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Faculty of Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Semester 1 2016/2017

KMEM2218 Product Design and Development


Group Design Project

Automated Windshield Sunshade


Theme:

To improve comfort and convenience in car

Lecturer:

Dr. Mohd Sayuti Bin Ab Karim

Group Members:
Alfred Raj A/L PT Sallaiah

KEM 140003

Liu Huan

NGX 160224

Md Golam Rassel Lincoln

KEM 140704

Ng Weng Lun

KEM 140075

Syed Khalis Bin Syed Hamid

KEM 140059

Yap Carlwin

KEM 140069

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all, everyone from Group D would like to express our sincerest gratitude to our lecturer for
Product Design and Development course, Dr. Mohd. Sayuti bin Abdul Karim for all the knowledge and
guidance that you had showed us. Without him, this assignment would not have gone this far in
completion. We would also thank him for shedding lights in the knowledge of this course especially in
ways of preparing questionnaire, generating ideas, concept screening, finalizing models and many more.
Despite being a lecturer, we would like to thank him for the motivation and positive words that drive us to
overcome obstacles and challenges when completing this assignment. Dr. Mohd. Sayuti has been a really
great help for us to complete this project.
Next, we would also like to thank everyone in this course for their comments and ideas to further
improve our design. Some may be critical while some are inspiring. We would thank both as it has helped
us in what to consider in our design. Despite not being in the same group, they have been helpful and not
to mention, generous in sharing their knowledge. They are important as they reflected customers
perspective in improving car comfort and convenience onto our design. Without those beneficial insights
and suggestion, we will certainly have hard times finishing our project.
Furthermore, we would like to express our gratitude to those who had participated in our survey.
Thank you for the time and effort in contributing perspectives and the information we gathered is very
important in design our product. Without their response, we would not be able to achieve customers need
when mass produced in the Malaysia market. We do learn a lot about the trend of drivers and cars in
Malaysia and it has helped us especially when generating and selecting our concepts. With this, we are
able to finalize a design that can satisfy the customers needs.
Last but not least, we would like to thank the most precious group, the members of group D.
Without their dedication, the project would not be completed in time. With great cooperation and effort,
we are able to come up with ideas, screen concepts, finalize design and develop a product as a team.
Thank you for the hard work and commitment in completing the task we distributed among each other.

ABSTRACT
The theme of this project is to develop and design an improvement on comfort and convenience
in a car. Basically, we are required to design a product which is able to ease the lifestyle of Malaysian in
term of comfort and convenience in a car. The product must able to be commercialized as well. The range
of our design is quite large although restricted to upper body parts but not limited to body and trimmings,
internal panel and seats. The design must green or eco, new invention or uniquely Malaysian. It can be
mechanical, electrical and electromechanical.
Through brainstorming sessions, various concepts are developed to solve various kind of
problem, such as heat inside a parked car, child seat safety, and retractable table in the car. However, after
consideration and discussion, we decided to focus on design on solving the problem of heat accumulated
inside a parked car. First of all, we identified the customers needs on this issue and product specifications
are created. We came across a few designs and through concept selection process, the outcome is the final
design of our project, an automated windshield sunshade.
The detailed modeling is then done using SolidWorks with the technical drawing as well. The
analysis is done using ANSYS to inspect the safeness of our product. Next, through research and
discussions, we decided on the materials to be used and the process to be applied to manufacture our
products. The estimated cost is calculated. Last but not least, recommendations are done in the end to
further improve our product so that, it can survived in the competitive market.

TABLE OF CONTENT
1.

2.
3.

4.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND RESEARCH

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

1.3 OBJECTIVE

1.4 MISSION STATEMENT

1.5 CHAPTER ORGANIZATION


LITERATURE REVIEW
METHODOLOGY

4
5

3.1 PRODUCT PLANNING

3.2 IDENTIFYING OPPOTURNITIES

3.3 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMERS NEEDS

10

3.4 BRAINSTORMING SESSIONS

11

3.5 PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

11

3.6 CONCEPT GENERATION

11

3.7 CONCEPT SELECTION

12

3.8 CONCEPT TESTING

12

3.9 MODELING

13

3.10 ANALYSIS

13

3.11 MATERIALS SELECTION

13

3.12 MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS

13

3.13 COST ESTIMATION


RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS

14

4.1 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMERS NEEDS

15

4.2 BRAINSTORMING SESSIONS

19

4.3 PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

26

4.4 CONCEPT GENERATION

32

4.5 CONCEPT SELECTION

35

4.6 CONCEPT TESTING

38

4.7 MODELLING

39

4.8 APPLICATION

53

4.9 ANALYSIS

54

4.10 MATERIALS SELECTION

62

4.
5.
7.

4.11 MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS

67

4.12 COST ESTIMATION

71

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


REFERENCE
APPENDIX

72
73
74

List of Figures
Figure 1 shows a windshield sunshade
6
Figure 2 shows when a windshield sunshade applied
6
Figure 3 shows a traditional product development process
7
Figure 4 shows the Deming cycle
8
Figure 5 shows a front to end process of concept development
12
Figure 6 shows the percentage according to the types of vehicle travelled by drivers
or passengers
16
Figure 7 shows the parking preferences of drivers
17
Figure 8 shows the reasons for parking
17
Figure 9 shows retractable sunshade by Ez Slide Shade
23
Figure 10 shows a fan coolers by OEM Auto Fan Cool Ventilation Car Heat Remover
23
Figure 11 shows OH Ivory Solar Powered Car Front/Rear WIndows Air Vent Cooler Fan
24
Figure 12 shows the House of Quality
27
Figure 13 shows a door fan
28
Figure 14 shows a door fins
29
Figure 15 shows a window fans
29
Figure 16 shows a liquid cooling system
29
Figure 17 shows an automated windshield sunshade
30
Figure 18 shows a meshed components
30
Figure 19 shows seat fans
31
Figure 20 shows a roof circulatory system
31
Figure 21 shows sunshade cover
33
Figure 22 shows a retractable sunshade cover
34
Figure 23 shows an automated windshield sunshade
34
Figure 24 shows a foldable window sunshade
37
Figure 25 shows a car Sunshade Gauze Insulated Curtain Retractable Shutter
37
Figure 26 shows an isometric view of automated windshield sunshade
40
Figure 27 shows an isometric view of the rolled sunshade
40
Figure 28 shows the isometric view of casing
41
Figure 29 shows the isometric view of panel
41

Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

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shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows
shows

List of Table

the detailed view of the switch


an isometric view of the motor
an isometric view of the solar sensor
isometric view of shades with panels
an isometric view of combined parts
von-Mises stress of motor shaft
total deformation of motor shaft
the thermal strain of motor shaft
the fatigue life of motor shaft
the safety factor of motor shaft
von-Mises stress of casing
total deformation of casing
thermal strain of casing
fatigue life of casing
safety factor of casing
von-Mises stress of panel
total deformation of panel
thermal strain of panel
fatigue life of panel
safety factor of panel.
the repeating unit of Vinyl Ester
the polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
the monomer of propylene
GM25-TEC2430 electric brush 12v ac/dc gear motor
the solar sensor
Sunkee LDR Photoresistor
injection molding overview
the manufacturing the shade
the extrusion process

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70

Table 1 shows the mission statement.........................................................................3


Table 2 shows a Gantt chart....................................................................................... 8
Table 3 shows the customer's statement and interpreted needs.............................19
Table 4 shows customer needs and their relative importance..................................20
Table 5 shows a list of metrics.................................................................................. 21
Table 6 shows a relationship between needs and their respective importance........22
Table 7 shows a competitive benchmarking chart based on perceied satisfaction
needs........................................................................................................................ 24
Table 8 shows a competitive benchmarking chart among existing products............25
Table 9 shows a table for target specifications.........................................................26
Table 10 shows a concept scoring for concept selection..........................................31
Table 11 shows the description of concept generated, the benefits and advantage of
each design.............................................................................................................. 34
Table 12 shows a PUGH Matrix of Each Concept.......................................................35
Table 13 shows a PUGH Matrix of Baseline Product and Competing Product............37
Table 14 shows the results of concept test survey...................................................38
Table 15 shows the comparisons of vinyl coated polyester and Mylar......................63
Table 16 shows comparisons of polypropylene and PVC...........................................64
Table 17 shows the comparisons of mild steel and allow steel.................................65
Table 18 shows the cost of standard components....................................................72
Table 19 shows the cost of custom components......................................................72
Table 20 shows the cost of manufacturing process..................................................72
Table 21 shows the marginal value and product value of customer needs...............73

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND RESEARCH
The blooming of economy of Malaysia ever since Independent Year has brought us prosperity and
development in many aspects. One of the many aspects would be modernization of our country. The
increasing number of vehicles is a result from the modernization. From about 100,000 of new vehicles
registered in the year 1980 to an increasing number of 600,000 of new vehicles registered in the year
2015. According to Nielsen Global Survey of Automotive Demand, Malaysia is the third highest of car
ownership globally. It has reached almost 10,000,000 numbers of vehicles today.
Being the busiest city of Malaysia, there is a lot of cars commute into the city center of Kuala
Lumpur every day. Every main road connecting into city center are congested during the peak hours, in
the early morning and late afternoon. The car users almost spent 2-3 hours in the car per day. Therefore, a
car convenience and comfort became a highly prioritized issue.
In this project, we are required to design a product which improves the car convenience and
comfort. This is a challenging design process, however, with proper planning and execution, we believed
that we can design a product that fulfilled the criteria and prevail in the market.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT


Malaysia, being a tropical country, is hot and warm year around. The average temperature of
Malaysia is around 27 C. However, during the day time, the temperature can reach a peak of 34C.
Basically, it is hot during the daytime and warm during the night time. In the year 2016, the temperature
exceeds over 40C due to the El Nino phenomenon.
Due to the high temperature of this country, heat ventilation of a car is important to the car users.
The heat accumulated inside the car will bring discomfort to the users whether during commutation or
parked in outdoor area. While commutating, the problem is not severe as it can be solved by switching on
the air conditioner. However, heat accumulated when the car is parked at outdoor area had always trouble
car users for a very long time.
Due to prolonged exposure to the sun when the car is parked at the outdoor area, the greenhouse
effect happened. The temperature of the car rises up and become higher than the exterior. When the car
users re-enter the car, it caused thermal discomfort to the users. It is rather unpleasant to sit in the car
1

during that condition. Therefore, the air conditioner is switched on and the car is allowed to cool down for
some time before re-entering. This caused wastage in time and energy and inconvenience to the users. It
will slow down the users and may bring along of consequences such as late to meeting, emergency and
others.
Not only causing thermal comfort, long exposure to the sun may cause the dashboard to fade and
crack. Discoloration and aging of the seat may happen, too. All these lowers the aesthetic appeal of the
car. Lastly, most of the users have a habit of switch on the air conditioner to maximum to increase the
process of cooling down. This will certainly bring harmful effect to the air conditioner in long term.
Therefore, it is important to apply any measures to reduce the heat building up in the car. One of
the most common one is to put on the windshield sunshade. There is various kind of windshield sunshade
in the market, with different materials or designs. However, these sunshades have a common problem,
which is it required manual labor to open it up and put on the windshield. Therefore, our group has
picked this problem as our design theme, to design an automated windshield sunshade.

1.3 OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this project is to design a product which is able to solve the problem of
heat accumulation in cars. Such product must be able to sustain the environment and be adaptable to the
Malaysian driving culture. This product is designed to solve some of the problems faced by users on
existing products in the market.

1.4 MISSION STATEMENT


Table 1 shows the mission statement

Product Description
Benefit Proposition

Key Business Goals


Primary Markets
Secondary Markets
Assumptions and Constraints

Stakeholders

A automated windshield sunshade


Better design
Greater stability
Higher safety feature
Extra features
Attempt to bring innovation to the

existing windshield sun shade market


Car users
Working class
Home
Automated feature
Ease of installation
Lightweight
Increase safety features
Reasonable price
Modification from existing product line
Purchasers and users
Distributors and resellers
Manufacturing operations
Service operations

1.5 CHAPTER ORGANIZATION


In Chapter 2, a literature review on the sunshade is done. The overview of the sunshield and the
sub problems are discussed. In Chapter 3, the methodology of carrying out the project is explained. First
of all, the methods to identify the customers needs are determined. This includes the explanations of the
user needs survey conducted and the interpretation of the raw data in terms of the user needs. Next,
3

explanation of ways to translate the needs into product specifications is done. The methods of selecting
concepts, testing concepts, modeling and analysis are explained thoroughly in this chapter as well.
Besides that, the method of selecting materials, manufacturing and estimating cost are discussed here as
well. In Chapter 4, the result and discussion on findings are discussed. All the user statements and
interpreted needs, their relative importance, the competitive benchmarking chart, the target specifications,
the sketch of concepts generated or product strategies is included to solve the problems clarified, the final
concepts selected and concept testing, the model of the product, and the results from analysis. Results of
materials selection, manufacturing processes and cost estimation will also be explained. In Chapter 5,
conclusion and discussion is made and some recommendations are given for this design project.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW


To stop the sun from reaching the interior, causing various damages to the interior of the car
especially raising the temperature of car interior, windshield sun shade is designed for this purpose. It is a
protective shield that is attached onto a car windshield.
4

Car parked at outdoor area without roof is exposed to extensive sunlight. The heat accumulated
will produced greenhouse effect, where the interior temperature is higher than the outside environment.
Eventually, long period exposure to the sunlight caused a lot of damages to the car, such as faded and
cracking dashboard and seat discoloration.
The windshield glass actually blocks most of the UV light and infrared radiation from the
sunlight. However, visible light still able to penetrate through the glass and absorbed by components in a
car. Those visible light are transformed into the infrared which unable to pass through the glass and is
trapped inside the car. The infrared red heated up the interior of the car which raises the temperature of
the interior.
Windshield sun shades are able to solve this problem due its reflective surface which bounces the
light back, blocking the penetration of the visible lights. This will help in reducing the interior
temperature and avoid damaging the interior of the car. The commonly seen sunshade is the one that look
like aluminum foil that cover the inside of the windshield as shown in Figure 2.1. The sun rays are
successively blocked. Due to innovation and creativity, there are actually various sunshades now in the
market. Among others, removable windshield sun shades are the most popular, thanks to ease of
installation and it is cost friendly.

Figure 1 shows a windshield sunshade

Figure 2 shows when a windshield sunshade applied

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, the methodology will show what kind of approach is used to plan the project
effectively for the project. Product development process is a significant part in project planning as a
successful product development plays the main role in producing the best product to satisfy customers
needs. Product development process consists of a sequence of steps which includes concept or idea
generation, research on the market, business analysis, product development and launching.

Figure 3 shows a traditional product development process

3.1 PRODUCT PLANNING


Product planning is an important step before executing a certain idea. Planning should be
approved first to avoid any last minute modification to the concept as this would disrupt the flow of the
project. Always bear in mind the iterative four-step management method that is usually used in a certain
assignment is the Deming cycle or wheel. This cycle consists of plan-do-check-act. Planning is important
to establish objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output.
By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the specification is also a part of
the targeted improvement.

Figure 4 shows the Deming cycle

Below is a Gantt chart designed to complete the Automated Windshield Sunshade Project.
Table 2 shows a Gantt chart

Week
No

Task
1

1
2
3

Project Planning
Gathering Customer Needs
Design Requirement and
Objectives
Concept Generation
a. Material Selection
b. Analysis
c. Manufacturing Process
d. Cost Estimation
Concept Finalization
a. Concept further

improvement
b. Final report summation

3.2 IDENTIFYING OPPOTURNITIES


For this project, the opportunity identified must involve the incremental improvements to some parts
of the existing products, equipment or devices as stated in the problem statements. The new concept in
this solar reflector project is bring forth after brainstorming process which takes up most of the product
development process. The brainstorming process has taken many aspects into considerations.
First of all, the current market in the world does not mass produce any automated solar reflector
that is going to be proposed. Hence, the availability of this screwdriver is close to zero as it is not found in
any market in the world. Once the new concept is realized, it has the potential to expand greatly in the
market as it is useful and innovative. This is true as research was conducted to look for any available

automated solar reflector. Furthermore, all car manufacturer and car accessories supplier only distribute
common type of solar reflector.
Below are the options available for steps towards opportunities identification.
Sources of ideas for new products or features may come from

Marketing and sales personnel


Research and technology development organization
Current product development teams
Manufacturing and operation organization
Third parties such as suppliers, inventors, and business partners

Identify customer needs by

Document frustration and complaints of existing products


Interview lead users
Consider implications of trends in lifestyle, demographics, and technology for existing product

categories
Gather suggestions from customers
Carefully study competitors products
Track the status of emerging technologies

Evaluate and Prioritize Projects

Competitive Strategy
Technology leadership, cost, customer focus, etc.
Market Segmentation
Technological Trajectories
Product platform planning
Evaluating fundamentally new product opportunities
Balancing the portfolio

Allocate Resources and Plan Timing

Resource Allocation
Project Timing
Timing of product introductions
Technology readiness
Market readiness
Competition

Complete Pre-Project Planning

Mission Statements
Brief description of the product
Key business goals
Target markets
Assumptions and constraints that guide the development effort
Stakeholders
Assumption and Constraints
Manufacturing
Service
Environment
Staffing and other pre-project planning activities

Reflect on the Result and the Process


Some suggested questions are

Does the product plan support the competitive strategy of the firm?
Are the total resources allocated to the product development sufficient to pursue the firms

competitive strategy?
Does the core team accept the challenges of the resulting mission statement?
Are the elements of the mission statement consistent?

In a nutshell, we have decided to proceed with the new idea of automated solar reflector project as it has a
great potential in the automotive market.

3.3 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMERS NEEDS


We have applied several methods to identify customer needs. They are listed as below.
1. Survey
The survey is conducted on the public to gather information on what kind of product we will have
to design and which aspect to focus on. 30 respondents were involved in the survey with the
distribution of teenagers and adults with different sexes. The questionnaires are attached in
Appendix.
2. Short interview
Since our innovative product for vehicles is considered a large scale production which will
generally need a large amount of resources and model, the needs and requirement of successful
and famous automobile companies are essential in helping our idea generation. Thus, we have
interviewed a few vehicles users from different age group and use types.
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3. Observation
Research can be studied by observing the availability of the automated solar reflector. By
observing the type of solar reflector used at a car park can help us to verify the availability of the
type of solar reflector in the market.

3.4 BRAINSTORMING SESSION


Adhering to the theme of innovation for automobile devices in the process to improve the comfort
and convenience to be commercialized to ease the lifestyle of Malaysian, our team started the
brainstorming process by withdrawing ideas from things we wish to improve to our vehicles. Ideas are
generated as many as possible with the following concepts and their respective justifications are drafted.

3.5 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION


After comparisons between variations of solar reflector are made, the final specification can be
drafted and established based on customers needs. First, a list of metrics is prepared and be complied
with when designing the new concept with computer aided design (CAD). Hence, several solar reflector
variations are used as benchmarking information to make comparison for detail positioning. The
specifications for the sets of variations are compared and the data based on customers needs are chosen
and used for the new concept.

3.6 CONCEPT GENERATION


Brainstorming process is the concept generation process which is to get the idea and identify subproblems hence to produce relevant solution sketches for each sub-problem. Starting with a set of
customer needs and target specifications, the process concludes with an array of product alternatives from
which a final design is selected. All solutions are analyzed for their advantages and disadvantages. The
result of concept generation will help to select the best design concept.
A typical front to end process of the concept development is shown in the figure below:

11

Figure 5 shows a front to end process of concept development

3.7 CONCEPT SELECTION


For the selection of the concept, the concept screening method is used. This method is used because it is
much simpler and it narrows the number of concepts quickly.
Two-stage concept selection methodology called the concept screening followed by the concept
scoring is employed in the stage of concept selection where each is supported by a decision matrix that is
used to rate, rank and select the final and best concept. Both stages which are concept screening and
concept scoring follow a six-step process that leads through the concept selection activity.
These steps are:
a
b
c
d
e
f

Prepare the selection matrix


Rate the concepts
Rank the concepts
Combine and improve the concepts
Select one or more concepts
Reflect on the results and the process

The selection matrix is first prepared, plotting each concept against the criteria based on the
users needs that has to be fulfilled. A concept has to be chosen to become the benchmark or reference
concept after careful consideration. Each concept is rated whether it is good (+) at fulfilling a need,
average (0) or bad (-) at fulfilling the need.
After rating the concepts, the numbers are added and ranking for the concepts are made. The best
concepts for each sub criteria are selected. No concept scoring is applied as the screening matrix is said to
provide adequate resolution. Lastly, the best concepts for each part is combined and the final concept of
the screwdriver is successfully produced.

3.8 CONCEPT TESTING


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The final stage of concept development is the concept testing. During this stage, a response is
solicited to a description of the product concept from potential customers in the target market especially
people who own cars and vans. Concept testing is closely related to concept selection where they aim to
further narrow the set of concepts under consideration. However, concept testing is distinct because it is
based on data gathered directly from potential customers. Seven-step methods for testing the product
concept are used namely:
a
b
c
d
e
f
g

Define the purpose of the concept test


Choose a survey population
Choose a survey format
Communicate the concept
Measure customer response
Interpret the results
Reflect on the results and the process

3.9 MODELLING
Based on the final product concept, SolidWorks 2014 is used to model the solar reflector
according to the product specifications. SolidWorks is a 3D mechanical CAD (computer-aided design)
program that runs on Microsoft Windows and is being developed by Dassault Systmes SolidWorks
Corp., a subsidiary of Dassault Systmes, S. A. (Vlizy, France). A 3D product was drawn and the
analysis of the products safety factor should be done. For some technical drawing problem. The final
product is drawn out part by part and also assembled with the SolidWorks 2014. The solid models of final
product together with modified parts were shown. Proper materials are also selected from Solidworks to
conduct analysis later in the process. Besides, technical drawings were also included.
3.10 ANALYSIS
The new concept of solar reflector will undergone testing on its main parts such as its casing and
motor. The analysis is conducted virtually via Ansys 16.0 that are capable to perform simulation on the
product. Various test can be conducted and analysis can be obtained from Ansys 16.0 as whatever force,
moment and torque can be applied at any location so that it work properly in reality with data exactly as
simulated. Simulations are important so that more improvements can be made when flaws are detected.

3.11 MATERIAL SELECTION


Based on the analysis conducted on every part of the product, the appropriate material is selected
either differently or the same for each and every part. The factor to choosing a suitable material is based
on the strength and modulus of elasticity of the part needed. Many selection is considered and made
13

which involve different categories such as steel, rubber, polymer and alloy. Materials selected should be
able to be manufactured to the shape needed. Hence, a proper material and manufacturing process needs
to be justified as it will be possible to produce. There are also several factors in choosing the material
which includes resistance to chemical and sustainability.

3.12 MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY PROCESS


The manufacturing process is based on the material selected so that it is possible to manufacture
the certain shape with the required mechanical properties. Safety factor should not be jeopardized by
economical factor. Safety factor ought to be the priority as this product is targeted to be mass produced to
the market. Hence, appropriate manufacturing process need to be considered after the material is selected.
3.13 COST ESTIMATION
In order to have a vivid perspective of the marketing value of the product, the basic cost to
produce one unit is calculated and estimated. All the components of the product are custom components
that need to be manufactured. Thus, a rough figure cost needs to include the costs of raw material and
manufacturing process of respective components. The raw material cost is estimated by computing the
mass of the part and multiplying by the cost (per unit mass) of the raw material. Even though
manufacturing costs consist of processing costs and tooling costs, the manufacturing costs of standard
components available are used for the purpose of simplicity. The total cost of one complete unit of the
improved solar reflector is obtained by summing up the cost of standard components and custom
components which are manufacturing and material cost in this product.

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.1 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMERS NEEDS
4.1.1 TARGET CUSTOMERS
The customers who are mainly put into focus are the drivers and passengers of any vehicles,
particularly the cars. It should be understood that the vehicles gets warmer in the space enclosed within
whenever parked under the shade. This is due to the factor of Malaysias hot and humid climate.
4.1.2 DATA GATHERING ON SURVEY CONDUCTED
A survey was conducted among the drivers and passengers of various groups, namely students of
the University of Malaya and the staffs working here. Numerous aspects of their needs were thoroughly
studied throughout this survey. About 172 subjects successfully took part and completed the survey,
which was conducted through documented forms.
Below are the aspects and the graphs related based on the questions asked in the survey form:
Aspect 1: Type of vehicle driven

15

No. of drivers
SUV
14%

MPV

14%

Sedan
13%

23%

Van
Coupe
Others

11%

25%

Figure 6 shows the percentage according to the types of vehicle travelled by drivers or passengers

Aspect 2: Parking preferences


This following graph shows the preferences of the drivers in parking, in their workplaces or during their
study period.

Parking preference
No money needed to pay for parking; 5%
Time saving; 10%
Parking preference; 36%
Vehicle is always under a watch; 16%

Convenient; 33%

Figure 7 shows the parking preferences of drivers

16

In this aspect, too, we inquired of the reason for their preferences.

Parking preference
No money needed to pay for parking; 5%
Time saving; 10%
Parking preference; 36%
Vehicle is always under a watch; 16%

Convenient; 33%

Figure 8 shows the reasons for parking

Aspect 3: Encountering heated vehicle space problem when parking


We also investigated the problem of heated vehicle enclosure when the subjects park their
vehicles. And, all the subjects agreed that their vehicles get warmer and notified that the vehicles need a
longer time to get cooler.
Thus, this ensures that a quick solution is needed to counter the problems faced by the drivers in
Malaysia, at where the climate is humid and dry.
4.1.3 SHORT INTERVIEW
A short interview is also conducted with potential customers who own at least a car and uses their
car to commute. Below are questions asked with important points for the design process.
1. How often do you commute with your cars?
I drive to work every day.
2. What is the problem(s) you have faced so far being a driver or a passenger?
As a driver, I find the car interior very hot after parked for a long duration at outdoor.
Especially when there is lack of indoor parking, majority of my company workers have to park
17

under the sun. So, I tried using a sunshade but overtime, the sunshade teared and it is a real
hassle to put it up and down after getting off and on my car that I stopped using them
eventually.
3. What would you do to solve the problem(s) you faced?
Every time I start my car, I would crank my air-conditioner up and move to shaded area to cool
the car down.
4. What is the improvement(s) that should be taken to your current situation?
The car interior should have a heat reduction mechanism so that we dont have to waste time
cooling off the car. A user friendly sunshade should be made available widely so that it is
convenient to use the sunshade and the sunshade must be durable.
5. What do you think about the market availability to counter the problem(s)?
I dont think there is such sunshade that is hassle free and durable. If there is, its surely not
widely available in Malaysia.

4.1.4 HIERARCHY ON THE NEEDS OF CUSTOMERS


From the survey, we gathered opinion of customers on the current available solution, one is the fan cooler
and another one is retractable windshield sunshade. The available products in the market of the two
options respectively are OEM Auto Fan Cool Ventilation Car Heat Remover and Ez Slide Shade.
Below are the needs of the subjects, drivers in general, to be fulfilled according to the priority
posed by them.
Table 3 shows the customer's statement and interpreted needs

Question

Customer Statement

Interpreted Need

Typical uses

The car is heated up when parked under

The product is able to reduce the

the sun
The heated car took a long time to cool

heat accumulated in the car.


The product is able to cool the car

down.
The fan cooler is eco-friendly, using

down in a short time.


The product is green technology.

harvested solar energy.


The fan cooler is durable, not easily

The product is durable and has long

broken.
The fan cooler is light weight and easy to

usage life.
The product is light weight and

install

easy to install on the car.

The retractable sun shade looks neat from

The product will not affect the

Likes-current tool(fan
cooler)

Likes-current

18

tool( retractable sun shade)

the inside.

appearance of the car.

The retractable sun shade able to block the

The product is able to block the

heat and UV rays from entering the car

heat and UV rays from entering the

interior.
The retractable sun shade is metal

interior car.
The product is durable to avoid

structure so that it is durable.

fracture.

Dislikes-current tool(fan

The price of the fan cooler is expensive

The product must be cost friendly.

cooler)

for such small product.


The fan cooler may not be efficient

The product must be efficient

enough to reduce heat.


The fan cooler may obstruct view of the

enough to perform its duty.


The product must be installed on

car users.

place that avoiding from blocking

Dislikes-current tool

The retractable sunshade required manual

the eyesight of the users.


The product must be easy to

(retractable sun shade)

labor to function.
The retractable sunshade is expensive

operate.
The product must be cost friendly.

compared to other normal sunshade.

Then, the relative importance of the product to be designed based on customers needs is established.
5 - The most important needs of the product

1 - The least important needs of the product

Table 4 shows customer needs and their relative importance

Need No.

Need

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Ability to remove heat


Efficiency
Eco-friendly
Durability
Light Weight
Appearance
Ability to block heat
Ease of operate
Cost friendly
Long lifespan
Safety
Ease of maintenance
19

Relative
Importance
5
5
3
4
3
3
5
3
3
4
4
3

4.2 PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS


4.2.1 METRICS ON CUSTOMER NEEDS
The target specifications of the product are established after the customer needs have been
identified. Firstly, the list of metrics for the heat remover based on the customer needs is prepared:
Table 5 shows a list of metrics

Metric No.

Need No.

Metric

Imp.

Units

4,6,8,10,11,12

Product mass

kg

1,2,4,5,6,7

Product dimension

cm cm cm

1,2,3,7,8,12

Product mechanism

Subj

2,9,10,12

Price

RM

4,9,10,12

Maintenance cost

RM

4,5,9,10,11,12

Durability

year

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,12

Frame

Subj

1,2,3,4,5,7,9

Material

Subj

10

4,6,10,11,12

Rust resistance

Subj

11

5,8

Ease of Installation

Subj

12.

1,5,7,11

Probability of injury

Subj

13.

2,3,8,12

Power source

Subj

20

Hence, the relationship between the needs and the metrics are represented by the needs-metrics matrix:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Ability to remove heat


Efficiency
Eco-friendly
Durability
Light Weight
Appearance
Ability to block heat
Ease of operation
Cost friendly
Long lifespan
Safety
Ease of maintenance

4.2.2 BENCHMARKING AND METRICS


Benchmarking is a process of comparing quality, performance and cost of the products in the
market. Benchmarking involves management identifying the best firms in their industry and comparing
the results and processes to learn about the performance of product and how it functions. With the
benchmarking on different products, rough idea can be obtained on how to put into account of the design
features and specifications. Sometimes, ideas can be innovated from existing product rather than depends
on the dimension or metric of a product only.
21

Power source

Probability of injury

Ease of Installation

Rust resistance

Material

Frame

Durability

Price

Maintenance cost

Needs

Product mechanism

No.

Product dimension

Metrics

Product mass

Table 6 shows a relationship between needs and their respective importance

The competitive benchmarks for our products are three different types of products, two is fan
cooler and another one is retractable sunshade. Through this benchmarking, the best standard for all the
criteria of the product can be concluded. Thus the standard became the guideline to improve my design.
Tables below show the comparisons between the products.

Figure 9 shows retractable sunshade by Ez Slide Shade

Figure 10 shows a fan coolers by OEM Auto Fan Cool Ventilation Car Heat Remover

22

Figure 11 shows OH Ivory Solar Powered Car Front/Rear WIndows Air Vent Cooler Fan

Competitive benchmarking chart based on perceived satisfaction needs:


Table 7 shows a competitive benchmarking chart based on perceied satisfaction needs

No.

Needs

Imp.

OEM Auto

OH Ivory

Fan Cool

Solar Powered

Ventilatio

Car Cooler

Retractable

n Car

Fan

sunshade

Heat
Remover
1

Ability to remove heat

Efficiency

Eco-friendly

Durability

Light Weight

Appearance

Ability to block heat

Ease of operate

Cost friendly

10

Long lifespan

11

Safety

12

Ease of maintenance

23

5 - The most important needs of the product


1 - The least important needs of the product

To set the ideal and marginally acceptable target values for the target specifications, the
competitive benchmarking information from four different balance bikes available on the market is
collected. Comparison can be made easily from the competitive benchmarking chart constructed:
Table 8 shows a competitive benchmarking chart among existing products

Metri
c No.

Metric

Imp
.

Product mass

Product dimension

Units

kg
cm cm
cm

OEM Auto

OH Ivory

Fan Cool

Solar

Ventilation

Powered

Car Heat

Car Cooler

Remover
2.23

Fan
3.5

2.00

15x11x6

17x10x7

52x36x2

Extract heat

Extract heat

through fan

through fan

Retractable
Sunshade

Block the

Product mechanism

Subj

Price

RM

65.90

200.00

of heat
150.00

Maintenance cost

RM per year

30.00

50.00

Durability

year

Frame

Subj

Plastic

Metal

Material

Subj

Plastic

Plastic
Plastic

Plastic

Rust resistance

Subj

Yes

Yes

Yes
Yes
Low

10

Ease of Installation

Subj

Yes

Yes

11

Probability of injury

Subj

Medium

Low

12

Power source

Subj

Solar

Solar

energy

energy

Last but not least, the target specifications for the balance bike are set as the table below:

24

penetration

Table 9 shows a table for target specifications

Metric No.
1

Metric
Product mass

Imp.
4

Product dimension

Units
kg
cm cm
cm

Marginal Value
<5

Ideal Value
<3

< 60x40x5

<50x35x2
Block the

Product mechanism

Price

Maintenance cost

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Durability
Frame
Material
Corrosion resistance
Ease of Installation
Probability of injury
Power source

4
3
3
3
4
3
3

Subj

RM
RM per
yaer
year
Subj
Subj
Subj
Subj
Subj
Subj

25

Block the penetration

penetration of

of heat

heat and UV

> 150

rays
>100

>50

>30

Yes
Plastic
Plastic
Yes
Yes
Low
Car battery

Yes
Metal
Plastic
Yes
Yes
Low
Solar energy

Figure 12 shows the House of Quality

4.3 BRAINSTORMING SESSION


Before going into concept generation, through brainstorming, various general concepts have been created.

Door Fans flow hot air from inside the car to outside through the door frame
Door Fins enable natural air flow from inside the car to outside
Door Window Fans flow hot air from inside the car to outside through the windows
Liquid Cooling System flow coolant throughout the car frame to absorb heat
Automated Windshield Sunshade deploys a sunshade whenever sunlight is detected
Mesh material cover place mesh material on various section of the car to prevent direct

contact of the user with the heated section


Seat Fans remove heat from the seat by convection
Roof Circulatory System huge air flow system at the roof of the car
Air Conditioner Reverse Fan push out hot air out of the car through the air conditioner

vents
Car reflective cover piece of reflective sheet covering the whole car from sunlight

26

Windows side visors enable the windows to be opened slightly without too much exposer
to pass through anything through the windows
UV windshield tint Tint all the available windshield of a car with UV layer and heat
reflector
Roof Fins placed fins on the roof of the car to enable heat flow
Water container to enable water to absorb heat in the car
Nonetheless, all of the above ideas were soon ruled out after we did some research online and

came into further discussion. This is due to the fact that the good concepts were being identified
in the present market while the mediocre ones were simply impractical, inefficient and cant meet
the demand & actual needs of the customers.
Our team, however, did not simply let our failure overwhelm us. By narrowing the teams
focus and from the fact that the markets need products that are really useful, functional and
needed in our daily life, we came into consensus to putting greater emphasis on heat removing
designs. Further research had been done on 8 ideas:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Door Fans
Door Fins
Door Window Fans
Liquid Cooling System
Automated Windshield Sunshade
Mesh Materials
Seat Fans
Roof Circulatory System

Figure 13 shows a door fan

27

Figure 14 shows a door fins

Figure 15 shows a window fans

Figure 16 shows a liquid cooling system

28

Figure 17 shows an automated windshield sunshade

Figure 18 shows a meshed components

29

Figure 19 shows seat fans

Figure 20 shows a roof circulatory system

To further narrowing the teams focus and selection for our design, we had chosen three designs
that are multipurpose kitchen, multipurpose light stand and multipurpose bottle. We research and
30

compare the prices of our product with the product outside. By using this comparison and putting great
emphasis, we turn out choosing this 3 type of design. Those three designs are the automated windshield
sunshade, mesh materials and door fans.
Table 10 shows a concept scoring for concept selection

CONCEPT SCORING
2

1
Automated
Windshield Sunshade
Weighted
Selection Criteria
Heat Removal

Weight

Rating

Mesh Materials

Score

Rating

Door Fans

Weighted Score

Rating

Weighted Score

Ability
Heat Blocking

20%

0.4

0.2

0.8

Ability
Efficiency
Eco Friendly
Durability
Ease of operate
Cost Friendly
Ease of

20%
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%

5
4
4
4
5
3

1.0
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.3

2
4
3
1
4
4

0.4
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.4
0.4

1
3
2
3
2
2

0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2

Maintenance
Long Life Span
Total Score

5%
5%
100%
Rank
Continu

4
5

0.2
0.25
3.85
1

4
1

0.2
0.05
2.45
2

1
3

0.05
0.15
2.40
3

YES

NO

NO

Besides, we also do a concept scoring for these three products in order to identify and choose the
design for our project. Finally, based on costs and patents aspect, we select the Automated Windshield
Sunshade as our design project.

4.4 CONCEPT GENERATION


By considering the needs and requirements of the customers and the targeted market, the
technical specifications of the product design is converted and formed. Now, with the existence of
the specifications for the product to be designed, it is easier for us to generate a concept design as
a preliminary step in producing a product desired and needed by the targeted market. Every needs
31

and requirements as well as the technical specifications formed are to be taken into account as
this concept product design is being generated. Below shows a few of the concept design
generated.

CONCEPT 1

Figure 21 shows sunshade cover

Next, this concept uses a reflective panel in order to reflect heat from entering the car. This
reflective panel used is called a sunshade. The sunshade can be deployed to cover the windows of a car in
order to prevent sunlight from entering the car which is the main cause of heating. Advantage is that it can
be fold or roll in order to minimize storage space.

CONCEPT 2

32

Figure 22 shows a retractable sunshade cover

This sunshade cover is kept in a cylinder container. This container can be placed at the topside of
any windows. The retractable mechanism will enable user to pull out and push back in the sunshade from
its container. The container save space in the car and easy to use whenever necessary.

CONCEPT 3

Figure 23 shows an automated windshield sunshade

33

This concept have frames that can be retrofitted into any windshield. The purpose of this frame is
to hold the sunshade in place when it is deployed. The sunshade is deployed automatically using a motor
and it is retractable. It also have a solar detector to detect sunlight. When it does, it will deploys
automatically without the user`s command. Regarding that function, a switch have been made to turn off
the automated windshield in order to prevent the sunshade from deploying whenever the user is driving
the car.
According to the descriptions of all the concepts generated, the benefits and disadvantages of each design
are further discussed so that comparison can be made. The summary is shown as below.
Table 11 shows the description of concept generated, the benefits and advantage of each design

Concept
1

Features and Benefits


Cost effective
Low storage space
Portable
Good heat blocking
Easy to use
Cost effective
Low storage space
Good heat blocking
Easy to use

Disadvantages
Inconvenience to install
and keep after usage

Lesser inconvenience to
install and keep after
usage compared to

Universal fit for any windshield


Doesn`t block the driver`s line of sight
Discrete since it is retractable
Very high heat blocking
Low cost
Easy to use
Easy to install
Convenience of automation with the solar
detector

4.5 CONCEPT SELECTION

34

Concept 1
Moderate dimensions

Table 11 below displays the PUGH Matrix applied to analyze and compare the preference of each of the
concept design being developed above, the benchmark is being conducted by considering the customer
needs specified in the previous session:
Table 12 shows a PUGH Matrix of Each Concept

Needs and
Requirements
Heat removing
ability
Efficiency
Eco-friendly
Durability
Light Weight
Appearance
Heat Blocking
Ability
Ease to Operate
Cost Friendly
Long Lifespan
Safety
Ease of
Maintenance
Total

Weightage

Concept 1
Mark
Total

Concept 2
Mark
Total

Concept 3
Mark
Total

18

27

45

5
5

2
2

10
10

2
3

10
15

2
5

10
25

16

16

32

14

28

24

18

12

12

12

12

16

123

141

200

From the table, it can be deduced that the concept 3 scored the highest total marks by
taking into account the weightage of every aspects of customers needs when compare to concept
1 and concept 2. Meanwhile, another analysis on the products which have been existed on the

35

market nowadays will be done. We consider the following statements in constructing PUGH
table:
1. Baseline Products
The concept design which has the highest mark from the PUGH matrix analysis above, which
consists of reflective sunshade, retractable container, solar detector and etc.
2. Competing Products

Figure 24 shows a foldable window sunshade

Figure 25 shows a car Sunshade Gauze Insulated Curtain Retractable Shutter

Marking system:

+1 > Better than baseline product


0 > same as baseline product

36

-1 > Weaker than baseline product

Table 13 shows a PUGH Matrix of Baseline Product and Competing Product

Baseline

Needs and Requirements

Heat Removal Ability


Efficiency
Eco-Friendly
Durability
Light Weight
Appearance
Heat Blocking Ability
Ease to Operate
Cost Friendly
Long Lifespan
Safety
Ease of Maintenance

Foldable Window Sunshade

Insulated Curtain

Product
8
9
5
5
1
1
8
7
6
3
4
4
NET
RANK

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

Car Sunshade Gauze


Retractable Shutter

Mark
0
-1
1
0
0
-1
1
-1
1
-1
0
0
-2

Total
0
-9
5
0
0
-1
8
-7
6
-3
0
0
-1
2

Mark
0
1
1
-1
-1
0
-1
0
0
-1
0
-1
-3

Total
0
9
5
-5
-1
0
-8
0
0
-3
0
-4
-7
3

From the PUGH matrix of baseline product and competing product, we can see that our product
concept is comparable with the market similar product.

4.6 CONCEPT TESTING


Concept testing is conducted to verify that the final product concept for the automated windshield
sunshade mentioned above meets the user needs adequately. A survey in the form of face-to-face
interview is conducted with 30 parents as our survey population. The survey form is attached at the
appendix part.
The results from the survey are shown below:

37

Table 14 shows the results of concept test survey

Number of

Consumer answer

respondents
3
4
2
7
14

I would definitely not choose this product


I would probably not choose this product
I might or might not choose this product
I would probably choose this product
I would definitely choose this product

Fraction of respondent
0.100(10.0%)
0.133(13.3%)
0. 067(6.7%)
0.233(23.3%)
0.467(46.7%)

There is almost half of the respondents, about 46.7% show interest and agree that they will definitely
purchase the automated windshield sunshade.
A few assumptions are made before forecasting the sales of the product. .

Units sold per year, N = 50,000


Market awareness of major toy shops through commercials, A = 0.5

Obtained from the above survey, the fraction of customers that would definitely buy the product, F definitely =
0.467, while the fraction of customers that would probably choose the product, F probably = 0.233 Then, by
using the values of Cdefinitely = 0.4 and Cprobably = 0.2, it is obtained that;

P=C definitely F definitely +C probably F probably


0.4 0.467+0.2 0.233
0.2528

Quantity forecasted ,Q=N A P


50000 0.5 0.2528

6320 units/ year


The forecasted calculation shown that the sales can reach about 12.64% of the total sales of
windshield sunshade sold. The value shown is exciting and with proper advertising and increased
reputation, the value is believed to rise in the coming years.

4.7 MODELLING AND TECHINICAL DRAWING


38

The CAD design for every part is completed by using Solidworks 2014. In this part, the overview
of the product design is represented by the CAD drawings which includes technical drawing. Important
parts of the final product are presented as well for further understanding purpose.

4.7.1 AUTOMATED WINDSHIELD SUNSHADE

Figure 26 shows an isometric view of automated windshield sunshade

4.7.2 SUNSHADE

Figure 27 shows an isometric view of the rolled sunshade

4.7.3 CASE

39

Figure 28 shows the isometric view of casing

4.7.4 PANEL

Figure 29 shows the isometric view of panel

4.7.5 SWITCH

Figure 30 shows the detailed view of the switch

4.7.6 MOTOR
40

Figure 31 shows an isometric view of the motor

4.7.7 SOLAR SENSOR

Figure 32 shows an isometric view of the solar sensor

4.7.8 SHADES WITH PANELS

Figure 33 shows isometric view of shades with panels

4.7.9 Combined Parts

41

Figure 34 shows an isometric view of combined parts

4.8 APPLICATION
Our design is almost similar to retractable windshield sunshade available in the market now.
However, we included an automation system in our design. By using a switch, we can turn the shade on
or off. When the switched is turned on, the shade will roll out when the solar sensor detected the sunlight.
If there is not sunlight, the shade will not roll out. And the shade will roll back into the casing when there
is no sunlight, or the switch is turned off by the users. There are panels on the two sides of the windshield,
which will guide the shade to roll into a correct position. This design is to avoid the rolled out shade to be
out of position.

42

4.9 ANALYSIS
In order to ensure that the product does not fail when mass produced and used by customers, it is
important that we carry out simulation on the certain crucial part which are motor shaft and case of the
design. The software used to carry out analysis is the Ansys 16.0 on static structural. Motor shaft should
be analysed because it is attached to a motor which a certain specification. While, the case ought to be
analysed as it is the major part that carries the overall design and exposed to most heat in the car via
sunlight and heat accumulation. For the sake of sustainability, it is significant to over design the
specification of a product as it will cause constraints on the resources in the future. Hence, we should run
analysis on the overall design parts by parts to ensure that it can fulfil its purposes and suit its expected
environment.
4.9.1 MOTOR SHAFT
The bottom end is fixed and a moment of 100 N.mm is applied on the top end of the shaft. We also set a
thermal condition of 100oC on the shaft. Hence, we obtained;
Von-Mises stress

Figure 35 shows von-Mises stress of motor shaft

It can be seen that the maximum von-Mises stress on the motor shaft is 540.41 MPa. This shows that
when moment of 100 Nmm of moment applied by the motor, stress acting on the shaft is 540.41 MPa.
This scenario is only applicable when the motor desired are able to produce that much moment.

54

Total deformation

Figure 36 shows total deformation of motor shaft

It is obtained that the total deformation of the shaft when 100 Nmm of moment is applied at the tip is
0.15223 mm. This shows a very little deformation after a great moment is applied onto the shaft. The
shaft can be used in this product as it produces a small ratio of deformation to moment.
Thermal strain

Figure 37 shows the thermal strain of motor shaft

The thermal strain obtained for the shaft is a constant 0.000936 in a thermal condition of 100 oC. This
shows that it can withstand a very high thermal condition especially in a car at 100 oC without any
deformation or failure.

55

Fatigue life

Figure 38 shows the fatigue life of motor shaft

The fatigue life of the shaft after applying 1E9 cyclic loading is at least 1178.8. This value is high enough
for the shaft as the motor is running at low speed and longer period. Hence, this result is acceptable for
the shaft used.
Safety factor

Figure 39 shows the safety factor of motor shaft

It can be seen that the overall shaft has a relatively high safety factor of 15 while the fixed end has a
safety factor of 0.15951 where it suffers the impact of the great moment.
56

4.9.2 CASE
A downward vertical force of 100 N is applied on the case and the thermal condition is set at 100 oC.
Assuming that the gravitation acceleration is 10 ms -2, the force or weight acting on the case of 100 N is
equivalent to 10 kg of interior parts such as motor, rolled shades and shafts.
Von-Mises stress

Figure 40 shows von-Mises stress of casing

The maximum von-Mises stress on the case of the final design is 539.46 MPa after 100 N force is applied
on the top. The downward vertical force is assumed to be coming from the interior weight which includes
motor, shaft and the shades. This result is unlikely to happen as the interior weight will not be more than 3
kg
Total deformation

Figure 41 shows total deformation of casing

57

The maximum deformation on the casing when 100 N force is acted vertically downward is 0.80383 mm.
This result is acceptable as under 100oC and huge amount force, there is only little deformation produced
by the case.
Thermal strain

Figure 42 shows thermal strain of casing

The thermal strain on the case under 100oC is only 0.000936. Even under extreme condition in a car, the
strain produced thermally is very little. Hence, this design is acceptable under the aspect of thermal.

Fatigue life

Figure 43 shows fatigue life of casing

58

The minimum fatigue life of the case is 2209.1. This result for the design is acceptable as the case is only
exposed little cyclic loading when either parked or driving.
Safety factor

Figure 44 shows safety factor of casing

It is obtained that the highest safety factor for the case is 14.864 when 10 kg of interior part is added into
the case while the overall safety factor is around 0.15979 as indicated in the picture above. This result is
nothing to be worried about as the actual weight of the interior of the case in only up to 3 kg.
4.9.3 PANEL
Two surfaces on the smaller parts are set as fixed support while 100 N force is acting downwards. The
thermal condition is again set at 100oC.
Von-Mises stress

Figure 45 shows von-Mises stress of panel

59

The maximum stress acting on the part is 1131.8 MPa while the overall part is acted by minimum stress
which is 0.38709 MPa. This result is acceptable as the only weight to be withstand by the panel is the
shades.
Deformation

Figure 46 shows total deformation of panel

The maximum deformation of the part is only 0.2739 mm when 100 N force is acting downwards. This
result is acceptable as the force or weight applied by the shades will not exceed 1 kg.
Thermal strain

Figure 47 shows thermal strain of panel

60

The thermal strain when the part is in 100oC condition is 0.000936. This value is so low that it is
considered redundant. However, the factor of thermal strain should not be neglected in our design
process.
Fatigue life

Figure 48 shows fatigue life of panel

The minimum fatigue life of the panel is 173.55 at 1E9 cyclic loading. This figure is said to be acceptable
as there is little to none cyclic loading acting on the panel when car is parked.
Safety factor

Figure 49 shows safety factor of panel.

The minimum safety factor is 0.076161 when 100N force is acting on the panel. This proves that the
panel will fail either it will break or deform when using. However, this scenario only occurs when the
panel is acted by 100N force which is considered an extreme case.
61

4.10 MATERIAL SELECTION


4.10.1 SUNSHADE
Table 15 shows the comparisons of vinyl coated polyester and Mylar

Youngs Modulus (GPa)


Density (kg/m3)
Tensile strength (MPa)
Yield strength (MPa)

Vinyl coated
polyester
12
1380
970
-

Mylar(BoPET)
4
930
1200
-

The sunshade materials must have the properties of blocking heat and UV rays. Therefore, both materials
mentioned above are considered.
Vinyl coated polyester blocks about 90% of UV ray and it is a material frequently used for flexible fabric
structures. It is made up of a polyester scrim, a bonding or adhesive agent, and an exterior PVC coating.
The scrim supports the coating (which is initially applied in liquid form) and provides the tensile strength,
elongation, tear strength, and dimensional stability of the resulting fabric. Depending on its formula, the
PVC coating makes the material resistant to UV rays and gives the material added strength and durability.
It can be sewn or heat sealed by way of RF(Radio Frequency) welding or hot-air welding .The base
fabric's tensile strength is determined by the size (denier) and strength of the yarns and the number of
yarns per linear distance. The larger the yarn and the more yarns per inch, the greater the finished
product's tensile strength.

Figure 50 shows the repeating unit of Vinyl Ester

62

Mylar is the common name of biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BoPET). It is a polyester


film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate. The advantages of using this material is its high
tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, electrical insulation and most important
its reflective properties. The film can be metalized by vapor deposition of aluminium or metals on it. This
caused the film to able to reflect up to 99%of light, including much of the infrared spectrum.
From these two materials, we had chosen vinyl coated polyester as our material as it is water, mold and
tear resistant besides blocking 90% of suns UV rays. Besides that, it is able to provide privacy for the
users as it is visible from inside but not from outside. Lastly, it comes with various colors which increase
the aesthetics value of our product.
4.10.2 CASE & PANEL
Table 16 shows comparisons of polypropylene and PVC

Polypropylene
Youngs Modulus (GPa)
3

Density (kg/m )
Tensile strength (MPa)
Yield strength (MPa)

1.5
946
42
38

Polyvinyl
Chloride(PVC)
2.4
1450
52
-

For the casing and panel, plastic is normally chosen as the material. The main reasons of choosing
different types of plastic are for safety, comfort and economy factors. Besides that, using plastic is more
environmental friendly.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) has high hardness and mechanical properties. It is the world's third-most
widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene. It has good flexibility
and good thermal stability. It is cost friendly as well.PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid (sometimes
abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible. The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile
applications such as doors and windows. It is used in automotive industry as well. It can be made softer
and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. Pure poly(vinyl
chloride) is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran.

Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).

63

Polyvinyl chloride is usually manufactured using molding, such as injection molding,


compression molding and extrusion.

Figure 51 shows the polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)

Polypropylene is the second-most widely used synthetic plastic only behind polyethylene. It is a
thermoplastic polymer used in wide application, such as stationery, laboratory equipment and automotive
components. It has a low density which caused mass production to be easy and cheaper. It is tough and
flexible besides good resistance against fatigue. It is a good resistant to many chemical solvents, bases
and acids.

Figure 52 shows the monomer of propylene

Both plastic are polymers and shared some common characteristics of polymers, such as high elasticity,
easily formed and light weight, These two materials are cheap as well. However, we picked polyvinyl
chloride as the material for the casing and panel as it has a higher tensile strength. It is stronger and
tougher.
4.10.3 SHAFT

Youngs Modulus (GPa)


3

Density (kg/m )
Tensile strength (MPa)
Yield strength (MPa)

Mild steel
200
7850
847
247

Alloy steel
210
7850
940
620

Table 17 shows the comparisons of mild steel and allow steel

Steel is normally used to manufacture shaft as steel has high tensile strength and yield strength. Shaft is
rotating machine element that is used to transmit power from one part to another, therefore a strong
material is required.
64

Mild steel is known as plain-carbon steel, it is the most common steel due to its low cost. It contains
approximately 0.05%-0.25% carbon, making it malleable and ductile.
Chromium vanadium-steel is an alloy which contained carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon,
chromium and vanadium. These elements make the steel harder and stronger. Chromium helps to resists
abrasion, oxidation and corrosion. The alloy is hardened by undergo heat treatment. The steel is heated at
871 C (1600F). This steel is tempered followed by normalizing at 899C (1650F) and then air cooled.
In this project, mild steel is selected as the material for the shaft as it is cost friendly compared to
chromium-vanadium steel. Even though the alloy steel is stronger and tougher, the strength may exceed
the required strength for this smaller scale project. The higher cost may not worth it.
4.10.4 ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
4.10.4.1 MOTOR
The motor is used to roll in and out of the sunshade. A metal shaft is connected to the motor, and the
shade is rolled upon the shaft. The motor used in our design is GM25-TEC2430 electric brush 12v ac/dc
gear motor.

Figure 53 shows GM25-TEC2430 electric brush 12v ac/dc gear motor

65

The properties of the motor:

Low noise, low current, and no spark


Small size with low velocity and high torque
Stable speed
CE and RoHs approved
4.10.4.2 SOLAR SENSOR

The solar sensor used is a simply sensor with photo resistor to detect the sunlight. A
photo resistor is a light-controlled variable resistor. With increasing light intensity,
the resistance decreases which allowed electricity to flow through. This will turn on
the sun shade. When in the dark, the resistance of the photo resistor can reach as
high as several megaohms(M), which discourage the flow of electricity and turning
off the sunshade. The photo resistor used in our sensor is Sunkee LDR Photoresistor.

Figure 54 shows the solar sensor

Figure 55 shows Sunkee LDR Photoresistor

66

4.11 MANUFACTURING PROCESS


4.11.1 CASE AND PANEL
Injection Molding
Firstly, PVC is polymerized to create long molecular chains. Then we can use injection molding to our
desired products by machine. The injection molding process of PVC consists of the following four stages:
1

Clamping - Prior to the injection of the material into the mold, the two halves of the mold must first
be securely closed by the clamping unit. Each half of the mold is attached to the injection molding
machine and one half is allowed to slide. The hydraulically powered clamping unit pushes the mold
halves together and exerts sufficient force to keep the mold securely closed while the material is
injected. The time required to close and clamp the mold is dependent upon the machine - larger
machines (those with greater clamping forces) will require more time. This time can be estimated
from the dry cycle time of the machine.

Injection - PVC, usually in the form of pellets, is fed into the injection molding machine, and
advanced towards the mold, which is in the shape of our casing and panel, by the injection unit.
During this process, PVC is melted by heat and pressure. The molten PVC is then injected into the
mold very quickly and the buildup of pressure packs and holds the material. The amount of material
that is injected is referred to as the shot. The injection time is difficult to calculate accurately due to
the complex and changing flow of the molten PVC into the mold. However, the injection time can be
estimated by the shot volume, injection pressure, and injection power.

Cooling - The molten PVC that is inside the mold begins to cool as soon as it makes contact with the
interior mold surfaces. As the plastic cools, it will solidify into the shape of the desired part.
However, during cooling some shrinkage of the part may occur. The packing of material in the
injection stage allows additional material to flow into the mold and reduce the amount of visible
shrinkage. The mold cannot be opened until the required cooling time has elapsed. The cooling time
can be estimated from several thermodynamic properties of the PVC and the maximum wall
thickness of the part.

Ejection - After sufficient time has passed, the cooled part may be ejected from the mold by the
ejection system, which is attached to the rear half of the mold. When the mold is opened, a
mechanism is used to push the part out of the mold. Force must be applied to eject the part because
during cooling the part shrinks and adheres to the mold. In order to facilitate the ejection of the part, a
mold release agent can be sprayed onto the surfaces of the mold cavity prior to injection of the
67

material. The time that is required to open the mold and eject the part can be estimated from the dry
cycle time of the machine and should include time for the part to fall free of the mold. Once the part
is ejected, the mold can be clamped shut for the next shot to be injected.
After the injection molding cycle, some post processing is typically required. During cooling, the material
in the channels of the mold will solidify attached to the part. This excess material, along with
any flash that has occurred, must be trimmed from the part, typically by using cutters. The scrap material
that results from this trimming can be recycled by being placed into a plastic grinder, also called regrind
machines or granulators, which regrinds the scrap material into pellets. Due to some degradation of the
material properties, the regrind must be mixed with raw material in the proper regrind ratio to be reused in
the injection molding process.

Figure 56 shows injection molding overview

4.11.2 SUNSHADE
Vinyl coated polyester is the most frequently used material for flexible fabric structures. It is made up of a
polyester scrim, a bonding or adhesive agent, and exterior PVC coatings. Firstly Vinyl coated polyester is
polymerized to create long molecular chains. Then it is fabricated to the desired Sunshade.
1) Polymerization
Condensation polymerization occurs when the acid and alcohol are reacted in a vacuum at high
temperatures. The polymerized material is extruded in the form of a ribbon onto a casting trough
or cooling wheel. After the ribbon hardens, it is cut into chips.
2)

Spinning
68

The chips are dried and then put into hopper reservoirs for melting. Polyester is a "melt spun" fiber, which
means that it is heated, extruded through the spinnerets, and cools upon hitting the air. From there it is
loosely wound around cylinders.
3) Drawing
The fibers are then hot stretched until they are about five times their original length in order to decrease
their width. The fiber is then wound onto cones as filaments or is crimped and then is cut into staple
lengths.

Figure 57 shows the manufacturing the shade

4) Making Yarns
After the fiber itself is created, it is made into a yarn. There are two types of polyester yarns: filament and
spun. Filament yarns are made by taking the long polyester filaments, grouping them together, and then
twisting them to make them thicker and stronger. A monofilament yarn has just one, long polyester fiber
that is not twisted.
Spun yarns are produced in much the same way that a cotton or wool yarn is produced. The long
filaments are fist cut into short pieces called staples. These are then combined together and spun to create
a yarn made up of thousands of short filaments.

5) Making Sunshade
69

Sunshade is made by weaving the yarns. Weaving is described as inter-lacing, usually at right angles, of
two sets of yarns to form Sunshade woven textiles. Today this process is mostly automated for mass
production. In it, two distinct sets of yarns called the warp and the filling or weft are interlaced with each
other to form a fabric. The lengthwise yarns which run from the back to the front of the loom are called
the warp. The crosswise yarns are the filling or weft. A loom is a device for holding the warp threads in
place while the filling threads are woven through them.

4.11.3 SHAFT
Extrusion
1

Mild steel shafts begin as flat sheets, which are folded and compressed into a long block. The
advantage of this is that the walls of the final shaft will be made up of numerous extremely thin layers,
each reinforcing the next and making a much stronger material than one layer.

The long block is cut into billets roughly the size of the intended stick. The billets are then fed into a
machine that heats it and pushes it under enormous pressure through a hole the shape of a shaft in a
process called extrusion. The extruded metal is cut off in lengths about the measurement of a stick.

These pieces are then drawn through a series of smaller and smaller dies to compress the metal and
bring it to its final size.

Finally, the metal is heated to approximately 600 F (315.5 C). This final step is called heat treating
and is designed to strengthen the metal. Then it is left to dry.

Figure 58 shows the extrusion process

4.12 COST ESTIMATION


70

4.12.1 STANDARD COMPONENTS


Component
Solar Sensor

Unit

Cost per unit (RM/unit)

Total Cost (RM)

12.00

12.00

GM25-TEC2430 electric brush

27.00

27.00

12v ac/dc gear motor


Total Standard Components Cost

39.00

Table 18 shows the cost of standard components

4.12.2 CUSTOM COMPONENTS


Component

Casing
Panel
Shaft
Component
Sunshade

Mass
(kg)
Polyvinyl Chloride
1.10
Polyvinyl Chloride
1.04
Mild Steel
0.46
Square meter
Material
(m2)
Vinyl Coated Polyester
0.58
Total Raw Material Cost
Material

Cost per unit mass


(RM/kg)
2.06
2.06
3.30
Cost per square meter
(RM/m2)
6.10

Total Cost
(RM)
2.27
2.14
1.52
Total Cost
(RM)
3.54
9.47

Table 19 shows the cost of custom components

4.12.3 MANUFACTURING COSTS


Part

Manufacturing Process

Number of pieces

Cost per piece


(RM)

Total Cost
(RM)

Casing
Panels
Shade
Shaft

Injection molding
Injection molding

1
2
1
1

20.00
5.00
5.00
5.00

20.00
10.00
5.00
5.00
40.00

Fabrication

Extrusion molding
Total Manufacturing Cost

Table 20 shows the cost of manufacturing process

Total Cost = Standard Components + Custom Components + Manufacturing Cost


Total Cost = 39.00 + 9.47 + 440.00 = RM88.47
It may be concluded that the cost to manufacture the product is RM88.47.

71

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


The completed product is an automated windshield sunshade. It consists of a casing, two panels, a shade,
a motor and a sensor. It is powered by car battery but stimulate by solar light. After undergone long
process of designing and adjusting, we are finally able to produce the master piece. Below the is
comparisons of the actual product value with the marginal value.
Metric No.
1

Metric
Product mass

Imp.
4

Product dimension

Units
kg
cm cm
cm

Marginal Value
<5

Product Value
4.88

< 60x40x5

132x48x5.5
Block the

Product mechanism

Subj

Price

Maintenance cost

RM
RM per

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Durability
Frame
Material
Rust resistance
Ease of Installation
Probability of injury
Power source

4
3
3
3
4
3
3

yaer
year
Subj
Subj
Subj
Subj
Subj
Subj

Block the penetration

penetration of

of heat

heat and UV

> 150

rays
88.47

>50

20

Yes
Plastic
Plastic
Yes
Yes
Low
Car battery

Yes
Plastic
Plastic
Yes
Yes
Low
Car battery

Table 21 shows the marginal value and product value of customer needs

As seen from the graph, the final product actually fulfilled and exceeded some of the marginal value of
the customers needs. However, for the dimension of the product, our product actually exceeded the
marginal value by more than double of the marginal value. This is actually due to actual product covered
the whole windshield compared to the marginal value which only cover half of the windshield. However,
despite adding almost double of the dimension, the cost is actually cheaper than the marginal value.
Therefore, we believed that this product designed will prevail in the competitive market.
To further improve our product in the future, we actually have some ideas in our mind. First of all, we can
change the product to be powered by solar energy which is more environmental friendly. Next, the design
of the panel can be changed or replaced as we aware that the current design may obstruct the view of the
users. Lastly, we may add in wireless switch feature into our product, where the users are able to switch
on and off of the product from far side.
72

CHAPTER 6 REFERENCE
1

AISI 6150 Alloy Steel (UNS G61500). Retrieved on 15 December 2015 from
http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=6744

Car ownership in Msia third highest in the world: Nielsen. Retrieved on 1 November 2016 from
http://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2014/04/16/car-ownership-in-msia-thirdhighest-in-the-world/
Classification of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels. Retrieved on 13 December 2016 from
http://www.totalmateria.com/articles/Art62.htm
Climate Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved on 1 November 2015 from
Greenhouse Physics and Car Shades. Retrieved on 4 November 2016 from
http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2011/09/19/greenhouse-physics-and-car-sha/

3
4
5

7
8

High Performance Plastics Used in the Automotive Industry. Retrieved on 12


December 2016 from http://info.craftechind.com/blog/bid/391683/13-HighPerformance-Plastics-Used-in-the-Automotive-Industry
https://weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,KualaLumpur,Malaysia
Malaysia automotive info : Summary of Sales & Production Data. Retrieved on 1 November
2016 from http://www.maa.org.my/info_summary.htm
Polypropylene. Retrived on 16 December 2016 from https://www.google.com/search?
q=polypropylene&oq=polypr&aqs=chrome.0.69i59j69i57j69i59l2j69i60j0.2703j0j4&sourceid=c
hrome&ie=UTF-8
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Retrieved on 13 November 2016 from
http://www.vinidex.com.au/technical/material-properties/pvc-properties/

10 Temperatures in Malaysia could soar to 40C: Officials. Retrieved on 1


November 2016 from
http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/temperatures-inmalaysia/2615098.html
11 The compression molding process. Retrieved on 7 December 2016 from
http://www.plasticmoulding.ca/techniques/compression_moulding.htm
12 Windshield Sunshade. Retrieved on 4 November 2016 from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windshield_sun_shades
CHAPTER 7 APPENDIX
7.1 APPENDIX A
Sample Questionnaire for Customer Needs

73

Dear friend:
We are seeking the view of car users on current designs for our Mechanical Engineering Product Design
and Development project. With your help, I would be able to improve the shortcomings of current designs
in order to give you a better experience with screwdriver.
Please take five minutes to complete this short questionnaire.
(Instruction: Please circle where appropriate.)
1. Please state your type of vehicles.
a) SUV
b) MPV
c) Sedan
d) Van
e) Coupe
f) Others
2. Parking preference
a) No money needed to pay for parking
b) Convenient
c) Time saving
d) Vehicle is always under a watch
e) Other reasons
3. How often you parked your car outdoor.
a) Hourly basis
b) Daily basis
c) Weekly basis
d) Once in a while
4. Are you concerned that parking the car outdoor caused heat problem.
a) Yes
b) No
5. What are your views on buying a fan cooler for the car and any expectation?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
6. What are your views on buying a retractable sunshade for the car and any expectation?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
7. Please rate the features of product to remove the heat in accordance to their importance.
(Note: 5 very important; 4 important; 3 good to have; 2- less important; 1- not important)

74

Ability to remove heat


Efficiency
Eco-friendly
Durability
Light Weight
Appearance
Ability to block heat
Ease of operate
Cost friendly
Long lifespan
Safety
Ease of maintenance

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

8. What would you suggest to solve the heating issue?


_________________________________________________________________________________
Thank you for your participation!

7.2 APPENDIX B
Sample Questionnaire for Concept Testing
Dear friend:
We are seeking the view for the automated windshield sunshade concept for our Mechanical Engineering
Product Design and Development project. We hope you can share your opinion with us on our new and
innovative product that you may have not seen in the current market.

The following is a brief explanation or brochure of our automated windshield sunshade.


a) It is automated, you will not require to retract it manually
b) There is a switch to turn it on and off, and a solar sensor to detect sunlight.
c) It use vinyl coated polyester as the material, which have more color variations.
75

If the product were priced at range of RM 80-RM100, how likely would you be prefer this automated
windshield sunshade and recommend to your friends to purchase this machine?
o I would definitely not choose this washing machine
o I would probably not choose this washing machine
o I might or might not choose this washing machine
o I would probably choose this washing machine
o I would definitely choose this washing machine

Thank you for your participation!


7.3APPENDIX C

GM25-TEC2430 electric brush 12v ac/dc gear motor

76

Retrieved from https://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/GM25-TEC2430-electric-brush-12vac_60565188221.html?s=p

77