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The
Data Warehouse
h

IfieillOl

Practical Data Warehouse and


Business

Intelligence Insights

Robert (Bob)

Laberge

Mc
Grauu
Hill
New York

Lisbon

London
Milan

Seoul

Chicago
Madrid

San Francisco
Mexico City

New Delhi

Singapore

Sydney

San Juan
Toronto

Contents
Acknowledgments

xxi

Introduction
Part I

xx'"

Preparation
__________

Chapter!

Data Warehouse and Business


Business

Intelligence

Intelligence Overview

Overview

3
4

Definition

Value of Business

Intelligence
Breakdown of Business and Intelligence

Business

Intelligence

Success Factors

Purpose of Bl

Bl User Presentation

11

Bl Tool and Architecture

15

Advancements Due to Globalization

17

Data Warehouse Overview

17

Definition

18

Data Warehouse System

19

Data Warehouse Architecture

20

Data Flow Terminology

22

Data Warehouse Purpose

23

Data Structure

26

Strategy

Data Warehouse Business

Frequently Asked Questions

27
28

Systems Good Enough?

29

What Is the Value of a Data Warehouse?

30

How Much Will It Cost?

32

Long Will It Take?

32

Current

How

What Will Make Us Successful?

34

xi

The Data Warehouse Mentor

Chapter 2

the Organization

Data in

Corporate Asset
Data in Context

Data Quality

Data Vocabulary
Data

Components

Organizing the Data

Structuring the
Data Models

Data
.

Data Architecture

Competitive Advantage

Data Model Build or

Buy

Mentoring the Business

Chapter 3

Reasons for

Building

Platform Migration
Business Continuity
Reverse
Data

Engineering

Quality

....

Parallel Environments
Added Value

....

Data Warehouse Centralization

Corporate Merger
In-house Merging
Central Design and Local Usage
Data Mart Consolidation
....

New Initiative
New Initiative:

Dynamic Reporting

"Just Build It"


Data Floundation
Reasons for NOT

Dato Warehouse

Building a
Quality

Poor Data

Lack of Business Interest


Lack of

Sponsorship

Unclear Focus

Sufficiency

of Current Systems

Lack of Resources

xiii

Contents

Unstable Environment

88

Too

88

Costly

Poor

Chapter

Management

88

Data Warehouse and Business Intelligence


Business

Business Purpose

'0

Business

"

Usage

Architecture Overview

93
W

Usage

'5

DW Architecture

Focus ond Success

Enterprise

"
or

Line of Business?

99

Goal Focused

100

Success: When Are We Done?

'00

Where to Start?

101

For Bl

102

ForDW

103

How to Start?

'4

For Bl

1M

ForDW

106

Project Phasing

109

How Long Will It Take, Revisited

HO

Points of Interest

"2

Typical Failure

Reasons

H2

Basic Values

89

Intelligence Strategy

Data Warehouse Strategy

Chapter

Strategy

Project Resources:

117

Roles and

Key Observations

Insights

119
120

Project Teams

'20

Senior

Expertise
Leadership

121

Project Sponsor

'24

Data Warehouse Executive

125

Team Structure

122

125

Executive Sponsorship

'25

Data Stewards

127

Basic Resources

'27

xiv

The Data Warehouse Mentor

132

Periodic Reviews: Progress Audit

132

Center of Competence

135

Write-lt-Up Overview

Chapter 6

'36

Project Charter

138

Project Scope

139

Statement of Work (SOW)

Components

Part II

Business

Chapter 7

Intelligence: Data

Marts

and Usage

145

Why Model the Data?


Types of Data Models
Design of Data
Fact

Types of Fact Tables


Source of Measures

160
162
163

Key

Grain of Fact Table

163

Table Density

164

Factless Fact Table

164

Fact

165

Dimensions
Dimension or Measure

166

History and Dates

166

Dimension Table

Key

Grain of Dimension

171
172

Source and Value of Dimension Attributes

173

Types of Dimensions
Hierarchies and Helper Tables

174

Profile Tables

186

Number of Dimensions

188

184

'88

Sizing
8

149

158

Types of Facts

Chapter

146
I57

Tables

Fact Table

143

Enterprise Data Models


Data Models Overview
Inmon and Kimball
EDM Purpose

191
192

195
196

Contents

EDM Benefit

"6

Data Model: Where to Start

197

Full Top-Down Data Model

198

Subject Area Model

199

Concept Model

201

Entity Relationship Model

202

Bus Architecture

203

Purchased Data Model

205

Model

Insights

207

Data

207

Components

Normalizing a Data Model


Supertype/Subtype Models

208

214

Capturing History in a Normalized Data Model

217

Surrogate Keys

222

Logical vs. Physical Data Model

222

Referential Integrity

224

or

Not

Other Data Models

225

Input Data Model

225

Staging Data Model

225

Final Thoughts

Chapter 9

XV

Data Warehouse Architecture:

226

Components

227

Architecture Overview

228

Architect Roles

228

Solution Architect

229

Data Warehouse Architect

229

Technical Architect

230

Data Architect

230

ETL Architect

230

Bl Architect

231

Overall

231

Architecture Tiers

232

Single-Tier Architecture

232

Classic Two-Tier Architecture

233

Advanced Three-Tier Architecture

235

xvi

The Data Warehouse Mentor

Data Warehouse Architectures

Solo Data Mart Architecture

236

Bus Architecture

237

Central

Architecture

Repository

Federated Architecture

238

239

Components (Layers)

240

Data Sources

240

Data Population

240

Data Organization

241

Data Distribution

241

Information Out

241

Implementation Approaches

242

Design and Data Flow

243

Physical Models
Top-Dov/n Approach
Bottom-Up Approach
Hybrid Approach

243

Data

Logical

vs.

246
246
249
250

Accelerators

Acquisition Layer
Centralized Data Layer

251

Data Distribution Layer

252

Performance Layer

252

User Presentation

253

Data

Chapter 10

236

Layer

251

Methodology

253

Out-of-the-Box Solution

254

ETL and Data

Quality

Architecture
Data

255
257

Population

258

Data Distribution

259

ETL Mapping

260

Initial and Incremental Loads

262

ETLvs.ELTvs.ETTL

263

Parallel Operations

265

ETL Roles

265

Data Flow

Diagrams

267

Operational Data Store (ODS)

267

Contents

Source Systems

268

No Source

268

Multiple Sources

269

Alternate Sources (SIFs)

269

Unstructured Data

271

Profiling

271

Data Capture

272

Data

Multiple Large Files

272

Switch Files

272

Failsafe Strategy
Transformation and Staging

Preparation

275

Surrogate Keys

277

Referential Integrity

280

Aggregating, Profiling, and Summarizing

280

Code Tables

281

Loading

281

History
History
! nsert/U pdate/U psert/Oelete

282

Population Information

282

Lood Scheduling

283

for EDW vs.

283

No

vs.

Staging

Staging for Bus Architecture

Data Distribution

282

285

3NFto Star

Chapter 11

273

274

285

Data Quality

287

ETL Tools

289

Project Planning and Methodology


Fundamentals

294

Risk: Phased
Risk:

Data

291

Development

Quality

295
296

Risk: Resources

296

Risk: Cost

297

Change Management

297

Best Practices

298

Mistakes

298

xvii

XVlii

The Data Warehouse Mentor

Project Plan Methodology

Part III

Chapter

12

299

Business Requirements

301

Strategy and Plan

302

Solution Outline

304

Design

304

Build

305

Deploy

306

Use

306

Let's Build

Working Scenarios

309

The Chef: Let's Get Cooking!

312

Top-Down (Enterprise Repository)

315

Vocabulary
Centralized Data Model

318

Data Architecture

319

Sources

321

Data Model

321

Database

323

Acquisition

323

Solution Overview

324

Bottom-Up (OLAP Reporting)

325

End Result

327

Vocabulary

332

Data Architecture

332

Conformed Dimension Administration

334

Sources

334

Solution Overview

334

Hybrid (Normalized Design and OLAP)

336

First Efforts

338

Data Models

338

Data Architecture

339

Solution Overview

341

Merging
Plan of Action
No

317

Input: Structured Input Files

342
343
345

Contents

Integrating Phase 2
Change Management
The Bigger Picture: Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA)

Chapter

13

Data Governance

348
348

351

What Is Data Governance?

352

Definition

352

Reasons for Data Governance

353

Organizational Structure

354

Drivers and Initiatives

356

Data Governance: Major Points

357

Security and Sensitivity

357

Data Quality

358

Ownership
Change Control

359

Data Governance Readiness

Chapter 14

347

Post-Project Review

360
361

363

Synopsis

364

Project Review

365

Next Phase

370

Index

371

xix