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6

The ab0 Coordinate Method


(Clarke Components) and its
Application
The ab0 coordinate method (ab0 components or Clarke components) is a useful analytical tool
of almost comparable rank with the symmetrical coordinate method (012 components). Although
012 components is a very powerful approach for most phenomena, there are some cases where we
encounter obstacles. The ab0 coordinate method is another useful analytical approach which can
often supplement 012 components, and by which some limitations of the symmetrical coordinate
method are overcome. As a matter of fact, there are some circuits which can be solved
only by ab0 components instead of 012 components. A typical example will be introduced
in Chapter 19.
The ab0 components method is also mathematically a kind of variable transformation
by the 3  3 matrix operators a; a1 , and the important characteristic of ab0 components is
that the transformation operators contain only real-number matrix elements, while the symmetrical components method contains matrix operators a; a1 based on complex numbers
a; a1 . Voltage or current waveforms observed on an oscillograph, for example, have timedependent scalar values as a matter of course, so they can be handled as vector (or complexnumber) values only when the real-number equations are given for the waveforms. In other words,
badly distorted waveform quantities with harmonics would usually be observed on an oscillograph as phenomena of unknown equations and so cannot be transformed into symmetrical
components. Conversely, the observed real-time quantities on the oscillograph can be transformed
into ab0 components by time sequential composition, regardless of whether the equations are
known or unknown.
In this chapter we study the definition and conceptual meanings of the ab0 coordinate method
first, and then study the mutual relationship of abc phase quantities, ab0 quantities and 012
quantities. Finally, we study system modelling and fault analysis by ab0 components.

6.1 Definition of ab0 Coordinate Method


(ab0 Components)
The ab0 voltage and current quantities in the ab0 coordinate method (ab0 components) are
defined by the following equations.

Handbook of Power System Engineering Yoshihide Hase


# 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-02742-4

120

THE ab0 COORDINATE METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION

The transformation is
Va
2 1
1
Va
p
p
1


3
Vb
0
 3
Vb
3
V0
1 1
1
Vc
|{z} |{z} |{z}
a
V
abc
V ab0
2 1 1
Ia
Ia
p
p
1

Ib
3  3  Ib
0
3
I0
Ic
1 1
1
|{z} |{z} |{z}
I abc
a
I ab0

9
>
>
>
>
; V ab0 a  V abc >
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
I ab0 a  I abc

>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;

(6.1)

and the inverse transformation is


1

0
p

Va
Va
3
1
1  Vb
Vb  2
2
p
Vc
V0
 12  23 1
|{z}
|{z}
|{z} V ab0
V ab0
a1
1
0
1
Ia
Ia
p
3
1
1  Ib
Ib  2
2
p
Ic
I0
 12  23
1
|{z} |{z} |{z}
I ab0
I abc
a1

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
1
>
V abc a  V ab0 >
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
I abc a1  I ab0

>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;

(6.2)

where
a  a1 a1  a 1 1 is the unit matrix
a; a1 : inverse matrices of each other
The transform operator matrices a; a1 are real-number matrices in the ab0 coordinate method.
Therefore if Va ; Vb ; Vc are given as real-number quantities, Va ; Vb ; V0 are also real-number quantities,
while if Va ; Vb ; Vc are given as complex-number quantities, Va ; Vb ; V0 are also complex-number
quantities.
The relation abc phase quantities , ab0 quantities is shown in Figure 6.1 a and b, where
both quantities are demonstrated as vector values.

6.2 Interrelation Between ab0 Components


and Symmetrical Components
The symmetrical components method is a kind of one-to-one transformation between the domains
a,b,c , 0,1,2. The ab0 components method is also of one-to-one transformation between
the domains a,b,c , a; b; 0. Therefore symmetrical components and ab0 components should also
be the same kind of one-to-one transformation between the domains 0,1,2 , a; b; 0 for each other.
Let us examine the relation between 0, 1, 2 quantities and a; b; 0 quantities in detail. We
will examine the relation by using voltage symbols here, where lower case letter v means instantaneous
real-number voltages, and upper case letter V means instantaneous complex-number voltages.

6.2 INTERRELATION BETWEEN ab0 COMPONENTS

Ia= Ia

a-circuit current
Ia

Ib = 1 Ia+ 3 Ib+I0
2
2
1
3
Ic = Ia
I +I
2
2 b 0

c phase

Ia

1
2

Ia

I0

3I0 earth

3
2 Ib
+I
0

1
2

Ic =

Ia

2
1

Ia

Ia =

Ia +

Ia

I0

I0

Ia

3
2 Ib
1

3
2 Ib

1
2

Ia+Ib+Ic = 3I0
I0

0-circuit current
I0

3
2 Ib

b phase

b-circuit current
0
3 I
2 b
3

I
2 b

I0

1
2

1
2

Ia

Ia

I0
I0
I0

3
2 Ib

a phase

+I0

121

I0

Ia
Ib

Ib = 1 Ia+ 3 Ib+I0
2
2
(a)
phase-a current
Ia = 2 Ia 1 Ib 1 Ic
3
3
3
3
Ib = 0 +
I 3 Ic
3
3 b
I0 = 1 Ia + 1 Ib + 1 Ic
3
3
3

a circuit
b circuit
0 circuit

phase-b current

2I
3 a
0

1I
3 a

Ia + Ib + I0 = Ia + 3 Ib 3 Ic
3
3

1 Ib
3
3 I
3 b
1I
3 b

phase-c current

3 I
3 b

Ia

1 Ic
3
3 Ic
3
1I
3 c
3 Ic
3
Ic

3I 0

Ic

I0

2
3 Ia

Ib

1 Ib
3

I
Ia 1 I a
3 c I
3 I
b
3 b

2I
3 a
1I
3 a

3 I
3 b
Ia

3 Ic
3
(b)

1 Ib
3

Ib

1I
3 b

1I
3 c
1 Ic
3

3 Ic
3

a-quantity: The currents Ia , 1/2 Ia, 1/2 Ia flow out on the phase a, b, c circuits respectively in the
same direction. In other words, the current Ia goes out from phase a and the half current 1/2 Ia comes
back from phase b and another half current 1/2 Ia from phase c. As a result, the current through the
ground pass is zero.
b-quantity: The currents + 3/2 Ib, 3/2Ib, flow in phase b, c respectively in the same direction. In
other words, current 3 / 2 Ib goes out from phase b and comes back from phase c. As a result, the
current through phase a and the ground pass are zero.
0-quantity: The currents of the same value I0 flow out from phase a, phase b, phase c respectively in
the same direction and the current 3I0 comes back from the ground pass. In other words, the definition
of 0-quantitiy is exactly the same as the zero-sequence quantity in symmetrical components.

Figure 6.1 Correlation of vectors Ia ; Ib ; Ic and Ia ; Ib ; I0

122

THE ab0 COORDINATE METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION

6.2.1 The transformation of arbitrary waveform quantities


Suppose voltages are of an arbitrary waveform which may include d.c. components, harmonic
components as well as power frequency components. Then
9
n
>
Va t jVak j  e jkotyak >
>
>
>
k0
>
>
=
n
jkotybk
Vb t jVbk j  e
complex-number expression
(6.3a)
>
>
k0
>
>
n
>
>
Vc t jVck j  e jkotyck >
;
k0

va t
vb t

k0
n

>
>
=

>
>
jVak jcoskot yak >
>
>

jVbk jcoskot ybk >real-number expression

(6.3b)

>
>
>
>
>
>
vc t jVck jcoskot yck ;
k0
n

k0

These quantities in the abc domain are transformed into two different domains as follows.

For symmetrical
coordinates, referring to Equations 2.1 and 2.4 and recalling that a e j120 ;

a2 e j120 , then the complex-number expression is
V0 t
V1 t
V2 t

Va t Vb t Vc t
1
Va t aVb t a2 Vc t
3
Va t a2 Vb t aVc t
n

ak

jVak j  e jkoty

1
3

k0
n

ak

jVak j  e jkoty

k0
n

ak

jVak j  e jkoty

k0
n

k0

k0

bk 120

bk 120

jVbk j  e jkoty

ck

jVck j  e jkoty

jVbk j  e jkoty

k0
n

bk

jVbk j  e jkoty

k0

k0
n

jVck j  e jkotyck 120


jVck j  e jkotyck 120

k0

(6.4a)
For the real-number expression, taking the real part of the above equation,
v0 t
RefV0 tg
v1 t RefV1 tg
v2 t
RefV2 tg
n

jVak jcoskot yak jVbk jcoskot ybk jVck jcoskot yck

k0
n

k0
n

k0

jVak jcoskot yak jVbk jcoskot ybk 120 jVck jcoskot yck  120

k0
n

k0
n

k0
n

jVak jcoskot yak jVbk jcoskot ybk120 jVck jcoskot yck 120

k0

k0

k0

(6.4b)

6.2 INTERRELATION BETWEEN ab0 COMPONENTS

123

The ab0 components are defined for complex-number and real-number expressions by the same
equations, 6.1 and 6.2. Then, for the complex-number expression,
Va t
Vb t
V0 t

2V t  Vb t  Vc t
1 pa
3fVb t  Vc tg
3
Va t Vb t Vc t
n

2 jVak je jkotyak  jVbk je jkotybk  jVck je jkotyck


k0
k0
k0
(
)
n
n
p

1
jkotybk
jkotyck
3 jVbk je
 jVck je

3
k0
k0
n

ak

jVak je jkoty

k0

bk

jVbk je jkoty

k0

(6.5a)

ck

jVck je jkoty

k0

and for the real-number expression


va t
vb t
v0 t

1
3

2va t  vb t  vc t
p
3fvb t  vc tg
va t vb t vc t
n

2 jVak jcoskot yak  jVbk jcoskot ybk  jVck jcoskot yck


k0
k0
k0
(
)
n
1 p n
3 jVbk jcoskot ybk  jVck jcoskot yck

3
k0
k0
n

jVak jcoskot yak jVbk jcoskot ybk jVck jcoskot yck

k0

k0

k0

(6.5b)

6.2.2 Interrelation between ab0 and symmetrical


components
Now we need to examine the mutual relation of both domains. Applying the complex-number
expression,
The equations of symmetrical components by Equations 2:1 and 2:4:
V abc a1  V 012
s
V 012 a  V abc r
The equations of ab0 components by Equations 6:1 and 6:2:
V abc a1  V ab0
u
V ab0 a  V abc t

9
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
;

(6.6)

Accordingly,
V ab0 a  V abc a  a1  V 012 a  a1  V 012
V 012 a  V abc a  a1  V ab0 a  a1  V ab0

)
(6.7)

124

THE ab0 COORDINATE METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION

where a  a1 and a  a1 are calculated below:


2 1 1
1
p p
1
a  a1 0

3  3
1
3
1 1
1
1
0 2  a2 a
p 2
1
0
3a  a
3
3 1 a2 a
1

aa

1 1 1
1
1 a a2
3
1 a2 a

1


 12
 12

1
a2
a

1
a
a2

2  a a2
p
3a  a2
1 a a2
0

p
3
2p
 23

1
1
1

0 0
1
1 j
2
1 j

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
0 1 1 >
>
=
0 j j
>
>
1 0 0 >
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
2
>
>
>
>
>
0
>
>
>
;
0

(6.8)

Therefore
Va
Vb
V0
V ab0

0 1 1
V0
0  j j  V1
1 0 0
V2
aa1

V 012

9
>
>
or
>
>
=
Va t V1 t V2 t
Vb t  jfV1 t  V2 tg >
>
>
>
V0 t V0 t
;
9
>
>
>
>
=

or
V0
0 0
1
V1 1 j
2
V2
1 j
V 012

aa1

2
Va
0  Vb
0
V0
V ab0

(6.9)

V0 t V0 t

(6.10)

V1 t 12fVa t jVb tg >


>
>
>
V t 1fV t  jV tg ;
2

Equations 6.9 and 6.10 show the relation between ab0 components and symmetrical
components that are written in complex-number quantities.
In words, Va is the vector sum of positive-sequence voltage V1 and negative-sequence voltage V2 ,

namely V1 V2. Vb is the product of (j) and (V1  V2 ), or the vector which is obtained by a 90
clockwise rotation of subtracted vector (V1  V2 ).
For the relation for power frequency components, the symmetrical components are
9
By complex number expression By real number expression >
>
>
v0 t jV0 j cosot y0 =
V0 t jV0 j e joty0
(6.11)
V1 t jV1 j e joty1
v1 t jV1 j cosot y1 >
>
>
;
V2 t jV2 j e joty2
v2 t jV2 j cosot y2
9
>
>
>
9
>
>
joty1
joty2
>
jV2 je
>
Va t V1 t V2 t jV1 je
>
=
>

>
 j90
joty1
joty2
>
r>
Vb t  jfV1 t  V2 tg e
fjV1 je
 jV2 je
g
>
>
>
>
;
>
joty0
>
>
V0 t jV0 je
>
=

and the ab0 components are, for the complex-number expression,

and for the real-number expression


va t jV1 j cosot y1 jV2 j cosot y2


vb t jV1 j cosot y1  90  jV2 jcosot y2  90
jV1 j sinot y1  jV2 j sinot y2
v0 t jV0 j cosot y0

9
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
;

>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;

6:12

6.3 CIRCUIT EQUATION AND IMPEDANCE


V012
a1
1 1 1 V0
1 a2 a V1
1 a a2 V2

Vabc
Va =
Vb
Vc

a-b-c domain
V
Vabc= a
Vb
Vc

125

V012
a
V0 = 1 1 1 1
3
V1
1 a a2
V2
1 a2 a

0-1-2 domain

Vabc
Va
Vb
Vc

V012=

V0
V1
V2

Vabc
a 1
Va =
1 0 1
1 3

Vb
2 2 1
1

3 1
Vc
2
2
Vab0
a
Va = 1 2 1 1
Vb 3 0 3 3
V0
1 1 1

Vab0
Va
Vb
V0
Vabc
Va
Vb
Vc

12

V0

V0
V1
1
V2
a 1
j
0
j 0 V ab
b0 0
a
V =
0 0 1
Va
1
Vb
a
2
Va

V0
a 0 0
Vb
j 0
0
V0
1
1 j
12
V 0 0= 2
1
V
V1
V2
1

a-b-0 domain

Vab0=

Va
Vb
V0

Figure 6.2 Correlation of abc, 012 and ab0 domains

Figure 6.2 is a summary of the concept showing mutual relations of the abc, 012 and ab0
domains.

6.3 Circuit Equation and Impedance by the ab0


Coordinate Method
The general equation for a three-phase circuit is expressed by
Eabc  V abc Z abc  I abc
The equation is transformed into the 012 domain as follows:
Eabc a1  E012 ;

V abc a1  V 012 ;

(6.13)

I abc a1  I 012

; E012  V 012 a  Z abc  a1  I 012  Z 012  I 012


 a1

where Z 012 a  Z abc


Equation 6.13 can be transformed into the ab0 domain in a similar way.
The definition of ab0 components is
9
Eab0 a  Eabc ; Eabc a1  Eab0 >
=
V ab0 a  V abc ; V abc a1  V ab0
>
;
I ab0 a  I abc ;
I abc a1  I ab0

(6.14)
(6.14)

(6.15)

126

THE ab0 COORDINATE METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION

Substituting this equation into Equation 6.13,


a1  Eab0  a1  V ab0 Z abc  a1  I ab0
Left-multiplying by a and recalling that a  a1 1, the equation in the ab0 domain is

Eab0  V ab0 a  Z abc  a1  I ab0  Z ab0  I ab0
(6.16)
where Z ab0
a  Z abc  a1
Extracting the equations for the impedances from Equations 6.14 and 6.16,


Z abc a1  Z 012  a
Z 012 a  Z abc  a1
or
1
1
Z abc a  Z ab0  a
Z ab0 a  Z abc  a

(6.17a)

; Z ab0 a  Z abc  a1 a  a1  Z 012  a  a1 a  a1  Z 012  a  a1

(6.17b)

Accordingly, the circuit equation and impedance in the ab0 domain is


Eab0  V ab0 Z ab0  I ab0
where Z ab0 a  Z abc  a1 a  a1  Z 012  a  a1


(6.18)

a  a1 and a  a1 in the above equation have been already derived in Equations 6.8.
Now we can draw the conclusion that the impedances in ab0 domain circuits are given by
Equations 6.18. Further, Equation 6.13 for the abc domain, Equation 6.14 for the 012 domain and
equation 6.18 for the ab0 domain are in one-to-one correspondence to each other.
In the next section we will investigate Zab0 for lines and other equipment.

6.4 Three-phase Circuit in ab0 Components


6.4.1 Single circuit transmission line
A well-balanced three-phase single circuit transmission line between points m and n as shown in
Figure 1.1 has its impedance matrix Z 012 given by Equation 2.15 and Figure 2.5, and is again
quoted here:
9
>
Z0 0 0
=
Z1 Z2 Zs  Zm
Z 012 0 Z1 0
(6.19)
Z0 Zs 2Zm
>
;
0 0 Z2
Accordingly,
Zaa Zab Za0
Z ab0 Zba Zbb Zb0 a  a1  Z 012  a  a1
Z0a Z0b Z00
0 0 2
0 1 1
Z0 0 0
1
0  j j  0 Z1 0  2 1 j 0
1 0 0
0 0 Z2
1 j 0

1Z Z
2
2 1
 12 jZ1  Z2

1 jZ  Z
1
2
2
1Z Z
1
2
2

0
0
Z0

(6.20)

6.4 THREE-PHASE CIRCUIT IN ab0 COMPONENTS

127

Ia Z1 = Z2 = Zs Zm
a-circuit

mVa

nVa

Ib Z1 = Z2 = Zs Zm
b-circuit

mVb

nVb

I0 Z0 = Zs + 2Zm
0-circuit

mV0

nV0

Figure 6.3 The equivalent circuit of a transmission line in ab0 components (single circuit line)

As Z1 Z2 is always correct for transmission lines, then


m Va
m Vb

n Va

n Vb

m V0

n V0

m Vab0

n Vab0

Z1 0 0
Ia
0 Z 1 0  Ib
0 0 Z0
I0
Z ab0

I ab0

9
>
>
>
>
>
=

Z1 Z2 Zs  Zm
Z0 Zs 2Zm
>
>
>
>
>
;

(6.21)

This is the fundamental equation of the transmission line in ab0 components and the equivalent
circuit of the equation is given in Figure 6.3. The impedance matrix Z ab0 is the same as Z 012 ,
namely Z ab0 Z 012. In other words, the major feature of ab0 components is that a wellbalanced transmission line can be expressed by the same impedance matrix and the same equivalent
p
circuits in the ab0 domain as well as in the 012 domain. The strange coefficient  3=2 in
the definition of ab0 components was a device to obtain this advantage.

6.4.2 Double circuit transmission line


A well-balanced double circuit line is shown by Equations 2.20a and b in the 012 domain, and is
again quoted here:
9
1V
1I
1V
Z 012 Z 0M
>
m 012
>
n 012
012
>



>
2V
>
2V
2I
>
Z
Z
>
n 012
m 012
0M
012
012
>
>
>
>
or
9 >
>
>
1V
1V
1I
2I
>
=
=


Z


Z

012
0M
m 012
n 012
012
012
(6.22)
; >
2
1
2
2
>
>
m V 012  n V 012 Z 0M  I 012 Z 012  I 012
>
>
>
>
Z0 0 0
Z0M 0 0 >
>
>
>
>
where
Z 012 0 Z1 0
Z 0M 0 0 0 >
>
>
;
0 0 Z1
0 0 0

128

THE ab0 COORDINATE METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION

Equation 6.22 can be transformed into equations in the ab0 domain in the same way as that of
Equation 6.14 to Equation 6.18:
9
9
1
1
1
1 1
>
>
>
m V ab0  n V ab0 a  a  Z 012  a  a  I ab0
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
a  a1  Z 0M  a  a1 2 I ab0
>
>
>
>
2
2
1  Z
1 1 I
>
>
V

V

a

a

a

a
>
>
0M
n ab0
m ab0
>
ab0
>
>
>
;
>
1
1
2
>
a  a  Z 012  a  a  I ab0
>
>
>
>
1V
1V
>
>
=
m ab0
n ab0
or

(6.23)
2V
2V
>
m ab0
n ab0
>
>
>
>
1I
>
a  a1  Z 012  a  a1 a  a1  Z 0M  a  a1
>
ab0 >
>


>
2I
1
1
1
1
>
a  a  Z 0M  a  a a  a  Z 012  a  a
ab0 >
>
>
>
>
0
>
1I
>
Z ab0 Z ab0
>
ab0
>
>
 0
 2
;
I ab0
Z ab0 Z ab0
Z ab0 is in the same form as Equation 6.15
Z1 0 0
Z ab0 a  a1  Z 012  a  a1 0 Z1 0
0 0 Z0

and also Z ab0 is


0

Z ab0 a  a1  Z 0M  a  a1


0 0 2
0 1 1
Z 0M 0 0
0 0 0
0  j j  0 0 0  12 1 j 0 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 Z 0M
1 j 0
Therefore the fundamental equation of the double circuit line in ab0 components is
1V
m a
1V
m b
1V
m 0
2V
m a
2V
m b
2V
m 0

1V
n a
1V
n b
1V
n 0
2V
n a
2V
n b
2V
n 0

Z1 0
0 Z1
0 0

0
0
Z0

0
0
0

0
0
0

Z0M

0 0
0 0
0 0

0
0
Z0M

Z1
0
0

0
Z1
0

0
0
Z0

1I

0
0


a
1I
b
1I
0
2I
a
2I
b
2I
0

(6.24a)

or
a-circuit
b-circuit
0-circuit

1V
m a
2V
m a
1V
m b
2V
m b
1V
m 0
2V
m 0





1V
n a
2V
n a
1V
n b
2V
n b
1V
n 0
2V
n 0

Z1

0
Z1

Z1
0

0
Z1

Z0 Z0M

Z0M Z0

1I
2I

a
1I
b
2I
b
1I
0
2I
0

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;

(6.24b)

The equivalent circuit corresponding to the above equation is given in Figure 6.4. Now we can conclude
that the a-circuit and b-circuit of the double circuit transmission line can be expressed by the positivesequence equivalent circuit, and the 0-circuit of course by the zero-sequence equivalent circuit.

6.4 THREE-PHASE CIRCUIT IN ab0 COMPONENTS


Z1 = Z2 = Zs Zm

1I
a

Z1

2I
a

a-circuit

b-circuit

1V
m a

1V
m b

2V
m a

2V
n a
1I
b

Z1 = Z2 = Zs Zm

2I
b

Z1 = Z2

2V
m b

2V
n b

1I
0
2I
0

0-circuit

129

1V
n a

1V
n b

Z0 = Zs + 2Zm
Z0
Z0M = 3Zm 1nV0
2V
n 0

1V
m 0
2V
m 0

Figure 6.4 The equivalent circuit of a transmission line in ab0 components (double circuit line)

6.4.3 Generator
The generator circuit is described by Equation 2.27b and Figure 2.11 in the 012 domain, and is again
quoted here:
0
V0
Z0 0 0
I0
3Zn  I0
Ea  V1 0 Z1 0  I1
0
0
V2
0 0 Z1
I2
0
|{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z}
Z 012
 I 012 3Z n  I 0
E012  V 012

(6.25)

Left-multiplying by a  a1,
; Eab0  V ab0 Z ab0  I ab0 a  a1  3Z n  I 0
where Z ab0 is in the same form as Equation 6.20, and
0 1 1
0
Ea
Eab0 a  a1  E012 0  j j  Ea  jEa
1 0 0
0
0
0 1 1
3Zn I0
0
a  a1  3Zn I 0 0  j j 

0
0
1 0 0
0
3Zn I0
Therefore the generator equation in the ab0 domain is
1Z Z
Va
Ea
2
2 1
 jEa  Vb  12 jZ1  Z2
0
0
V0

where

Z1 jx1 ;

Z2 jx2 ;

1 jZ  Z
1
2
2
1Z Z
1
2
2

Z0 jx0

0
Ia
0
0  Ib
0
Z0
I0
3Zn I0

9
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
;

(6.26)

130

THE ab0 COORDINATE METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION


jx1
Ia

a-circuit

Va

Ea
jx1 = jx2
Ib

b-circuit jEa

Vb
jx0
I0
V0

0-circuit
3Zn

Figure 6.5 Equivalent circuit of a generator under the assumption jx1 ; jx2

Furthermore, the equation becomes simpler, as follows, if the assumption Z1 ; Z2 jx1 ; jx2 is
justified for fault analysis distant from the generator terminal, for example:
Ea
Va
Z1 0 0
Ia
0


 jEa
Vb
0 Z1 0
Ib
0
0
V0
0 0 Z0
I0
3Zn I0

(6.27a)

or
9
Ea  Va Z1  Ia
=
 jEa  Vb Z1  Ib
;
V0 Z0 3Zn  I0

(6.27b)

Figure 6.5 is the equivalent circuit of Equations 6.27a and b. As they are based on the assumption of
jx1 jx2 , some errors may appear if they are adopted for analysis of phenomena around the
generator terminal. However, Equation 6.26 before the assumption is the precise equation of the
generator by the ab0 method where the circuit is described by the known symmetrical
reactances, although the equation cannot be replaced by a simple equivalent circuit. Besides, it must
be remembered that the generator source voltages Ea ;  jEa exist on the a- and b-circuits,
respectively, in the ab0 domain.

6.4.4 Transformer impedances and load impedances


in the ab0 domain
Transformers do not include mutual impedances in the 012 domain as shown in Table 5.1, so
Equations 6.19 and 6.20 can be applied. Moreover Z1 Z2 is always correct, so Equations 6.21 and
Figure 6.3 can be applied for the transformer. In other words, positive-sequence impedance Z1 jX1
is applied for the a- and b-circuits, and Z0 jX0 is applied for the 0-circuit.
Load circuit equations assumed in Equations 2.28 and 2.29 are in the same form as Equations 2.15
and 6.19 for a single circuit line. Therefore Equation 6.21 shows the load equations in the ab0
domain under the approximation by Z1; Z2.

6.5 FAULT ANALYSIS BY ab0 COMPONENTS

131

6.5 Fault Analysis by ab0 Components


As the transformed equations and the equivalent circuit of three-phase circuits in the ab0 domain
have been completed, we can begin fault analysis by the ab0 method which can be executed using
the process in Figure 2.1 or the similar one in Figure 3.1.

6.5.1 The bc phase line to ground fault


Suppose the bc phase lg fault at point f is as shown in Figure 6.6. The fault condition at f is
f Vb

f Vc 0;

f Ia

(6.28)

fault point
f
system

f Ia
f Ib

f Va

f Ic

f Vb
f Vc

f Z1

= f Z2
f Z0

Figure 6.6 b-c phase l-g fault

Substituting Equation 6.2 into Equation 6.28, the fault terminal equations become
9
p
p
>
>
1
1
3
3
=
 f Va
f Vb f V0  f Va 
f Vb f V0 0
2
2
2
2
>
>
;
f Ia f I0 0
9
r; f Vb 0
s
; f Va 2 f V0
=
f Ia

f I0 0

the network equations:


Ea  f Va f Z1  f Ia
 jEa  f Vb f Z1  f Ib
 f V 0 f Z 0  f I0
or
 2 f V0 2 f Z0  f I0

u
v
w
w0

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
;

(6.29)

9
>
>
>
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
>
>
>
;

(6.30)

The equivalent circuit which satisfies both Equations 6.29 and 6.30 is shown in Table 6.1 #1A.
In order to satisfy Equations r and w together, the zero-sequence circuit is expressed by w0
(instead of w) with terminal voltage 2 f V0 and impedance 2 f Z0 .
From the equivalent circuit, the following equations are obtained:
9
Ea
9
>
2 f Z0
>
f Ia  f I0
=
=
f Z1 2 f Z0
f Va 2 f V0 Ea 
(6.31)
r
Z1 2 f Z0 s
f
 jEa
;
>
>
;
V

0
f Ib
f b
f Z1
These are the solutions f Ia ; f Ib ; f I0 , f Va ; f Vb ; f V0 in the ab0 domain. Then these solutions
can be inverse transformed into the abc domain by Equation 6.2, or into the 012 domain by Equation
6.10 as our final solution. The obtained final solution coincides with Equations 5C and 5D in Table 3.1.

132

THE ab0 COORDINATE METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION

Table 6.1 The equivalent circuits for various faults in the ab0 coordinates domain
fault point
the system equations in the a-b-0 domain
f
network
Ea fVa = fZ1fIa
I
f a
fEa: the voltage at point f before the fault
fVa
fIb
jEa fVb = fZ1fIb
fZ1 fZ2, fZ0: the system impedances at
fIc
fVb
fV0 = fZ0fI0
fZ1 fZ2
fVc
point f
Eq.(6 27b)
fZ0

#1

phase b-c line-to-ground fault

#1A
fVb
fVa

#1B

= fVc = 0
=0

fVa

= 2fV0
=0
fIa + fI0 = 0
fVb

a-circuit

fZ1 I
Ea=Ea f a fVa

b-circuit

fZ1 fIb
fVb
jEa=Eb

0-circuit

2fZ0 I
0 2fV0

=0
= fIc = 0

fVa

fIb

f Ic

nZ1 = nZ2
nZ0

nZ1
mZ1
mEa fVa fIa nEa
mIb

n Z1
jnEa

mI0

nI0

2mZ0
2fV0

2nZ0

fVb

= fVc
=0
fIb = fIc = 0
fIa

fVb

=0
=0
fV0 = 0

fVa

Ea=Ea

fZ1
fIbfVb
jEa=Eb

fZ1 fIb
jEa=Eb fVb

fZ1

fZ0

Z0/2 2fI0 V
f 0

Z1

Z1

Z1

Z fIb
jmEa 1 fVb
2mZ0

2Z0

2ZM

2Z02 V

from the modified

( Z2 ) 2 I

f 0

1
2

2Z0

fVa
fIa

= fVb = fVc= 0
= fIb = fIc

fZ1

Ea=Ea

2 Z
2Z0 2ZM n 0

fVa

=0
=0
fI0 = 0

fVb

f Ia f V a

fZ1 I
jEa=Ebf b fVb

fI0 fV0

Va + 3 Vb + V0
2
3
1
Vc = 2 Va
V + V0
2 b

Vb =

jnEn

#4 three-phase fault

fIa fV
a

Va = Va

nZ1

n Ea

f I0

f 0

fZ0

inverse transform equation to a-b-c domain

Zero-sequence circuit is

nZ1

Z1 fIa fVa Z1

Z1

fI0

Z1 I
Ea=Ea a fVa

f 0

mZ1

#3 phase b to c
line-to-line fault

+ fV0 = 0
I
=
f b 0
fIa = 2fI0

equation fV0 =

mEa
nIa

mZ1 I
jmEaf bfVb

fIc

Z1

mZ1

fIa

mIa

#2 phase a lineto-ground fault

fIb

f
a
c b

mZ1 = mZ2
mZ0

Zero-sequence circuit is from


the modified equation
2fV0 = (2Z0) f I0

fVa

a
b
c
fIb

#1C

Eq. (6.2)

I0

f V0

6.5 FAULT ANALYSIS BY ab0 COMPONENTS

133

Figures # 1B and # 1C in Table 6.1 show the same equivalent circuit but for a circuit with a double
source line and double circuit line.

6.5.2 Other mode short-circuit faults


The equations and equivalent circuits for the other mode faults are shown in Table 6.1, cases # 2,
# 3 and # 4. In case # 2, the phase a lg fault, the figure for the zero-sequence circuit shows voltage f V0 ,
current 2 
f I0 and
 impedance Z0 =2, because the related zero-sequence circuit equation is modified as
f Z0
 2 f I0 .
 f V0
2

6.5.3 Open-conductor mode faults


The equivalent circuits of open-conductor mode faults in ab0 components can be obtained
analogously. Table 6.2 shows the equations and the equivalent circuits.
Let us try here to compare the equivalent circuits in symmetrical components, Tables 3.1 and 3.2,
with those in ab0 components, Tables 6.1 and 6.2. The following conclusion may be derived.
In the cases of Tables 3.1 and 3.2 in the symmetrical method, there is one complicate equivalent
circuit in which positive-, negative- and zero-sequence impedances are connected in series and/or
parallel. On the other hand, in the cases of Tables 6.1 and 6.2 there are two or three simple and
independent circuits. To solve three simple equations would generally be easier than solving one
complicated equation, whether or not a computer was used. This is one of the reasons why the ab0
method is a worthy approach as a complement of the symmetrical method.
Again it must be stressed that the ab0 method is as precise as the symmetrical method, at least
for Equation 6.26, instead of Equation 6.27a, which is adopted for generator equations.

Table 6.2 Equivalent circuit of conductor opening in the ab0 domain


#6 phase b,c conductors opening

#5 phase a conductor opening


ia = 0
ib
ic

vb = vc = 0
ia = 0

va = 2v0
vb = 0
Ia + I0 = 0

ia
mE a

ia
ib
ic = 0

va
vb
vc

va = vc = 0
ib = ic = 0
ia

nZ1

mEa

mZ1

nZ1

2v0

nZ1

nEa

nZ1

jnEa

ib

jnEa

mZ1

jmEa

i0
2mZ0

va + v0 = 0
ia = 2i0

va

mEa mZ1

ib vb
jmEa

ib = 0

va

m Z1

va
vb
vc

2nZ0

Zero-sequence circuit is from modified equation


2vG = (2Z0)i0, instead of v0 = Z0i0

mZ0 /2

vb

2i0
v0

nZ0 /2

Zero-sequence circuit is from modified equation


Z0
v0 =
(2i0), instead of v0 = Z0i0
2

( (

134
generator

p1 A

THE ab0 COORDINATE METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION


Tr1

transmission line
p2
p3
a

Tr2
0

C
B

b-current

Figure 6.7

0
0

b
c
a-current

A
B
C

0-current

The ab0 component currents through transformers under l-g fault

Finally, Figure 6.7 shows current flow under the condition of a phase a lg fault. The phase currents
are represented by arrows indicating the relative magnitudes of currents in each circuit. This is the
original figure for ab0 components first developed by W. W. Lewis. In the figure, the currents
through points p1 ; p2 ; p3 are the b-, a- and 0-currents, respectively. Physical current flow based on
Kirchhoffs law and the cancellation law of ampere-turns can be imagined from this figure as either
real-number currents or complex-number currents.