Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

CHEM 109A

CLAS
Alkenes and Reactions of Alkenes - KEY

1. Predict the product(s) for each of the following reactions. If there is more than
one product, predict the relative yield (a.k.a. label the major product).
H

a.

Br

2-butene

2-butene

Br-

Br

hydrobromic acid
H

Br

b.

Cl

cyclohexene
H

Cl

Cl Cl

cyclohexene
H

c.

trans-3-methyl-pent-2-ene
H

trans-3-methyl-pent-2-ene

I-

d.

Cl

1-methylcyclopentene
H

Cl

Cl-

Cl

1-methylcyclopentene

H 2O

e.

2-butene

H 2SO 4

Page 1 of 6

CHEM 109A

CLAS
Alkenes and Reactions of Alkenes - KEY
H

H
O

H 2O
2-butene

H
O

HSO4-

H 2SO 4

H
O
H

O+

O+

H
H

CH 3OH

f.

H 2SO 4
3-methyl-1-butene

H
O+

3-methyl-1-butene

HSO4-

H
O
H

O+

H
O+

CH3CH 2OH

g.

cyclopentene

H 2SO 4

Page 2 of 6

CHEM 109A

CLAS
Alkenes and Reactions of Alkenes - KEY
H

O+

CH 3CH2OH

H
H

H 2SO 4

cyclopentene

HSO4-

O+

H
O

O+
H

H
H

2. Fill in the missing information in the following reactions


Cl

HCl

a.

3-chlorohexane
2-hexene
or

3-hexene
Br

b.

2-bromo-2-methylbutane

HBr

or
2-methyl-but-2-ene

2-methyl-1-butene

c.

propoxycyclohexane

cyclohexene
HO

propanol
H2SO 4
OH

d.

2-pentene

2-pentanol
HO

H 2O
H 2SO 4

also

3-pentanol

Page 3 of 6

CHEM 109A

CLAS
Alkenes and Reactions of Alkenes - KEY

e.

1-isopropoxy-2-methylbutane
OH

1-propene

H 2SO 4

Additional Information:
Alkenes (CnH2n, if cyclic CnH2n-2) hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon
double bond.
Nomenclature
Alkenes (CnH2n): -ene
1. Determine the # of C atoms in the longest continuous chain (parent chain) that
CONTAINS the double bond Watch for branches!
a. Use a prefix for # of double bonds (EX. diene for 2)
b. A # is not needed to denote position of double bond in ring, b/c ring is
numbered so that double bond is on C #1.
2. Number the chain in the direction that gives the double bond the lowest #.
a. If numbering in both directions gives the same number to the double bond,
number in the direction that gives the lowest number to the alphabetically
first substituent.
3. Substituents are listed in alphabetical order.

EX.

2-hexene

2,3-dimethyl-2-pentene

4-hexoxy-1-butene

2-ethylcyclopentene

Structural Details
Vinyl (sp2 Cs in double bond) and allyl (sp3 Cs adjacent to double bond) Cs are in
same plane, double bond is above and below the plane.
Get cis-trans/Z-E (a.k.a. geometric) isomers if vinyl Cs have different groups, and
they are separable. Cis-trans do NOT interconvert b/c to rotate, the bond would
have to break (E C-C = 62 kcal/mol vs. E C-C = 2.9 kcal/mol).
Reactions of Alkenes See also Summary of Reactions of Alkenes
Page 4 of 6

CHEM 109A

CLAS
Alkenes and Reactions of Alkenes - KEY

Electrophilic Addition Rxns


In general: e-s of double bond attracted to electrophile (alkene is a Nuc) & get
addition of electrophile to 1 vinyl C and Nuc adds to the other vinyl C.
Can be used to synthesize alkyl halides (EX above), alcohols, ethers, epoxides
and alkanes.
Addition of Hydrogen Halide (HF, HCl, HBr, HI)
Fig 4.1 shows hyperconjugation
Electrophile (proton) adds to least substituted (greatest # of Hs) vinyl C to form the
more stable carbocation and Nuc adds to carbocation regioselective (one
constitutional isomer is preferred) a.k.a. Markovnikov addition.
H

Br

Br-

hydrobromic acid
2,3-dimethyl-2-butene

3o carbocation intermediate

Br

Addition of Water (acid-catalyzed) a.k.a. hydration


Acid (often H2SO4) required b/c otherwise there is no electrophile. Also need
unreactive solvent to dissolve the alkene (ex. DMSO). Markovnikov add H and OH.
O

O
H

water

HO

O+

OH

-O

H
O+
H

O
H

2,3-dimethyl-2-butene

3o carbocation intermediate

H
H

OH

sulfuric acid

O+

H
O

HO

Page 5 of 6

CHEM 109A

CLAS
Alkenes and Reactions of Alkenes - KEY

Addition of Alcohol (acid-catalyzed) forms an ether


Acid (often H2SO4) required b/c otherwise there is no electrophile. Also need
unreactive solvent to dissolve the alkene (ex. DMSO). Markovnikov add H and OR.
O

HO

O+

OH

-O

OH

sulfuric acid
H

H
O+

2,3-dimethyl-2-butene

3o carbocation intermediate

O
H

H
O

O+
H
O

Page 6 of 6