Int. J. Therm. Sci. (2001) 40, 52–66
2001 Éditions scientiﬁques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved
S12900729(00)01187X/FLA
Thermodynamic analysis of reciprocating compressors
Pascal Stouﬀs ^{a} *, Mohand Tazerout ^{b} , Pierre Wauters ^{c}
^{a} ISITEM, La Chantrerie, BP 90604, 44306 Nantes cedex 3, France
^{b} École des Mines de Nantes, 4, rue AlfredKastler, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3, France
^{c} Université Catholique de Louvain, Unité TERM, place du Levant, 2, 1348 LouvainlaNeuve, Belgique
(Received 29 September 1999, accepted 1 March 2000)
Abstract —A global model for the thermodynamic analysis of reciprocating compressors is presented. The model is based on ﬁve main and four secondary dimensionless physically meaningful parameters. Expressions for the volumetric eﬀectiveness, the work per unit mass and the indicated eﬃciency are derived. The model has been used in order to predict the performance of a reciprocating air compressor under various operating conditions. The model proves to be a very accurate and useful tool to analyse the compressor performance. The relative importance of the various losses and the inﬂuence of diﬀerent parameters on the reciprocating compressor behaviour are discussed. Especially the incylinder residual mass fraction and the wall to ﬂuid heat transfer inﬂuences on the reciprocating compressor performance are highlighted. 2001 Éditions scientiﬁques et médicales Elsevier SAS
reciprocating compressors / thermodynamic analysis / gastowall heat transfer / volumetric eﬀectiveness / experimental results
Résumé — Analyse thermodynamique du fonctionnement des compresseurs à piston. L’article présente un modèle global per mettant l’analyse thermodynamique des compresseurs à piston. Ce modèle est basé sur cinq paramètres physiques adimensionnels principaux et quatre paramètres physiques secondaires. Les expressions du coeﬃcient de remplissage, du travail par unité de masse et du rendement indiqué sont établies. Le modèle est ensuite utilisé pour prédire les performances d’un compresseur d’air à piston pour diﬀérents rapports de compression. Le modèle s’avère très précis et très utile pour analyser les performances du compresseur. On discute ensuite l’importance relative des diﬀérentes pertes et l’inﬂuence des diﬀérents paramètres du modèle sur le comporte ment du compresseur. En particulier, on met en évidence le rôle de la fraction résiduelle de gaz et des transferts de chaleur entre le gaz et la paroi. 2001 Éditions scientiﬁques et médicales Elsevier SAS
compresseur à piston / analyse thermodynamique / transfert thermique à la paroi / coeﬃcient de remplissage / résultats expérimentaux
Nomenclature
c _{p}
f
h
m
p
q
s
T
T _{m}
V
v
W
heat capacity at constant pressure shape factor in equation (32)
.
gas mass
. speciﬁc heat transfer
.
.
speciﬁc enthalpy
.
pressure
.
.
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.
.
.
.
.
work .
speciﬁc volume
volume
mean temperature
temperature
speciﬁc entropy
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J·kg ^{−}^{1} ·K ^{−}^{1}
J·kg
^{−}^{1}
kg
Pa
J·kg J·kg ^{−}^{1} ·K ^{−}^{1} K K m ^{3} m ^{3} ·kg ^{−}^{1} J
^{−}^{1}
* Correspondence and reprints. Email address: pascal.stouffs@isitem.univnantes.fr (P. Stouffs).
52
w
Greek symbols
α
heat transfer parameter in (12) heat transfer parameter in (13) β _{d}_{i}_{s} pressure parameter in (3) β _{s}_{u}_{c} pressure parameter in (2)
α
speciﬁc work
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
_{2}
_{3}
.
.
.
.
.
γ
ε _{c}
ε _{v}
ζ _{f}
ζ _{1}
η
ϑ _{2} = T _{2} /T _{2}_{,}_{s} , temperature ratio
Θ _{s}
isentropic exponent clearance factor volumetric effectiveness work parameter in (35) temperature parameter in (9) efﬁciency
= T _{2}_{,}_{s} /T _{1} ,
isentropic compression
κ
ξ _{w}
temperature ratio
mean heat capacity ratio deﬁned in (42) temperature parameter in (10)
.
J·kg ^{−}^{1}
Reciprocating compressor analysis
ξ _{1}
Π =
Π _{d}_{i}_{s} = p _{d}_{i}_{s} /p _{s}_{u}_{c} , pressure ratio
ϕ nondimensional work term deﬁned by (37)
χ nondimensional work term deﬁned by (39)
ψ nondimensional work term deﬁned by (40)
Subscripts
temperature parameter in (9)
p _{2} /p _{1} , incylinder pressure ratio
A 
point of inversion of the gas to wall heat ﬂux during compression 
B 
point of inversion of the gas to wall heat ﬂux during expansion 
C 
cylinder 
c 
clearance 
dis 
discharge 
f 
friction, irreversibility 
ind 
indicated 
m 
mechanical 
s 
isentropic 
suc 
suction 
w 
wall 
1 
state in the cylinder at bottom dead center 
2 
state in the cylinder at discharge start 
3 
state in the cylinder at top dead center 
4 
state in the cylinder at suction start 
∗ 
(superscript) reference value (sensitivity analysis) 
1. INTRODUCTION
Reciprocating compressors are widely used in a lot of engineering applications. They are simple in principle and can accept wide variations in suction and discharge conditions. Their ﬂexibility is combined with the mini mum power per machine volume over the wide operating range [1]. Moreover, only reciprocating compressors can provide very high pressure ratios. Various modelling methods have been developed for reciprocating compressors thermodynamic analysis. These methods can be roughly classiﬁed in global mod els [2–6], and in differential models [6–11] where the variables depend on time (or crank angle). In the global models, a limited number of algebraic equations are supposed to describe the reciprocating compressor thermodynamic behaviour. Several parame ters have to be given a priori or to be identiﬁed experi mentally. Among these, there is always at least one so called polytropic exponent. Very often, the physical phe nomena that inﬂuence these parameters are not straight forward. Moreover this approach is open to criticism since the compression and the expansion processes are
usually very different from polytropic processes due to alternate gastowall heat transfer. Furthermore, in these models, the inﬂuence of the residual ﬂuid (that is the ﬂuid which is contained in the clearance volume and which is not discharged) on the power consumption is generally not clearly identiﬁed. In the differential models, at least three nodes are considered, namely the suction plenum, the cylinder space and the discharge plenum. In some of these mod els [10, 11], the single node corresponding to the cylinder is replaced by a ﬁnite difference grid, so that the veloc ity ﬁeld in the cylinder, and, ultimately, local gastowall heat transfer can be better evaluated. In order to reduce the gap between the sophisticated differential models and the somewhat empirical simple global models, we present a more comprehensive global model. This model relies on ﬁve main and four secondary dimensionless parameters. These physically meaningful parameters characterize the reciprocating compressor and its working ﬂuid. The model can predict the volumet ric effectiveness, the speciﬁc work and the indicated efﬁ ciency of the reciprocating compressor for different oper ating pressure ratios. The model allows physical interpre tation. In particular, the inﬂuence of the various gasto wall heat transfers is dealt with and the negative impact of the clearance volume is evaluated.
2. THE GLOBAL MODEL
2.1. Indicator diagram
The reciprocating compressor operation can be de scribed by the indicator diagram (or WATT diagram), which shows the pressure variation in the cylinder as a function of piston position. Such a diagram is presented in ﬁgure 1. In this diagram, volume 1 is deﬁned as the maximum volume state, and volume 3 as the minimum volume state whereas points 2 and 4 are conventionally deﬁned such as p _{2} = p _{3} and p _{4} = p _{1} . An operating cycle is made up of four phases:
• during the process (1–2), the piston compresses the gas in the cylinder;
• during the process (2–3), the piston discharges the
gas from the cylinder to the discharge plenum; during this process, the incylinder pressure is slightly different from the discharge plenum pressure p _{d}_{i}_{s} , due to the pres sure drop through the discharge valve, the noninstanta neous valve motion and the valve spring; normally the in cylinder pressure variations during the discharge process
53
P. Stouﬀs et al.
Figure 1. Indicator diagram of a reciprocating compressor.
are small compared to the compression process pressure variations;
• during the process (3–4), the gas contained in the clear ance volume V _{3} expands;
• during the process (4–1), the cylinder is fed with gas
from the suction plenum; during this process, the in cylinder pressure is slightly different from the suction plenum pressure p _{s}_{u}_{c} , due to the pressure drop through the suction valve, the noninstantaneous valve motion and the valve spring; normally the incylinder pressure varia tions during the suction process are very small compared
to the compression process pressure variations. The work done by the piston on the gas during one cycle is
W _{i}_{n}_{d} = − p dV
(1)
if it is assumed that the pressure recorded by the indicator diagram is the same as the pressure which acts on the piston face. In the global model, we assume that the spatial ﬂuid properties inhomogeneities in the cylinder are low enough so that we can deﬁne one pressure, one temper ature and one speciﬁc volume to describe the instanta neous incylinder ﬂuid state.
2.2. Incylinder ﬂuid state
Experimental results show that during the suction and the discharge processes the difference between the incylinder and the suction or the discharge plenum pressures does not depend on the operating pressure ratio. Accordingly, we assume that pressures p _{1} and p _{2} = p _{3} in the cylinder respectively differ from pressures p _{s}_{u}_{c} and
54
Figure 2. Temperature–entropy diagram of the compression process.
p _{d}_{i}_{s} in the suction and discharge plenums following the expressions:
p _{1} = p _{s}_{u}_{c} − p _{s}_{u}_{c} = p _{s}_{u}_{c} (1 − β _{s}_{u}_{c} ) (2)
(3)
p 2 = p dis + p dis = p dis + β dis p suc
where in some cases β _{d}_{i}_{s} can be negative owing to the discharge valve behaviour and to the pressure variation in the discharge circuit. For convenience, we note Π _{d}_{i}_{s} the dischargetosuction pressure ratio and Π the incylinder pressure ratio:
Π dis = p ^{d}^{i}^{s}
p suc
Π = ^{p} ^{2}
_{=} Π dis + β dis
p
1
1 − β suc
(4)
In the following the subscripts 2, s refer to the state of the ﬂuid which would be obtained by an isentropic com pression from pressure p _{1} and temperature T _{1} to pres sure p _{2} (ﬁgure 2), while the subscripts dis, s refer to the state of the ﬂuid which would be obtained by an isen tropic compression from pressure p _{s}_{u}_{c} and temperature T _{s}_{u}_{c} to pressure p _{d}_{i}_{s} . It is useful to deﬁne the following isentropic temperature ratios:
_{Θ} s _{=} T 2,s
T 1
Θ dis,s = T ^{d}^{i}^{s}^{,}^{s}
T suc
(5)
(6)
Θ _{s} is a function of the incylinder pressure ratio Π and the temperature T _{1} only, while Θ _{d}_{i}_{s}_{,}_{s} is a function of the plenumtoplenum pressure ratio Π _{d}_{i}_{s} and the temperature T _{s}_{u}_{c} only. These functions depend on the
Reciprocating compressor analysis
ﬂuid properties. For instance, if the ﬂuid is assumed to be an ideal gas with constant heat capacity we have
_{Θ} _{s} _{=} _{Π} (γ −1)/γ _{,}
(γ −1)/γ _{Θ} _{d}_{i}_{s}_{,}_{s} _{=} _{Π} dis
(7)
The temperature T _{1} of the ﬂuid in the cylinder just before compression is expressed as
(8)
where the temperature difference T has two parts:
one of them is independent of the pressure ratio and is expressed as ζ _{1} T _{s}_{u}_{c} , and the other one is a fraction ξ _{1} of the temperature difference (T _{2}_{,}_{s} − T _{1} ), so that:
T _{1} = T _{s}_{u}_{c} + T
T _{1} = (1 + ζ _{1} )T _{s}_{u}_{c} + ξ _{1} (T _{2}_{,}_{s} − T _{1} )
(1 + ζ 1 )T suc
_{=}
1 − ξ _{1} (Θ _{s} − _{1}_{)}
(9)
Actually, the temperature T _{1} results from the mixing of the residual ﬂuid at temperature T _{4} with the entering ﬂuid heated by the suction pipe and from the heating of this mixture by the cylinder wall. This complex phenomenon is, however, correctly described by means of equation (9) with the sole parameters ζ _{1} and ξ _{1} . The wall temperature T _{w} , considered in the plane of the internal surface of the cylinder head, is expressed as
T _{w} = T _{1} + ξ _{w}
T 2,s − T 1
2
(10)
The parameter ξ _{w} is about 0.5 or lower if the wall cooling is efﬁcient.
Temperature T _{2} may differ from temperature T _{2}_{,}_{s} due to alternate gastowall heat transfer during the compression process (ﬁgure 2). The following expression is derived in the appendix:
with
ϑ _{2} = 1 − 2α _{2}
T _{2} = ϑ _{2} T _{2}_{,}_{s}
(1 − ξ _{w} )(Θ _{s} − 1) 4 + ξ _{w} (Θ _{s} − 1) + 2α _{2} Θ _{s}
(11)
(12)
In equation (12) α _{2} is a dimensionless parameter of the model which describes the gastowall heat transfer intensity during the compression process. It can be seen from equation (12) that temperature T _{2} equals temperature T _{2}_{,}_{s} in case of no gastowall heat transfer (α _{2} = 0) or if the wall temperature is such as the alternate heat transfer balance is equal to zero during compression (ξ _{w} = 1). Finally, temperature T _{3} differs from temperature T _{2} due to gastowall heat transfer during the discharge
process. The heat transfer laws suggest to state the following expression:
(13)
in which α _{3} is a parameter of the model describing the incylinder heat transfer during the discharge process. It is useful to express T _{3} as a function of Θ _{s} . Combining equation (10) with equation (13) yields:
T _{3} = T _{2}_{,}_{s} − α _{3} (T _{2}_{,}_{s} − T _{w} )
T 3
T 1
= Θ _{s} − α _{3} 1 − ^{ξ} ^{w} (Θ _{s} − 1)
2
(14)
2.3. Volumetric eﬀectiveness
As the mass m _{3} of gas contained in the clearance volume V _{3} expands from pressure p _{3} up to pressure p _{4} when the piston goes down, only a part of the piston stroke from top dead centre to bottom dead centre allows fresh gas to be admitted in the cylinder. The mass of gas ﬂowing through the compressor over one cycle is
m _{C} = m _{1} − m _{3} = ^{V} ^{1} − ^{V} ^{3}
v
1
v
3
(15)
The clearance factor ε _{c} is deﬁned as the ratio of the clearance volume V _{3} to the cylinder swept volume V _{C} = V _{1} − V _{3} . The mass of gas over one cycle is, thus,
_{m} C _{=} ^{} 1 + ε _{c}
v
1
^{ε}
3 V _{C}
^{c}
−
v
(16)
Pressure loss through the suction valve (p _{1} < p _{s}_{u}_{c} ) and heat transfer from the suction pipe wall to the gas (T _{1} > T _{s}_{u}_{c} ) lead to a speciﬁc volume v _{1} of the gas in the cylinder higher than the speciﬁc volume of the gas in the suction plenum v _{s}_{u}_{c} . It is useful to refer to the suction state in equation (16), which yields:
m C = ^{V} ^{C}
v
suc
_{v} 1 1 − ε _{c} _{v} 3 − 1 = ε _{v}
v
suc
v
1
^{V}
^{C}
v
suc
(17)
Expression (17) introduces the volumetric effective ness ε _{v} , deﬁned as the ratio of the mass m _{C} to the mass V _{C} /v _{s}_{u}_{c} which would ﬁll the cylinder at suction state. From equation (17) we have:
_{ε} v _{=} v suc
v 1
1 − ε _{c} _{v} 3 − 1
v
1
(18)
It can be deduced from equation (18) that the volumet ric effectiveness will be larger if the clearance factor is reduced. On the other hand, as it is practically impossible to remove the clearance volume, the volumetric effective ness will be smaller as the compression ratio increases. In
55
P. Stouﬀs et al.
order to estimate the importance of this effect, we assume from now on, for the sake of simplicity, that the ﬂuid is an ideal gas. The model adaptation to other types of ﬂuid is straightforward. Accordingly, the ratio of the speciﬁc volumes v _{1} /v _{3} of equation (18) is given by
v
1
v
3
= ^{T} ^{1}
T 3
=
p
3
p
1
Π
Θ _{s} − α _{3} (1 − ξ _{w} /2)(Θ _{s} − 1)
^{(}^{1}^{9}^{)}
The speciﬁc volume ratio v _{s}_{u}_{c} /v _{1} of equation (18) is given by
v
suc
v
1
_{=} T suc
T
1
p
1
p
suc
1 − ξ _{1} (Θ _{s} − 1)
_{=}
1 + ζ _{1}
(1 − β _{s}_{u}_{c} )
(20)
Rewriting equation (18) with equation (19) and equa tion (20) we obtain:
ε _{v} = (1 − β _{s}_{u}_{c} ) ^{1} ^{−} ^{ξ} ^{1} ^{(}^{Θ} ^{s} ^{−} ^{1}^{)} 1 + ζ _{1}
· 1 − ε _{c}
Θ _{s} − α _{3} (1 − ξ _{w} /2)(Θ _{s} − 1) ^{−} ^{1}
Π
(21)
Equation (21) is a decreasing function of the compression ratio Π dis = p dis /p suc .
2.4. Indicated work and eﬃciency
Neglecting the kinetic and potential energy variations between the discharge and suction sections, the speciﬁc mechanical work received by the ﬂuid from the compres sor is
dis
w m =
suc
v dp + w _{f}
(22)
The speciﬁc work w _{m} is related to the work done by the piston (or indicated work W _{i}_{n}_{d} ) over one cycle by
m C w m =
dis
m C
suc
v dp + w _{f}
= − p dV = V dp = W _{i}_{n}_{d}
(23)
The irreversibilities cannot be neglected during the suc tion to discharge process which includes the ﬂow through the valves. However, for the processes (1–2) and (3–4),
56
we can assume that the incylinder temperature and ve locity gradients are small enough to allow to neglect the irreversibilities. If we recall that the compression (1–2) is carried out on a closed system of mass m _{1} , while the expansion (3–4) is carried out on a closed system of mass m _{3} , we obtain:
m C w m =
W ind
= m _{1}
1
^{2} v dp + m _{3}
3
^{4} v dp
+
2
3
V dp + 4
1
V dp
(24)
The last two terms of equation (24) account for the work
due to pressure variations during the discharge and the
suction processes. These two terms are usually small. We see that from the energetic viewpoint, if we neglect the work consumed by the suction and the discharge of the m _{C} , the reciprocating compressor can be considered
mass
as a set of two machines, one of them operating the compression of the mass m _{1} , the other one expanding the mass m _{3} .
On the other hand, we have:
m _{1} = m _{C} + m _{3}
(25)
The compressor speciﬁc work input is given by
w m = 2
1
v dp + ^{m}
m
C _{2}
3
1
v dp −
4
3
+
C _{3}
^{1}
m
2
V dp +
4
1
V dp
v dp
(26)
Equation (26) is made of four terms: the ﬁrst one is the compression work of the mass m _{C} , the second one is the work due to gastowall heat transfer (see further) and the two last ones respectively correspond to the work due to nonisobaric suction and discharge. The speciﬁc work corresponding to an isentropic
compression from the
suction state (T _{s}_{u}_{c} ,p _{s}_{u}_{c} ) to the
discharge pressure p _{d}_{i}_{s} would be
(27)
where the enthalpy h _{d}_{i}_{s}_{,}_{s} is a function of the pressure
ratio Π and the ﬂuid state in the suction plenum only.
Again this function depends on the ﬂuid properties. The indicated efﬁciency is deﬁned as the ratio of the real speciﬁc work w _{m} to the isentropic speciﬁc work
w m,dis,s :
w m,dis,s = h dis,s − h suc
_{η} ind _{=} w m,dis,s
w m
(28)
Reciprocating compressor analysis
2.5. Residual mass fraction
Equation (26) has a term proportional to the residual mass fraction m _{3} /m _{C} . This residual mass fraction can be computed as follows:
m
3
^{m}
^{3}
=
m _{1} − m _{3} ^{V} ^{3} V _{1} v _{3} /v _{1} − V _{3} ^{ε} ^{c} (1 + ε _{c} )v _{3} /v _{1} − ε _{c} which yields, using equation (19):
=
=
m
C
(29)
m
3
^{ε} ^{c} ^{Π}
=
m
C
(1 + ε _{c} )(Θ _{s} − α _{3} (1 − ξ _{w} /2)(Θ _{s} − 1)) − ε _{c} Π
(30)
2.6. Eﬀect of incylinder heat transfer
If the thermodynamic processes in the cylinder were isentropic, the compression process (1–2) would be collinear with the expansion process (3–4), so that the second term of equation (26) would vanish. The residual ﬂuid would act as a spring on the piston face, absorbing energy during compression and restoring all that energy during expansion. In practice, however, these processes are not adiabatic, so that processes (1–2) and (3–4) are not collinear, as shown by the state diagram (ﬁgure 3). It is observed that during the process (1–2), the speciﬁc entropy increases due to heat transfer from the wall as long as the wall temperature T _{w} is higher than the gas temperature. On the contrary, the gas speciﬁc entropy decreases as soon as the heat ﬂux reverses. During the discharge (2–3), the gas cools due to heat transfer, so that entropy decreases. During the expansion (3–4), the heat transfer effect on the residual gas is to be considered in the same way as for the compression. Finally, during the process (4–1), the gas is heated by heat transfer from the wall, so that entropy increases. It should be noted that such (T , s) diagrams have been obtained both numerically from a differential model and experimentally, as shown farther. However, in the exper imental results, a short temperature lag is observed in the inversion of the wall heat ﬂux: the maximum entropy dur ing compression (point A, ﬁgure 3) corresponds to a tem perature slightly higher than the minimum entropy during expansion (point B, ﬁgure 3). This could probably be re lated to the cyclic nature of the ﬂow: in oscillating ﬂow, it is well known that time lag between temperature differ ence and heat ﬂux can be observed [12, 13]. Moreover, it
Figure 3. Temperature–entropy diagram of the incylinder ﬂuid state.
is likely that the cylinder wall temperature is lower dur ing the expansion stroke, because of the cooling effect of the contact with the piston when it moves towards the top dead center.
The process (1, 2, 3, 4) deﬁnes a closed reversed cycle for the residual mass m _{3} . The work given by the piston to the ﬂuid during this cycle has the same value as the net heat transferred to the wall. It is represented by the area (1, 2, 3, 4, 1) (ﬁgure 3). From the thermodynamic diagrams properties, recalling that the suction (4–1) and the discharge (2–3) processes are assumed to be isobaric, the surface area corresponds to the difference between the v dp integrals during processes (1–2) and (3–4):
^{} 2
1
v dp −
4
3
v dp = − T ds = _{} T ds _{}
(31)
Before attempting to evaluate this area, it is useful to make some remarks. First, it is clear now that due to the particular nature of gastowall heat transfer in reciprocating compressors, the compression (1–2) and the expansion (3–4) cannot be described by polytropic processes. Furthermore, even if a polytropic formulation could be useful, the polytropic exponent essentially depends on gastowall heat transfer, as pointed out in [5], and thus, there is no sense to assume that the polytropic exponent has the same value during compression as during expansion.
2.7. Estimation of the reversed cycle area
As it appears in the expression of the speciﬁc work in equations (26)–(31), it is useful to estimate the area of the reversed cycle in the temperature–entropy diagram
57
P. Stouﬀs et al.
(ﬁgure 3). From the position of points (1, 2, 3, 4) on the curve, and from its usual shape, we assume that this area can be expressed as follows:
_{} T ds _{} = f (s _{1} − s _{3} )(T _{2} − T _{1} )
(32)
where f is a shape factor. From standard thermodynamic relationship, we have:
s 3 − s 2,s = s 3 − s 1
= c _{p} log
T 2,s
T
3
_{≈}
_{c} _{p} ^{} T 3 − T 2,s
T
2,s
(33)
Combining equations (11), (14), (33) and (32) yields:
_{} T ds
= (ϑ _{2} Θ _{s} − 1)α _{3} 1 − ^{ξ} ^{w} ^{} 1 − Θ
2
−1
s
^{} f c _{p} T _{1} (34)
2.8. Estimation of the suction and discharge speciﬁc work
The suction and discharge speciﬁc work mainly de pends on the ﬂuid velocity during the suction and the dis charge processes. In turn, this ﬂuid velocity mainly de pends on the piston velocity but it is not very modiﬁed by the pressure ratio. So, in accordance with experimen tal results it is suggested to correlate the suction and the discharge speciﬁc work by the relation
C
1
m
4
1
V dp +
2
3
V
dp = ζ _{f} c _{p} T _{1}
(35)
in which ζ _{f} is a work parameter.
2.9. Estimation of the speciﬁc work
The ﬁrst term of equation (26) is (see appendix A.2 for detailed calculation)
^{} 2
1
v dp = (1 + ϕ)(h _{2}_{,}_{s} − h _{1} )
(36)
with the dimensionless work term ϕ given by
58
ϕ = ^{α} ^{2} 
2 ξ _{w} (Θ _{s} − 1) 
1 

2 4 + ξ _{w} (Θ _{s} − 1) ^{−} 
_{2} 
(1 − ξ _{w} )(1 − ϑ _{2} )
(37)
Combining equations (26), (34)–(36) we obtain the fol lowing expression for the speciﬁc work:
(38)
where the dimensionless work terms χ and ψ are given by the following expressions:
w _{m} = [1 + ϕ + χ + ψ](h _{2}_{,}_{s} − h _{1} )
χ
ψ
= ^{m}
m
C f α _{3} 1 − ^{ξ} ^{w}
3
2
=
^{ζ} _{−} _{1}
f
Θ
s
ϑ 2 −
_{Θ} s
1
(39)
(40)
The speciﬁc work expression equation (38) is made up of four parts:
• the ﬁrst one represents the isentropic work of compres sion relative to the incylinder pressure ratio;
• the second one, proportional to the ﬁrst one by the
nondimensional work term ϕ, is a correction of the ﬁrst
term in order to account for internal heat transfer during compression; this correction can be positive or negative
according to the wall temperature (parameter ξ _{w} );
• the third term, proportional to the ﬁrst one by the
nondimensional work term χ , describes the work done by the piston on the residual mass, due to the alternate gastowall heat transfer: this term is always positive. It depends on the clearance factor ε _{c} but also on the pressure ratio. Indeed, when the pressure ratio increases, not only the residual mass increases, but also the reversed cycle area, that is the effect of the heat transfer per unit mass of residual gas;
• the fourth term, proportional to the ﬁrst one by the nondimensional work term ψ, corresponds to the work done by the piston to suck and discharge the ﬂuid.
2.10. Estimation of the indicated eﬃciency
From equations (27), (28) and (38), we obtain the following expression of the indicated efﬁciency:
η ind = T ^{s}^{u}^{c}
T
1
^{}^{} _{κ} Θ dis,s − 1 Θ _{s} − 1
1 + ϕ + χ + ψ
1
^{(}^{4}^{1}^{)}
where κ is a mean capacity ratio deﬁned by
_{κ}
_{=} (h dis,s − h suc )/(T dis,s − T suc )
(h _{2}_{,}_{s} − h _{1} )/(T _{2}_{,}_{s} − T _{1} )
(42)
κ is always close to one. For instance, for the air compressor considered in the next section, κ ranges from
κ = 0.982 for a pressure ratio Π _{d}_{i}_{s} = 3 to κ = 0.975 for
Π _{d}_{i}_{s} = 10.
Reciprocating compressor analysis
It is observed that the indicated efﬁciency depends on three factors:
• the heat transfer from the wall during the suction which
increases the
• the valves pressure losses and the pressure variations
in the suction and discharge pipes because of which the incylinder pressure ratio Π is different from the plenum toplenum pressure ratio Π _{d}_{i}_{s} ; this effect is dominating at low pressure ratio;
• the effect of heat and mass transfer described by means of the nondimensional factors ϕ, χ and ψ, presented previously.
temperature from T _{s}_{u}_{c} to T _{1} ;
2.11. The global model parameters
The set of algebraic equations presented in the previ ous subsections deﬁnes the global model of reciprocating compressors. This global model can predict the volumet ric effectiveness, the residual mass fraction, the speciﬁc work and the indicated efﬁciency from the suction ﬂuid state and the operating pressure ratio Π _{d}_{i}_{s} . Apart from the usual compressor geometrical data V _{C} and ε _{c} and ﬂuid thermodynamical properties (heat capacity and state equation), the global model relies on nine dimensionless physically meaningful parameters, which fully describe the system. These are reminded hereafter:
• temperature parameters:
– ζ _{1} and ξ _{1} denote the ﬂuid temperature at bottom dead center;
– ξ _{w} describes the cylinder wall temperature;
• pressure parameters:
– β _{s}_{u}_{c} describes the pressure loss due to the suction
process;
– β _{d}_{i}_{s} describes the pressure loss due to the discharge process;
• work parameters:
– ζ _{f} describes the work consumed by the suction and the discharge processes;
• heat transfer parameters:
– α _{2} describes the incylinder heat transfer during the
compression process;
– α _{3} describes the incylinder heat transfer during the
discharge process;
– f describes the effect of the incylinder heat transfer
on the speciﬁc work. Some of the nine parameters of the model, such as the temperature, the pressure or the work parameters, can be easily estimated from direct measurements or from
TABLE I Estimated global model parameters range.
ζ _{1} :
ξ _{1} :
ξ _{w} :
β _{s}_{u}_{c} :
β _{d}_{i}_{s} :
0.0–0.5 
ζ _{f} : 
0.04–0.4 
0.0–0.5 
α _{2} : 
0.05–0.5 
0.2–0.9 
α _{3} : 
0.1–0.9 
0.0–0.1 
f : 
0.5–1.5 
−1.0–1.0 
TABLE II Compressor characteristics.
Bore: 
d = 76.2 mm 2R = 63.5 mm ε _{c} =4.5% L = 119 mm V _{C} = 5.792·10 ^{−}^{4} m ^{3} ω = 98.22 rad·s ^{−}^{1} 

Stroke: 

Clearance factor: 

Crank rod length: 

Swept 
volume: 

Rotation speed: 
practical considerations on the compressor design. The others can be deduced from data identiﬁcation based on experimental results on a fully instrumented compressor but it is probably more difﬁcult to estimate them a priori from the compressor design. However, considering the way these parameters are deﬁned, it is thought that the usual numerical range for them is very narrow whatever the system considered. Table I gives a range of values which should ﬁt most reciprocating compressors. Moreover, it will be shown that practical simulation results are not very dependent on the numerical value of the wall temperature parameter ξ _{w} and the heat transfer parameters α _{2} , α _{3} and f which are the most difﬁcult to evaluate. So, a default value in the recommended range given by table I should be appropriate for them in most practical cases.
3. EXPERIMENTS
3.1. Experimental device
The experiments have been carried out on a small commercial system (ﬁgure 4). The twincylinder recip rocating air compressor, of which the main geometrical data are given in table II, is ﬁxed above the compressed air reservoir. It is driven by an electrical motor of which the stator is put up on bearings to allow the measurement of the moment or the torque by means of a lever arm act ing upon a manometric dynamometer. Air is sucked from the atmosphere through a tank which allows the transfor mation of the pulsating ﬂow at the compressor inlet in
59
P. Stouﬀs et al.
Figure 4. Air compressor used for experiments: 1. twin cylinder compressor; 2. valves casings; 3. insulated discharge pipe; 4. suction pipe from the inlet tank (not shown); 5. discharge tank; 6. discharge pressure manometer; 7. inlet oriﬁce plate ﬂow measurement; 8. lever arm for torque measurement.
a steady ﬂow at the mass ﬂowrate measurement section. The ﬂowrate is measured by means of an oriﬁce plate. The compressed air is discharged to the reservoir through an insulated pipe in order to allow the air discharge tem perature measurement at the compressor outlet. The dis charge pressure is measured by means of a BOURDON tube manometer and its value can be controlled by means of an adjustable discharge valve. In addition the test setup includes a data acquisi tion system controlled by means of a PC. This system is mainly equipped with the following transducers (ﬁg ure 5):
• a piezoelectric pressure transducer of which the mea
suring head is ﬂush with the internal compressor cylinder head wall;
• a crank angle transducer;
• two thermocouples allowing respectively the tempera
ture measurement of the discharged air and of the internal compressor wall in the cylinder head gasket plane. As the pressure is accurately acquired as a function of the crank angle, not only the indicator diagram (p, V ) can be plotted, but also any thermodynamic diagram, such as the temperature–entropy (T , s) diagram. The conversion from the indicator diagram (p, V ) to a ther modynamic diagram requires the knowledge of the in stantaneous mass contained in the cylinder volume V . This allows to compute the speciﬁc volume v. It is then easy to convert the classical state variables cou ple (p, v) into the state variables (T , s). During the ex pansion stroke, the incylinder ﬂuid mass is the residual
60
Figure 5. Air compressor used for experiments: 1. pressure transducer; 2. discharged air temperature measurement; 3. in ternal wall temperature measurement.
mass m _{3} at the end of the discharge process. This mass can be determined from the clearance volume V _{3} , which is a known geometrical datum, and from the speciﬁc vol ume v _{3} which can be deduced from the discharge pres sure and temperature measurements. During the com pression stroke, the incylinder ﬂuid mass m _{1} is the sum of the residual mass m _{3} and the mass m _{C} actually sucked from the atmosphere at each cycle. This mass m _{C} is com puted by dividing the measured mass ﬂowrate by the ro tation frequency.
3.2. (p, V ) and (T , s) diagrams
Experimental tests have been carried out with ﬁve different operating discharge pressures, ranging from 471 to 795 kPa. In each case, a lot of precautions have been taken to ensure a complete steadystate operation. The diagrams are presented for the two extreme discharge pressures. Figure 6 presents the experimental indicator diagrams. We have superimposed the isobars corresponding to the measured suction and discharge pressures and those corresponding to p _{2} = p _{3} with
Reciprocating compressor analysis
Figure 6. Experimental (p, V ) indicator diagrams.
V _{3} = V _{m}_{i}_{n} . The isobar p _{1} = p _{4} with V _{1} = V _{m}_{a}_{x} has not been drawn since it is nearly collinear with the suction pressure isobar. It can be seen from this ﬁgure that the valves, especially the discharge valve, are poorly designed, leading to an important suction and discharge work. Actually the valves are made up of a 23 mm diameter, 0.7 mm height, cylindrical steel plate, and a return spring. The maximum plate lift is 3 mm. The suction valve spring stiffness is 430 N·m ^{−}^{1} while the discharge valve spring stiffness is 920 N·m ^{−}^{1} . This quite simple design has important consequences on the compressor behaviour. Recalling that the compressor bore is 76.2 mm, it can be said that the ﬂow area of the valve gap and the valve plate area are low. The ﬁrst point leads to important pressure losses during the suction and the discharge process, as it clearly appears on ﬁgure 6. Thus, ζ _{f} takes a relatively high value. The second point, combined with the comparatively high valve plate inertia, implies that the time needed to obtain the valve opening or the valve closure is high. Unfortunately, the valve motions have not been re corded. However, considering ﬁgure 6, it can be said that the discharge valve closure motion starts for p>p _{d}_{i}_{s}
but
the valve closure is obtained for p<p _{d}_{i}_{s} . During
the last part of the valve closure motion, air ﬂows from the cylinder to the discharge plenum due to ﬂuid inertial effects, a wellknown phenomenon in the ﬁeld of reciprocating compressor [7] as well as in the ﬁeld of internal combustion engine.
This implies that p _{3} < p _{d}_{i}_{s} . From the point of view
and an
of the global model this will lead to β _{d}_{i}_{s} < 0
Figure 7. Experimental (T , s) thermodynamic diagrams.
TABLE III Global model parameters used for model validation.
ζ _{1} = 0.36 ξ _{1} = 0.0 ξ _{w} = 0.4
β _{s}_{u}_{c} = 0.03 β _{d}_{i}_{s} = −0.3 ζ _{f} = 0.165
α _{2} = 0.15 α _{3} = 0.74 f = 1.25
incylinder pressure ratio smaller than the plenumto plenum pressure ratio Π<Π _{d}_{i}_{s} . Figure 7 presents the experimental (T , s) diagrams. It can bee seen from these diagrams that the gastowall heat transfer yields a nonnegligible work consumption.
3.3. Global model parameter identiﬁcation
The numerical results from the global model are obtained assuming that the air is an ideal gas with temperaturedependent heat capacities. The global model parameter values used for the simulation are given in table III. These parameters have been obtained in a very easy and straigthforward way. Indeed, for each operating pressure ratio temperatures T _{1} , T _{2} , T _{3} and T _{w} can be extracted from the experimental ﬁles. ζ _{1} , ξ _{1} , ξ _{w} , α _{2} and α _{3} can be readily obtained by graphical comparison of the experimental and modelled temperatures (ﬁgure 8). β _{s}_{u}_{c} , β _{d}_{i}_{s} and ζ _{f} have been determined from the indi cator diagram records (ﬁgure 6 ) whereas f is deduced from graphical comparison of the experimental and mod elled (T , s) cycle area (ﬁgure 9). A very good agree
61
P. Stouﬀs et al.
Figure 8. Fluid and wall temperatures.
Figure 9. Temperature–speciﬁc entropy cycle area.
ment is observed between the global model and the ex perimental results meaning that the heat transfer to the residual mass is correctly accounted for by the global model.
3.4. Global model validation
Figure 10 presents the volumetric effectiveness as a function of the discharge pressure. The global model results are in very good agreement with the experimental data. It can be seen that the volumetric effectiveness decreases from about 0.67 to about 0.51 when the discharge pressure increases from 300 kPa to 1 MPa.
62
Figure 10. Volumetric eﬀectiveness.
Figure 11. Speciﬁc work.
Figure 11 presents the speciﬁc work as a function of the discharge pressure. Again a very good agreement is achieved between the global model and the experimental results.
A good agreement is also achieved between the global model and the experimental results for the indicated efﬁ ciency (ﬁgure 12). The indicated efﬁciency is nearly con stant, about 0.56 in the experimental discharge pressure range.
As the global model can predict the ﬂuid tempera tures, the (T , s) cycle area, the volumetric effectiveness, the speciﬁc work and the indicated efﬁciency very ac curately, it is thought that it relies on a correct physical
Reciprocating compressor analysis
Figure 12. Indicated eﬃciency.
Figure 13. Residual mass fraction.
description of the compression process in a reciprocating compressor.
3.5. Discussion
The global model can be used to discuss the experi mental compressor performances. For instance, the residual mass fraction as given by the global model is shown in ﬁgure 13. While the residual mass m _{3} is about 12 % of the mass m _{C} delivered over one cycle when the discharge pressure is 300 kPa, it is worth to note that it represents more than 45 % of the delivered mass when the discharge pressure is 1 MPa. The global model can also give us an invaluable in sight into the speciﬁc work terms (equation (38)). Refer
Figure 14. Nondimensional work terms.
ring to this equation and to ﬁgure 14 we note that the nondimensional work term ϕ representing the inﬂuence of the heat transfer during compression is slightly neg ative and nearly negligible. The nondimensional work term χ which describes the work done by the piston on the residual mass due to the alternate gastowall heat transfer is an increasing function of the discharge pres sure. When the discharge pressure is 1 MPa the work done by the piston on the residual mass represents nearly 15 % of the isentropic work of compression. Thus, at high compression ratio the inﬂuence of the residual mass on the energy consumption cannot be neglected and it is not valid to consider the residual mass as a mere spring releasing in the expansion process all the energy stored during compression. Finally, the nondimensional work term ψ, corresponding to the work done by the pis ton to suck and discharge the ﬂuid is by far the largest term. Again, this can be explained by the poorly designed valves of the compressor used for the experiments. For a discharge pressure of 300 kPa the work done by the pis ton to transfer the ﬂuid represents nearly 50 % of the isen tropic work of compression! However, it is a decreasing function of the discharge pressure so that it is only 20 % at 1 MPa and it is then on the same order of magnitude as the χ term. Figure 15 presents the three factors of the indicated efﬁciency relation (41) as a function of the discharge pressure. It is very important to notice that in the case of the compressor considered here we have a temperature T _{1} ≈ 400 K independent of the discharge pressure. The ﬁrst factor in the indicated efﬁciency (equation (41)) is constant: we have T _{s}_{u}_{c} /T _{1} = 0.735. The effect of the heat transfer during the suction process on the indicated efﬁciency is very detrimental! The
63
P. Stouﬀs et al.
Figure 15. Nondimensional eﬃciency factors.
second factor depending on the difference between the incylinder and the plenumtoplenum pressure ratio is close to but slightly superior to one. This comes from the somewhat unusual fact that Π<Π _{d}_{i}_{s} for the compressor used for the experiments as explained earlier (ﬁgure 6). The third factor in the indicated efﬁciency relation is in the range 65–75 %. It is larger than the ﬁrst factor in most of the discharge pressure range. Again this draws the attention to the fact that heat transfer from the inlet pipes to the sucked ﬂuid can often be the major loss source.
3.6. Global model parameters sensitivity
When using the values given by table III to simulate the compressor used for experiments for a compression from p _{s}_{u}_{c} = 100 kPa and T _{s}_{u}_{c} = 293.5 K to p _{d}_{i}_{s} = 700 kPa, the following reference results are obtained:
• volumetric effectiveness: ε
∗
v
= 0.573,
∗
• speciﬁc work: w _{m} = 385
kJ·kg ^{−}^{1} ,
indicated efﬁciency: η _{i}_{n}_{d} = 0.568. Table IV indicates the relative deviations (as percent ages) from the previous results when considering the minimum and the maximum value of each parameter as given by table I successively, the other parameters re maining unchanged. Obviously, the results given by table IV should be considered cautiously. Indeed, they concern only one particular compressor, the combined inﬂuence of several parameters is not taken into account, the parameter range given by table I is somewhat marred by the arbitrary,
•
∗
64
TABLE IV Sensitivity to the parameters.
ε _{v} − ε
∗
v
w _{m} − w
∗
m
η ind − η
∗
ind
ε
∗
v
[%]
w
[%]
∗
m
η
[%]
∗
ind
min 
max 
min 
max 
min 
max 

ζ 
_{1} 
36.3 
−9.4 
−26.4 
10.2 
35.8 
−9.3 
ξ 
_{1} 
0 
−33.4 
0 
49.3 
0 
−33.0 
ξ _{w} 
−1.3 
2.8 
0.4 
−1.2 
−0.4 
1.2 

β 
_{s}_{u}_{c} 
3.9 
−9.1 
−1.9 
4.9 
2.0 
−4.7 
β 
_{d}_{i}_{s} 
2.7 
−4.9 
−6.9 
12.2 
7.4 
−10.9 
ζ _{f} 
0 
0 
−13.5 
25.4 
15.6 
−20.3 

α 
_{2} 
000.6 
−1.4 
−0.6 
1.4 

α 
_{3} 
6.6 
−2.3 
−5.9 
2.2 
6.3 
−2.2 
f 
0 
0 
−3.9 
1.3 
4.0 
−1.3 
etc. However, it is thought that the following general considerations can be inferred from table IV:
• the temperature parameters ζ _{1} and ξ _{1} are by far
the most inﬂuent; fortunately, these parameters are also probably the easiest to estimate in practical cases;
• the work parameter ζ _{f} and the pressure parameters
β _{s}_{u}_{c} and β _{d}_{i}_{s} also have an important inﬂuence on the simulated performances of the compressor;
• simulation results are not very dependent on the
numerical value
and f which are the most difﬁcult to evaluate.
It can be concluded that the global model relies on ﬁve main parameters (i.e. ζ _{1} , ξ _{1} , ζ _{f} , β _{s}_{u}_{c} , β _{d}_{i}_{s} ) and four parameters of secondary importance (i.e. ξ _{w} , α _{2} , α _{3} , f ) for which a default value should be appropriate in most practical cases.
The inﬂuence of the wall temperature ξ _{w} , however
small, is worth noting. Paradoxical though it may seem, table IV indicates that a higher value of the wall tem
perature leads to better performances of the reciprocat ing compressor. This is due to the fact that a low wall temperature induces an important cooling of the resid ual mass fraction. This has two detrimental effects: the residual mass is larger and the loss due to the residual mass reversed cycle is also larger. These combined neg ative inﬂuences are more important than the work saving due to the cooling during the compression process. It may be concluded from inspection of table IV that from the viewpoint of the reciprocating compressor performances it is by far better to cool the suction pipe than the cylinder wall.
of the four other parameters ξ _{w} , α _{2} , α _{3}
Reciprocating compressor analysis
4. CONCLUSION
An algebraic model for the thermodynamical analy sis of reciprocating compressors is presented. Apart from the usual compressor geometrical data V _{C} and ε _{c} and ﬂuid thermodynamical properties (heat capacity and state equation), the global model relies on ﬁve main and four secondary dimensionless physically meaningful parame ters, which fully describe the system. Practical value of these parameters is given. Expressions for the volumet ric effectiveness, the residual mass fraction, the speciﬁc work and the indicated efﬁciency are derived and dis cussed. These expressions clearly identify the factors af fecting the reciprocating compressor performance, which are the heat transfer from the wall during the suction process, the valves pressure losses and the work needed to displace the ﬂuid, the heat transfer to the ﬂuid during the compression and the heat transfer to the residual mass during the expansion. The numerical results obtained from the global model are compared to experimental results from an air com pressor test bench. The results are in very close agree ment over the whole discharge pressure operating range. The global model is used to discuss the relative impor tance of the various losses of the experimental recip rocating compressor. Especially the incylinder residual mass fraction and the walltoﬂuid heat transfer inﬂu ences on the reciprocating compressor performances are highlighted.
REFERENCES
[1] Hough D., The design, selection, and application of reciprocating compressors for fuel gas service, J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 117 (1995) 88–93. [2] Grodent M., Lebrun J., Lopez K., Saavebra C., Mo délisation d’un compresseur à piston en régime perma nent, in : Recherche et développement en matière de com presseurs— Journée d’études de la SFT, 13 janvier 1993, Société française des thermiciens, Paris, France, 1993. [3] Haberschill P., Mondot M., Molle M., Lallemand M., Simulation du comportement d’un compresseur hermé tique à partir d’un nombre limité d’essais, in : Recherche et développement en matière de compresseurs — Journée d’études de la SFT, 13 janvier 1993, Société française des thermiciens, Paris, France, 1993. [4] Cavallini A., Doretti L., Longo G.A., Rossetto L., Bella B., Zannerio A., Thermal analysis of a hermetic reciprocating compressor, in: Proceedings of the 1996 Purdue International Compressor Engineering Conference (Purdue University), West Lafayette, IN, 1996, pp. 535–540. [5] Pereira R.H., Motta S.Y., Parise J.A.R., A study on the polytropic exponent: Part 1. Open reciprocating compressors, in: An. III CIARV CONBRAVA, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 1996, pp. 47–58.
[6] Brok S.W, Touber S., van der Meer J.S., Modelling of cylinder heat transfer — Large eﬀort, little eﬀect?, in: Pro ceedings of the 1980 Purdue International Compressor En gineering Conference (Purdue University), West Lafayette, IN, 1980, pp. 43–50. [7] Destoop T., Contribution à la conception assistée par ordinateur de compresseurs à pistons alternatifs, Thèse de doctorat, Université des sciences et techniques de Lille, France, 1988. [8] McGovern J.A., Harte S., An exergy method for compressor performance analysis, Int. J. Refrig. 18 (1995)
421–433.
[9] Sun S.Y., Ren T.R., New method of thermodynamic computation for a reciprocating compressor: computer simulation of working process, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 37 (1995)
343–353.
[10] Recktenwald G.W., Ramsey J.W., Patankar S.V., Pre dictions of heat transfer in compressors cylinders, in: Pro ceedings of the 1986 Purdue International Compressor En gineering Conference (Purdue University), West Lafayette, IN, 1986, pp. 159–174. [11] Keribar R., Morel T., Heat transfer and compo nent temperature prediction in reciprocating compressors, in: Proceedings of the 1988 Purdue International Com pressor Engineering Conference (Purdue University), West Lafayette, IN, 1988, pp. 454–463. [12] Kornhauser A.A., Smith Jr. J.L., Heat transfer with oscillating pressure and oscillating ﬂow, in: Proceedings of the 24th IECEC, Vol. 5, 1989, pp. 2347–2353. [13] Gedeon D., Mean parameter modeling of oscillating ﬂow, J. Heat Tran. 108 (1986) 513–518.
APPENDIX A
A.1. Estimated thermodynamic properties of point 2
Point D, deﬁned such as s _{D} = s _{1} , is assumed to be symmetrical to point 1 with respect to the isotherm T _{w} (ﬁgure 16), so that:
(A.1)
We neglect the curvature of the line (2–D–A). Geomet rical consideration on the similar triangles (2–E–D) and (A–F–D) yields (ﬁgure 16):
T _{D} = T _{1} + ξ _{w} (T _{2}_{,}_{s} − T _{1} )
s E
− s 2
_{=}
s _{A} − s _{F}
_{=}
_{=}
s 1
− s 2
s _{A} − s _{1}
T E − T D T _{D} − T _{F}
T 2 − T D T _{D} − T _{w}
(A.2)
On the other hand, from thermodynamics relationship we have:
65
P. Stouﬀs et al.
Figure 16. Temperature–entropy diagram of the compression process.
s _{2} − s _{2}_{,}_{s} = s _{2} − s _{1}
= c _{p} log
T 2,s
T
2
≈ c _{p}
T 2 − T 2,s
T 2,s
(A.3)
During the process (1–A), the heat exchange per unit mass can be expressed as follows:
q 1,A = A
1
T
ds = T _{m} (s _{A} − s _{1} )
(A.4)
where T _{m} is between T _{1} and T _{w} . Neglecting the curvature of the line (1–A), we state:
T _{m} = T _{1} + ^{T} ^{w} ^{−} ^{T} ^{1}
2
(A.5)
Moreover, the heat transfer laws suggest that the heat exchange is proportional to the temperature difference (T _{w} − T _{m} ), so that we may write:
= α _{2} c _{p} (T _{w} − T _{m} ) (A.6)
where the coefﬁcient α _{2} is a dimensionless parameter de scribing the heat transfer intensity during the compres sion process. Combining equations (A.4)–(A.6) and us ing equation (10) yields:
q _{1}_{,}_{A}
s _{A} − s _{1} = α _{2} c _{p}
= α _{2} c _{p}
T _{w} − T _{1} T _{w} + T _{1} ξ _{w} (Θ _{s} − 1)
4 + ξ _{w} (Θ _{s} − _{1}_{)}
(A.7)
Solving equations (A.2) and (A.3) and using equa tion (A.7) leads to the following expression:
(A.8)
with
66
T _{2} = ϑ _{2} T _{2}_{,}_{s}
ϑ _{2} = 1 − 2α _{2}
(1 − ξ _{w} )(Θ _{s} − 1) 4 + ξ _{w} (Θ _{s} − 1) + 2α _{2} Θ _{s}
(A.9)
A.2. Estimation of ^{}
1
2 v dp
From the thermodynamic diagrams properties, ^{}
1
2 v dp
is represented in the temperature–entropy diagram by the area of the surface bounded by the two isobaric curves p _{2} and p _{1} and by the (1–2) process curve. Therefore, we have (ﬁgure 16):
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