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Engineering Procedure

SAEP-500
13 June 2010
Guidelines for Screening and Qualification
of Chemicals for Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibition
Document Responsibility: Flow Assurance Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents
1

Scope............................................................. 2

Conflicts and Deviations................................. 2

Applicable Documents ...2

Definitions..................................... 3

General Requirements............................ 5

Qualification of BIC Chemicals....................... 6

Appendix A Screening and Qualification


Protocol for HI/CI.................................... 9

Previous Issue: New

Next Planned Update: 13 June 2015


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Primary contact: Adel, Shadi Iba on 966-3-8735986


CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2010. All rights reserved.

Document Responsibility: Flow Assurance Standards Committee


SAEP-500
Issue Date: 13 June 2010
Guidelines for Screening and Qualification
Next Planned Update: 13 June 2015
of Chemicals for Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibition

Scope
1.1

This Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure (SAEP) describes the minimum


requirements for screening and qualification of chemicals for hydrate and
corrosion inhibition intended for use in Saudi Aramco facilities.

1.2

It also addresses the compatibility of Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitors (KHIs) (selected


per 26-SAMSS-085) or other hydrate inhibitors (HI) with other different
chemicals such as corrosion inhibitors that will be used in the same process
streams or pipeline systems.

1.3

The requirements of this engineering procedure may be extended to other


chemicals that will be used in the same process stream or pipeline system.

Conflicts and Deviations


2.1

Any conflicts between this procedure and other applicable Saudi Aramco
Engineering Standards (SAESs), Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs), or
industry standards, codes, and forms shall be resolved in writing by the
Company or Buyer's Representative through the Managers, Process & Control
System and Consulting Services Departments of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

2.2

All requests to deviate from this standard shall be directed in writing to the
Company or Buyer's Representative, who shall follow internal company
procedure SAEP-302 and forward such requests to the Manager, Process &
Control System Department of Saudi Aramco.

Applicable Documents
Unless stated otherwise, all codes and standards referenced shall be the latest issue
(including Revisions and Addenda). Sections of standards referenced herein shall be
considered as part of this standard.
3.1

Saudi Aramco References


Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure
SAEP-302

Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a


Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard


SAES-A-205

Oilfield Chemicals (OFC)

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Document Responsibility: Flow Assurance Standards Committee


SAEP-500
Issue Date: 13 June 2010
Guidelines for Screening and Qualification
Next Planned Update: 13 June 2015
of Chemicals for Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibition

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification


26-SAMSS-085
4

Kinetic Hydrate Chemicals (KHI)

Definitions
BIC: is an abbreviation for Best in Class, which are a set of chemicals (one KHI and
one CCI and one BCI) (see definitions of KHI, CCI and BCI below) recommended by
the suppliers based on preliminary testing.
BCI: Batch Corrosion Inhibitor; a chemical that is primarily used to film the entire
pipe internal surface; it is typically displaced through the pipeline between two batching
scrapers.
CCI: Continuous Corrosion Inhibitor; a chemical that is continuously injected into the
pipeline to establish and maintain a sufficient concentration for effective corrosion
protection.
Delivery Samples: are obtained from every shipment for QC testing. If the actual
delivery sample compares to the standard sample within prescribed limits, it is approved
by the Chemical Quality Assurance Unit or SA designated third party testing facility
and released for field delivery. See definitions below for Retained Standard Sample.
DRA: is an abbreviation for Drag Reducing Agent/Additive. It is a long chain chemical
(very high molecular weight polymer suspended in a carrier fluid used in fluid
transporting pipelines to reduce frictional losses (pressure drop) for the purpose of
increasing pipeline flow rate and/or decreasing operating pressure. DRA is considered
a specialty chemical and not a commodity like other oilfield chemicals (OFCs).
Flow Assurance Chemicals (FACs): specialty chemicals in MSG 148400 used in
hydrocarbon-transporting pipelines (e.g., oil, refined products). These chemicals
include drag reducing additives (DRAs), kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), methanol
and MEG.
Flow Assurance Chemicals Standards Committee (FACSC): is a committee
established and approved by the Chief Engineer of ES to be responsible for the FAC
standards such as this DRA Standard and KHI Standard.
Flow Assurance Chemicals Working Group (FACWG): a group responsible for
reviewing all aspects of FAC selection and procurement. Its charter is to review and
update the standards related to FAC as well as to ensure the cost-effective purchase and
service performance of the FACs through appropriate specifications and QA/QC
procedures. FACWG consists of two sub-working groups. The first sub-working group
is responsible for DRA and is called DRA Sub-Working Group (DRASWG). The
second sub-working group is responsible for Hydrate Inhibitors (HI) and is called HI
Sub-Working Group (HISWG).
Page 3 of 9

Document Responsibility: Flow Assurance Standards Committee


SAEP-500
Issue Date: 13 June 2010
Guidelines for Screening and Qualification
Next Planned Update: 13 June 2015
of Chemicals for Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibition

FA RSA: is an abbreviation for Flow Assurance Responsible Standardization Agent.


It is an RSA (refer to the definition of RSA below) for specialty product chemicals
defined above as FACs assigned by Engineering Services/P&CSD, the responsible
agency with the concurrence of Materials Standardization of Projects & Strategic
Purchasing Department/Operations Services, to be the technical authority on issues
related to flow assurance chemicals. FA RSA consists of two RSAs (a primary RSA
and an alternate RSA) who are members of the Flow Assurance Chemicals Standards
Committee (FACSC).
GPD: Gallons per Day.
HI: Hydrate Inhibitor; a generic term for chemicals that prevent the formation of
hydrates. There are three classes of hydrate inhibitors; thermodynamic, antiagglomerants and kinetic inhibitors with the thermodynamic inhibitors being the most
extensively used. Thermodynamic inhibitors are additives that work by changing the
hydrates thermodynamic forming conditions. They decrease the hydrate formation
temperature at a specific pressure or increase the hydrate formation pressure at a
specific temperature. Common thermodynamic inhibitors are methanol and Mono
Ethylene glycol (MEG).
KHI: Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor; a special type of hydrate inhibitors, which are
generally water-soluble polymers, prevent hydrate formation by delaying their
nucleation and growth rather than preventing them from forming. Unlike the
thermodynamic inhibitors LDHIs are effective at low concentrations (less than 2 wt%).
Several chemical suppliers supply various types of KHI depending on the gas operating
conditions. KHI performance is highly affected by gas operating conditions such as
composition and subcooling temperatures. Generally, the higher the subcooling, the
less effective they are. The performance of KHI can also be affected by presence of
other chemicals in the system such as corrosion inhibitors and methanol. For the above
reasons, it is necessary to conduct rigorous testing simulating actual field conditions to
determine the performance and effectiveness of the KHI prior to its selection.
MEG: is an abbreviation for Mono Ethylene Glycol, is a thermodynamic hydrate
inhibitor that depresses hydrate formation temperatures.
MSG (Material Service Group) 148400: is the code for Flow Assurance Chemicals
i.e., DRA, KHI, etc.
MSG 148400 MRP (Materials Requirement Planning) Controller: the analyst,
along with Purchasing, who is responsible for implementing and maintaining the issue
restriction system and the phase-in/phase-out of new chemicals.
Pre-screening Test: the process of testing candidate chemicals for the purpose of
identifying the best-in-class chemical for qualification testing.

Page 4 of 9

Document Responsibility: Flow Assurance Standards Committee


SAEP-500
Issue Date: 13 June 2010
Guidelines for Screening and Qualification
Next Planned Update: 13 June 2015
of Chemicals for Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibition

QA/QC (Quality Assurance/Quality Control): In the context of this standard, QA


generally includes P&CSD, CSD, Standardization, and RSA functions, as well as
matters relating to selection, screening and performance testing of chemicals. QC is
addressed primarily by the testing of delivery samples.
Qualification Testing: testing in accordance with Section 6 to determine if a best-inclass chemical can be used to treat a process stream effectively and to obtain optimum
performance/cost chemical dosage.
Retained Standard Sample: a sample of each MSG 148400 chemical currently in use
by Saudi Aramco to be taken from the first delivery of each chemical at the beginning
each new year. This sample is to be compared with the original standard sample in
physical properties and laboratory performance. If the results are comparable, the
retained standard sample will be used, if necessary, a reservoir of incumbent chemical
to be utilized during the year for any comparison testing. The retained standard sample
is replaced each year.
RSA: the Responsible Standardization Agent.
Commentary Note:
The name and telephone number for the RSA can be obtained from Materials
Standardization or from DeskTop Standards Other Information: "RSA Specialists to be
Contacted on Matters of Materials Standardization, Stock Simplification, and Source
Development."

Subcooling: is the measure of how far into the hydrate forming region a system is at a
given temperature and pressure.
Standardization Engineer - Flow Assurance Chemicals: the Materials
Standardization Division engineer responsible for the cataloging of new chemicals in
MSG 148400, and the maintenance of the Materials Supply Inventory catalog.
Testing Protocol: a document that specifies the methodology and test conditions to be
used for evaluating the performance of candidate chemicals in combination with other
different chemicals that are expected to be used in the same service for selecting bestin-class chemicals.
5

General Requirements
5.1

All chemical vendors must be approved by Saudi Aramco prior to participating


in the chemical screening and qualification program.

5.2

Only approved chemical vendor with historic and successful KHI/CI use must
be considered. The chemicals (KHI/CCI/BCI) should be supplied from the same

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Document Responsibility: Flow Assurance Standards Committee


SAEP-500
Issue Date: 13 June 2010
Guidelines for Screening and Qualification
Next Planned Update: 13 June 2015
of Chemicals for Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibition

vendor in order to avoid conflict with other vendors if a failure was to occur during
service.
5.3

Each approved chemical vendor must submit its own developed testing
protocols that it intends to use for pre-screening and identifying Best-In-Class
(BIC) chemicals.

5.4

The pre-screening testing protocols shall be approved by P&CSD and CSD to


ensure the proposed tests are relevant and test parameters will closely simulate
the target service conditions. Once approved, testing shall be carried out by the
chemical vendor using agreed parameters to determine the BIC chemicals.
Commentary Note:
If the intended service requires a KHI, continuous corrosion inhibitor (CCI) and
batching corrosion inhibitor (BCI), only one KHI, one CCI and one BCI shall be
submitted by each approved vendor to P&CSD and CSD for review.

5.6

All approved vendors must meet the above prequalification requirements before
their chemicals can be considered for further evaluation.

Qualification of BIC Chemicals


6.1.

Testing shall be carried out using parameters closely simulating field conditions,
as agreed in writing among the coordinating engineer, the end-user, and the
appropriate testing laboratory (in-house or a designated third party). A copy of
the qualification testing protocol shall be provided to the FA RSA.

6.2

In addition to establishing the physical properties of a chemical by the Chemical


Quality Assurance Unit, third party testing facility, "the Testing Protocol" shall
be performed by the designated laboratory. Tests can include, but are not
limited to, the following techniques:
Commentary Note:
Currently, Saudi Aramco does not have the capability to conduct full chemical
qualification testing; therefore, tests are conducted in a third party facility capable
of complying with the test protocols and approved by the FA RSA.

6.2.1

For hydrate inhibitors


If the HI is KHI then follow the qualification steps specified in
26-SAMSS-085 to select the suitable KHI for the specified application.
Once the KHI is selected, compatibility tests with other chemicals such
as methanol, BCI and CCI are required. The compatibility tests shall
include the following:

Page 6 of 9

Document Responsibility: Flow Assurance Standards Committee


SAEP-500
Issue Date: 13 June 2010
Guidelines for Screening and Qualification
Next Planned Update: 13 June 2015
of Chemicals for Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibition

i)

Hot injection test in the presence of CCI and BCI (if needed).

ii)

KHI performance test in presence of CCI and BCI (if needed).

iii)

KHI performance testing with De-ionized (DI) water in presence of


CCI and BCI under flowing and static conditions for different
subcooling temperatures specified by the FA RSA.

iv)

KHI performance testing with the presence of methanol, low salt


and low pH.

v)

Secondary testing including combination of KHI/CCI/BCI (if


needed) to check for emulsion tendency, viscosity, brine, low pH,
foaming, flash point, weld test, material compatibility and long
term storage stability.
Commentary Note:
The chemical dosage rates and other specifications for the
secondary tests will be determined by the FA RSA according to the
input from the chemical vendors.

If the HI is a conventional thermodynamic inhibitor such as MEG,


then qualification testing is not required. However, CI and other
chemicals will have to be screened first; then the MEG
performance will be checked with the presence of the selected
chemicals.
6.2.2

For corrosion inhibitors


i)

Electrochemical techniques: Linear polarization, impedance and


noise

ii)

Phase partitioning - aqueous phase inhibitor concentration,


corrosion mitigation of partitioned aqueous phase

iii)

Weight loss techniques - autoclave, wheel oven

iv)

Electrical resistance (gas phase)

v)

Secondary testing including combination of MEG/CCI/BCI (if


needed) to check for emulsion tendency, viscosity, brine, low pH,
foaming, flash point, weld test, material compatibility and long
term storage stability.
Commentary Note:
For circulating MEG systems, the corrosion inhibitor performance
and thermal stability need to be ascertained under MEG
regeneration temperatures.

Page 7 of 9

Document Responsibility: Flow Assurance Standards Committee


SAEP-500
Issue Date: 13 June 2010
Guidelines for Screening and Qualification
Next Planned Update: 13 June 2015
of Chemicals for Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibition

6.3

Other tests may also be deemed suitable, and can be included in the testing
protocol at the discretion of P&CSD and CSD in consultation with the
proponent Operations Engineering organization.

6.4

See Appendix A for the KHI/CI screening and qualification protocol.

13 June 2010

Revision Summary
New Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure.

Page 8 of 9

Document Responsibility: Flow Assurance Standards Committee


SAEP-500
Issue Date: 13 June 2010
Guidelines for Screening and Qualification
Next Planned Update: 13 June 2015
of Chemicals for Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibition

Appendix A Screening and Qualification Protocol for HI/CI


Saudi Aramco identifies
the need for HI and CI

KHI

MEG

Chemical vendors
conduct new
testing and
propose new BIC
CCI/BCI
Test results will
be reviewed with
KHI vendors to
come up with a
path forward

Type of HI

FA RSA, CSD and Purchasing


review test results of vendors
BIC for CCI/BCI (if needed)

Follow 26-SAMSS-085for
qualifying the KHI
No

Conduct hot injection test in


presence of CCI/BCI (if needed)

Accept
Yes
Screen the BIC CCI/BCI (if
needed) for the selected
application per Sections 6.2 and
6.3

Check KHI performance in


presence of CCI/BCI under flow
and static conditions

Test the performance of MEG


with presence of CCI/BCI

Check KHI performance in


presence of CCI/BCI along with
salt, low pH and methanol

FA RSA, CSD, Purchasing and


proponent review test results

Conduct secondary testing in the


presence of CCI/BCI
Yes

No
Accept

Conduct field
testing if required

KHI vendor takes


action based on an
agreed plan

Test results will


be reviewed with
KHI vendors to
come up with a
path forward

FA RSA, CSD, Purchasing and


proponent review test results
Yes

No
Accept

Purchasing develops agreement


with chemical vendors of the
approved chemicals

Proponent prepares 1149 form


and submit to Material Control
Dept.

Standardization catalogues HI
/CCI/BCI product into SAMS

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