3:9d

We realize that the above solutions are optional in terms of the modulus , which
should be determined by the symmetry of the environment, namely the symmetry of
a crystal eld or gravitational eld in terrestrial phenomena, respectively. In general
terms symmetry of media is an additional requirement necessary for deciding
the option. With a symmetry of the environment, V1() expressed by (3.9c) can be
the steady solution, so that the sech2 potential is considered as a soliton at a given
temperature, which is expressed as V1(x, ) Vo sech2 () with a constant .

3.3 Developing equations of nonlinear vector waves


Signied by the direction of propagation, for simplicity waves in a medium are
mostly discussed using one-dimensional models of linear theories, but this is
somewhat unrealistic in practice. Though unspecied in previous discussions, such
waves should be modied in a practical medium space, which is particularly
important for a system with inversion symmetry. In this case, the wavefunction
should be characterized by spatial inversion r ! r.
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

In section 2.6, we considered that vector waves () are in phase with the potential
V1(), meaning that there may be no refection from V1() against the density
ow *. Therefore, for a developing mode of nonlinearity, we can
write that
2
@2
2@

a
K 2 x; ;
1
@2
@x2

where K(x) is assumed to be a real function to represent an attractive potential


V1(), notably signied by a space inversion. Letting a1 v, we can assume
@
@
v
iKx; *
@
@x

@*
@*
v
iKx;
@
@x

and

3:10a

as developing equations for two nonlinear functions and *, respectively. If


considering 0 i 00 , instead of (,*), for two components, equations (3.10a)
can be rewritten as
@ 0
@ 0
v
Kx; 00
@
@x

@ 00
@ 00
v
Kx; 0 ;
@
@x

and

3:10b

expressing classical impacts of the two component waves with the surrounding
medium; this is expressed by an imaginary function iK(x, ). Using Fouriers
transformation
0 x; t i 00 x; t f0 x; k i00 x; kgeikvt

Kx; Kxeikv ;

and

(3.10b) can be written for 0 ; 00 :


d0
ik0 ux00
dx

and

d00
 ik00 ux0 ;
dx

where

Kx
ux:
v

Redene the two components by 1 0 i00 and 2 00 i0 , these can be


re-expressed by
d 1
 iux 1 k 2
dx

and

d 2
iux 2 k 1 :
dx

Eliminating 2 from these expressions, we obtain




d2 1
du
2
2
0;

u

i
dx 1
dx2
eliminating 1 ,



d2 2
du
2
2
0:

i
dx 2
dx2

3:10c

3:11a

3:11b

Equations (3.11a,b) should be compatible with the KortewegdeVries equation


(3.6) as a thermodynamic equivalent, as the nonlinear waves are driven by
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

K 2 xx or complex potentials u2 i du
dx. However, the dynamical process in this
case is irreversible thermally, as discussed later, for which the KortewegdeVries
equation will be modied.
On the other hand, letting k 0 2 k 2 u2 , equation (3.12) becomes a wave equa0
tion for complex potentials i du
dx at the wavevector k , which should be compatible
with the KortewegdeVries equation. In this case, we can write (3.11) as


d2
du
02
0;
3:12

k

i
dx2
dx
for two components independently.

3.4 Bargmanns theorem


In section 2.4, we discussed scatterings of a plain wave by a potential sech2 x,
implying a specic coherent phase relation. In section 3.3, such a potential, called
Eckarts or soliton potential, was found as a steady solution of the Korteweg
deVries equation. We show here that Bargmanns mathematical theory (1949)
implies the same: soliton solutions can be regarded as more-than-one Eckarts
potentials in phase, thereby behaving like an intense pulse.
3.4.1 One-soliton solution
First, against a wave equation
we consider

d2
dx2

k 2 0 for free running waves B expix,

d2
k 2  V1 0
dx2

for amplitude-modulated waves expressed by Fk; x expikx, where Fk; x is


assumed as a polynomial of k. Writing that
1 exp ikxf2k iaxg;

ii

the potential V1 can be zero for k 0, if ax is considered to be a function of x,


whose value can increase with increasing k.
Differentiating 1 for (i), we obtain
da
V1
dx

and

Eliminating V from these relations, we have


2

 12 da
dx ,

d2 a
V1 a:
dx2
d2 a
dx2

which can be integrated as


da a2
22 ;
dx 2
3-8

a da
dx ; then obtain

iii
 
1 d da 2
2 dx dx

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where 2 is a constant. Transforming ax to another variable wx by a w2


equation becomes a linear equation

dw
dx ,

this

d2 w
 2 w 0;
dx2
whose solution is given by w expx exp x. In this case, from (iii) we
obtain
V1 2

d2 ln w
22 sech2 x  ;
dx2

where

1
ln :
2

This is Eckarts potential, which should satisfy the KortewegdeVries equation by


assuming is a function of . Substituting this for V1 of (3.9), we can show that
43 , so that
V1 22 sech2 x  43 ;
3:13
p
which agrees withpthe
previous expression if v=2, where the phase is expressed
v
as x  2 x  v, characterizing the steady solution of the Korteweg
deVries equation, where x  v is invariant of the Galilean transformation
x  v ! x0 .
p
If otherwise, 6 v=2 implies that the phase can change in the thermodynamic
environment, so that the phase of V1 can shift with time or temperature, as inferred
from (3.13). As a steady solution of the KortewegdeVries equation, (3.13) indicates
a signicant feature of the soliton potential, as discussed in section 3.5.
3.4.2 Two-soliton solution
Assuming that the Bargmann function Fk; x is expressed as second order of k, we
can show that the potential V1 satisfying the KortewegdeVries equation can be
expressed as two independent Eckart potentials, as if combined by the superposition
principle, allowing to consider a classical gas of solitons in the thermodynamic
environment in adiabatic approximation.
Considering
2 expikxf4k 2 2iax bxg;

iv

we substitute 2 for in (i), and obtain




da
V1 ;
dx

d2 a db
V1 a

dx2 dx

and

d2 b
V1 b;
dx2

which can be manipulated for expressions to be integrated.


 1 2 da db
d
Eliminating V1 from the above, we have a relation dx
 2 a  dx dx, hence
b

da 1 2
a 2c1 ;
dx 2

where c1 is a constant:

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

d b

a
Also, noted is that b ddxa2 db
dx
dx2 0, which can be integrated as
1 2
da
db
b b  a 2c2 ; where c2 is a constant:
2
dx
dx
Writing a w2

dw
dx ,

vi

we obtain from (v)




1 d2 w
;
b 2 c1 
w dx2

and from (vi)


2

 2
 2 2
dw d3 w
dw
dw


2c
w2 c21  c2 0:
1
3
2
dx dx
dx
dx

The latter can be re-expressed as


d4 w
d2 w

2c
c21  c2 w 0;
1
dx4
dx2

vii

w 1 e1 x 1 e1 x 2 e2 x 2 e2 x :

viii

p
can therefore
which can be solved in the form w  ex , where 2 c1  c2 . We
p
p
express pfour
roots
of
the
integrated
equation
by


c
c2 and
1
1

p
2  c1  c2 , and write
Here, these four constants are not independent as expressed by 1 1 21 2 2 22 ,
because of (vii). Accordingly, (viii) can be expressed as
w 22 cosh 1 x  1 21 cosh 2 x  2 :
Therefore,
a

2 dw
sinh 1 x  1 sinh 2 x  2
21 2
:
w dx
2 cosh 1 x  1 1 cosh 2 x  2

Further, writing that 1 p q; 2 p  q, and 1 ; 2  , we obtain


a 2p2  q2 p coth 1  q tanh 2 1 ;

where 1 px 

and 2 qx  :

Therefore, the potential can be expressed as


V1 

da
p2 cosech 2 1 q2 sech2 2
2p2  q2
:
dx
p coth1  qtanh2 2

3:14

This assumes that j1 jc1 and j2 j 0, (3.15) is approximately


V1  

2q2 p2  q2 sech2 2
p  q tanh 2 2

where p corresponds to 1 ! N.


3-10

3:15

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 3.2. Interacting solitons. (a) two-soliton pulses. (b) phase shifts in an xt diagram.

The resulting expressions (3.15) can alternatively be written as


V1 p 2p2 sech2 px  and

V1 q 2q2 sech2 qx  ; 3:16

where tanh qp, and the phase parameter and can be functions of , according

d
3
3
to the one-soliton potential (3.14), namely d
d 4p and d 4q . Thus, Bargmanns
potential of the second order is composed of two independent solitons, whose collision may be considered for the phase shift to occur at 0. Figure 3.2 shows the
result of numerical studies by Zabusky on (3.14) and (3.15), where two independent
solitons exhibit virtually no destructive impact, but show a phase shift. Equation
(3.16) corresponds to two independent 2 sech2 - peaks as simulated numerically in
gure 3.2. It is notable is that two soliton potentials marked 1 and 2 overlap
completely, becoming V1 x; 0 6 sech2 px  at 0, implying the particlelike image of colliding independent solitons.
In crystalline states, we can interpret that solitons become in phase at points of
high structural symmetry, exhibiting a process of approaching macroscopic
equilibrium.

3.5 Riccatis theorem


Nonlinear waves are captured by a soliton potential, derived from a steady solution
of the KortewegdeVries equation. On the other hand, Riccatis theorem signies
the way in which the captured energy can be transferred to the surrounding medium.
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

For two values V10 ; V100 of the potential V1, we consider that the corresponding
waves 0 ; 00 are linearly related as
00 Ax; 0 Bx;

d 0
;
dx

where
d2 0
V10 0
dx2

d2 00
V100 00 0;
dx2

and

is the common eigenvalue. We assume that Bx; is constant for simplicity, which
is adequate, making the analysis straightforward. From these relations combined
with the rst relation, we can derive
d2 A dV10
AV10  V100 0

dx2
dx

and

dA
V10  V100 0:
dx

Eliminating V10  V100 and integrating, we obtain


A2 

dA
~
 V1 ;
dx

3:17

where ~ is a constant. Equation (3.17), known as Riccatis equation, can be linearized by setting A  ~1 ddx~, namely
::

d2~
~ V1 ~
0:
dx2
It is noted that ~ makes this equation identical to the wave equation for 0 ; hence
writing ~ 0 , we obtain
V10  V100 2

~
d2 ln
d2 ln 0

2
dx2
dx2

and


d2 00
d2 ln 0 00
0
0:
V1  2
dx2
dx2

3:18

This is still a mathematical transformation, however, and we realize that Riccatis


equation (3.17) can be interpreted as related to an energy transfer process in
2
the thermodynamic environment, disregarding higher-than k V1 potentials in
d
BornOppenheimers approximation. The transformation A  dx
ln ~ associated
with Riccatis theory gives rise to stepwise changes in the soliton potential, reacting
to the surroundings.
In section 3.3, we discussed the development of a two-component system
0 i 00 to deal with inversion, for which the corresponding Schrdinger
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Kx
equation has a complex potential expressed by u2  i du
dx , where ux  v .
Accordingly, the two-component development equation cannot be exactly compatible with the KortewegdeVries equation for a real potential V1 x.
However, as required by eigenvalues independent of developing parameter , i.e.
@1
2
du
@ 0, we consider for V1 u  i dx to satisfy the equation

@V1
@V1
v
0;
@
@x

and combine (i) with the KortewegdeVries equation


@V1
@V1 @ 3 V1
 6V1

0:
ii
@
@x
@x3

 @u

@u
@u
Substituting the complex V1 in (i), we have 2u @u
@t  v @x  i @t  v @x 0. But
substituting in (ii), we obtain

 

@u
@3u
@u
@3u
2 @u
2 @u
 6u

 6u

i
0;
2u
@
@x @x3
@
@x @x3
hence
@u
@u @ 3 u
 6u2

0;
@
@x @x3

3:19

which is called the modied KortewegdeVries equation. Equation (3.19) is similar to


(ii), but not identical to the KortewegdeVries equation.
In the above, (3.19) was derived from (ii) by transformation
V1 u2

du
:
dx

iii

However, we can show that from (iii) we obtain


d2
 V1 0;
dx2

iv

if u is converted to by letting V1  1 d
dx . Equation (iv) can be modied for a
change V1 ! V1 , where is independent of , as
d2
 V1 0;
dx2
if considering that the Galilean invariance for x ! x 6. Here, the eigenvalue is
shifted by , and equation (3.19) should have a steady soliton solution characterized by a sech2 -type. On the other hand, the transformation process from (ii) to
(3.19) is thermodynamically irreversible, as indicated by the shift in the
eigenvalue.

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

3.6 Properties of the Eckart potential in the soliton field


In section 2.4 we discussed the properties of the Eckart potential V1 x Vo sech2 dx .
Considering the scattering of a plane wave by V1 x, we found that no reection
occurs, as described by the equation
d2 p;n
fp2 nn 1 sech2 xg p;n 0;
dx2

3:20

as specied by the integers p and n, where p indexes the eigenvalues as p2 .


Writing another equation for p and n 1 as
d2 p;n1
fp2 n 1n 2 sech2 xg p;n1 0;
dx2
we can show that
V10  V100 2 sech2 x 2

d2 ln 0
V1 :
dx2

3:21

The discrete variation by V1 can be interpreted in terms of integers n that


represent the number of solitons. If n 1, equation (3.20) represents a simple wave
0 A exppx B exppx, which can be simplied as o cosh x by letting
2

p 1, n 0 and A B 1=2. Then, ddx21 f1 2 sech2 xg 1 0 at n 1, and


1 cosh2 x, : : : and n coshn x, signifying that cosh x behaves like a free particle.
Therefore, the soliton potential can be designated as V1 n, where the larger n
enhances its singular feature.
In the previous mathematics, the development parameter is left as optional
theoretically. If signies the temperature, the system is in a thermodynamic
environment, where the equipartition theorem can be utilized for phonons to calculate thermodynamic probabilities.
Sound propagates as activated by the pressure gradient  @p
@x , where the waves are
2
not in equilibrium with the surrounding air. The potential k V1 should modify
propagation in the medium adiabatically, as seen from examples in crystalline elds.
Originating from the medium, the KortewegdeVries equation signies a change in
the thermodynamic environment, as discussed in the previous section.
It is a fundamental postulate that modied crystalline states can be signied by
displacive variables in the space group, where the ground state energy of correlated
identical atoms and ions is characterized by a degree of degeneracy; this is taken as
granted in todays concept of crystalline lattices. Excited crystalline states can be
specied by a lowered symmetry, either isothermally or adiabatically in terms of
thermodynamic description. Born and Huang [2] considered that the lattice structure
is strained between these states, so that strain energy should be minimized for
equilibrium; we shall therefore call such changing processes between different
structures BornHuang transitions. In isotropic media, the pressure change p
corresponds similarly to BornHuangs change between crystalline states. It is
notable that if V1 is given by sech2 -function with respect to a symmetry axis, the
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

BornHuang process can take place discontinuously in a new medium. The steady
solution (3.9c) of the KortewgdeVries equation therefore represents thermodynamic states of the medium, while the sn2 -solution of (3.9b) occurs in two components during adiabatic transitions described as 0 < < 1. Thus, in thermodynamic
arguments, we consider that the adiabatic potential V1 can basically be determined
in equilibrium states by the Eckart potential at 1. It is signicant that a onesoliton potential sech2 x, as related to tanh x wave, is compatible with lowering
crystal symmetry; thereby the soliton eld is characterized by V1 n. However, such
a number n cannot be sharply determined in crystalline states, because of initial
phase uncertainties at the transition threshold, although it is sharpened if such
chaotic states become stabilized thermally to equilibrium.
Soliton potentials in media are related to collective wave motion of microscopic
species, so they do not contribute to thermodynamic quantities, unless their space
time variables are all in phase in a crystal eld. On the other hand, in the isotropic
case, they represent properties of the medium. In the former, we are allowed to
ignore surface effects in sufciently large crystals, where the distributed solitons can
be delineated by phasing into the single size 0   2. Hence, in crystals their
observations are reduced within the phase, so that the thermodynamic quantity
observed in a timescale to is expressed as
Z
1 to
hV1 it
V1 dt:
3:22
to 0
Although signied by spatial distribution in general, such a time average hV1 it can be
dened without broadening, if the frequency of observation is sufciently higher
than 2
to , i.e. to  1. Under such a condition, the observed quantity is sharply dened
at p and T, and we can consider hV1 it V1 with reasonable accuracy.
The spontaneous change in soliton potential V1 x  v in crystals must be
considered in the thermodynamic environment, however; ignoring h : : : it in the
following for now, we write




@V1
@V1
V1 x  v
x
:
3:23
@x
@ x
Applying (3.23) to an adiabatic change characterized by x 0, we have


@V1
V1 
2ln 0 ;
3:24a
@ x
whereas for isothermal change

V1

@V1
@x

x 2ln 0 x:

3:24b

In a normal thermodynamic environment, the development equation is dissipative, because the variable and its wavefunction are subjected to inelastic scatterings
3-15

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

of phonons. The thermodynamic function is therefore determined as related to


matrix elements between phonon states, hQ; jjQ0 ; 0 i [1, 3]. The probability of
phonon scatterings is predominantly determined by inelastic scatterings, Q k
0

0 2

; i
and k , as proportional to hQ; jjQ
, whose statistical average is given by
k
the statistical average hphonon jj0phonon i2 , which is proportional to T, according to
the equipartition theorem. Therefore, even at an adiabatic condition of 0, we
have the relation V1 T . It is noted that such temperature-dependent changes,
together with normal damping, should be thermodynamically irreversible.

3.7 ZabuskyKruskals computational analysis


The signicance of the potential (3.13) as a particle-like object was rst demonstrated by Zabusky and Kruskal (1965) [4] by means of computational analysis.
Reviewing their numerical studies on equations (3.13) and (3.15), the concept of
solitons can be established, thereby proceeding to the formal scattering theory
presented in the following chapters.
In deriving the KortewegdeVries equation (3.6), we chose a specic value
3
a3 4 for mathematical convenience, resulting in the term @@xV31 that is responsible
for dispersive nature of propagation; this however is too nonlinear at the outset of
nonlinearity. To deal with the initial situation, we can therefore specify the frequency as vo k  k 3 , where vo and are the initial-phase velocity and dispersion
parameter, respectively. In this case, the phase velocity at time t is determined by
v vo 2 v1 vo 22 sech2 fx  vo t  43 tg;

whereas v vo and 0 at t to . On the other hand, at t to , (3.24) can be


written as
v vo 22 cos x  ;

ii

where the second term on the right can be considered a discontinuous outset in phase
velocity at t to . Also noted is that represents different time from real time t,
whereby the phase x  is Galilean-invariant.
For their numerical analysis, Zabusky and Kruskal considered that a sinusoidal
wave
v cos x 

for

t < to ;

iii

allowing them to set the initial discontinuity at x 0 and =2, if B 1=.


Figure 3.3 shows the numerical results for a very weak dispersion given by
1=2 0:022, where the amplitudes are plotted at t 0; tB and 3:6tB . At these
developing times, the emergence of soliton peaks is clearly seen; these authors
identied eight solitons at t 3:6tB , while just one peak can be recognized at t tB .
Also recognized is that those solitons are mobile with changing t, whose motion
shows as tracked in the xt phase diagram, gure 3.4. The signicant nding was
that those soliton peaks in sech2 shape move with varying time t without changing
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 3.3. Numerically simulated soliton spectra. (After Zabusky and Kruskal [4].)

Figure 3.4. Soliton movement in the xt plane. (After Zabusky and Kruskal [4].)

shape except at crossover points, and that they become bundled together at t 12 tB ,
exhibiting fewer numbers of peaks with higher amplitudes. The illustration in gure
3.2 for the collision of two solitons corresponds to the crossing tracks of two peaks in
gure 3.4.
We can interpret that (iii) represents static equilibrium of the medium, in the sense
that the symmetry can be determined by the nodal points of the standing wave, to
which the soliton positions of (i) are preferable, as consistent with experimental
observations of crystal structures.

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Such analysis is believed to simulate the particle-like behavior of solitons.


Interpreted for physical preference, such bundled solitions are considered to occur in
symmetry planes of the medium. In crystalline media, we may therefore assume that
a specic time t 0:5tB can represent a critical temperature for a structural
transition.

Exercises
(1) Why does the dynamical system need to be canonical? This was Boltzmanns
postulate for the system to be subjected as a statistical object, which was
therefore referred to as a canonical ensemble in statistical mechanics. In this
chapter, we discussed that the system can otherwise be in a nonequilibrium
state. Discuss the issue, with respect to the fundamental laws of physics.
(2) In section 3.3, we considered that equations (3.10a,b) are an assumption that
corresponds to the resistive reection of a vector wave. For electromagnetic
reection, we also consider the inductive refection of two-component waves [5].
In a later chapter, the latter is assumed in a survey of different types of nonlinear development. Referring to such engineering models, we can identity a
development equation in terms of reection types. Discuss a possible twocomponent system analogous to (3.10a,b).
(3) The numerical analysis by Zabusky and Kruskal suggests that in crystalline
states, distributed solitons converge in a few numbers on symmetry axes, signifying the particle-like character of soliton pulses. Referring to Bargmanns
two-soliton theory, discuss the nature of solitons with respect to symmetry that
is essential for the medium.

References
[1] Cowley A 1968 Prog. Phys. 31 123
[2] Born M and Huang K 1954 Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices (London: Oxford
University Press)
[3] Fujimoto M 2013 Thermodynamics of Crystalline States 2nd edn (New York: Springer)
[4] Zabusky N J and Kruskal M D 1965 Phys. Rev. Lett. 15 240
[5] Fujimoto M 2007 Physics of Classical Electromagnetism (New York: Springer) chapter 19

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IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 4
Structural phase transitions

In the chapter, structural transitions are discussed as related to soliton potentials and
two-component waves in crystalline media, for which order variables should essentially
be of a displaceable vector character. The soliton potential in these cases is identied as
in sech2-type given by a steady solution of the KortewegdeVries equation. Further,
emerging microscopically, the initial anomalies due to quantum-mechanical uncertainties obscure the transition, but this diminishes with decreasing temperature.
Structural changes signied by emerging solitons can be interpreted from their
dynamics as restricted by the space group. In this chapter, the sine-Gordon equation is
discussed for distributed scatterings by a pseudopotential in crystalline states.

4.1 Initial uncertainties and transition anomalies


4.1.1 Specic heat anomalies
The initial condition is a serious concern for classical dynamics in determining
theoretical results. In crystalline states, the initial situation for collective motion is
obscured by spacetime uncertainties at lattice sites, as expressed by phase uncertainties, which are observed as anomalies in structural transitions under thermodynamic conditions [1].
Figure 4.1 sketches typical specic heat anomalies observed from a perovskite
crystal, exhibiting a second-order phase transition known as a -transition. In the
unit cell structure of SrTiO3 shown in gure 4.2, there is a bipyramidal TiO2
6
complex of eight oxygen ions; a Ti-ion is mobile inside TiO2
6 along the inversion
axis, randomly between two positions at temperatures above the critical point Tc.
Below Tc, on the other hand, inversion takes place at slower rates, whose collective
motion exhibits an anomalous Cp  T curve that is characterized by a sharp rise at Tc
and a gradual tail below Tc. As such anomalies resemble a Greek letter lambda,
second-order phase transitions are called -transitions, although they cannot be
explained by Landaus mean-eld theory. Figure 4.1 shows a typical specic heat
curve that is signicantly deviated from the mean-eld calculation.

doi:10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4ch4

4-1

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 4.1. A comparison of typical specic-heat anomalies (a) where Landaus mean-eld theory, and (b) To
and Tc are theoretical and experimental transition temperatures, respectively.

Figure 4.2. Cell structures in perovskite crystals (a) linear displacements in BaTiO3, and (b) rotational displacements in SrTiO3.

4.1.2 Landaus theory


A second-order structural change is a major subject of discussion in the thermodynamics of crystalline states [1]. Among crystals of many types, perovskite crystals,
which are composed of bipyramidal constituents, are a typical model for structural

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

transitions of the second order. The constituent ions in perovskites are characterized
by positive ions that can displace their positions inside bipyramidal complexes,
which are represented by vector variables n for classical displacements at lattice
sites n.
In Landaus theory [2], we assume a thermodynamic variable , called an order
parameter, corresponding to n to describe transitions with the Gibbs function G(),
without giving a specic relation for and n, except for inversion symmetry with
respect to the lattice. The transition observed at a critical temperature Tc cannot be
accurately described, as the anomalies obscure the threshold. This is related to
uncertainties from identical n at all lattice sites, although the corresponding lattice
strains diminish by virtue of BornHuangs principle [3].
In Landaus theory, the thermodynamic phase is represented by Gibbs potential
G(0) above Tc, while specied as G() below Tc, and the transition is assumed as
determined by a continuous change in Gibbs potential;
A
B
G G0 2 4   ;
2
4

4:1a

where the order parameter is assumed to change continuously from 0 toward


1, indicating a change from complete disorder to order. In this postulate, the
expansion
G

A 2 B 4
  ;
2
4

4:1b

where added expansion terms signify the properties of the periodic lattice. Further
assumed are
A A0 T  To

for

T > To

A A0 To  T

for

T < To ;

and
4:1c

where A0 > 0 and B > 0, indicating that the constant A changes its sign at T To,
keeping a positive B as constant. Here, To designates the transition temperature in
Landaus theory, which is signicantly different from observed Tc.
In addition, it is clear that equation (4.1a) is signied by
G G;

4:1d

thereby the Gibbs function is invariant under inversion ! ; hence there are no
odd-power terms in the expansion.
Under the above assumptions,
  the second-order transition is signied by a dis1 @2G
continuous change G 2 @2
, hence specic heat CV T To @G
@T T To
T To

exhibits a discontinuity at T To as sketched in gure 4.1(a).


4-3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

4.2 Dynamical theory of collective motion


4.2.1 Longitudinal waves
In spite of the undened relation, the dynamics of collective mode of n are
undoubtedly responsible for to play a decisive role in the transition. We nevertheless consider an appropriate relation between them, leaving the solution to
experimental studies.
Disregarding anomalies in the critical region, we consider for the collective n
variables to be represented by the Fourier transform k n expfik:r  tg,
regarding crystal symmetry of space group, for which an adiabatic potential
a
b
U k  2k  4k ;
2
2

4:2a

is responsible, as inferred from Landaus theory. Accordingly, the one-dimensional


wave equation can be written, for simplicity, as
 2

2
@
@Uk
2 @
ka k b 3k ;
k 
m

v
4:2b
o
2
2
@t
@x
@x
where vok and m is the reduced mass of a displaced particle. Krumshansl and
Schrieffer [4] have shown that (4.2b) can analytically be solved as shown in the
following.
First, assuming k ko ei , where kx  t, (4.2b) can be simplied by
writing kok Y , i.e.
d2 Y
Y  Y 3 0;
2
d
where
ko

r
jaj
;

k2

jaj
ko2

mv2o  v2 1  vv22
o

4:2c

and

ko2

jaj
:
mv2o

It is noted that we obtain from (4.2c) the relation


2 v2o k 2  ko2 ;

4:2d

indicating that k is in dispersive propagation.


From the dispersion relation (4.2d), we note that 0, if k ko. In order for
this condition to signify the phase transition, the phase for T < Tc can be specied by
v < vo; on the other hand, the phase for T > Tc is disordered, where no such collective motion as k can exist. If the temperature approaches close to Tc from above,
the variable Y is characterized by small amplitude ko, so that (4.2c) is a harmonic
oscillator equation, hence Y Yo sin o , where o is an arbitrary phase constant. Nevertheless, for an arbitrary ok, (4.2c) can be integrated as
 2
dY
2
2  Y 2 2  Y 2 ;
4:3
d

4-4

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where
2 1 

p
1  2

2 1

and

p
1  2 :

 
Y
Here dY
d 0 is a constant of integration. Writing for convenience, (4.3)
can be expressed in integral form as
Z 1
1
d
q;
p
4:4
2
0
1  2 1  2 2
where 1 is a upper limit of integration, and the corresponding phase is denoted
as 1. Here , which is the modulus of the elliptic integral (4.3) of the rst kind;
p
p
2
2
p
,

.
and p
2
1
1 2
Using the reverse function of (4.4), i.e. a Jacobis elliptic sn-function, we can write

1 o sn p1
2

and

0 < < 1;

4:5a

which is a periodic function with respect to the phase 1(x, t), as shown in gure 1.6,
while the shape is undetermined, as indicated by the modulus that depends on at
1 0.
On the other hand, for 1, as discussed in chapter 1, the elliptic function takes a
specic form of hyperbolic function

1 o tanh p1
2

for

1;

4:5b

showing that 1 ! o as 1 ! N.
The periodicity of (4.4) can conveniently be visualized by using an angular variable dened by sin . Writing (4.4)

p1
2

d
p;
0
1  2 sin2
R
d
, which represents effectively
we have sn p21 sin 1 , where 1 am 0 1 p
2
1 2 sin

the deformed phase angle, as shown in gure 1.2.


4.2.2 Transverse waves

From equation (4.4), the amplitude of the nonlinear wave is nite, so that it is logical
to consider the corresponding transverse wave for displacements expressed by
classical vectors. We therefore write

1\ o cos 1 o cn p1
2

4-5

for

0 < < 1;

4:6a

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

to be consistent with 1 o sin 1 , so that 21 21\ 2 2o . However, from this


relation, 21\ has maximum 2 2o at 10 1  2, so that
0
1\ o sech p1
2

for

1;

4:6b

at which, as discussed in the following, the reversing energy for !  is


responsible for the soliton potential determined by 21\ .
Considering inversion to occur in the range  2 < 1 < 2, centering at a point for
R =2
@V1
1\ 0, the amount of work can be given by W =2 Fk d1 , where F  k @
and V1 21\ represent the strained surroundings. Hence






dW
1
d
1
2 2o d
2 2
2 1
2 o cn p
cn p  2
dn p
d1
d1
2 d1
2
2

and

V1 2 2o dn2 p1
2

for

0 < < 1;

which is mathematically equivalent to sn2- or cn2- potential, known generally as


the cnoidal potential. On the other hand, if 1, dn-function can be replaced by
sech-function, so that the soliton potential in thermodynamic environment can be
written as
0
V\ 2o sech2 p1 ;
2
which has the characteristic phase 01 shifted from 1 by =2.
Accordingly, the vector variables 1 ; \ can be expressed mathematically as a
complex variable 1 i \ , determining the imaginary potential iV\ . Hence, it is
logical to write the wave equation for the complex in the complex potential
V V1 iV\ , where V1 u2 and V\ du
dx. Ensured by the modied Korteweg
deVries equation, whose solutions can be complex, we can discuss the ordering by a
quasi one-dimensional complex wave with two components.

4.3 Pseudopotential and sine-Gordon equation


In crystallography, pseudo-symmetry originates from the additional degree of
freedom of the constituent, which is well recognized in some crystals, as it does not
belong to the regular space group of some crystals [5]. Typically, the presence of
m-fold screw symmetry is responsible for incommensurate-to-commensurate phase
transitions. Illustrated as an example in gure 4.3(a), such symmetry is signied by
m-fold rotation of n along the screw axis x; in the yz plane, angles of rotation of
transverse displacements u are specied by
2p
and
p 1; 2; : : : ; m  1:
u uo exp ip ; where p
m
4-6

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 4.3. (a) A model of C3 -screw pseudo-symmetry. (b) A nonlinear wave in phase-matching.

We may dene a potential function for pseudo-symmetric displacements as


X
VmL o ; 1 ; : : : ; m1
up
uo

2uo

fexpip expip g 2uo

cos Gm xp 2uo

X
p

X
p

cos p

cos Gm xp ;

4:7

p
where the angles are written as p 2
m a Gm xp ; a is the lattice constant. Using the
lattice potential (4.16), the counterpart potential for () can be expressed as

Vm

m
2 m
o
m
cos m;
m
m

4:8

where is a proportionality constant; such a potential as (4.7) represents m-solitons,


as interpreted consistently with Bargmanns theorem.
The Gibbs function can then be written as

Z L
a
b
mv2 @* @
dx
* U * U 2 o
U
Vm
;
hGit
2
4
2 @x @x
0
t L
where the third term in the integrand represents the kinetic energy due to varying
. Considering the h  it in the integrand for time scale to ! N, this can be
expressed for o f as
)
 
 
Z L( 2
a o b 4o mv2o @ o 2 mv2o @ 2 2 m
dx
o

cos m
G o ;

:
2
4
2
@x
2
m
@x
L
0
o ;
Setting @G
0 and @G@o ; 0 for G o ; to be minimized in the thermo@ o
dynamic environment, we obtain
(  
)
2
2
d
d

o
a o b 3o 2 m1
cos m mv2o o
2 0
o
dx
dx

4-7

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 4.4. Phase-matching modes of nonlinear waves.

and
d2
 2 m
o sin m 0:
dx2
Integrating the latter, the result conrms that the law of conservation,
 
1 2 2 d 2
mvo o
Vm const:;
2
dx
mv2o 2o

4:9

is associated m1
with the phase-matching between () and VmL . Writing that m
2m o
and mv2 , (4.18) the law of conservation can be expressed as
o

d2
 sin 0
dx2

4:10a

 
1 d 2
 cos E;
2 dx

4:10b

and

respectively. Equation (4.10a) is known as the sine-Gordon equation, and the integration constant E represents energy in adjusted units.
Equation (4.10b) is the same equation as for a simple pendulum, and can be
integrated as
Z 1
d
p;
x1  xo
2E cos
0
where x1  xo corresponds to the upper limit 1. Hence, dening modulus by
1
2 E 2
, it is an elliptic integral. Hence, writing 2 , we have
Z 1

d
p;
x1  xo p
0
1  2 sin2

4-8

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where
p
x1  xo
sin 1 sn

for

0<<1

and
sin 1 tanh

p
x1  xo

for

1:

4:11a

Denoting x1  xo as the length between 1 0 and 1 ,

d
2K
p p ;
2

1  2 sin

4:11b

where K() is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. Figure 4.3(b) shows
that such a phase-matching can occur with a lattice at Cm-screw pseudo-symmetry.
The phase-matching mechanism can be assigned to observed incommensurateto-commensurate phase transitions, as p Gm xp 2mp for p 0; 1; : : : ; m  1,
although the theoretical results (4.11a) and (4.11b) indicate that the wave is
elliptical and distorted with respect to the modulus . Figure 4.3 shows sketches of
p for p 1, 2, 3, 4 that illustrate phase variations when the wave is pinned by the
potential VmL p . Experimentally, however, the phase-matching is analyzed by
empirical formula
VmL p Vo

m1
X

cos fp 1  p g;

4:12

p0

where the shift p is due to perturbation arising from in-phase interactions between
order variables and the lattice at the site p.
Figure 4.5 shows an electron microscopic image obtained from a K2 ZnCl4 crystal
[6], exhibiting discommensuration lines due to pseudopotentials of the three-fold
screw axis. These can be explained as lines of three potential peaks indicated by
(4.12) at m 3.
Interpreting the above theory with respect to the soliton theory, the mechanism
for domain formation can be signicantly revealed. For binary and tertiary systems,
we consider m 2 and 3, respectively, for C2 and C3 symmetry, thereby dealing with
thermodynamic phases in small values of the wavevector k and the developing
parameter , namely the phase variable. Therefore the potential VmL p should be
related to 2 sech2 m, where is the phase of a single soliton. This means that
solitons are not quite independent particles, but may couple as m linearly combined
solitons, scattering by VmL p .
Examples of other coupled solitons in crystalline states are shown in gure 4.6. [7]
In these states, a structural change can be identied as trigonal to orthorhombic or
tetragonal, so that the soliton potential should be uniaxial in the direction of k as
temperature is lowered below the critical point. Therefore, for experimental studies
in crystals, it is important to know about the direction of nonlinearity.

4-9

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 4.5. An electron-microscopic image observed from a K2 ZnCl4 crystal, showing discommensuration
lines along the C3 -screw axis [6].

Figure 4.6. A polarizing-microscopic photo of a crystal of tris-sarcosine calcium chloride, showing three
ferroelectric domains in quasi-trigonal arrangement [7].

4-10

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Exercises
(1) Review the problem of two-dimensional waves in section 2.5, and obtain the
soliton potentials for the driving two-component vector-wave discussed in
section 4.1.
(2) Verify that the development equation is a sine-Gordon equation for a soliton
potential described by Vm .

References
[1] Fujimoto M 2013 Thermodynamics of Crystalline States 2nd edn (New York: Springer)
[2] Landau L D and Lifshitz E M 1958 Statistical Physics (London: Pergamon Press)
[3] Born M and Huang K 1954 Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices (London: Oxford
University Press)
[4] Krumshansl J A and Schrieffer J R 1975 Phys. Rev. B11 3535
[5] Megaw H 1973 Crystal Structures: A Working Approach (Philadelphia: Saunders)
[6] Pan X and Unruh HG 1990 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2 323
[7] Fujimoto M 1983 Ferroelectrics 47 177

4-11

IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 5
Nonlinear waves

Signied by longitudinal and transverse components, practical waves are not as


simple as one-dimensional models; one of the essential features is nonetheless the
propagation described by the phase variable. Nonlinear waves are characterized by
phase variables and nite amplitudes that depend on the phase velocity through the
medium. While they are initially sinusoidal, it is logical rst to study the nature of
phase variables, prior to discussing nonlinear waves.
Two components are mandatory for vector waves, so that the one-dimensional
model provides only an approximate view of propagation in the media. The response
from a strained crystal is complex, however, unless the structure is steady in equilibrium
with its surroundings. In this chapter, phases and energy damping of nonlinear waves
are also discussed, in media inclusive of more general situations than in equilibrium.

5.1 Elemental waves


We consider one-dimensional equations for a free running wave in the rst
approximation, assuming that the speed of propagation is given by 1, for simplicity,
and write a linear equation
@2 @2

0;
@t 2 @x2

5:1

whose solution is generally expressed as


1 x  t 2 x t;

5:2

these functions 1 and 2 represent waves propagating toward x and x directions,


respectively, at a speed 1.
Factorizing (5.1), we can write



@
@
@
@


0:
@t @x @t @x

doi:10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4ch5

5-1

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 5.1. (a) Phase diagram of linear waves. (b) Elemental waves for nonlinear propagation.

@
Dening variables u @
@t and v @x , equation (5.1) can be transformed to




@
@
@
@

v  u 0
and

v u 0;
@t @x
@t @x

5:3

showing graphically in the xt plane that the functions v  u and v u are constant
along straight lines at slopes dx
dt 1 and 1, respectively. These v u are
unchanged in phase shifts x t and x  t, respectively, and are known as
Riemanns invariants. We can write
v  u

and

v u ;

5:4a

for a simple case, illustrating with groups of parallel straight lines, as shown in
gure 5.1(a).
However, the phase relations for nonlinear waves should be revised as related
to the medium, which can therefore be written in more general form than (5.4a),
namely
v  u r

and

v u s;

5:4b

where r and s are undetermined functions of and , respectively. In microscopic


waves, and should accompany quantum-mechanical spacetime uncertainties
and at the threshold of nonlinearity, so that these straight lines should be
modied by groups of parallel lines C1( ) and C2( ), as shown in gure
5.1(b). In classical physics, on the other hand, the functions in (5.4b) can normally be
determined if the initial values ro(x) and so(x) are specied at t 0.
For (5.2), we have ; 1 2 ,
d 1 1
fvo  uo g
2
d

and

d 2 1
fvo uo g:
2
d

o x
o
If writing (x, 0) o(x) and vo x ddx
at t 0, we have vo ddx
, and so
the initial conditions in this case can be given by
 
@
d o x
;
5:5a
2vo x 2
@t t0
dx

5-2

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

@ 1
@t


t0

vo  uo vo x  uo x

2
2

5:5b

vo uo vo x uo x

:
2
2

5:5c

and


@ 2
@t


t0

We can therefore write




Z
1
o 
1
uo d
2

and



Z
1
o
2
uo d ;
2

and hence
1
1
x; t f o x  t o x tg
2
2

;

uo ; d; ;

5:6

where the second term on the left expresses broadening at P.


It is notable from (5.5b) and (5.5c) that if vo vo x is constant on a straight
x-t line of C1, 1 and 2 are functions of only. Hence
Z
2 x; t o x t
uo d
5:7a


on C2 curves that are not necessarily straight lines. Similarly, we have


Z
1 x; t o x  t
vo d:


5:7b

In practice, such a wave excitation is generally discontinuous, and classied as


bifurcation. Accordingly, contrary to (5.2), waves (x t) and (x  t) may not be
evenly mixed in discontinuous excitation, depending on initial values uo and vo; this
is typical for nonlinear waves. In the phase plot of gure 5.1, it is shown that the
discontinuity occurs in the region xi  x  xi , where waves can be dominated by
(x  t) and (x t) in the areas marked 1 and 2, as determined by the initial values
of vo  uo or vo uo, respectively; we specically call these elemental waves. Hence,
at times t sufciently later than to we can discuss elemental waves that are separate
from each other, which is a typical feature of nonlinear waves.

5.2 Matrix formulation for nonlinear development


The nonlinear equation can be formulated in matrix form for two components u and
v, originating from nonlinearity. Considering for these components dened by (5.3),
we construct matrices
 
u
1
U u; v
and
U
;
5:8
v

5-3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where U y is the transposed row matrix of the corresponding column matrix U.


Equations (5.3) can then be expressed in matrix form


0 1
@U 1
@U
A
0; where A
5:9
@t
@x
1 0
is a matrix to connect two components u and v.
1
The matrix (A) multiplied by unit vectors e1
1 1; 0 and e2 0; 1 from the
left, which are connected by the relations
1
e1
1 A e1

and

1
e1
2 A e2 ;

indicates that eigenvalues of the matrix (A) are 1. Alternatively, we have
Ae1 e1

and

Ae2 e2 :

Substituting U 1 1 e11 ; 2 e21 in (5.9), we obtain


@ 1
@ 1
1
0
@t
@x

and

@ 2
@ 2
1
0;
@t
@x

so that the component waves are given as 1 1(x  t) and 2 2(x t),
corresponding to eigenvalues 1 and  1, respectively.
The above formulation can be extended to more-than-two components, which is
useful to deal with nonlinear systems of many components. For a multi-component
system, we can dene U y as a vector of many components, u1 ; u2 ; : : : ; un ; and write
the same equation as (5.9), i.e.
@U
@U
A
0;
@t
@x
where (A) is an n n matrix. For a linear system, we consider that eigenvectors
e1 ; e2 ; : : : ; en of (A) are orthonormal, its eigenvalues 1 ; 2 ; : : : ; n given by i dx
dt
are all real; then elemental waves can be expressed such that ui x; t ux i tei ,
i.e. functions of phase variables i x i t, representing parallel curves in general,
but equal to the initial ui (x) on phase-lines Ci, as shown by gure 5.1(b).

5.3 Heat dissipation of wave motion


Except for electromagnetic waves in vacuum space, any wave motion in media
shows energy dissipation to heat. In isotropic media such as in air, if modeled by an
ideal gas, a change in the internal energy is determined by U TS under constant volume can be attributed to a change in entropy. Accordingly, a pressure
change p is responsible for S  Rp p for T 0, acting to modify the wave
propagation. For crystalline media, we discussed a similar damping mechanism in
chapter 3, where off-diagonal elements of order variables between phonon states
were considered for an entropy change S, allowing consideration of the heat
transfer as in the isotropic case.
Physically, nonlinear propagating waves are described by equations of motion
and continuity with respect to two properties of media. Flowing in media can be

5-4

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

described in terms of the density (r, t) and the speed v(r, t), which are related by the
continuity equation
@ @v

0
@t
@x

5:10

@v
@v
1 @p
v U 
:
@t
@x
@x

5:11

and by the equation of motion

For an isotropic medium, p can be calculated from the relation p const. , where
Cp =CV , hence p const: 1 ; or writing p= a2 , where a is the
sound velocity, a2 const:1 to be used in (5.9).
We therefore re-express (5.10) and (5.11) as
@v
@v a2 @
v
0:
5:12
@t
@x @x  

, we obtain
Writing in matrix form by dening vectors U 1 ; v and U
v


v

@U
@U
A
0; where A
:
5:13
@t
@x
a2 1 v
@
@
@v
v
0
@t
@x
@x

and

Diagonalizing (A), the eigenvalues in this case are 1;2 v  a, thereby the vector
(, v) was transformed to the eigenvector (o, vo), representing an elemental wave.
Hence, we have the eigenequation
  
 
o
1 0
o
A

:
0 2
vo
vo
Noted that S p 0, so a 0, is held, such eigenstates at 1,2 v should
represent waves for damping energy to the surroundings to establish thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. Accordingly, (A) can logically be considered to
include a phasing process ! 0 with temperature toward thermal equilibrium.
In section 3.5, the energy transfer mechanism via phonon scatterings was discussed in crystalline media, which is nevertheless entropy transfer thermodynamically, as described by phasing processes.

5.4 BornHuang transitions in crystals


In section 5.2, we discussed the effect of isotropic surroundings in terms of p in
(5.9) to deal with energy transfer. On the other hand, the surroundings are anisotropic in crystalline media. In this case, p should occur, corresponding to microscopic correlations in the crystal, which can be expressed by the gradient of
correlation energies, i.e. rV. It is noted that including such a potential V, the
dynamical system can be nonconservative, where the change V between different
eigenvalues can basically be adiabatic in the rst order, but occurring in higher-order
isothermally at a given temperature. According to BornHuang theory, such a
5-5

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

change should take place in relation to lattice strains, that is, in second order with
respect to displacements, hence called the BornHuang transition.
The potential V is therefore subjected to approximate studies, as it is particularly
2
signicant at small values of the mass-ratio parameter k . We considered for V to be
2
expressed by a power series with respect to k , and wrote
2

V Vo k V1 k V2   

5:14

The set of equations (5.8) and (5.9), and their matrix form (5.11), can be solved for V
in the same way as sound propagation.
In addition to V V  Vo, we have
2

o k 1 k 2   

and

v vo k v1 k v2   ;
2

where all of 1, v1 and V1 in the same approximation to k are synchronized with the
phase (x  t), determined by the KortewegdeVries equation (3.6), i.e.
@V~ 1
@V~ 1 @ 3V~ 1
 3V~ 1

0;
5:15
@
@
@3
where V~ 1 represents all of (1, v1, V1) and is a developing time. As compared with
(5.9), the third term on the left represents dispersive perturbation, and 3kV~ 1 is the
speed of propagation.
As discussed in section 2.6, for the development equation (5.13), the nonlinear
wave, written as eikxt with conventional wavevector k and angular frequency , is
2
characterized by the dispersion relation 2 1 k k 2 , which is approximated as
 k  12 k 3 .
However, the KortewegdeVries equation is clearly insufcient for specifying
nonlinear waves, as implied by the presence of two components. Further, there is a
question, if such a response of the medium can always be determined by the
KortewegdeVries equation or any others. We will discuss the issue in chapter 8,
asking whether any different equations can be associated in phase with the propagating density and speed.
The signicance of equation (5.13) is that it is a development equation under a
condition for the eigenvalue is invariant during the developing process. If the
equation can signify the system in equilibrium with the medium, the soliton potential
should always exist in thermodynamic environments.

5.5 Symmetry of media for the KortewegdeVries equation


In chapter 3, we discussed general solutions of the KortewegdeVries equation
(5.15), as expressed by Jacobis elliptic functions. Referring to gure 3.1, the solution
of (5.15) can be written as
q 
V~ 1C  V~ 1A ;
for
0 < < 1;
i
V~ 1 V~ 1C  V~ 1C  V~ 1B sn2
and
V~ 1 V~ 1C  V~ 1C  V~ 1B sech2

q 
V~ 1C  V~ 1A ; 1

5-6

for

1;

ii

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

V 1B
where the modulus is dened by 2 VV~ 1C 
~ that is determined as related to initial
1C  V 1A
conditions at 0 of the wave. Considering that the density represents displacement density, the solution (i) corresponds to the density along the x direction,
while the transverse density should be associated with the transverse component
in perpendicular directions to the x axis; the sech2-potential of (ii) is always in
the perpendicular direction, as discussed in chapter 4. Then, the solution (ii) indicates that V~ 1 ; 1 at 1 is characterized by a peak of sech2 in perpendicular
to the x-axis.
Normally isotropic media are characterized by uniform densities, if any external
force such as gravity can be ignored as insignicant. On the other hand, in sea water
on the Earth, for instance, the effect of vertical gravity is signicant, where the
density cannot be constant in the vertical direction. In another example of a crystalline medium, the crystal eld is evident with regard to the space group, providing
the lowest energy specic to the crystal in equilibrium with the surroundings. In this
context, the solution (ii) for 1 should be considered as the potential in the
crystalline state determined by the lattice symmetry; whereas the solution (i) for
o < < 1 is not compatible with the equilibrium lattice structure, hence similar to
water on the Earth. Therefore we consider (ii) as a consistent potential with the
established symmetry of media, whereas in (i) the value of indicates a transient
state with no macroscopic symmetry.
In classical physics, the parameters, V~ 1A ; V~ 1B ; V~ 1C and , are all determined by
initial conditions. In quantum physics, on the other hand, waves are initiated in
microscopic scale, so that phase uncertainties in spacetime should dominate the
threshold of wave motion. Assuming that microscopic displacements i strain
the local structure, the potential V~ 1 should consist of the strain energy in lattice,
which can be given by binary dyadic i : *j , which should be minimized synchronously toward equilibrium in thermodynamic environments. In fact, such microscopic uncertainties were implicitly proposed by Born and Huang in their book
Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices [1], as supported by experimental results.
From the classical viewpoint, however, uncertain initial conditions make the nonlinear dynamics soluble with respect to other possible points of reference.

5.6 Soliton description


The presence of a symmetry group mandates the nonlinear mode in a given medium.
By the presence of a symmetry plane at least, the steady solution of the Korteweg
deVries equation can be adapted to crystalline states. In cases of uid dynamic
applications, the presence of the gravitational eld and practical boundaries play a
similar role, allowing allowing consideration of a sech2-potential to represent the
properties of surrounding media.
As discussed in section 2.4, we discussed the nature of Eckarts potential, allowing
the passage of waves without reection, as specied by discrete integers n associated
with the eigenvalue for propagation. In addition, it is signicant that attributed to
the medium, transitions between different n and n0 can take place, as veried by
Riccatis theorem. Eckarts potential is highly localized in pulse shape at x 0,
5-7

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 5.2. Cnoidal potentials in discrete appearance.

behaving like a particle, which is consistently interpreted by the numerical analysis


of Zabusky and Kruskal [2].
In section 2.4, we obtained the equation
d2 p;n
fp2 nn 1sech2 xg p;n 0;
dx2

2:19

where p is the eigenvalue and n(n 1) sech2 x is the potential. It is noted that
p;n coshn1 x satises (2.19) if p n 1. Accordingly, we may dene the
number of soliton particles by the integer n, without specifying the total number.
In this case, as indicated by p;n cosh xn1 , p;n represents the wavefunction of
n 1 solitons.
At this point, referring to the mathematical theorem for elliptic functions [3], we
are allowed to replace the cnoidal waves by series of sech2- peaks. The potential
(i) in the previous section is known as cnoidal potential. Although expressed by
sn-functions, the cnoidal series can be similarly written with cn- or dn-functions,
signifying the same potential physically. Accordingly, we use the formula
mN
X

2 2 sn2 x 2a

p
sech2 ax  cm const:;

mN

5-8

5:16

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where
a

2
2

4K 0

K
K 0

and

p
K 0 K 1  2 :

cm
Considering that xm p
represent positions of peaks for N < xm < N, all the
a
2
sn - peaks in the cnoidal potential (i) can be replaced by sech2- peaks. By doing so,
for ! 1, we have K0 (1) K(0), so that the period of the potential is determined by
4K(1). Accordingly, such a modied potential can be appropriately used for the
symmetry requirement in crystalline states.
Figure 5.2 sketches such cnoidal potentials for equation (2.19), where peak
potentials are all illustrated as sech2- pulses. Although maximum n is unspecied, the
gure is clearly consistent with ZabuskyKruskals analysis [2]. That is, both show
the presence of multiple solitions that converge to a single peak, when determined by
symmetry of the medium.

Exercise
(1) Discuss the signicance of spacetime boundaries for nonlinearity that can be
determined with the laws of conservation.

References
[1] Born M and Huang K 1954 Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices (London: Oxford
University Press)
[2] Zabusky N J and Kruskal M D 1965 Phys. Rev. Lett. 15 240
[3] Bowmann F 1961 Introduction to Elliptic Functions with Applications (New York: Dover);
Toda M 2011 Introduction to Elliptic Functions (in Japanese) (Nippon Hyoronsha)

5-9

IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 6
Scattering theory

Representing a medium, the soliton potential V1(x  v) satises the Korteweg


deVries equation, with which the nonlinear wave of two components is associated in
phase. As related with longitudinal and transverse modes, the potential V1(x  v)
can be expressed by a complex function of the phase variable x  v. Such waves are
composed of coherent waves due to interactions in the proximity, hence characterized by a ne-structure. Leaving the coherent wave packet to chapter 7, in this
chapter we discuss scatterings of elemental waves by the related potential V1(x  v)
that is invariant for the Galilean transformation x  v ! x, allowing us to write
the potential simply as V1(x). Scatterings determined by reection and transmission
coefcients constitute the central theme of the soliton theory.

6.1 One-component waves


6.1.1 Scatterings of elemental waves
In the presence of a localized potential V1(x), we consider the wave equation of
Schrdingers type with respect to the Galilean variable x,

d2  2
k  V1 x 0;
2
dx

6:1

where is the wavefunction of a dynamic element, and determined by a linear


combination of expikx, approaching towards x ! N or N, respectively. For
the perturbed wavefunctions, we consider amplitudes f1(x,k) and f2(x,k) in such a
way that
limx!N feikx f1 x; kg 1

doi:10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4ch6

and limx!N feikx f2 x; kg 1:

6-1

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

First, we assume that the solution of (6.1) for x ! N is approximated by a linear


combination Aeikx Beikx , for which we write
Z N
Z N
1
1
0
0
ikx0 0
A
V1 x e
dx C1 and B 
V1 x0 eikx dx0 C2 :
2ik 0
2ik 0
At a nite x, we assume that these coefcients are given by functions of x. Consider
expikxf1 x; k, substituting into A and B, we can derive
Z N
1
0
C1 1 
V1 x0 f1 x0 ; k eikxx dx0
2ik 0
and
1
C2
2ik

V1 x0 f1 x0 ; keikxx dx0 ;

for the wave expikxf2 x; k, we obtain


Z 0
1
0
C1
V1 x0 f2 x0 ; keikxx dx0
2ik N
and
C2 1 

1
2ik

N

V1 x0 f2 x0 ; keikxx dx0 :

Accordingly,
f1 x; k eikx 

1
k

N
x

V1 x0 f1 x0 ; ksin kx  x0 dx0

6:2a

V1 x0 f2 x0 ; ksin kx  x0 dx0 ;

6:2b

and
f2 x; k eikx

x
N

representing elemental waves interacting with V1(x), propagating in modied form


by V1(x0 ) toward x directions, respectively.
Approximated by a linear combination of expikx for x !  N, the general
solution of (6.1) can be written as
> c11 k eikx c12 k eikx ;

< eikx ;

6:3a

< c21 keikx c22 keikx ;

6:3b

and
> eikx ;

where these coefcients c11, c22, c12 an c21 are related by


c11 kf1 x; k c12 kf1 x; k f2 x; k

6-2

6:4a

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 6.1. (a) Reection and transmission of elemental waves. (b) Cauchys diagram in k-space.

and
c21 kf2 x; k c22 kf2 x; k f1 x; k:

6:4b

The sets (6.3a) and (6.3b) express that the incident waves come from the right (R)
and from the left (L) of the potential located at x 0, respectively, which are
illustrated in gure 6.1(a). Accordingly, we dene the reection and transmission
factors by
RR k

c11 k
;
c12 k

TR k

1
;
c12 k

RL k

c22 k
;
c21 k

TL k

1
:
c21 k

6:5

Next, from (6.4a) and (6.4b), the relations among cij are examined for f1 x; k
and f2(x, k) to be symmetrical with respect to (k,k), resulting in
c11 kc22 k c12 kc21 k 1;

c11 kc21 k c22 kc12 k 0;

and
c21 kc12 k c11 kc22 k 1;

c11 kc21 k c12 kc22 k 0:

6:6

2
Using the Wronskian notation, dened by W f1 ; f2 @f@x1 f2  f1 @f
@x , we have relations:

W f1 x; k; f1 x; k W f2 x; k; f2 x; k 0;
W f1 x; k; f1 x; k 2ik

and

6-3

W f2 x; k; f2 x; k 2ik:

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

With these notations, (6.6) can be solved as


c11 k

1
W f2 x; k; f1 x; k;
2ik

c22 k

1
W f2 x; k; f1 x; k
2ik

6:7

and
c12 k c21 k

1
W f1 x; k; f2 x; k:
2ik

By virtue of the last expressions, it is clear in (6.5) that


TL k TR K:

6:8

In such a symmetric system, as indicated by f1;2 x; k f1;2 x; k, we have com* x; k, and
plex relations f1;2 x; k f 1;2
* k
c12 k c12

and

* k  c*22 k c*22 k:


c11

6:9

In addition, those denitions in (6.5) are used for a conservative system symmetrically, as expressed by
jc12 kj2 1 jc11 kj2 1 jc22 kj2 ;

6:10

jTL kj2 jRL kj2 jTR kj2 jRR kj2 :

6:11a

so that

Also noticeable are the relations


RR k RL k 0;
and
RR kT k RL kT k:

6:11b

These symmetric reectiontransmission relations (6.11a) and (6.11b) manifest


conservation of energy. Actually, non-conservative cases can be signied by no
transmission, which violates symmetry between right and left.
6.1.2 Singularity of a soliton potential
In section 2.5, we discussed a case where the singularity in complex k-plane indicates
information about the soliton potential that can transmit absorbed propagation
energy to the lattice. Here, this case can be discussed in more general terms of
reection and transmission. Regarding denitions in (6.5), the singular condition
arises from the denominator c12(k) that becomes zero at a particular value of k ko,
i.e. c12(ko) 0.
6-4

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

For varying a complex wavevector k k 0 ik 00 , we write two nonlinear equations


for the wavefunctions (x) and *x as
d2
k 2 ux
dx2

and

d2 *
k*
o * ux*;
dx2

where the function u(x) is assumed as a real function, as it is related to the soliton
d
potential. Multiplying dT
dx and dx on each of these equations, respectively, we subtract, then integrate it, and obtain


Z N
d
d* N
2
2

*
ko  k*
*dx:
o
dx
dx N
N
The right side is a Wronskian that can tell if the values are the same at both integration limits. Setting ko ko0 iko00 on the left expression, we derive the following:
Z N
0 00
ko ko
* dx 0;
N

from which we can say that ko0 0, if ko00 6 0, meaning that the singular point is
ko iko00 located on the imaginary axis, unless there is energy dissipation. Hence such
a pole position on the positive imaginary axis indicates an energy transfer to the
surroundings.
At such a singular point ko, as can be derived from (i), we have
f2 x; ko c11 ko f1 x; ko

and

c22 ko

1
:
c11 ko

6:12

To obtain
the value of c121ko , we use Cauchys theorem for the complex function
H
1
dk
2i
c12 k, i.e. C c12 k c12 ko where the integration path is a semi-circle above the real
axis, including the singular point ik00o, as illustrated in gure 6.1(b). For the calculation of the residual c121ko , a differential coefcient of c12 k is denoted as

c_ 12 k dc12dkk in the following calculation.


First, we write
c_ 12 ko

1
1
fW f_1 ; f2  W f1 ; f_2 g
fc11 ko W f_1 ; f1  c22 ko W f2 ; f_2 g:
2iko
2iko

These Wronskians can be obtained by manipulating two wave equations as above:


namely,
d2 f1 x; k
k 2 f1 x; k uxf1 x; k
dx2

and

d2 f1 x; ko
ko2 f1 x; ko uxf1 x; ko ;
dx2

from which we can eliminate the potential terms as




d d f1 x; ko
df1 x; k
f1 x; k 
f1 x; ko k 2  ko2 f1 x; kf1 x; ko :
dx
dx
dx

6-5

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Differentiating with respect to k, and setting k ko, we obtain the relations for
f1(x, ko),
d
W f1 x; ko ; f_1 x; ko  2ko f1 x; ko 2 ;
dx
and for f2(x, ko)
d
W f2 x; ko ; f_2 x; ko  2ko f2 x; ko 2
dx
after the similar calculation. Integrating, we have expressions for these Wronskians as
Z N
_
W f1 x; ko ; f 1 x; ko  2ko
f1 x; ko 2 dx
x

and
W f2 x; ko f_2 x; ko  2ko

x
N

f2 x; ko 2 dx:

Hence, writing the residue as i o,


i o

1
Z
c12 ko

N
N

6:13

f f1 x; ko f2 x; ko gdx

and
Z

N
N

o c11 ko f1 x; ko  dx

N

o c22 ko f2 x; ko 2 dx 1:

Moreover, combining with the relation (vi), we can write


Z N
c_ 12 ko  ic11 ko
f1 x; ko 2 dx:
N

Implied by (vii), o c11 ko and o c22 ko can be used as normalization factors for
f1 (x, ko) and f2 (x, ko), respectively, as written
Z N
1
c11 ko

moR o c11 ko i
f2 x; ko 2 dx
6:14a
c_ 12 ko
N
and
moL

c22 ko

o c22 ko i
c_ 12 ko

Z

N

1
2

f1 x; ko dx

6:14b

In the above, we discussed scatterings from a real potential, as characterized by a


single pole in the complex k-plane. On the other hand, in two-component systems,

6-6

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

the potential is given as a complex function characterized by more-than-one poles,


which may not necessarily be located on the imaginary axis.
In the presence of many poles at k kp, wherePp 0. 1, : : : , the transmission
can be determined by T k p Tp k or ln T k p ln Tp k. For such a Tp k, we
may have a repulsive or attractive pole that is expressed from section 2.3 as
1
ln Tp k kik
00 . For a multipole potential, it is convenient to express reection and
p

transmission coefcients in Fourier transforms,


Z
Z
1 N
1 N
ikz
~
~
RR ke dk; RL z
RL keikz dk;
Rz
2 N
2 N
where RR;L k* RR;L k, and
~ 1
z
2

N
N

Tp k  1eikp z dk;

where p indicates a pole in the upper half of the k-plane, i.e. kp ikp00 . If no pole is
~ 0. If there are many poles, we have a simple expression
there, z
X
00
~ 
z
p ekp z ;
6:15
p

which is an important formula for an attractive potential in sech2 -shape, because of


discrete levels for trapped elemental solitons, as indicated by integers n.
As discussed above, such an imaginary kp ikp00 implying energy dissipation,
consistent with the nature of attractive potentials, can alternatively be expressed by
~ 0 in thermal equilibrium, where the dynamical system must be
Tp k 1 or z
1
conservative .

6.2 Two-component scatterings


6.2.1 A two-component wave
In section 3.3, we showed that the differential equation
2
@2
2@

v
K 2 x; t;
@t 2
@x2

where * is the density

can be expressed in complex form with respect to real and imaginary components of
0  i 00 . For a localized K2(x), we can rewrite it as
@
@
v
iKx; t*
@t
@x

and

@*
@*
v
iKx; t;
@t
@x

In crystalline states, such imaginary kp cannot be simply attributed to the thermodynamical environment,
because of surfaces and lattice defects. Therefore, we consider the state of nonlinearity in quasi-statically frozen
media, while incurred energy loss is transferred to the surroundings in idealized equilibrium states.
1

6-7

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where the function is assumed as a function of x and t. In chapter 3, we dened the


two-component waves by 1 ; 2 0 i 00 ; 00 i 0 to evaluate the response of
the medium. Applying Fourier transforms,
Z N
Z N
1 x; k
1 x; texpikvtdt and 2 x; k
2 x; texpikvtdt;
N

N

we obtain
d 1
 iux 1 k 2
dx

and

d 2
iux 2 k 1
dx

6:16

where ux  Kx
v , describing the spatial pattern of the wave motion. In section 3.3,
we showed that these two equations in (6.16) are equivalent to Schrdingers
equation with a complex potential




d2 1
du
d2 2
du
2
2
2
2
0 and
0: 6:17
k u i
k u i
dx 1
dx 2
dx2
dx2
6.2.2 Reection and transmission
1

Dening matrixes n

1 ; 2 , wx

u 2
u 1


and A

ik
0


0
,
ik

equation (6.16) can be written in matrix form


dn
An wx:
dx

6:18

Noticing that the homogeneous equation of (6.24b) has independent solutions


( 1 Bexpikx, 2 Bexpikx), we can write the perturbed solutions as
n1 f1 x; kexpikx; 2 x; kexpikxg;

6:19

where the coefcients 1 x; k and 2 x; k are to be determined with respect to the


component ratio 1/ 2, which is equal to 1. However, these independent components are signied by different damping constants in thermodynamic environment,
so that the ratio cannot be equal to 1 in general.
Nevertheless,
for
elemental
waves,
limx!N n1 eikx ; 0
and
1
ikx
limx!N n 0; e are considered for the present discussion. For the rst case,
as calculated for single solitons, we obtain
Z x
0
1 x; k expikx
dx0 eikxx ux0 2 x0 ; k
6:20a
N

and
Z
2 x; k 

x
N

dx0 eikxx ux0 1 x0 ; k:

6-8

6:20b

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

For the second case to be different from the rst, we rewrite (6.25a) as
n1 f1 x; keikx ; 2 x; k eikx g:

6:21

We obtain the relations


Z
1 x; k 

N
x

dx0 eikx x 2 x0

6:22a

and
Z
2 x; k eikx

dx0 eikx x ux0 1 x0 :

6:22b

Converting the direction of k, we denote that n ! n, namely


f1 x; k; 2 x; kg ! f1 x; k; 2 x; kg, both n andn are solutions of
(6.18), and n  n. Also noted is that n satises (6.24b), for u ! u. In this
case, it is signicant for such conversions as ! and ! to show
W ;  1 and W ;  1 at x ! N, indicating that these sets () and () are
linearly independent. In contrast, and () are not independent, as shown below.
The general solution of (6.18) can be expressed as a linear combination of and
as
x; k c11 kx; k c12 kx; k;
x; k c21 kx; k c22 kx; k;

6:23

and
x; k c11 kx; k  c12 kx; k
x; k  c21 kx; k c22 kx; k;
where there are relations among coefcients cij :
c11 k W ;  c22 k;

c12 k W ;  c21 k;

c22 k W ;  c11 k;

c12 k W ;  c21 k:

6:24

Further, from *x; k x; k and *x; k x; k, we have


* k c22 k and
c11

* k c12  k;
c12

6:25a

and
c11 kc22 k  c12 kc21 k 1;
c11 kc21 k c12 kc22 k 0;
c11 kc21 k c12 kc22 k 0:

6-9

6:25b

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

The above linear combination (6.28a) considered to satisfy the wave equation (6.25)
allows us to dene the reection and transmission coefcients
RR k

c11 k
;
c12 k

TR k

1
;
c12 k

RL k 

c22 k
;
c21 k

TL k 

1
;
c21 k

for incident from the right and left sides, respectively. Hence we have the same
relation as for a real potential,
RR kT k  RL kT k 0:

6:26a

In addition, conrming the relation jc11 kj2 jc22 kj2 1 from (6.25b), we obtain
jT kj2 1 jRR kj2 1 jRL j2 :

6:26b

As remarked already, the soliton number cannot be conserved for scattering from
the complex potential in the thermodynamic environment, hence (6.26) is not the
same as (6.11).
6.2.3 Poles of transmission and reection coefcients
To study the nature of a soliton potential, it is signicant to nd the singular point
that is determined by c12 k 0, for which the pole is given generally by complex k.
The imaginary part of k should be positive, so that the poles are located above the
real axis of the k-plane, i.e. k ko ik 00 , k 00 > 0. In this case, comparing with (2.11b),
k
by writing Uo a k 00 for an attractive potential, we have T k kik
00 and
00
ik
Rk kik 00 .
At these poles, we have c11 and c22 from (6.27a), hence the derivative c_ 12 ko k 00

dc12 k
dk
kko ik 00

can be expressed as

_ 0 ; 00  c11 W
_ 00 ; 0 
c_ 12 ko ik 00 c22 W
Z N
dxx; ko ik 00 x; ko ik 00 :
2i
N

Therefore for c12 k 0 at k ko ik 00 , as calculated similarly for a real potential,


we have
Z N
1
c22 k 1
0
00

mR k i
dx x; k x; k
6:27a
c_ 12 k 2 N
and
mL k i

c11 k 1

c_ 12 k 2

Z

N
N

1
dx0 x; k00 x; k ;

6:27b

which are real quantities to determine the ratio of right/left components that can be
temperature-dependent in the thermodynamic environment.
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

6.2.4 Soliton potentials


In the previous material, we discussed the scattering theory between waves and
soliton potentials that are in phase, for which single and two-component systems are
mathematically equivalent. In this section, we discuss the soliton potential with
Bargmanns theory to study their general feature of wave packets.
According to Bargmanns theory for
one soliton discussed in section 3.4.1, we
2
assume that the wave equation ddx2 fk 2  V1 xg 0 has an amplitudemodulated solution
expikxFx;

where Fx 2k iax:

We showed with this postulate that the potential is given by


V1 x  22 sech2 x  ;

3:14

1 2
2
where is a constant determined by da
dx 2 a 2 . The phase constant is
determined by the conversion ax w2 dw
dx , leading to an homogeneous equation

d2 w
 2 w 0;
dx2

1
ln ;
2

for which w expx expx


p 2 exp cosh x  . Hence, writing that
V1 x ux2 , we have ux 2 sechx  .
For two-component waves expressed by a matrix 0 ; 00 , we can write
0 expikx2k iax

and

00 expikxbx:

Inserting these into (6.18), we can obtain the relation


da
ub;
dx

b 2u

and

db
ua:
dx

d
Eliminating u from the rst and third equation, we can obtain dx
a2 b2 0,
2
2
2
da
which is integrated as a b const:; and also b 2 dx. Writing the integration
1 2
2
constant as 42 , we can derive the relation da
dx 2 a 2 , as shown in section 3.4.1.
Therefore, in the same way as a single-component case, the variable w, converted
from ax by a w2 dw
dx , can be obtained as

wx expx expx 2 exp cosh x  ;

1
where ln :
2

Accordingly, we have
u2

1 da
2 sech2 x 
2 dx

and

u sechx  :

For a two-component system, 0 i 00 , so that it is logical to assign



d2 0  2
k  V1 x 0 0;
2
dx

where

6-11

V1 x V10 x u2 ;

6:28

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

whereas


d2 00
dV1 x 00
2
0;

k

V
x

i
1
dx
dx2

where

dV1
V100 x 2u:
dx

Setting k 2  ux  x2 k 002 for the latter equation, we write


V100 x  x 2sechx   ;
hence
d2 00
fk 002  V100 g 00 0;
d2

where ;

and the potential V100 2 sech , which is maximum at . On the other


hand, for 0 the wave equation for k k 0 is given by
d2 0
fk 2  V10 g 0;
d2
where the potential V10 2 sech2 is maximum at 0. The soliton potential of
two components can therefore be expressed by V1 x V10 iV100 ; where
 , as illustrated schematically in gure 6.2.
While no problem dynamically, the previous analysis must be revised for the
thermodynamic environment. In practice, judging from the Eckart potential,
because of the imaginary potential iV100 x 2iu, the function u is characterized as
off-diagonal with respect to the soliton number n. Therefore, in order for V100 x to be
a potential function, we should take interchain interactions such as ui uj into consideration to represent an energy, which is believed to be logical for a packet of
multi-soliton wave. In this sense, such an imaginary potential may be called a
pseudopotential thermodynamically.
For the numerical simulation, the ratio between two peaks was left as arbitrary.
As pointed out in chapter 3, it is signicant to realize that the phase of soliton
potentials depends of the developing parameter , so that a separation as

Figure 6.2. sech2 and sech0 potentials.

6-12

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

recognized in gure 3.1 should be related to T in the thermodynamic environment;


that is, diminishes as T ! 0, indicating that the system becomes conservative to
be in equilibrium with the surroundings. Therefore, the simulated potential at 0,
if consistent with the one-soliton potential, is regarded as a clear presentation of the
soliton potential.
For the system described by (3.16), scatterings by the soliton potential can be
calculated with (6.26b), resulting in
1 x; k eikx

2ik tanh x 
2ik 

and
2 x; k  eikx

sechx 
:
2ik 

Repeating similar calculation for another elemental wave


feikx bx; eikx 2ik axg;
we obtain
1 x; k  eikx

sechx 
2ik 

2 x; k eikx

and

2ik  tanh x 
:
2ik 

Hence
c12 k

2k  i
;
2k i

where ko i=2 gives the zero point and Res1=c12 ko  i at 0. In this case,
c11 ko c22 ko 0, so the potential is reection-free, as expected. Therefore, we
have local expressions


i
1 x
e 2 sechx;
1 x;
2
2


i
1 x
e 2 sechx;
1 x;
2
2



i
1 x
e 2 sechx;
2 x;
2
2


i
1 x
e 2 sechx;
2 x;
2
2

and
mR

 
 
i
i
mL
:
2
2

6.2.5 Asymptotic expansion


In the preceding theory, the soliton potential is included in the function AR x; x0 and
AL x; x0 , which need to be solved from Marchenkos equation by so-called inverse
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

scatterings, as will be discussed in chapter 7. On the other hand, we can expand the
corresponding functions f1 x; k and f2 x; k asymptotically with respect to k 2 to deal
with nonlinearity caused by the potential V1(x) in desired accuracy. This method
provides useful results, if relatively larger k is sufciently signicant.
Instead of the integral form of (7.2), we write
f2 x; t eikxhx;k ;

6:29

and apply the asymptotic method to the function hx that satises the requirement
limx!N hx; k 0:
Substituting (6.28) into Schrdingers equation (6.1), we obtain
 2
d2 h
dh
dh


2ik
V1 ;
dx2
dx
dx

6:30

which can be solved for a larger value of k by the asymptotic expansion method.
Expressing by innite series
2ik

dh X gn

dx
2ikn
n

V1

and

X
n

un
;
2ikn

(6.30) can be written as


X

gn 1  g 0n

n1
X

gm gnm1

m0
n

2ik

X
n

un
;
2ikn

where n  1:

Here, un represents derivatives u0 ; u00 ; : : : . Comparing coefcients of 1=2ikn on both


sides, for n 0; 1and 2 we have
g1 g 0o u0

go u;

and

g2 u00 u2 :

Assuming u00 0, the potentials at n 1 and n 2 are determined by g1 and g2 ,


respectively, and expressed as iV1 iu0 and V2 u2 , composing the complex
potential V V2 iV1 u2  iu0 . Noting that the KortewegdeVries equation was
derived in the k 2 accuracy of asymptotic expansion, the above is regarded as the
consistent result with the two-component system. Experimentally, such a twocomponent model was actually found to be consistent with soft mode measurements
of a symmetry change in perovskite crystals [1], providing concrete evidence for
supporting the model.

Exercises
(1) For the equation ddxy2 k 2  2 sech2 xy, show the general solution that can be
given by y Aeikx ik  tanh x  Beikx ik tanh x. Using this result, verify
that c12 k ki
ki and c11 k c22 k 0, leading to RR RL 0.
2

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

(2) For the potential V x  6sech2 x, verify that


f1 x; k eikx

1 k 2 3ik tanh x  3 tanh2 x


;
k ik 2i

f2 x; k eikx

1 k 2  3ik tanh x  3 tanh2 x


k ik 2i

and

c12 k

(3) For
d2 y
dx2

the

delta-potential

k  ik  2i
:
k ik 2i

V(x) 2b(x),

Schrdingers

equation

fk  2bxgy 0: Show in this case that


2

f1 x; k eikx ;
f2 x; k eikx

eikx 
2b
sin kx;
k

2b
sin kx;
k
eikx ;

for regions x  0, x  0, respectively.

Reference
[1] Fujimoto M 2013 Thermodynamics of Crystalline States 2nd edn (New York: Springer)

6-15

is

IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 7
Method of inverse scatterings

The scattering theory continues to the method of inverse scatterings, which is a


central topic in soliton theory. Particularly important is the determination of
coherent multiple solitons that can be analyzed by Fouriers transform for properties
of a soliton potential. Signied by the function f(x, k), the effect of localized
potential V(x, ) can be described by the function of interactions AR,L(x, x0 ), which
can be analyzed with the Marchenko theorem introduced in this chapter. The theorem can be applied not only to equilibrium systems but also to -dependent cases,
allowing the study of nonlinearity in various situations.

7.1 Coherent wave packets and Marchenkos equation


The scattering process is generally signied by the reectiontransmission relation of two elemental waves propagating to x and x directions, which are
expressed as
T kf2 x; k RR kf1 x; k f1 x; k
and
RL x; kf2 x; k f2 x; k T kf1 x; k:

7:1

Since these f-factors are given as Fouriers transforms in space 1 x; k; 1 x; k;


2 x; k and 2 x; k of the corresponding elemental waves, we can transform (7.1)
back to the time domain to obtain relations between reection and transmission
coefcients for a more general case than equilibrium.
7.1.1 Delta and truncated step functions for coherent wave packets
Fouriers transformation is a useful method to deal with the spacetime prole of a
wave packet for a group of n coherent waves. The potential V1(x, t) is a function of

doi:10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4ch7

7-1

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 7.1. (a) A delta function . (b) A step-function s multiplied by the potential V .



t vx, where the corresponding waves t vx are in propagation to the left and right,
respectively, so the wave equation
@2 1 1 @2 1
 2
V1 x; t 1
v @t 2
@x2

7:2

is satised by a wave packet expressed by -function normalized to n, namely




x
x
 vs t  AR x; vt;
1 x; t t 
7:3
v
v


where the function s t  vx is a stepwise function to act on the potential V1(x, t), as
illustrated in gure 7.1. Here, for a space-time variable  vx, we have normalR N
R N
ization conditions, N d n and x1 s d n, representing n elemental
R N
waves. Writing 1 k; N 1 x; teit dt, the Fourier transform of (7.3) is
1 x; k e

ikx

Z


N
x

AR x; x0 eikx dx0 ;

7:4

where x0 vt.


Clearly t  vx is the solution of (7.2), when V1 x; t 0; on the other hand,
AR x; ct in (7.3) is related to the
V1 x; t 6 0. In this case, if considering a
 potential

x
simple potential V1 x; t 2b t  v for 1 x; t, we have

x
1 x; t t 
v

for

x>0

and


x bv n 
x
xo

t
t
for
x < 0:
1 x; t t 
v
2
v
v




In the latter, we can prove AR x; vt b2 x  vx b2 t vx , but should be


excluded from the second term on the right of (7.4). For scatterings from V1 t  vx


after t  vx > 0 in (7.3), we have specically employed the stepwise function s t  vx ,
to disregard a part of the potential for x1  vt, as shown in the gure, taking
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

contributions from x x1 into account. Such a truncated potential can therefore be
written as Vs x s t  vx V1 x. Therefore, we have
Z
1 x 0
ikx
f1n x; k f1 x; k and f2n x; k e

dx sin fkx  x0 gVn x0 f2n x0 ; k


k x1
and
ikx

f1n x; k e

1

k

N
x1

dx0 sin fkx  x0 gVn x0 f1n x0 ; k

and f2n x; k eikx ;

for x > x1 and x < x1, respectively. These truncated quantities and derivatives
at k are all continuous at x x1; hence using a Wronskian expression, we can
derive
eikx1 0
f f 1 x1 ; k ikf1 x1 ; kg;
c12s k
2ik


x;k
where f 10 x1 ; k @f1@k
. Similarly, we obtain
xx1

c11s k 

eikx1 0
f f 1 x1 ; k ikf1 x1 ; kg
2ik

and
c22s k 

eikx1 0
f f 1 x1 ; k  ikf1 x1 ; kg:
2ik

Applying to Vs x 2s x  x1 sech2 x, we obtain


c12s k

k 2 1 k i tanh x1 2
2kk i

and

c11s k c22s k

e2ikx1 sech2 x1
:
2kk  i

With these relations, we can conrm that Vn(x) is not reective for at x1 ! N. The
p
zero point determined by c12s k 0 is given by ko 12 tanh x1 1 sech2 x1 ,
2ikx1

x1
. From these results, the pole for transmission is given
at which c22s ko  e 2ko ksech
o i
by ko i, which is always positive imaginary, and hence we have

c11s ko c22s ko 0

for

x1 ! N:

7.1.2 Fourier transforms and Marchenkos equations


Representing a wave packet, 1 k; x obeys the wave equation
 2

d2 1

2
~

 K x; 1 0;
dx2
v2

7-3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

~ is the Fourier transform of K(x, t), satisfying the condition


where Kk;
limx!N eikx 1 x; k 1. Hence, (6.18) is identical to the function f1 x; k dened by
(6.2), namely
Z N
0
ikx
f1 x; k e 
AR x; x0 eikx dx0 :
7:5a
x

By similar calculation for limx!N eikx 1 x; k 1, we obtain


Z x
0
f2 x; k eikx
AL x; x0 eikx dx0 :
N

7:5b

Converting (7.5a) and (7.5b) by k ! k, we can write


Z x
f1 x; k expikx
AR x; x0 expikx0 dx0
N

and
Z
f2 x; k expikx 

N
x

AL x; x0 expikxdx0 ;

so that
1
AR x; x
2
0

N
N

eikxx f1 x; k  1dk

and
AL x; x0

1
2

N
N

eikx x f2 x; k  1dk:

In this way, we conrm that reectiontransmission relation (7.1) is applicable to


wave packets, in the same way as to a single soliton.
Inserting 1(x, t) of (7.3) into the wave equation (7.2), we obtain
!(
)
x
@AR x; vt 2 @AR x; vt
2

V1 x; t
t
v
@x
v
@t
!(
)
x
@ 2 AR x; vt 1 @ 2 AR x; vt
vs t 
 2
 V1 x; tAR x; vt 0:
v
@x2
v
@t 2
Integrating with respect to time from vx t to vx t, the quantity in the rst bracket
{: : :} can be expressed as RR kf1 x; k f1 x; k 0




@AR x; vt
@AR x; vt
2
2
V1 x 0;
@x
@vt
xvt
xvt
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

indicating that we have the equation for calculating V(x). Carrying out a similar
calculation, we can also obtain another formula, namely
V1 x 2

dAR x; x
dx

and

V1 x 2

dAL x; x
;
dx

7:6

providing us with the basic method for inverse scatterings.


From a repulsive potential characterized by no poles on the imaginary axis in the
complex k plane, there is no transmission expected. Therefore for such a potential
the left side of (7.1) can be set equal at zero, i.e.
RR kf1 x; k f1 x; k 0:

7:7

Since these f1 x; k are the same as 1 x; k, we can perform Fouriers transformation on this expression t vx < 0, and obtain
Z N
Z
Z N
d it N ~
0
ikz
e
dzRR ze
dt0 1 x; t0 eit 1 x; t
N 2
N
N
Z N
Z N

z
~R z
1 x; t
dzR
dt 0 1 x; t 0 t0  t 

v
N
N
Z N
~R fvt0  tg 1 x; t0 1 x; t
v
dt0R
N
Z


~R x  vt v2 dt 0R
~R fvt0  tgAR x; vt0 t x vs vt  xAR x; vt:
vR
v
Writing x0 vt0 and y vt in the last expression, (7.2) can be expressed as
Z N
~R x y AR x; y
~R x0 yAR x; x0 dx0 0:
R
R
7:8a
x

Transforming (7.1) in the region t  vx < 0, we obtain similarly


Z x
~
~L x0 yAL x; x0 dx0 0:
RL x y AL x; y
R
N

7:8b

Equations (7.8a) and (7.8b), known as Marchenkos equations, are useful formulae
for problems of scatterings, as will be discussed in the following example.

Example:
We discuss a simple case given by the repulsive potential V1(x) 2b(x), where b > 0.
In this case, the equation is

d2 2
k  2bx 0;
2
dx

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

ib
~L x beibx s x. Further,
where RL k kib
, and R

f1 x; k eikx ;

and

eikx 

f2 x; k eikx

2b
sin kx
k

2b
sin kx;
k

eikx ;

for x  0 and x  0, respectively. Using the information in (7.3a), we obtain


ibxy

be

s x y b

y

dx0 ebx y AL x; x0  AL x; y 0;

where for x < y, both n x y and the integral terms vanish, and AL(x, y) 0. For
x > y, on the other hand, AL x; y bn x y, so that with (7.1) we have

V1 x 2b

ds x
2bs x:
dx

For an attractive potential, characterized by a pole of the transmission coefcient


T(k) on the positive imaginary axis, there is no reection, so Fouriers transform of
the left side of (7.1) should be zero, namely
T kf2 x; k 0;

7:9

for which we have (6.15) for t vz < 0, and which we wrote in (6.15) as
X
00
~ 
z
p ekp vt :
p

Using this, the transform of (7.9) can be calculated as


Z

~
 t0 gAL x; vt 0
dt 0 fvt
x=v
Z x
X
X
00 0
00
k p ctx
k 00p vt
v
p e
v
pe
dx0 ek p x AL x; x0

~ x v2
v vt

X
00
p ek p vt f2 x; ik 00p ;
v

N

where f2 x; ik 00p c11 ik 00p f1 x; ik 00p , according to (6.12). Further, writing vt 0 x0 and
vt y,
Z N
X
X
00
00 0
v
p c11 ik 00p ek p xy  v
p c11 ik 00p
dx0 AR x; x0 ek p x y :
p

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

We therefore consider the quantity dened as


X
00
~ R z R
~R z

p c11 ik 00p ek p z

7:10

~R z in (7.4a). Marchenkos equation can be revised as


to replace R
Z N
R x y AR x; y
dx0 R x0 yAR x; x0 :
x

7:11a

and
Z
L x y AL x; y

x
N

dx0 L x0 yAL x; x0 :

7:11b

~ R;L z is contributed by repulsive and attractive


Here, the effective reection
component potentials, and expressed generally as
Z N
X c11 ikp00
dk c11 k ikz
00
e i
ekp z
R z
7:12a
00
_
2
c
c
k
ik
12
12
N
p
p
Z
L z

N
N

X c22 ikp00 00
dk c22 k ikz
kp z
e
i
00 e
2 c12 k
_
ik

c
12
p
p

7:12b

Example:
For an attractive potential characterized by 2 a positive imaginary pole k ik 00 , the
00
reection coefcient is given by RL k kk
2 k 00 2 . Considering the transmission in this
case, we have
00

k  ik
T~ k T k
k ik 00

and

p
kk  2k 00
T k
:
k 2 k 00 2

With these expressions, we write

~R z o c11 ik 00 ek 00 z ;
R z R
where

p
p 00 p2k 00 z k 00 1 2 k 00 z
~R z 2 2k e
p e
R

2 1 2

and

p
k 00 1 2
p :
o c11 ik 
2 1 2
00

and

Writing AR x; y f xe

p 00
2k y

p 00
p
R z 2 2k 00 e 2k z :

in Marchenkos formula, we obtain

7-7

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

p 00
p
2 2k 00 e2 2k x
p
f x 
:
1 e2 2k 00 x

After these calculations, we arrive at the soliton potential:

V x 2

p
d
2
AR x; x 4k 00 s xsech2 2k 00 x:
dx

7.2 Reflectionless multi-soliton potentials


Marchenkos equations (7.11a) and (7.11b) can be analyzed for reection-free
potentials in matrix form. In this case, characterized by the transmission coefcient
with poles kp00 on the positive imaginary axis, we can assume that p 1, 2, : : : n in
general. In addition, the function R,L(z) dened by (7.12) is simplied by the
absence of reection, so that it is determined by the second term for reection-free.
Referring to (6.31), L(z) can be written
X
00
L z
mL;p ek p z :
7:13
p

For convenience in using Marchenkos equations, we dene the vectors


z1 mL1 ek1 z ; mL2 ek2 z ; : : : ;
00

00

z1 ek1 z ; ek2 z ; : : : ;


00

00

and write
L x y x1 :y:
Then, assuming that
AL x; y Px1 :y;

7:14

1

where Px

is a one-row matrix to be determined from (7.11b),




Z x
1
0
0 1
0
Px :
dx x : x :y x1 : y 0;
N

where is the unit matrix. Writing the matrix in [ : : : ] as


Z x
x
dx0 x0 1 : x0 ;
N

we obtain the matrix equation


Px1 : x x1 : y 0:

7-8

7:15

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Hence
Px1 x1 :x1 ;
and
AL x; y x1 :x1 :y:
Because only AL x; x is required for calculation, we write it as
AL x; x x1 :x1 :x1 tracex1 :x:x:
1
As given by (7.15) of the denition of x, we can write dx
dx x :x, so that
the above equation of AL(x, x) can be expressed as


dx
d
AL x; x trace
:x  lnftracedet g;
dx
dx

where det is the determinant of dyadic x.


Assuming that AL x; x and x are such matrices as related by d
dx AL , we
have AL d
:1,
which
is
likely
in
crystalline
states,
but
not
necessarily
so in
dx

 d
1

:
lndet
,
allowing
us
to
use
the
general. In this case, trace A trace d
dx
dx
formula
V1 x 2

d2
lndet
dx2

7:16

to obtain the soliton potential.


Lamb [1] showed a result of such computational studies by simulating Bargmanns potential for two solitons. Considering
x1 mL1 ex ; mL2 e2x


2x

mL2 e3x
1 mL1 e


2
3


and
x
3x
mL2 e4x
mL1 e
1



3
4

and

x1 ex ; e2x ;

det 1

mL1 e2x mL2 e4x mL1 mL2 e6x

:
2
4
72

mL2
Using parameters 12 ln 2m
and 12 ln mL172mL2 , Lamb obtained
L1

AL x; x 

3ex 6ex 3e3x


;
3 cosh x cosh 3x

and
V1 x 2

dAL x; x
3 cosh 4x 4 cosh 2x 
12
;
dx
f3 cosh x cosh3 x g2

which was parametrically identical to the result in gure 3.1(a).


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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

7.3 Two-component systems


7.3.1 Inverse scatterings
In chapter 3, we discussed a two-component system to deal with developing nonlinearity, as it is considered for a soliton potential in more detail than in KortewegdeVries
theory. However, as will be discussed in chapter 8, a modied KortewegdeVries
equation is found for developing a complex potential, where there is nothing particularly signicant other than the transverse mode, provided that the parameter
ux  Kx
v is a real function. Nevertheless, we realized that scatterings can also occur
by such an imaginary potential, which should by studied by an inverse scattering
method.
To consider two components of the wave, we consider 0 i 00 separating
the wave equation

@2
@2

 v2 @@x2 Kx2 , where  , into two, namely

@
@
v
iK 
@
@x

and

@ 
@ 
v
iK:
@
@x

3:10

In these mathematical expressions, it is noted that the imaginary function iKx


represents a scatterer, which we can verify with Marchenkos equations.
Writing the Fourier transform as 1 0 i 00 eikv and 2 00 i 0 eikv
as in chapter 3, we have the relations
d 0
ik 0 ux 00
dx

and

d 00
 ik 00 ux 0 :
dx

3:11b

1
1
0
00
00
0
By dening
 matrices n ; , wx u ; u and A
1 0
, (3.11b) can be expressed as
ik
0 1

dn
An wx
dx

6:18

Noting that the homogeneous linear equation for (6.18) has independent solutions
eikx , nonlinear solutions can be written as
n1 f0 x; keikx ; 00 x; keikx g;
where 0 x; k and 00 x; k are Fourier transforms of 0 x; t and 00 x; t,
R N
R N
i.e. 0 x; k N 0 x; teit
dt and
00 x; k N 00 x; teit dt, respectively.


For an elemental wave 0 t vx dened by limx!N 0 eikx , we showed that


x
x
vs t A1 x; vt
10 x; t t
for
x < x1
v
v
and

x
2 0 vs t A2 x; vt for
v

7-10

x > x1

7:17a

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

are transformed to
10 x; k

ikx

N

ikx0

A1 x; x e

dx

and

20 x; k

x
N

A2 x; x0 eikx dx0 ;

respectively.


On the other hand, for an elemental wave 00 t  vx dened by limx!N 00 eikx ,

x
100 x; t vs t  B1 x; vt
for x < x1
v
and


x
x
vs t  B2 x; vt
200 x; t t 
for x > x1
7:17b
v
v
can be transformed to
Z N
0
100 x; k
B1 x; x0 eikx dx0
x

and

002 x; k eikx

N
x

B2 x; x0 eikx dx0 :

Actually, we can consider (7.17a) to represent the scattering process from the
right of the scatterer iu(x), substitute 10 x; t and 20 x; t for those in (3.10), and
obtain



x @A1
@A1
vs t
v
iKxA2 0
i
@t
@x
v
and






x
iKx
x @A2
@A2
2A2 
vs t
v
 iKxA1 0:
v t
v
v
v
@t
@x

ii

For t vx > 0, the brackets factors {: : :} of s functions in (i) and (ii) should be zero,
hence by writing y vt we have
@A1 x; y @A1 x; y iKx

A2 x; y
@y
@x
v

and

@A2 x; y @A2 x; y iKx




A1 x; y
@y
@x
v

for x > y. Setting x y, we nd A1(x, x) 0 from the second relation, and


iux

iKx
2A2 x; x
v

7:18a

from the factor of the -function. Using (7.18a) in (i), we can derive the relation
ux2 

dA1 x; x
:
dx

7:18b

Equation (7.18b) is the same result of inverse scattering by (7.6), although (7.18a)
indicates a property of the scatterer, allowing cross-interaction between onedimensional propagation as discussed in chapter 3.

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

After similar analysis to the above on the other component 00 x; t, we obtain the
same results as (7.18), which are summarized as follows:
and ux2 2

iux 2B1 x; x

dB2 x; x
:
dx

7:19

Marchenkos formulae were derived for a real potential, but the above results
suggest that an imaginary scatterer can also be analyzed by assuming ux  iKx
v ,
allowing us to make (7.18) and (7.19) legitimate for a complex potential.
Furthermore, we realize that the two-component model offers a more accurate
description of scattering process than the one-component one, because of rst- and
second-order mechanisms of scatterings, namely u and u2 , resulting in A2 as well as
A1 , respectively, and in B1 and B2 .
7.3.2 Matrix method
In this subsection, we show that Marchenkos equations can be applied rigorously to
a two-component system with Schrdingers wave equation with complex potential.
~L 0, Marchenkos formulae are written as
Considering R
Z x
 A2 x; y L x y
A1 x; x0 L x0 ydx0 0;
N
Z x
A2 x; x0 L x0 ydx0 0
for
x < y;
A1 x; y
N

where
L z

X
p

mL;p ekp z

and

mL;p p c22 kp :

Using vector notations


z1 mL1 eik1 z ; mL2 eik2 z ; : : :

z1 eik1 z ; eikp z ; : : : ;

and

we can write
L x y x1 :y:
Introducing operators P1 and P2 in such a way that
A1 x; y P1 x1 : y

A2 x; y P2 x1 : y;

and

the above integral equations can be changed to algebraic form,


 P2 x x P1 x1 : M x 0
where M x is a dyadic dened by M x
derive
P2 x x1 :x;

and

Rx

N

P1 x P2 x1 : M x 0;

dx0 x0 1 : x0 . Therefore, we can

where x Mx1 :M x:

7-12

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Therefore, (7.18) in section 7.3.1 can be transformed into matrix form:


iux 2A2 x; x 2x:P2 x1 2x:x:x1


dM
: M :M1 :
trace
dx
In addition,
A1 x; x x1 :P1 x x1 :fx:x1 g:M x


dM
1
:x
trace M :
;
dx
leading to the expression
ux2

d2
flndet g:
dx2

Further, we consider the complex potential u2 i du


dx for Schrdingers equation, to
see if it is derivable from Marchenkos formula. Assuming that it can be calculated
with scattering functions A1 x; x and A2 x; x, we write



du
d
d
dM 1
dM 1
2
trace M:
:  i
:
u i 2 A1 iA2 2
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx



d
dM
d2
1
trace
: iM
2 2 lnfdet  iM ; 7:20
2i
dx
dx
dx
which can be integrated to obtain the expression
u2

d
d
imaginary det  iM
imaginary lnfdet  iM  2 tan1
;
dx
dx
real det  iM

where
Mij

k 00i

mLj
00
00
ek1 k2 x
00
kj

7:21

is useful for practical analysis.


7.3.3 Modied KortewegdeVries equation, part 1
In section 3.5, we derived the modied equation (3.19) by transforming Riccatis
theorem from the KortewegdeVries equation. This signies that the eigenvalue for
(3.19) is no longer identical to that for the latter, implying that the Riccati process
needs to be described in terms of different time .
Therefore, the complex soliton potential should be obtained from the modied
KortewegdeVries equation, which was in fact veried by the inverse scattering
method.
Considering that the wave function is given by eikx as x ! N, we can transform coordinates as x ! x  vo t and t ! , while the former is Galilean invariant,
7-13

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

and the latter can be attributed to the temperature. Therefore for a complex u, the
two-component equations can be written as
d 1 x; k
ik 1 x; k u 2 x; k
dx
and
d 2 x; k
 ik 2 x; k u 1 x; k:
dx

7:22

Therefore, the time variation at x ! N can approximately be expressed by the


relations
@ 1 x;
4ik 3 1 x;
@

and

@ 2 x;
4ik 3 2 x; :
@

Accordingly, we can write


3

2 2 0e4ik fc11 k; eikx c12 k; eikx g;


where
c12 k; c12 k; 0 and

c11 k; c11 k; 0e8ik :


3

By similar calculation, we obtain c22 k; c22 k; 0e8ik . Hence, for a pole


k ik 00 on the positive imaginary axis, we have
mR k 00 ; i

c11 k 00 ;
00 3
mR k 00 ; 0e8ik
00
c_ 12 k ; 0

and

mL k 00 ; mL k 00 ; 0e8ik

00 3

Using these expressions, we need to calculate the function


Z N
X
dk ~
00 3
00
RL k; 0e8ik ikz
L z;
mLp k 00p ; 0e8ik p ikp z ;
N 2
p
~ 0 0 can be applied, for Marchenkos equations
for which Rk;
Z x
A1 x; y 
dx0 L x0 yA2 x; x0 0
N

and

Z
A2 x; y L x y

x
N

dx0 L x0 yA1 x; x0 0:

From these equations, the function ux; can be determined by


ux; 2A2 x; x; :
Using (7.21), this can be calculated with the matrix Mij
2 2, resulting in


@
1 m1 0 2kx8k 3
e
:
u 2 tan
@x
3k

7-14

imLj kj00 ; iki00 k j00 x


,
ki00 k j00 e

if M is

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Considering that m1 0 1, this can be re-expressed as


ux; t 2k sech2kx  8k 3 ;

where ln

jm1 0j
;
2k

which is the solution of the modied KortewegdeVries equation.

Exercises
(1) For a given potential V x 2s xsech2 x, verify the following expressions:
RR k

ki
;
k  i2k 2 1

RL

1
;
2k 2 1

T k

2kk i
:
2k 2 1

Show next
L z 0

1
z
L z p sinh
2
2

for z < 0;

p
p
p
p
ez= 2 1  2 ez= 2 1 2
p  p
p
R z p
2 2 1 2
2 2 1 2

for

z < 0;

for z > 0;

L z 2ez

for

z > 0:

(2) Considering a single pole ik 00 on the imaginary axis for a reection-free


potential, discuss Marchenkos equations to obtain the following relations.
00
Letting mR 2k 00 e2k , we have
00

A1 x; y

2ek 2xy
;
1 e2k 00 x

R x 2k 00 ek

and
2

ux 2k 00 sech2 k 00 x  :

Reference
[1] Lamb Jr G L 1980 Elements of Soliton Theory (New York: Wiley)

7-15

00

x

IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 8
Quasi-static soliton states

Dealing with conservative systems, the KortewegdeVries equation can be applied


to time-dependent cases as well, allowing us to study dispersive interactions in
general. It is signicant that the soliton potential exists in non-conservative and
conservative states. Nonetheless, the KortewegdeVries equation should be modied by Riccatis theorem, signifying transitions between eigenvalues in the thermal
environment. In this chapter, we discuss modied developing processes, where their
quasi-static changes in media can be investigated.

8.1 Developing the KortewegdeVries equation


8.1.1 Nonstationary states
For the KortewegdeVries equation derived in section 3.1, we assumed that the
development operator is determined by B3 ao a1D a3D3. On the other hand,
the second-order operator D2 is for the eigenvalue to be independent of the devel2
1
opment, i.e. @
@ 0 for (D V1) 1, which is essential for the potential V1 to be a
steady solution of the KortewegdeVries equation. Allowing to be a function of ,
however, V1 should vary with , implying possible energy transfer to the surroundings, which is essential in modied media.


Leaving the transfer process aside, in the region for V1 t  vx ! 0, we have D2  0,
where the wavefunction can be approximately modied as (x, k, t) h(k, t)f1(x, k, t).
Hence, the dispersive nature is dominated by the D3 term as
@
B3  4D3 ;
@t

8:1

leading to the factor h(x, t) h(x, 0) exp (ik3t). Accordingly, we can write
x; k; t  hx; 0exp4ik 3 tfc21 expikx c22 expikxg:

doi:10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4ch8

8-1

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Substituting this approximate expression into (8.1), we can obtain the relations
c21 k; t c21 k; 0
mL k; t i

c22 k; t c22 k; 0exp4ik 3 t;

and

c22 k; t
mL k; 0exp8ik 3 t:
c_ 21 k; t

If the potential is non-reective, we have an imaginary pole at kp ik 00p , therefore


3

RL k; t RL k; 0exp8ik 00 t
and
Z
L z; t

N
N

dk
3
3
RL k; 0 expfikz 8k 00 tg mL 0expk 00 z  8k 00 t;
2

determined by RL(k, 0) and mL(0) related with k00 and the initial value of V1(x, 0).
For multiple poles at lk 00p in the k-plane, these expressions can simply be modied as
summing over the index p. Using RL(k, t) and L(z;t), the corresponding AL(x, y;t)
can be determined by the Marchenko equations as (7.11), from which we obtain
V1 x; t 2

@
AL x; x; t:
@x

8:2a

@
AR x; x; t:
@x

8:2b

By similar calculation, we have


V1 x; t 2

Soliton potentials in nonlinear states can therefore be determined by the Marchenko


equations (8.2a,b) to analyze unsteady states. Accordingly, we shall call the potential
V1(x, ) in thermodynamic environment a quasi-static potential.
8.1.2 Thermal perturbation
The quasi-static potential V1(x, ) is temperature-dependent, corresponding to
@1
@V1
@ 6 0. Accordingly, the change V1 x @ should be subjected to thermal
relaxation in the thermodynamic environment. Therefore the KortewegdeVries
equation should be perturbed as
@V1
@V1 @ 3 V1
 6V1

RV1 ;
@
@x
@x3
where the left side is the perturbation by the surrounding medium, and a small
factor (|| < 1). In this case, using the commutator notation in chapter 3, we can write
@V1
 L; B RV1 ;
@
where L L 1, and

@
@

 B is no longer zero. Therefore,

L  1 RV1

8-2

@ 1

8:3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

1
is the equation to be solved for , implying that the function RV1 @
@ GV1 is
responsible for scatterings of perturbed waves. It is noted that G(V1) can be used for
@1
1
the reection and trapping as well, as distinguished by @
@ 0 and @ 6 0, respectively, while the latter case is the present concern.
The inhomogeneous equation (8.3) can be solved from the homogeneous equation
(L  1) 0 by the method of varying constants, as shown below.
First, as V1 is the solution of the KortewegdeVries equation, we start with the
basic solutions f1(x, k; ) and f2(x, k; ) as discussed in Chapter 6. Dening h()
f2(x, k; ) for x ! N, and considering B  4D3, the asymptotic form of can be
written as


dh
3
3
x!N !
and
h h0e4ik ;
4ik h eikx
d

hence conrming x!N ! 0 that is consistent with 0 for R(V1) 0. On the


other hand, for x ! N, these f1 and f2 are related in


 
dc12 ikx
dc11
3
e
 8ik c11 eikx :
x!N ! h

d
d
For an arbitrary x, we consider that is determined by a linear combination
x; k; f1 x; k; x; k; f2 x; k; ;

8:4

where
h
x; k;
2ikc12
x; k; 

N

h
2ikc12

dx0 V1 ff2 x0 ; k; g ;
x

N

dx0 V1 f1 x0 ; k; f2 x0 ; k;

and
2ikc12 W f1 : f2 :
Accordingly, from (8.4), we can conrm that x!N ! 0, consistent with 1 ! 0.
On the other hand, we have
 Z N

Z N
h
x!N !
eikx
dx0 V1 f2 f2  c11 f1  c12 eikx
dx0 V1 f1 f2 ;
2ikc12
N
N
hence we obtain
dc11
i
 8ik 3 c11 
2k
d

N
N

dx0 V1 f2 x0 ; k; f1 x0 ; k;

and
dc12
i

2k
d

N

dx0 V1 f2 x0 ; k; f1 x0 ; k; :

8-3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

For a scattering case, (V1) R(V1), from the rst relation above, we derive
 
Z N
d c11
c11
i
 2 2
dx0 RV1 f22 :
 8ik 3
d c12
c12
2k c12 N
00
1
On the other hand, for a trapping case, V1 RV1 @
@ , we have c12(ik ) 0
00
00
00
00
and f2(x, ik ) c11(ik )f1(x, ik ) for an imaginary k ik . Hence, writing k00 2,
we obtain
Z N
dx0 RV1 f22 x0 ; ik 00 ;
dk 00
N
 00
:
Z N
2k
d
dx0 f22 x0 ; ik 00 ;
N

8.2 Multi-soliton potentials in unsteady states


In chapter 7, we discussed the method of Marchenkos equations for studying steady
nonlinear states in thermal equilibrium. For a reection-free potential characterized
by imaginary poles, the matrix method can be employed for inverse scattering
solutions.
To simplify the problem, we consider two soliton states signied by k 00p k100 and k 002 .
Following Wadati and Toda [1], we write the function L(z, t) as
L x; t mL1 t expk100 x mL2 t expk 002 x;
to calculate the potential V(z, t) with (8.2a) as
V1 z; t 2

@AL z; t
@2
2 2 lndet x; t:
@x
@x

Here, (x,t) is a 2 2 matrix, whose elements are expressed as


ij ij
and

mLj expk 00i k 00j x


k 00i k 00j





mL2 t
0 
00
 1 mL1 t exp 2k100 x
00
00
00 expk1 k2x 

2k
k

k
1
1
2


:
det 

 mL1 t expk 00 k 00 x 1 mL2 t exp 2k 00 x 
 00

1
2
2
2k 002
 k1 k 002


Using these expressions, we can nd that two soliton potentials at k100 and k 002 may
have phase variables for each, which is detectable in thermodynamic environments.
Following Lambs book [2], we sketch their manipulating process as follows,
although it is somewhat tedious in calculation.
8-4

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Writing
exp

r
mL2 x1
mL1 x2

and

exp

1
2

r 00
mL1 mL2 k 2  k100
;
x1 x2 k 002 k100

and dening
k 002  k100 x

and

k 002 k100 x ;

we have
k 002 k100 00 
k1 e k 002 e k100 k 002 e
@
k 002  k100
flndet g
k 002 k100
@x
cosh 00
cosh
k 2 k100
k100 k 002 k 002 2  k 001 2
k100 k 002

where 2

sinh sinh
k 002 k100 cosh k 002  k100 cosh

k 002 2  k 001 2
;
k 002 coth 2  k100 coth 1

k2 x
2
2

and

8:5



k100 x
:
2
2

Owing to the relations


00

00

mL2 0ek2 t k 002  k100


2k 002
k 002  k100

mL1 0ek1 t k 002  k100


;
2k1
k 002 k100

and

e

and

1
2 k 002 x  k 002 t 2 ;
2

we can express that


1 3
1 k100 x  k 001 t 1
2
where
1;2



1
mL1;2 0 k 002  k100
:
ln
2
2x1;2 k 200 k100

The parameters k100 , k 002 , 1 and 2 are for the numerical adjustments in the above
analysis. Considering that k100 k 002 hence 1 2 0, the movement of two soliton
peaks in the x-t plane can be plotted, as shown in gure 3.1(a).
Differentiating (8.5) two times, we arrive at the formula for the two-soliton
potential
2

V1 x; t 2k200  k100

k200 2 cosech 2 2 k100 2 cosech 2 1


k 002 coth 2  k100 coth 1 2

8-5

8:6

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 8.1. A computer simulation of two solitons crossing at t 0, where two peaks are resolved by their
interactions [2].

which agrees with the Bargmann potential (3.15a), except for the phase shifts 1,2. As
mentioned in chapter 3, equation (8.4) may be interpreted as colliding soliton pulses,
where they appear to be separated as if independent particles, as expressed by
2

V1 x; t 2k100 sech2 1   2k200 sech2 2


and
V1 x; t 2k200 sech2 2  2k100 sech2 1  ;
before and after the collision, respectively. Here, the phase shift is determined by
tan1

k100
k 002 k100

2
ln
:
k 002
k 002  k100

Figure 8.1 shows the result of numerical simulation, where the parameter t
represents developing time, or in the thermodynamic environment t can be referred
to the temperature in the surroundings. Notable in the gure is that the potential at
t 0 appears to be a single peak, but it is evidently composed of multi-soliton peaks
at t 6 0. However, in such a simulation, the two potentials may not necessarily
coincide, if separated by their interaction, as indicated by the potential at t 0.

8.3 The modified KortewegdeVries equation, part 2


In chapter 3, we considered a two-component model for developing nonlinear
waves. Assuming that the driving for nonlinearity is represented by a real function
8-6

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

u(x, t), its wave equation (x, t) is found as driven by a complex potential u2  i du
dx.
Because of the Galilean invariance in steady nonlinearity, such results was believed
to be compatible with the KortewegdeVries equation, which should however be
modied by V u2  i du
dx , known as Miuras transformation [3].
@V
Associated with (x, t), the potential V(x, t) should satisfy @V
@t  v @x 0 and the
@V
@V
@3V
KortewegdeVries equation @t  6V @x @x3 0, we have




@V
@3V
@ @V
@3V
2 @V
2 @V
6V
3 i
6V
3 0:
2V
@t
@x
@x
@x @t
@x
@x
Hence, we obtain the equation
@V
@V @ 3 V
6V 2
3 0;
@t
@x
@x

8:7

which is the modied KortewegdeVries equation.


However, considering an imaginary function iux; t ux; t, Miuras transformation can be written as
V u2

du
;
dx

8:8

thereby (8.7) can be transformed back to the KortewegdeVries equation,


@u
@u @ 3 u
6u 3 0:
@t
@x @x
Equation (8.8) is the Riccati theorem, stating that, if V (constant of x), the
Galilean invariance holds in nonsteady states as well. Accordingly, the steady
solution of these equations assures for the system to be canonical, but any discontinuous change can be attributed to a temperature change T in the thermodynamic environment, representing an irreversible process.
Referring to the surroundings, the potential V(x, t) is therefore characterized by
another time variable t0 that is not the same as t. In this case, we should write the
0
potential as V(x  vt, t0 ) V(x  vt)et in two timescales for t and t0 , where
can be expressed as i, where and are interpreted as damping and
parameter to determine the timescale of t0 . Such a time t0 is associated with varying

, as discussed in section 3.5. That is, transforming u  1~ d~


dx to linearize
Riccatis equation (3.17) and combining with (8.8), we can derive the equation
d2~
~
of the Galilean transformation x ! x 6t and
dx2  V 0, which is invariant
2
V ! V , namely, ddx~2  V ~ ~
. In this case, where the one-soliton solution
(3.13) is given by V 2k2 sech2(kx  4k3t0 ), we have the relation k2, allowing
us to consider k i.

8.4 Thermodynamic instability and breezer potentials


In this section, with respect to the modied KortewegdeVries equation, a set of
linear equations for two components 1 and 2 is solved by an inverse scattering
8-7

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

method, assuming that the medium is modied in time-scale t0, where the dynamic
structural change is thermally stabilized. In critical states of a crystal in particular,
the transfer of excess energy during structural change occurs in this process, which is
alternatively observed as temporal variation of a soft mode or thermal relaxation.
For such a change, we can write
@ 1
4ik 3 1
@t0

@ 2
4ik 3 2 ;
@t 0

and

where the time t0 describes the process, and the complex wavevector k can be
modulated as k0 ik0 .
In section 7.3.2, we obtained the expression (7.21) for the function of u(x,t0 ) of
two-component waves, i.e.
ux; t 0 2 tan1

imaginary  iM
;
real  iM

where Mij

imLj 0 iki kj x
e
:
ki kj

Dening ik i(k0  ik0 ik00 ) (k00 k0 ) ik0  i, the 2 2


elements of  iM can be calculated as
realdet  iM  1

2 jm1 0j2 e4x


42 2 2

and
imaginarydet  iM 

e2x m1 0
f  ie2ix  ie2ix g;
22 2
0

m1 ; t 0 m1 ; 0eit ;
where
832  2

and

82  i2 :

Therefore, we obtain
ux; t 0 2



@
sin 2 t0 
tan1
;
@x
cosh 2x t 0
2

where and are angles dened by m1(k, 0) |m1(0)|ei and ei jm1 0j 2 ,


respectively. This can then be re-expressed as
4sech

cos  sin tanh


2

1 2 sin2 sech2

8:9a

where
2x t0  ;

2x t 0

8-8

and

tan1 :

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 8.2. An example of two breezer solitons nears t 0, where modulated peaks are superimposed with
virtually no interacion [2].

If the ratio / is sufciently small, (8.9a) is reduced to


ux; t 0  4 sech cos ;

8:9b

indicating amplitude modulated sech-curve; this is known as a breezer solution.


Figure 8.2 shows an example of a computer-simulated breezer. Clearly, it is a
localized potential, which was conrmed numerically as colliding elastically,
behaving like particles.
The modulated feature expressed by the amplitude of slow modulation
2 0
F 2e24i t sech , (8.9b) can further be written as
0

ux; t 0 Fei F * ei ;

where

0 2x 83 t0 :

8:9c

Substituting (8.9c) to the modied KortewegdeVries equation (8.7), taking t0 in


place of , we obtain approximately the expression
@F
@2F
2 @F

6i

12
 12ijFj2 F 0;
@t 0
@x
@x2
4
@ F
ignoring terms jFj2 @F
@x and @x3 that are proportional to . If transforming spacetime
2
0
as x~ x 12 t and 6t , this equation becomes
3

@F @ 2 F
2 2jFj2 F 0;
@
@~
x

8:10

which is called the third-order Schrdinger equation. Using the spacetime x~t0 ,
2 0

F~
x; t 0 2e4i t sech2~
x
is the t0 -dependent solution of the third-order Schrdinger equation.

8-9

8:11

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

8.5 The third-order Schrdinger equation


In section 3.3, the third-order Schrdinger equation (8.8) was obtained for small
amplitudes, but it can be derived with no restriction for a two-component system to
be associated with a complex u(x, t). Writing for the Fourier amplitude 1,2(x, k) as
@ 1
ik 1 u 2
@x

@ 2
 ik 2 u* 1 ;
@x

and

8:12

2
2
@
2@
where u*u Kx
v2 , which are identical to @t 2  v @x2 Kx; t for j 1;2 j , this
is the same equation given in section 3.3, known as the KleinGordon equation.
As for the time variation, following Ablowitz et al [4], we can express
0
1;2 x; t 0 1;2 x; keikvt as

@ 1
A 1 B 2
@t0
where we assume A

2
P
n0

@ 2
C 2  A 1 ;
@t0

and

An k n , B

2
P
n0

Bn k n and C

2
P
n0

8:13

Cn k n to determine

the coefcients with (8.12). Thus, we obtain that


B2 C2 0;

A2 a2 t 0 ;

B1 ia2 u;

A1 a1 t0 ;

C1 ia2 u*;

and
2iCo 2iu*  ia2 u2x ;

2iBo 2a1 u  ia2 ux ;

Ao a2 juj2 =2:

U
. sing these results, from (8.13) we can derive the expression


@u
@u a2 @ 2 u
2

 ia1
2juj u 0;
@t 0
@x 2 @x2
which is the third-order Schrdinger equation, if a1 0 and a1 2i. Also the linear
equations (8.12) can be written as
@ 1
ijuj2  2ik 2 1 iux 2ku 2
@t 0
and
@ 2
iu*x  2ku* 1  ijuj2  2k 2 2 :
@t0

8:14

2 0

We therefore have f 1 x; t 0 ; 2 x; t0 g f 0e2ik t f 1 x; k; 2 x; kg, which is


written as
2 0

1 x; t 0 ! f 0e2ik t c21 eikx c22 eikx


In this limit, 1 ! f 0c22 k; t 0 eikx2ik
where
c21 x; t 0 c21 x; 0

2 0

for

x ! N:
2 0

and 2 x; t0 ! f 0c21 k; t0 eikx2ik t ,


2 0

c22 x; t0 c22 x; 0e4ik t ;

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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

so that
2 0

mLi k; t 0 mLi k; 0e4ik t ;


and similarly
2 0

mRi k; t0 mRi k; 0e4ik t :


To obtain a soliton solution of the third-order Schrdinger equation, we can
apply the inverse scattering method for a reectionless complex potential. Assuming
there is one pole k1 i, where > 0, we have
M

mR1 k1 ; 0 2x4ii2 t0
e
;
2

and derive
ux; t 0
Letting

mR1 k1 ;0
2

2m*R1 k*
0
1 ; 0 2ik*
e 1 x4ik*1 t :
2
1 jM j

ei , this soliton solution can be expressed as


2

ux; t 0 2 sech2x 8t0  e2ix4i 

t 0 i

Realizing that equation (8.12) is a plausible assumption, it is noteworthy that there


is an analogous model for electromagnetic waves scattering from a resonator [5]. In
this case, the coupling is considered between them, which can be resistive or inductive,
depending on its designed mechanism; the former corresponds clearly to a real u(x, t0 ),
whereas an imaginary u(x, t0 ) represents an inductive coupling effectively.

Exercises
(1) We used Riccatis theorem to obtain a modied KortewegdeVries equation.
On the other hand, the Miura transformation converts a real potential to a
complex potential. These are not the same, but discuss the relation between
these transformations in relation to the complex function u.
(2) Discuss about the physical origin for a modulating mechanism for a Breezer
potential.

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

Wadati M and Toda M 1972 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 32 1403


Lamb Jr G L 1980 Elements of Soliton Theory (New York: Wiley)
Miura R M 1968 J. Math. Phys. 9 1202
Ablowitz M J, Kaup D J, Newell A C and Segur H 1973a Phys. Rev. Lett. 30 1262
Fujimoto M 2007 Physics of Classical Electromagnetism (New York: Springer) chapter 19

8-11

IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 9
The Bcklund transformation and
sine-Gordon equations

The KortewegdeVries equation describes nonlinear development in media in equilibrium with the surroundings, as it is associated with a steady-state Schrdingers
equation that is applied to a canonical ensemble in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Physically, transforming the time-scale can be interpreted for different developing
processes. In this chapter, we discuss the Bcklund transformation between different
spacetimes, leading to a sine-Gordon equation.

9.1 The KleinGordon equation


The wave equation considered with the surrounding medium is
2
@2
2@

v
K 2 x; ;
@2
@x2

which is called the KleinGordon equation in eld theory. Wave motion occurs as
driven by the potential term on the left, which is attributed to an external or internal
origin. However, it is not necessarily the one given in this equation, and it is logical
to transform the equation to another to see if there is a different development
process in a different type.
First, we write the KleinGordon equation in the form
@2
@2
 v2 2 m2 0;
2
@t
@x

9:1

where m is a coupling parameter to the medium. Transforming the spacetime (x, t)


xvt
! (, ) by xvt
2 and 2 , (9.1) can be converted to
@2
m2 ;
@@

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9:2

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

from which we have


@
m2
@

Z
d r

@
m2
@

and

Z
d s;

9:3

where r() and s() are arbitrary functions of and , respectively.


@
Writing P @
@ and Q @ , (9.3) can be modied as
Q

@P
m2
@

and

@Q
m2 ;
@

hence Q a2 P;

where a is an arbitrary constant. Inserting the last expression into the rst and
2 2
integrating, we obtain P2 m a22c, where the integration constant c can be set to
zero, for convenience. Then, we have
P

@
m

@
a

and

@
ma:
@

9:4

Integrating (9.4), we obtain


e m b AemKxt ;

9:5

1a
where A eb, a a, K 1a
2a and 2a . equation (9.5) expresses a one2
dimensional wave for a < 0, exhibiting dispersion 2 k2 m2, if mK ik and
m i.
2

9.2 The Bcklund transformation


The function satisfying (9.4) associated with the KleinGordon equation is
localized in Galilean spacetime moving in the medium. Hence, changing the
timescale signies interactions at resonance with the medium, which is not the same
as in the stationary noninteracting state. In the presence of pseudo-symmetry,
for instance, the medium is signied by a space-scale different from its absence.
Nevertheless, such solutions are linked together with a common Galilean invariance
for the steadily connected system. The Bcklund transformation dened in differential geometry can be applied for such a link as governed by a common phase
variable.
Considering for two independent solutions, (1) and (2), of the KleinGordon
equation, we assume that their linear combinations such as (1) (2) or (1) (2)
can satisfy the relations (9.4) in a common spacetime framework. Writing the source
term of the KleinGordon equation as F(), instead of m2, to generalize
the discussion, we dene the combining functions P and Q by
@ i

F d;

@ i

9-2

F i d

i 1; 2;

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

and
@ 1
@ 0

@
@
@ 1
@ 0

@
@

Z
Z

fF 1 F 0 gd P 1 ; 0 ;

9:6a

fF 1 F 0 gd Q 1 ; 0 ;

9:6b

where and are arbitrary constants. Differentiating the last two expressions with
respect to and , respectively, we obtain
@ 1 @P
@ 0 @P

F 1 F 0
@ @ 1
@ @ 0

9:7a

@ 1 @Q
@ 0 @Q

F 1 F 0 :
@ @ 1
@ @ 0

9:7b

and

From (9.6a,b) and (9.7a,b), we can derive


P

@Q
@P
@Q
@P
 Q 1  F 0 ;
P 0  Q 0  F 1 ;
1
@
@
@
@
@Q
@Q
@P
@P
and
1  0 0:
1  0 0
@
@
@
@

Writing as (1) (1) and (1) (0), we derive relations


P

@2Q
@2P

Q
0;
@2
@2

therefore
@2P
2 P 0
@2

and

@2Q
2 Q 0;
@2

9:8

where is arbitrary.
Assuming 0, however, these in (9.8) are identical to (9.4), so we have
P 1 ; 0 

and

Q 1 ; 0 ma

for

0: 9:9

Therefore, writing for 6 0 as



@ 1
@ 0
m  1
0


a
@
@

9:10a

@ 1
@ 0

 ma 1 0 ;
@
@

9:10b

and

we attempt to determine values of and for possible solutions in this case.


9-3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

We rst note that (9.10) cannot be integrated, unless . Further, any linear
combinations of (0) and (1) can be solutions, as characterized by a common space
time. Therefore, for 6 , we seek such a transformation as to combine these
solutions logically in the same spacetime.
Known as the Bcklund transformation, (9.10) can be extended mathematically to
a general case signied by more-than-one spacetime. Modifying (9.5) as
n

n
X
j1

Aj emj ;

9:10

where j aj aj represent different spacetimes indexed by j, which are


signied by
n

Aj

n n1

j Aj

where

aj  an
an 6 aj :
an  aj

9:11

Assuming (0) 0, which is an obvious solution of (9.1) in vacuum space, we can


determine the solution (1) Aeim as given by (9.5). In this case, (1) is obtained
regardless of constants , . However, taking (1) as a known solution, (2) is
obtained as identical to (1) if , indicating that (1) is the only solution. On the
other hand, if considering two spacetimes j 1,2, we can proceed as
1 A1 em1 ;

2 A2 em2 1 A1 em1 ;

and
3 3 A2 em2 3 2 A1 em1 ;

9:12

beyond which there are no other terms related to 3, : : : in this case. If otherwise, we
may proceed further on, including A(3).
The process of (9.12) can conveniently be expressed by using step operators Bn as
dened by
n Bn n1 Bn Bn1 : : : B1 0 :

9:13

Noting that these operations are not always exchangeable, e.g. B3B2 (1) 6
B2B3 (1), we can make these products exchangeable, because Bj depends on aj, and
the integration constant Aj is arbitrary. Therefore, by choosing suitable values, we
can write
2

B3 a3 ; A3 B2 a2 ; A2 ! B2 a2 ; A0 B3 a3 ; A0 ;
2

which becomes the equality B3B2 (1) B2B3 (1) by changing A0 2 3 A2 and
2
A0 3 A3= 1 . Graphically that process is sketched in gure 9.1, which is known as
Lambs diagram [1].
9-4

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

9.3 The sine-Gordon equation


In section 9.2, we dened operators P and Q for the Bcklund transformation,
and obtained equation (9.8). Using parameters and , (9.8) can be
re-expressed as
@2P
c2 P 0
@2

and

@2Q
c2 Q 0;
@2

where c is a constant. We therefore have the relation 2 c22 c22, indicating that
2 2; hence there are two cases, and . Clearly, the latter corresponds
to the case for 2 6 0, whereas the former represents the case for 2 0.
Equation (9.8) for 2 6 0 can be solved as
P p sin v

and

Q q sinu ;

where p, q, and are constants. Accordingly, we have


F 0

pq
sin2 0 
2

and

F 1

pq
sin2 1 :
2

Demanding 1 and 0 in the above, we have


F

pq
sin 2
2

Q q sin u

and

P q sin v;

@ 1 @ 0

p sin 1  0 ;
@
@
@ 1 @ 0

q sin 1 0 ;
@
@

9:14

which indicate that (0) and (1) satisfy the sine-Gordon equation
@2 @2
 2 sin ;
@t 2
@x

9:15

and the expressions (9.14) are the Bcklund transformation. As p, q, and are all
arbitrary constants, while holding the relation , we can choose 0, 1/2
and pq 4, we obtain F sin ; then setting q 2a and p 2/a specially, the
transformation can be expressed as
@ 1 @ 0 2
1  0

sin
a
@
@
2
@ 1 @ 0
1 0

2a sin
;
@
@
2
where the  signs corresponds to F sin .

9-5

and
9:16

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

9.4 Numerical analysis of the sine-Gordon equation


In this section, following Taniuti and Nishihara [2], we discuss a typical example of
the sine-Gordon equation, as solved numerically.
As an obvious solution of the sine-Gordon equation, we use (0) 0 for the
transformation (9.16), which is then moved to (1), which is determined by
@ 1 2
1
sin
a
@
2

@ 1
1
2a sin
:
@
2

and

Therefore,

1 b

4 tan e

where  a
a




1
1a2
a x
t :
a
1  a2

Here, we assume b 0 for simplicity, and consider a2 1u


1u with regard to
q
F sin (1). Accordingly, we have a  1u
1u for juj < 1, the solution to which
can be expressed by



x  ut
4 tan exp  p :
1  u2
1

This is actually the solution of the equation of pendulum motion,


d2 1
1

sin 1 ;
2
2
1

u
d
if (1) represents an angular displacement from the vertical direction.
Noting that (0) is another solution of the sine-Gordon equation, we can
0
transform it to (1 ) by writing
0

@ 1 2
1 
sin
a
2
@

and

@ 1
1
:
2a sin
2
@
0

00

If considering these for another transformation to (1 )  (1 ), we see that the 


sign in the last expression becomes , so that this case is considered as included in
the transformation (9.16).
Next, as remarked, reversible transformations are possible by adjusting the
parameters aj and Aj, so that we carry out the transformations,
1 B1 0 ;

2 B2 1

and

3 B2 B1 0 B1 B2 0 ;

as illustrated by gure 9.1. Assuming (9.6) for the type, the transformations in the
diagram can be written as
@ 1 0
1
1  0
sin
;
@
a1
2
2

@ 2 0
1
2  0
sin
@
a2
2
2

@ 3 1
1
3  1
sin
;
@
a2
2
2

@ 3 2
1
3  1
sin
:
@
a1
2
2
9-6

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 9.1. Lambs diagram.

From these relations, we can write that


tan

3  0
1  2
a1 a2
tan
; where
;
4
4
a1  a2

9:17

which can be used for calculating (3) from (0), (1) and (2). Setting (0) 0, for
(1) and (2), we write
1
1 p2 ;
1  u1

1  1 x  u1 t;

We then obtain (3) from (9.17)

1

4 tan

2  2 x  u2 t;

(
lnjj

signe

1
2 p2 :
1  u2

)
sinh 12 1  2
:
cosh 12 1 2

9:18

Assuming that a1 > a2 > 0 and u1 > u2 > 0 to simplify the argument, we have
<1 and
 1  2  x  u t;
where

1  2

and

p
1 u1 u2 1  u21 1  u22

:
u1 u2

While complex in form, the function (3) is localized in spacetime, behaving


soliton-like, and representing a soliton potential for the sine-Gordon equation.
Figure 9.2 shows the shape of (3) that was graphically analyzed by Taniuti and
Nishihara. Since u2 < u(+) < u1 < u() in the above case, we can discuss the behavior
of (3) in three regions: (i) x > u t, (ii) u t > x > u t and (iii) u()t > x.
In region (i), equation (9.18) can be approximated for sufciently large 1  2 as
1 1  2 =2
1 1 2 =2
2
2
and cosh 1
, hence
sinh 1 
2  2e
2  2e
3  4tan1 e2 lnjj 4 tan1 e 2 xu2 t2 ;

9-7

where

2 1
2 lnjj > 0:

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 9.2. Potentials 3 x; t and


formation. (After Ref. [2].)

@ 3 x;t
@x

and their phase shifts 1,2 calculated with a Bcklund trans-

Similarly in region (ii), we have


3  4 tan1 e 1 xu1 t 1 ;

where

1 1
1 lnjj;

and in region (iii),


3  4 tan1 e 2 xu2 t 2 :
These functions are all showing a at-top shape curve, as illustrated in the gure,
3

which includes curves of the derivatives dd that are also characteristic for the sineGordon equation.

9.5 Inverse scatterings and the Bcklund transformation


It is interesting to note that
d 3
 2 2 sechf 2 x  u2 t2 g
d 2

and

d 3
 2 1 sechf 1 x  u1 t  1 g;
d1

in regions (i) and3 (iii),


respectively, if these derivatives are3interpreted as derived
 0
in (i) and (iii). If so interpreted, dd should represent the
from the ratio 
parameter m in the KleinGordon equation, equivalent to the function u(); hence
the corresponding soliton potentials are given in all regions by
V 1;2 4 21;2 sech2 f 1;2 x  u1;2 t  1;2 g;
which is consistent with the results by inverse scatterings.
9-8

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

This result can theoretically be conrmed by the following argument. First,


realizing that the Bcklund transformation can be applied between any spacetimes,
we consider transitions between space and time, namely x and t, and write
3

@ 1
@
2
 2
2 sin 1
a
@t
@t
2
Dening the function tan
3

@ 1
@
2
 2 2a sin 1
:
@x
@x
2

and
3

1 0
4

to re-express the above, we obtain

@ sin 1
cos 1

1  2
0
@t
2a
a

and

@ @ 1

1 2 a 0:
@x
@x

These equations can become linear by 2 , resulting in


1

@1
1
3
3
1 cos 1 2 sin 1
2a
@t

and

@2
1
3
3
1 sin 1  2 cos 1 ;
2a
@t

and

@2 a
1 @ 1

:
@x 2 2 2 @x 1

@1 a
1 @ 1
 

2 @x 2
@x 2 1

The last two equations constitute linear equations of development, where


3

1 @ 1
2 @x

ux; t characterizes propagation of (1, 2) with the KleinGordon equation, giving rise to the soliton potential u(x, t)2 as derived by Marchenkos formula.

9.6 Scatterings by a pseudopotential


In section 4.2, we discussed the pseudopotential in crystals, characterized by a
periodicity signied by an integral number m of the lattice constant. We found that
waves m can be trapped within a potential Vm(), if satisfying equation
(4.19a), i.e.
d2
 sin 0;
dx2

where

2m m1
o
;
mv2o

4:19a

which is the sine-Gordon equation. In the classical example of a pendulum, the


gravitational eld for a pendulum exerts a force F mgl(1  cos ) on the mass m,
hence the corresponding potential energy is V mglsin , so that the equation of
motion is similar to (4.19a).
We notice that equation (4.19a) is an obvious consequence of the pseudopotential
L
Vm p given by (4.21) that scatters the waves (x, t). Writing the pseudopotential as
VmL p Vo sin , the wave equation for the soliton potential V can be expressed by
2
@2V
2@ V

v
Vo sin ;
@t 2
@x2

9:20

which is the time-dependent sine-Gordon equation. While (9.20) is the equation for
scatterings of V by the pseudopotential Vo sin , there is a similar problem in
9-9

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

microwave electronics of electromagnetic reection/transmission to deal with cavity


resonance, as briey discussed in section 2.2; these are all attributed to the sineGordon equation. It is interesting to realize that the cavity resonance condition in
the latter application can be determined as consistent with the Bcklund transformation in the former.

References
[1] Lamb Jr G L 1980 Elements of Soliton Theory (New York: Wiley)
[2] Taniuti T and Nishihara K 1998 Nonlinear Waves (Applied Mathematics Series) (Tokyo:
Iwanami)

9-10

IOP Concise Physics

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves


Minoru Fujimoto

Chapter 10
Miscellaneous applications

Representative nonlinear waves studied with soliton theory are discussed in this
chapter. Primarily approximate, the soliton theory can explain the essential features of nonlinearity with reasonable accuracy. Normally it is a tedious task, but if
the development equation is obtained, it is straightforward to solve the problem in
the basic approach of nonlinear physics. Selected topics in this chapter are all
typical in uid mechanics, high-intensity coherent irradiation and lattice
dynamics, while no extensive discussions are attempted to cover the whole area of
investigation.

10.1 Surface waves


10.1.1 The rst approximation
Among hydrodynamic phenomena, surface waves on water in an area restricted by
rigid boundaries were studied in early physics, leading to current soliton theory.
Such waves were analyzed for water in a container, exhibiting visible features of
nonlinearity. In this case, the boundary conditions are not only essential, but also
important to simplify mathematics.
Figure 10.1 illustrates a water surface in a long channel, where we can study twodimensional waves on the surface in the xz-plane, considering the y direction as
insignicant. The motion of the water surface can be described by velocity v with
components u(x,z,t) and v(x,z,t) along the x and z axes, respectively.
Assuming vortex-free conditions, we have the relation U v 0 from the continuity relation in calm water, where the vector v is signied by the velocity potential
, i.e. v . Then, for the Laplace equation 0, we have the boundary
condition (x,0) 0 at any point (x,0) on the bottom surface z 0.
The water surface is displaced as z z1 h (x,t) on the wave, whereas the
calm surface with no wave is signied by z z1 with the sufx 1. In these notations,
@ dx1
the derivative, dzdt1 @
@t @x dt , describes a vertical movement of the surface.

doi:10.1088/978-1-627-05276-4ch10

10-1

Morgan & Claypool Publishers 2014

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 10.1. A model for surface waves in a canal in the x direction. The shallow depth in the z direction is
essential for nonlinear waves, for which the y direction is considered as insignicant.

@1
dz1
1
Since u1 dxdt1 @
@x and v1 dt @z in this case, the boundary conditions can be
expressed by

v1

@ @
u1
@t @x

and

@1 @ @ @1

:
@t @x @
@z

10:1

In addition, the velocity vector v should satisfy the momentum law of conservation, that is
@v
p
v U v 
 ge;
@t
o

10:2a

where e is the unit vector along the gravity, o is the density of water assumed as
constant, and the last term on the right represents the gravity. Using the condition
for no vortex, i.e. v 0, (10.2a) can be integrated as
@ 1
p
2 gz 0:
@t 2
o

10:2b

To evaluate this expression on the surface, we assume p1 0, and differentiating


(10.2b) with respect to x, we obtain another condition on the surface
@u1
@u1
@v1
@
0:
u1
v1
g
@x
@t
@x
@x

10:3

We then solve the Laplace equation 2 0 as determined by those surface


conditions (10.1) and (10.3) for small values of . Expanding asymptotically with
respect to 2, we can write
1 @ 2 o
1 4 @ 4 o

o  2

   :
2 @x2
24 @x4
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Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

o
Dening f x; t @
@x for convenience, we can express the velocity components on
the surface as

u1

@1
1 @2f
f  2 2   ;
2 @x
@x

10:4

@
@f 1 @ 3 f
v1 1  3 3   :
@x 6 @x
@x

The surface conditions (10.2) and (10.3) can then be linearized by dropping secondorder terms in (10.4); as expressed by
v1

@
@t

@u1
@
g ;
@x
@t

and

the truncated expansions of (10.4) can be applied to obtain the nonlinear effect.
Considering only -unrelated rst terms in the expansions, however, we have
@
h @f
@x  @t and

@f
@t

@
@
g @
@x, which are equivalent to @t 2  gh @x2 0, so that we have
Z
@
dt g eikxt
u1 x; t g
and
v1 i;
@x

specifying sinusoidal waves with no dispersion, i.e. k.


On the other hand, in accuracy of 2, we have surface conditions
h

@f h3 @ 3 f
@

@x 6 @x3 @t

@f h2 @ 3 f
@

0;
g
2
@t
@x
@x
2
@t

and

hence
2
@2f
c2o h2 @ 4 f h2 @ 4 f
2@ f
0;

c


o
@t 2
@x2
6 @x4 2 @x3 @t

where

c2o gh:

Using f eikxt in the above, we can derive the dispersion relation


 co k1  16 h2 k 2 , similar to nonlinear sound waves in air. In this case,
f eikxco t e

ico h2 k 3
6

10:5
h2 k 2

where the second exponential factor can be written as eikco , where 6 , providing
a timescale of energy dissipation.
As shown in gure 10.1, dening the effective width of a wave by l, we can
introduce dimensionless variables, indicated by 0 , as x lx0 , t clo t 0 and a0 .
Further, we can write that f co f 0 and z1 h1 , where and are small
factors to carry out the following calculation. In these notations, the dimensionless
velocity components are expressed by
1 @2f 0
u10 f 0  2 0 2
2 @x

and

v10 1 0

10-3

@f 0 1 2 @ 3 f 0

:
@x0 6 @x0 3

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

The surface conditions (10.1) and (10.3) are given by


0
0
@0 @f 0
1 2 @3f 0
0 @f
0 @

f

0
@t 0 @x0
@x0
@x0 6 @x0 3

and
0
@f 0 @ 0
1 2 @3f 0
0 @f

f

0:
@t 0 @x0
@x0 2 @x0 2 @t0

10:6

We then write f 0 0 0 f 1 2 f 2 to determine the accuracy to the rst


order with respect to and 2. Using this in (10.6), we notice that
@f 1
@f 1 @f 2
@f 2


;


@t0
@x0
@t 0
@x0



0
@f 1
@f 2 2 @ 3 0
0 @
2
0;
and 2 0 0 2 0 
3 @x0 3
@x
@x
@x

and 2 2 in the last relation


are independent and arbitrary, so that we obtain
3 0
0
f 1  4 and f 2 13 @@x0 3 . Accordingly, the rst equation of (10.13) can be written as
@ 0
@0
@0 3 0 @0 1 2 @ 3 0

0
0:

@ co @t 0 @x0 2
@x 6 @x0 3
Here, by transforming x0  co t0 ! ,

@ 0
co @t 0

0
@
@x0 0, while x in the last two terms of
2

the left side can be replaced by . Hence, by redening 0 6 , the above equation
0

3 0

@
0 @
expresses the KortewegdeVries equation @
@0 6 @ @3 0. The previous derivation was tedious, but those rescalings of variables were carried out to maintain
Galileian invariance. Expressing this soliton solution for regular variables in
dimension, we obtain
s


3
x

Vt
c
h
4h3
ho
o
2
; where o 2 ; L
;
o sech
and V co 1
L
3l
3o
2h

hence
@
@ 3co @ co h2 @ 3
co

0:
@t
@x 2h @x
6 @x3

10:7

The surface wave can be described by the steady solution of (10.7), which was
experimentally conrmed by Hammack and Segur [1], whose results were compared
with calculation performed by Tappert and Zabusky [2].
10.1.2 The second approximation
In the previous theory of surface waves, we showed how the KoretewegdeVries
equation can be obtained from hydromechanical principles. It was performed by

10-4

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

truncating (10.4) to linearize equations (10.2) and (10.3), which was however only
the rst approximation. On the other hand, it is signicant that the soliton waves are
modulated in higher approximation, leading to the third-order Schrdinger equation
that implies the presence of an additional modulating mechanism for nonlinearity.
Here, following Shimizu and Ichikawa [3], we discuss the next approximation.
We basically consider that the modulated variable (x,t) is expressed by Fouriers
series
X
x; t
n n;p x; teipkxt ;
10:8
n;p

where the parameter is sufciently smaller than 1, and p indexing Fouriers


components. We assume that n;p is determined by the phase variable (x  Vt)
and the modulation parameter 2t, and write n;p x; t n;p ; . Hence, we
have n;p n;p ; eipkxt . In this case, for the KortewegdeVries equation, the
spacetime derivatives are modied as
@
@
@
!

@x
@x
@

@
@
@
@
!  V
2 ;
@t
@t
@
@

and

thereby separating differentiations for (x,t) and (,) to phase and amplitude,
respectively.
Substituting (10.8) into the KortewegdeVries equation (10.7) gives the following,
which is then separated in terms of n for n 1, 2, 3 as
@1
@
@3
co 1 3 0;
@x
@t
@x
@2
@
@3
@
@
@3
co 2 32 co  V 1 1 1 3 2 1 0;
@t
@x
@x
@
@x
@ x@
(
)
@3
@3
@3
@2
@ 32
@ 1 2
@1
1
co
3 co  V
3 2
@x
@x
@t
@x
@
@x @
@x

@1
@3
0;
3
@
@x@ 2
2

co h
o
where 3c
2h and 6 .
From the term of , we have

 ip  co k p2 k 3 1;p 0;
providing nothing if p 0, but co k  k 3 , which is the same dispersion relation
as in the rst approximation 1;p 0 for |p| > 1.
From the terms of 2, we obtain
 ip2;p  co k k 3 p

X
@1;p
co  V  3k 2 p2 ik
q1;pq 1;q 0;
@
q

10-5

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

where V  co

@ 1;0
@

0 for p 0, hence 1;0 is independent of , if V 6 co. There@

fore, setting 1;0 0, @1;1 V  co 3k 2 0 for p 1, hence V co  3k2, the


same as (i).
In the accuracy of 3, we have
@ 2;p
@
V co  3k 2 p2
@
@
(
)
X
X
@1;q
@ 2 1;p
3ikp
1;pq 2;q
1;pq
0;
ikp
@
@2
q
q

ip3Up  co k  k 3 p2

which is reduced for p 0 as


@
fco  V 2;0 j1;1 j2 g 0:
@
Integrating this, we have
co  V f 2;0 ;  N; g fj1;1 j2  Fg 0:
Assuming F j1;1 N; j2 and 2;0 N; 0, and using the relation
V co  3k 2 , we obtain 2;0  k 23h3 j 1;1 j2  F. For p 1, we can derive
@1;1
@ 2 1;1
ik1;1 2;0 1;1 2;2 3ik
0;
@
@2
which is re-expressed as
@ 1;1 9ico
@2
2

j
j

2F

3ik
0:
1;1
1;1
@
4kh3
@2
For a steady state characterized by F 0, this equation is the third-order
Schrdinger equation. Expecting a solution of the type 1;1 AeiK , we have
2

o jAj
F |A|2, and its dispersion relation is given by 3kK 2 9c4kh
2 , expressing
amplitude modulation.

10.2 Vortex motion in fluid media


In uid mechanics, the laminar and vortex motions of uid are independent in the
rst approximation, as characterized by v 0 and v 6 0, respectively.
However, they interact in higher-order approximation, as vortex motion depends on
the geometry of boundary walls. Such motion is not predictable in practice, but in
principle is caused by surrounding uid that reacts against vortexes, hence can be
described in terms of soliton potentials.

10-6

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 10.2. A closed lament of vortex. r and r0 indicate a point of observation and an arbitrary point on the
ring, respectively; t, n and b are unit vectors in tangential, normal and binormal directions.

10.2.1 A vortex
A vortex in a uid can be expressed by the vorticity vector v. Considering
incompressible uid, we have the relation  v 0, which allows us to dene a
vector potential A by v A. In this case, if we can assume  A 0, can be
expressed by A from the relation
A 2 A:

10:9

In gure 10.2, a vortex ring is illustrated, where we intend to calculate A(r) at an


arbitrary point r determined by (r0 ) at a point r0 on the ring. Similar to the BiotSavart law in electromagnetic theory [4], the solution of (10.9) is given as
Z
1
r0
d3 r0
;
10:10
A
4
jr  r0 j
hence
A 

1
4

d3 r0

r  r0 r0
jr  r0 j3

10:11

Proved as below, the vector potential A of (10.10) satises  A 0, hence (10.10) is


the solution of equation (10.9). It is straightforward to prove that
Z
Z
1
1
1
r0
3 0
3 0
0
0 U


r U Ar
d r r r
d
r

r
4 Ring
jr  r0 j
4 Ring
jr  r0 j
Z
1
r0

0;
dS 0 U
4 Ring
jr  r0 j
where the last integral vanishes over the nite surface area of the ring, which is the
Gauss theorem.
Considering the vortex ring has a cross-sectional area dS0 and differential length
ds along the lament, the volume element is d3r0 dS0 ds. Hence, the vector A
of (10.19) can be expressed as
ZZ
Z
Z
1
r  r0 r0
1
r  r0 ds
0
0
A 
dS U ds
:


dS
jj
:
4 Ring
4 S 0
jr  r0 j3
jr  r0 j3
s

10-7

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Corresponding to the magnetic induction eld B, A of the ring can be specied


by an electric current on the lament. In this case, A represents geometrically
the rings orientation in space, which is therefore expressed by the vector dened by
u A. The above formula for u can be modied a little more specically.
As indicated in gure 10.2, with respect to unit vectors t and n along tangential
and normal directions of the ring, a point r0 can be expressed as r0 R sin t R
1  cos n, where R is the radius of curvature as related to s R. For a small
angle , we have r0 st 12 s2 n, so that dr0 t snds, where 1=R is the
curvature. Considering a close vicinity of the ring, we have
1
r  r0 ds  s2 dsb;
2
where b is the unit vector along the binormal, as shown in the gure. Therefore, in
this approximation, the vector u can be expressed by
Z L

s2 ds
u  b
;
3=2
4
0 r 2 s2

Z
where

S0

jjdS 0 :

10:12

We note that this integral diverges at r 0, also logarithmically diverging with


increasing L. Limiting the integral to the converging region, we can consider the
vector u given by (10.20) to discuss vortex motion in the next section.
10.2.2 Vortex motion
To deal with vortex motion that is clearly not random as normally observed, we set a
coordinate vector X(s,) along the curved lament of a vortex, where is the uctuating time, whose scale is determined by the surrounding uid.
with b, for (10.12) the time is determined specically
Assuming u @X
@ in parallel
R
L
s2 ds
as proportional to  4 0 2 2 3=2 , corresponding to a specic situation in the surr s

roundings. In addition, with so-dened vector X, we have the relation @X


@s t, that
can specify the tangential unit vector along the lament.
It is noted from gure 10.2 that for a set of t, n and b, where n b t, there are
relations known as SerretFresnel equations, namely
@t
n;
@s

@n
b  t
@s

@b
n;
@s

and

10:13

indicating that the ring can be modied for values of and to vary with the
length s. Hashimoto [5] considered that such a modication can be described by
the function
s; s; e

10-8

Rs
0

ds0 s0 ;

10:14

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

which was shown to satisfy the relation


@ @ 2 1
2 fjj2 Ag 0:
10:15
@
@s
2
R 0 0
i
d A
This can be transformed by u 12 e 2 0
to a third-order Schrdinger equation
for u(s,). Following Lambs book [6], the proof is given in the following.
Considering the n-b plane as a complex plane, the second and third relation in
(10.13) can be written as
i

@n ib
in ib t:
@s
Rs 0
Rs 0
i
ds
i
ds
Dening N n ibe 0
and e 0
to deal with the structural uctuation, we obtain
@N
t;
@s

and derive from the rst equation of (10.13)


@t 1
*N N*:
@s 2

ii

By denition, we have
(
)
@t
@ @X
@ @X @b @
@

b  n Re
b in ib in ;
@ @ @s
@s @
@s
@s
@s
(
!
)
!
!
@
@
i @
@*
i n  ib Re i
N*
N* 
N ;
Re i
@s
@s
2 @s
@s
hence


@t i @
@*

N* 
N :
@ 2 @s
@s

iii

On the other hand, the time-derivative of N should be expressed as a linear


combination of N, N* and t, so that
@N
N N* t;
@

iv

where , and are coefcients to be determined with respect to the orthogonal set
(t,b,n). Since N U t N U N const: of is considered for the orthogonal frame, we
have N  N* 2 by denition, and relations
2 N U

@N 1 @N U N

0;
@
2
@

10-9

and

2 N* U

@N
;
@

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

and hence 2 * @N@U N*. Therefore, is purely imaginary, hence written as


iR; in addition (s) can be a function of s. The coefcient can be deter@t
mined by N  t 0, hence t U @N
@ @ U N 0; using (iii) and (iv)


@N
@t
i
@
@*
@
N U
 NU
N* 
N i
:
tU
@
@
2
@s
@s
@s
The relation (iii) can accordingly be expressed by
@N
@
iRN  i
t;
@
@s

which can be combined with the relation (i), @N


@s t, dened at the beginning.
Therefore,




@2N
@R i @
i @
@2
N i

* 
N*  it R 2
@s@
@s 2 @s
2 @s
@s
and
@2N
i @*
i @
@

N
N* 
t;
@@s 2 @s
2 @s
@
which should be equal to each other. Here, we have


@R 1
@
@*

;
@s 2
@s
@s
which can be integrated as R 12 fjj2 Ag, where A() is a constant. Therefore,
we can derive the equation
@
@2
 i 2  iR 0
@
@s

or

@ @ 2 1
2 fjj2 Ag 0;
@
@s
2

vi

which can
transformed to the third-order Schrdinger equation by
R be
2i
d0 A0
1
. Nevertheless, it is noted that for 6 0, equation (vi) has a
u 2 e 0
Galilean-steady solution expressed by
s; 4 sechf2s 4g;
where 2 and A() 8(22), indicating that a vortex is spirally modulated
along the direction of u.
On the other hand, if the framework (t,b,n) can be directionally rigid in space, the
motion can be described in terms of an angular momentum dened as
1 t 2 b 3 n;
so that

@t
@

t,

@b
@

b and

@n
@

n.

10-10

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

In this case, for all of these unit vectors, the derivatives with respect to s and are
@2
@2
reversible, i.e. @s@
@@s
, so the equations for and can be written for another
spacetime (s, t) as
@ @2

3 ;
@t
@s

@ @1

3
@t
@s

and

@3
2  1 :
@s

Assuming 1 0, for example, the rst and third equations can be integrated as
2 cos , 3 sin and @
@s , while from the second one we obtain
@2
 sin ;
@@s
which is a sine-Gordon equation.
Noted that two assumptions for (t,b,n) in the foregoing have led to different
developing equations, these different results must be attributed to different elastic
responses from the surroundings, indicating different types of vortex motion.

10.3 Plasma oscillation


In two-component plasma of electrons and ions, sound waves are observed from the
varying ionic density. In this section, this nonlinear phenomenon is discussed as a
typical example of nonlinear waves. Owing to the mass difference, ions and electrons
are considered as characterized by high and low frequencies in the dynamical system, arising from interactions in the gaseous state, where ionic waves propagate
through the ionized gas. We assume that such a plasma can be in a thermodynamic
state of the medium.
Denoting average number densities by ne and n, and charges by e and Ze on
electrons and ions, respectively, we write the conservation equation
@n
U nv 0;
@t

10:16

where v is the average velocity of ions. Momentum conservation laws should then be
applied to ions and electrons, i.e.
nmi

dv
ZenE  pi
dt

and

ne m

dve
ene E  p;
dt

10:17

where pi and p are partial pressures, respectively. Here, we may dene the ionic
temperature Ti by the hypothetical equation of ionic state pi ni kB Ti . Assuming
that Ti < T, we can consider that pi 0 at Ti 0.
The electric eld E in (10.17) represents locally disrupted charge neutrality in
average, which should satisfy a Poissons relation
U E 4eZn  ne :

10:18

However, the corresponding current, j eZnv  ne ve is assumed as insignicant


and hence ignored, if these speeds as sufciently slow; accordingly, we can consider
10-11

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

that j 0. Combining (10.17) and (10.18), we have E   n1e e pe after ignoring the
small term
x0 x=L;

mnZ 2
m
mi ne , (mi

 103 ), so that we can dene dimensionless quantities,

t 0 o t;

jEj

k B Te
E;
eL

n
no

and

ne

ne
;
Zno

where
s
k B Te
L
4e2 no

s
4no Ze2
;
o
mi

and

for approximate propagation along the x direction. Accordingly, we can write


@n
@
0 nv 0;
0
@t @x
1 @ne
0
and
E
ne @x0

@v
@v
v 0 E;
0
@t
@x
@E
n  ne :
@x0

10:19a
10:19b

In the limit of n ! ne, from the second and third relations we have
@v
@v 1 @n
v 0
0;
0
@t
@x n @x0

10:20

hence equations (10.19a) can be linearized, if we assume v is constant of x. In this


case, we can express that
0 0

0 0

n ne neik x  t

and

0 0

0 0

v vik x  t ;

which can be signied by 0 k0 , if characterized by a phase velocity 0 /k0 1, and


so n ne. On the other hand, if n 6 ne, we consider other Fourier modes, participating to n and v, which can therefore be expressed as
X
X
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
n ne
nk 0 eik x  t
and
v
vk 0 eik x  t :
k0

k0

In this case, from (10.19a,b) we can obtain the dispersion relation


 0 2

1 3
2
2
v
1  0
or
k 0  0  0
for
2
k0

0 {1:

Therefore, dening new variables 0 x0  t 0 and 0 3 x0 , (10.19a,b) can be


expressed as follows:
!
@n @
@
@v
@v
@v
2
0
0 v
0
E;
 nv 0 nv 0;
@ @
@
@
@
@
!
10:21
@n
@n
@E
@E
3
3
e
e
0
n  ne :
0
ne E
0
and
0
@
@
@
@

10-12

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Next, we apply asymptotic expansions


0

4 4
ne 1 02 n1
e e ne   ;
v 02 v2 04 v4   
and

n 1 02 n1 04 n4   ;
E 03 E 1 05 E 2   

to (10.6) to compare terms of the same order.


From the lowest order terms of 0 2, we derive that


@ne 1
E 1
@

@n1 @v1
@v1

0; 
E 1 ;
@
@
@
1

from which we obtain ni




and

n1  n1
e 0;

ne vi . And from the next order we have

@n2 @ 2
@v2
fv v1 n1 g
0;
@
@
@
1

@n2 @ne
1

n1
 E 2
e E
@
@

and

@v2
@v1
v1
E 1 ;
@
@

@E 1
n2  n2
e :
@

Eliminating second-order quantities n(2), v(2) and E(2) from these relations, we arrive
at the KortewegdeVries equation,
@v1
@v1 1 @ 3 v1
v1

0:
2 @3
@
@

10:22

As v(2) n(1) in this order, we can bring quantities in dimensions back to the steady
solution of (10.22), which is thereby expressed as
ni  no 02 no n1 n sech2
where



o L
n
V
 o L 1
n
3no
1  3n
o

and

x  Vt
;
D

10:23

 2


L
n
n 2
n

1

:
D
6no
3no
6no

These results indicate that the width of the soliton (10.23) decreases, whereas the
phase velocity V increases with increasing n, respectively; these are the basic
properties of soliton propagation. Experimentally, the result (10.8) and its soliton
behavior, as shown in gure 3.1, are also reported in the literature [7].

10.4 Laser light transmission through absorbing media


10.4.1 Two-level atom in an intense radiation eld
Intense coherent light propagation through a medium of absorbing species constitutes a basic problem in modern physics, because of the explicit response of the
latter in the soliton spectra. We consider a gaseous medium of species characterized
by two energy levels Ea and Eb, where Ea > Eb for simplicity, and where the frequency of coherent light is given by D Ea  Eb .
10-13

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Writing the wavefunction of the electron as


r; t at a r bt b r;
where
Z
Z
j a rj2 d3 r j b rj2 d3 r 1

Z
and

*r;tr;td3 r jatj2 jbtj2 1;

the number n of excited species can be dened as


Z
n no ja a j2  jb b j2 d3 r no jatj2  jbtj2 :
In this case, the time-dependent Schrdinger equation is
@
;
10:24
@t
where H o is the Hamiltonian of a free species and H 1 ~
p U E represents perturbing
energy due to an oscillating electric eld of light acting on the induced dipole
operator p~ er. Accordingly,
Z
Z
Z
3
T
p T~
pdr po a*b b*a; where po e a jrj b d r e bT jrj a d3 r;
H o H 1 i

represents the dipole moment of a constituent atom.


R In the3event of a large perturbation H 1 p U E, using the orthogonality relation
aT b d r ab , it is more appropriate than the conventional method to write
(10.24) as
da
db
ia a iVb
ib b iVa;
and
10:25
dt
dt
where a Ea , b Eb and V po Ex; t=.
Assuming that the atom is moving at a speed v along x direction, we can use the
Galilean coordinate xG x  vt. The electric eld of light at the atom at x and t, is
expressed as
Ex; t cos fkxG vt  t x; tg;

10:26

indicating that the Doppler shift kv is signicant in the rapidly changing


phase, while (x,t) is arbitrary. We assume, however, that and vary slowly in
@
time compared with the carrier waves, namely @
@x {k and @t {.
The functions a(t) and b(t) are modulated by E(x,t) as
xG

at iV1 eia t c 2t
i

and

xG

bt V2 eib t c 2t :
i

Ignoring radiation eld at higher frequencies 2 and over, the functions V1(t) and
V2(t) obey the equations
@V1 i
po i
@V2 i
po i
e V2
e V1 ;
V1
 V2 
and
2
2
2
2
@t
@t
which are similar to those used for developing two-component systems.

10-14

10:27a

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

The above normalization relations for a(t) and b(t) can be re-expressed in terms of
V1(t) and V2(t) as
jV1 j2 jV2 j2 1

and

n
jV1 j2  jV2 j2 ;
no

10:27b

and the atomic polarization with the Doppler shift is given by


n
o
xG
p po iV *1 V2 eit c it c:c: ;
which can be written as
p po iC cos S sin ;

where

kx  t

a, nd
Cx; t; V1 V *2 ei  V *1 V2 ei

and

Sx; t; V1 V *2 ei V *1 V2 ei :

10:27c

Here, poC and poS are polarizations induced along the direction of E and in perpendicular direction, respectively, both lasting nearly the same duration as (x,t).
10.4.2 Scattering of intense radiation
In practice, due to distributed atomic velocities, distributed Doppler shifts are
unavoidable, which are usually in Gaussian shape. Accordingly, the polarization per
unit volume can be written in one dimension as
Z N
Px; t no
px; t; gd no hpx; t; i;
N

where the function g() determines the distribution. Neglecting slow time-variation, Maxwells equation can be used to determine, which is written as
Z N
@2P
2
2
 o P no o po
dgiC cos S sin :
@t 2
N
As P  4E in this approximation, we can differentiate (10.26) or this expression,
@
ignoring the second derivative of , and @
@t @t , to obtain
@
@
c 2no o po hSx; t; i
@t
@x


@
@
c
2no po hCx; t; i;

@t
@x

and

or in complex form as


@
@
c
ei 2no o po hS iCiei
@t
@x

10-15

10:28a

10:28b

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

In addition, by differentiating (10.27a,b), we can derive the following formula






@S po
@
@~
n
po
@C
@

n~
C; 
S and

S;
10:28c
@t

@t
@t

@t
@t
which are often called the Bloch equation [8].
to note that in the second equation of (10.28a), we have
 It is interesting


@
@t

c @
@x 0, because C(x,t;) is odd with respect to , if g() is an even

function, signifying propagation with invariant phase. That is exactly the requirement for a canonical system, as considered in chapter 3, which should be a limit for
no movement of constituent atoms in a given gaseous medium. Although unacceptable for a gaseous state, it is an otherwise acceptable model for paramagnetic
solid states.
10.4.3 Sine-Gordon limit
It is noted that from the previous argument that we can eliminate translational
motion of atoms by assuming g() (), Diracs -function. For an invariant
phase, the rst expression in (10.27a) can be written as
@~

@~

c 2 Sx; t; 0;
@t
@x

where

po

and

2no o p2o
;

10:29

and (10.28c) are simplied as


@S
~n~
@t

and

@~
n
~
S;
@t

10:30

by which n~ and S can be calculated with 0.


Integrating (10.30) in this case, n~2 S 2 1, from which we can express that
S sin ; n~ cos

and

@
;
@t

10:31

which is referred to as the sine-Gordon limit. In this limit given by 0, as


Rt
inferred from x; t N dt0~x; t 0 we have (x,N) 0, hence n~x; N 1,
signifying that na c nb and nb c na, respectively; the medium acts as if it is an
amplier and attenuator.
We further notice that the rst relation in (10.29) can be written as
 thexsinex
Gordon equation, if the coordinate transformations, c and t  c , are


@
@
@
@
and @x
c @
 @
performed. Using @t@ @
, we obtain
@2
sin :
@@

10-16

10:32

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

As already derived in section 9.4, the steady solution of (10.32) is given by

4 tan1 eaa with a constant a; hence we can obtain the relation






po
@
2
t  x=v
1 1
1

sech

1 2 :
~
;
where
10:33

@ p
p
v c
a
Basically, ~ expressed in (10.33) represents the response of radiation eld, which
can be shown as related with the soliton potential in this case, although it is a matter
of interpretation. Considering that (10.27a) are the developing equations for nonlinearity, dening y V1 iV2 and iz V1  iV2, Equations (10.27a) can be
written as
@y 1
iuy z
@ 2

and

@z 1
 iuz y;
@ 2

where u ~ and
2 , from which we can derive the equations
@2y
2  V y 0
@2

and

@2z
2  V *z 0;
@2

where


1 2
@u
u 2i
V 
4
@
is a complex potential. In this sense, the real soliton potential is given by


~2
4
2 t  x=v
2
u 2 2 2 sech
:
p

10.5 Periodic lattices


10.5.1 Todas lattice
Among theories of lattice dynamics, there is a model known as the Toda lattice for
mathematical analysis of anharmonic crystal lattice [9]. In this model, the interatomic potential is considered as given in a exponential form shown in gure 10.3(a),
namely
a
r ebr ar;
b

where

ab > 0:

10:34

Here, r is an interatomic relative displacement from equilibrium positions in a


one-dimensional lattice, as illustrated in gure 10.3(b). If a and b are both positive,
the rst and second terms on the right of (10.34) represent repulsive and attractive
potentials, respectively. Otherwise, negative
a and
attractive and

 babprovide
ab 2
b 3
2
repulsive potentials. Since r 2 r  3 r     2 r , the potential r
becomes harmonic for small r.
10-17

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 10.3. Todas lattice. (a) inter-atomic potential. (b) one-dimensional lattice.

Considering a one-dimensional lattice in innite length, for the relative displacement rn between n-th and (n  1)-th atoms, we have the expression
d2 rn
a2ebrn  ebrn1  ebrn1 ;
dt 2

10:35

Dening effective displacement variables sn, corresponding to the interatomic force


n
Fn  1a d
drn , we have
Fn ebrn  1

1 d2 sn
;
a dt 2

10:36

so that (10.35) can be re-expressed as




1 d2 sn
ln 1
bsn1  2sn sn1 :
a dt2

10:37

Introducing a new variable n by sn 1b ln n , (10.36) and (10.37) can be written as


(

)
1
d2 n
dn 2

1
n 
n1 2 n1
2
2
abn dt
dt
n
and
1
Fn
ab2n

(

)
d2 n
dn 2

:
dt 2 n
dt

10-18

10:38

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

Figure 10.4. Pseudopotential and matching waves.

We can conrm that these are satised by the following expressions


n 1 Aen t

and

A 4 sinh 2 ;
2

where

ab:

Substituting into (10.38), we obtain


Fn

2
n  t
;
sech2
2
4

where

ln a:

We interpret that such Fn is responsible for distorted lattice as described by Todas


potential (10.34).
10.5.2 Aperiodic transitions by pseudopotentials
In section 4.2, we discussed the pseudopotential thermodynamically, which can be
treated as scatterings of lattice waves from the pseudoperiodic potential. However,
in the presence of pseudopotentials, the atomic arrangement may become aperiodic,
which is called a negative transition in reference [6].
Figure 10.4 shows a one-dimensional periodic potential with unit translational
distance a, on which we consider a chain of mass particles that are connected by
spring forces between adjacent pairs. Basically each particle is at the bottom of the
periodic potential in equilibrium, but depending on strengths of the spring force and
the potential depth, we may have a different equilibrium that can be interpreted as
phase matching. Here, potential minimum positions in equilibrium are denoted by
xn , hence xn1  xn a; we write the particles displacement from xn as Xn, and
dene xn Xn  xn . We assume that an external potential


X
X
2Xn
2xn
Vo
Vg Vo
1 sin
1 cos
a
a
n
n

10-19

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

is responsible for mass displacements, and the spring energy is given by the potential
X
X
2
2
Vs
Xn1  Xn
xn1  xn  a b ;
2 n
2 n
where is the spring constant. Converting variables as n xan , and abbreviating
ba
2
a2
a c and lo 2Vo , for the total potential energy V Vg Vs we have
X
X
2
V 2Vo lo2
n1  n  c Vo
1  cos 2n :
10:39
n

According to this potential, the equilibrium conguration of n can be determined


@V
from @
0, that is
n
 2lo2 Vo n1  2n n1 Vo sin 2n 0

10:40

is the relation to calculate equilibrium positions of particles. For example, if o 0


14 1
1
1
and 1 lo , we obtain 2 12 and l12 sin
2 1 where 1 < 4. Further, assuming 1 8,
o

we have 3 78, 4 1, 5 98, 6 32, 7 15


8 , etc. [6], as indicated an aperiodic
arrangement of particles.
Assuming a slow-varying function of n, the variation of n can be expressed in
d
d2
series expansion as n1  n dn
2!1 dn
2   , thereby writing (10.32) approxi-

mately as

d2
dn2

2l2 sin 2. This can be integrated as


o

 2
d
1  cos 2

;
dn
2lo2
d
where is a constant determined as dn
. Considering, however, that 0
0

d
for simplicity, we can write dn
 sinlo. Taking the positive sign for the expanding
chain, we derive from this expression that

2
tan1 en=lo ;

thereby increasing aperiodically within the range of lo.


Corresponding to the potential energy V given by (10.31), we consider the kinetic
P  2
energy K 12 ma2 n ddtn , and derive from Lagranges function L K  V the
equation of motion for a particle at the n-th position,
ma2

d @Ln
dt @ _ n

n
 @L
@ n 0, that is

d2 n
2lo2 Vo n1 2n  n1 Vo sin 2n 0;
dt 2

which is
a2 @ 2 @ 2

 2 2 sin 2 0
2
2
@n
2lo
@t
10-20

Introduction to the Mathematical Physics of Nonlinear Waves

t
for (n), where 2 kam . Using abbreviations u n
lo , v lo a and 2, the above
@2
@u2

becomes sine-Gordon equation


given by

 @@v2 sin , whose one-soliton solution is


puv

4 tan1 e

12

The total energy can be calculated as


 2
 2
Z
Z
Z
Z
alo2 Vo2
@
@
Vo
lo Vo
2
dn1

cos
2

Hu; vdn;
dn
dn

l
V

o o
@t
@n
2
2
2
where
1
H
2

(

@
@u

2

 2 )
@
1 cos

@v

is the Hamiltonian density. It is noted that

8
Hdn p
in this case, and the
2
1

Eo
energy associated with one-soliton motion is given by E p
.
2
1

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

Hammack J L and Segur H 1974 J. Fluid Mech. 65 289


Tappert F D and Zabursky N J 1971 Phys. Rev. Lett. 29 1774
Shimizu K and Ichikawa Y H 1972 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 33 789
Fujimoto M 2007 Physics of Classical Electromagnetism (New York: Springer) chapter 19
Hashimoto H 1972 J. Fluid Mech. 51 477
Lamb Jr G L 1980 Elements of Soliton Theory (New York: Wiley)
Izeki H 1973 Phys. Fluids 16 1668
Bloch F 1946 Phys. Rev. 70 460
Toda M 1970 Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 45 171; Toda M 1967 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 22 431;
Toda M 1967 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 23 501

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