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A Summer project

On

“Analysis of Four Departments of


ASFA
Company”

For the partial completion of graduation degree in


BBA
From
Shri S V Patel College of Computer Science and
Business Management,
Veer Narmad South Gujarat University

Submitted by: Aghera Vivek P.

Submitted to: In charge Principal

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Chintu sir Ms. Hetal Patel

DECLARATION

I, Mr. Vivek Aghera P., hereby declare that the project work entitled
“Analysis of Four Departments of Shri Swami Atmanand
Saraswati Ayurvedic Co-operative Pharmacy Ltd.” submitted to
Shri S. V. Patel College of Computer Science and Business
Management affiliated to Veer Narmad South Gujarat
University, is a record of an original work done by me under the
guidance of Chintu sir. This project work has been performed for
the partial completion of graduation degree in BBA.

Sign: ______________
(Vivek Aghera)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe sincere thanks to a great many people who helped and


supported me during the Project work. My deepest thanks to Lecturer, Chintu
sir the Guide of the
project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention
and care. She has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary
correction as and when needed. I express my thanks to the Principal Ms.
Hetal Patel honourable Director Shri G. K. Ruwala of, Shri S. V. Patel
College of Computer Science and Business Management, for extending
her support. My deep sense of gratitude to Bipin Kasvada (Assistant
Production Manager),
Shri Swami Atmanand Saraswati Ayurvedic Co-operative Pharmacy Ltd.
for support and guidance. Thanks and appreciation to the helpful people at
Shri Swami Atmanand Saraswati Ayurvedic Co-operative Pharmacy Ltd.,
for their support.

Sign : ______________
(Vivek Aghera)

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EXECUTIVE SUMMERY

The Asfa Pharmacy completed 60 years. During these periods Pharmacy


achieve many progressive stages. This Pharmacy has a head office and other
five branches. At this way its branches are spreading in different area of all
Gujarat state.

From the study of last 2 years Pharmacy’s financial report, we can say that
rate of progress of Pharmacy is very good. Asfa is co-operative pharmacy and
since its establishment it is never done loss but Asfa sale its medicines at low
price so that its profit is less compare to other Pharmacies. Pharmacy’s Sales
and Profit is decrease in current year to compare past years.

For the duration of our training in Asfa, we found that the workers and
managerial staff are good and the management of all departments is efficient.
Workers are fully satisfied with their work. This Pharmacy’s aim is not only do
profit but also work for employee welfare and societal welfare.

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Profile of the company &industry

THE HISTORY OF AYURVEDA

Ayurveda, the science of life, prevention and longevity is the oldest and most
holistic medical system available on the planet today. It was placed in written
form over 5,000 years ago in India, it was said to be a world medicine dealing
with both body and the spirit. Before the advent of writing, the ancient wisdom
of this healing system was a part of the spiritual tradition of the Sanatana
Dharma (Universal Religion), or Vedic Religion. VedaVyasa, the famous
sage, shaktavesha avatar of Vishnu, put into writing the complete knowledge
of Ayurveda, along with the more directly spiritual insights of self realization
into a body of scriptural literature called the Vedas and the Vedic literatures.

There are two main re-organizers of Ayurveda whose works are still existing
in tact today - Charak and Sushrut. The third major treatise is called the
Ashtanga Hridaya, which is a concise version of the works of Charak and
Sushrut. Thus the three main Ayurvedic texts that are still used today are the
Charak Samhita (compilation of the oldest book Atreya Samhita), Sushrut
Samhita and the Ashtangha Hridaya Samhita. These books are believed to be
over 1,200 years old. It is because these texts still contain the original and
complete knowledge of this Ayurvedic world medicine, that Ayurveda is known
today as the only complete medical system still in existence. Other forms of
medicine from various cultures, although parallel are missing parts of the
original information.

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INTRODUCTION OF AYURVEDA

Ayurveda is a holistic system of medicine from India that uses a constitutional


model. Its aim is to provide guidance regarding food and lifestyle so that
healthy people can stay healthy and folks with health challenges can improve
their health.

There are several aspects to Ayurveda that are quite unique:

 Its recommendations will often be different for each person regarding which
foods and which lifestyle they should follow in order to be completely healthy.
This is due to its use of a constitutional model.

 Everything in Ayurveda is validated by observation, inquiry, direct


examination and knowledge derived from the ancient texts.

 It understands that there are energetic forces that influence nature and
human beings. These forces are called the Tridoshas.

 Because Ayurveda sees a strong connection between the mind and the
body, a huge amount of information is available regarding this relationship.

Theory of Tridosha

Ayurvedic practitioners take into consideration the body constitution of a


patient before prescribing any medicine, for the medicine, which suits a vatiya
(vata) constitution, will not help a patient having shleshmic (kapha)
constitution.
Tridosha – its types and correlation with Panchmahabhoota

 VATA
Organ in which situated Dominant Mahabhoota
Prana Murdha (palate) jala
Samana Koshtha (stomach) Agni
Vyana Sarva sharer (whole body) vayu

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Apana Muladhara (genitourinary tract) prithvi
Udana Urh Pradesh (chest) akasha

 PITTA
Aalochak Netra (eye) Agni
Sadhak Hridaya (heart) aakash
Pachak Koshtha (stomach) prithvi
Ranjak Yakrit, pleeha (liver, spleen) jala
Bhrajak Tvak (skin) vayu

 KAPHA
Bodhak Jivha (tongue) Agni
Kledak Amashaya (stomach) jala
Avlambak Hridaya (heart) prithvi
Tarpak Indriya (sense organs) akasha
Shleshak Sandhi (joints) vayu

Principal of Ayurveda

According to ayurvedic philosophy an individual bundle of `spirit’, desirous of


expressing itself, uses subjective consciousness or Satwa to manifest sense
organs and a mind. Spirit and mind then project themselves into a physical
body, created from the five (Pancha) great (maha) eternal elements (bhutas)
– together called the Panchamahabhutas – which arise from Tamas. The
sense organs then using Rajas to project from the body into the external
world to experience their objects. The body becoming the mind’s vehicle, its
physical instrument for sense gratification.

The Bhutas combine into "Tridoshas" or bioenergetics forces that govern


and determine our health or physical condition. While the three gunas (Rajas
or activity, Tamas or inertia and Satwa, which balances the first two) or
psychic forces determine our mental and spiritual health. Ayurveda is thus a
holistic system of health care that teaches us to balance these energies in
order to achieve optimum health and well being

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The Panchamahabhutas

Akash Vayu Agni Prithvi Jal

According to Ayurveda everything in life is composed of the


Panchamahabhutas – Akash (Space), Vayu (Air), Jal (Water), Agni (Fire)
and Prithvi (Earth). Omnipresent, they are mixed in an infinite variety of
relative proportions such that each form of matter is distinctly unique.
Although each element has a range of attributes, only some get evident in
particular situations. Constantly changing and interacting with each other, they
create a situation of dynamic flux that keeps the world going.

Within a simple, single living cell for example the earth element predominates
by giving structure to the cell. The water element is present in the cytoplasm
or the liquid within the cell membrane. The fire element regulates the
metabolic processes regulating the cell. While the air element predominates
the gases therein. The space occupied by the cell denoting the last of the
elements.

In the case of a complex, multi-cellular organism as a human being for


instance, akash corresponds to spaces within the body (mouth, nostrils,
abdomen etc.); vayu denotes the movement (essentially muscular); agni
controls the functioning of enzymes (intelligence, digestive system,
metabolism); jal is in all body fluids (as plasma, saliva, digestive juices); and
prithvi manifests itself in the solid structure of the body (bones, teeth, flesh,
hair et al).

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THE AYURVEDIC MEDICINE INDUSTRY IN
INDIA

Ayurvedic medicines are produced by several thousand companies in India,


but most of them are quite small, including numerous neighborhood
pharmacies that compound ingredients to make their own remedies. It is
estimated that the total value of products from the entire Ayurvedic production
in India is on the order of one billion dollars (U.S.). The industry has been
dominated by less than a dozen major companies for decades, joined recently
by a few others that have followed their lead, so that there are today 30
companies doing a million dollars or more per year in business to meet the
growing demand for Ayurvedic medicine. The products of these companies
are included within the broad category of "fast moving consumer goods"
(FMCG; which mainly involves foods, beverages, toiletries, cigarettes, etc.).
Most of the larger Ayurvedic medicine suppliers provide materials other than
Ayurvedic internal medicines, particularly in the areas of foods and toiletries
(soap, toothpaste, shampoo, etc.), where there may be some overlap with
Ayurveda, such as having traditional herbal ingredients in the composition of
toiletries.

The key suppliers in Ayurveda are Dabur, Baidyanath, and Zandu,


which together have about 85% of India's domestic market. These and a
handful of other companies are mentioned repeatedly by various writers about
the Ayurvedic business in India; a brief description is provided for them,
arranged here from oldest to newest.

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STATUS OF AYURVEDA IN INDIA

The Indian government and non-government organizations have been


collecting statistics on the Ayurvedic system in India and these data about the
manpower and institutional aspects of Ayurveda have emerged:

 Number of registered medical practitioners: 366,812

 Number of dispensaries: 22,100

 Number of hospitals: 2,189

 Number of hospital beds: 33,145

 Number of teaching institutions (undergraduate): 187

 Number of upgraded postgraduate departments: 51

 Number of specialties in postgraduate medical training: 16

 Number of pharmacies manufacturing Ayurvedic medicines: 8,400

In India, 60% of registered physicians are involved in non-allopathic


systems of medicine. In addition to the nearly 400,000 Ayurvedic practitioners,
there are over 170,000 homeopathic physicians; India has about 500,000
medical doctors (similar to the number in the U.S., but serving nearly 4 times
as many people). Reliance on Ayurvedic medicine is heavy in certain regions
of India, such as Kerala in the Southwest. Many Ayurvedic practitioners in
small villages are not registered. One of the famous clinics of India is
described in Appendix 2 and a new clinic complex is serving visitors from
abroad is mentioned in Appendix 3.

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HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION OF ASFA

Once in a golden morning Shri Swami Atmanand Sarswati comes in Surat


and he stat to give knowledge of culture/ religion and ayurveda by his lectures
at every place of Surat city. He set up Tapi Brahmcharya Ashram at the land
which was donated to in at the bank of river Tapi. In Ashram many student
study about Ayurveda and Sanskrit. And with passes of time he started an
ayurvedic clinic and a Pharmacy for medicines needed to run clinic. And
slowly with flow of time the promotion and expansion, the small Pharmacy
become only one co-operative ayurvedic pharmacy of Gujarat which is
established in 2nd June, 1949 with name Shri Swami Atmanand Sarswati Co-
operative Pharmacy Limited which is known as its short name “Asfa”.

“Asfa” (Shri Swami Atmanand Sarswati Ayurvedic Co-operative Pharmacy


Limited) is established in 1948 in Surat at the bank of river Tapi. It is an only
one co-operative pharmaceutical pharmacy in Gujarat. Shri Swami Atmanand
Sarswati who was the man with strong mind power established the Pharmacy.

Shri Swami Atmanand Sarswati was spent his whole life in survive of people
and teach Ayurved to his Shishyas. He had only one goal of his whole life as
follows:

“I don’t desire state, I don’t desire paradise, I even don’t desire moksh,
but I desire to solve the problems of people who are suffering from the
dieses by way of using Ayurvedic treatment.”

Asfa has its head office at chowta pool and it has a factory at Varachha road
in Surat. Asfa also expanded its production capacity and established one
more factory at Navagam. Asfa has about 4000 members now but when it
was started it has only 70 members to operate various activities.

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By showing the above mentioned figure we can say that Asfa is very rapidly
grow and expand in whole Gujarat. It has opened branches at Valsad,
Baroda, Ahemdabad, Bardoli and Bharuch etc. It has also work as a
consulting in Valsad and Surat. It established a consulting clinic in Valsad
where the information about various ayurvedic medicines is provided to
people without taking any pay.

Asfa sold its product in most of cities of Gujarat and Mumbai through its
dealers. Asfa has widely distributed dealer network. Asfa produce qualitative
product, by reason of that a slogan “Aushadho to Asfa nij”.

Asfa get a certificate of GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) from Gujarat


state food and medicine Control Corporation. Asfa is a first Pharmacy which is
gets this type of certificate. Asfa get GMP certificate in 2004 and also get ISO
9001 in 2005 and laboratory of Asfa get permission from food and medicines
commissioner’s office, Gandhinagar.

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BOARD OF DERECTORS OF ASFA

1. Dr. Navinbhai B. Patel President

2. Shri Ramanlal P. Patel Wise President

3. Dr. Purushotambhai P. Mistri Minister

4. Dr. Kanubhai G. Mavani Director

5. Dr. Chhotubhai L. Patel Director

6. Dr. Tarunkumar M. Pathak Director

7. Dr. Abhaybhai R. Shah Director

8. Shri Sanmukhbhai J. Patel Director

9. Shri Ranchhodbhai K. Patel Director

10. Dr. Bankimchandra R. Thakar Director

11. Dr. Vasantrai M. Desai Director

12. Shri Jagdishbhai P. Patel Director

13. Shri Arvindbhai M. Patel Director

14. Dr. Pradipbhai J. Suryavanshi Director

15. Dr. Iswarbhai K. Patel Director

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LIST OF DEALERS
 There are 79 dealers of Asfa in whole Gujarat. Here represent only name
of cities in which Asfa has dealers.

 The cities are Ankleshwer(6) Rajkot(3)

Ahemadabad(9) Rajpipala(2)

Amod(1) Surendranagar(2)

Mahuva(1) Vyara(2)

Bharuch(2) Vapi(1)

Bilimora(4) Vadodara(4)

Bardoli(2) Viramgam(1)

Chikhali(2) Vidhyanagar(2)

Godhara(2)

Gandevi(1)

Gandhinagar(2)

Junagarh(2)

Kathor(1)

Kapadvanj(1)

Kamrej(1)

kilapadi(1)

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Mumbai(3)

Mandavi(1)

Amran(1)

Navasari(4)

Porbandar(1)

Surat(14)

Location of Factory and Branches

Factory of Asfa

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1. Near Panini taki,
Varachha road,
Surat-395006
Phone no. (0261-648092, 644410)

2. 17, 18, Navagam Udhyognagar Co-operative Sangh


Navagam,
District: Kamrej,
Surat,
Phone no: (02621-252440)

Branches:

1. Near Bank of Baroda,


Chouta pool,
Surat,
Phone no: 0261-426413

2. Ayurvedic Hospital Compound,


Station road,
Surat.

3. Dhanasutar Ni Poll,
Relief road,
Ahemadabad.

4. Balavant Building,
Kharivav road,
Baroda.

5. 8, Navrang Shopping Center,


Panch Bati,
Bharuch.

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6. 3,Amar Chambers,
Near the lal school,
Valsad.

7. Hirachand Nagar,
Station road,
Bardoly.

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF ASFA


COMPANY

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS

CHAIRMAN

VICE PRESEDENT

SECRETORY

GENERAL MANAGER

PRODUCTION
ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT
DEPT.
ASSISTANT PRO.
MANAGER
ACCOUNTANT

SUPERVISOR
CASHIER

WORKERS
SENIOR CLERK

RAW MATERIAL
DEPARTMENT

SALES DEPARTMENT

FUTURE PLAN OF ASFA

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 This company is only limited in Gujarat but now it went to expand there
business and introduce its product in new state.
 To increase the quality of their product
 Change packaging style and use new and attractive style of packaging
 Use modern technique of production and expand their capacity
 Introduce cosmetics product of Asfa in the market

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Marketing Department

INTRODUCTION

Market: -
The common usage of market means a place where goods are bought or
sold. In its strict meaning market need not necessarily mean a place of
exchange.

Marketing: -
Marketing is concerned with selling but now a day the concept has enlarged
its meaning. We know that a product is provided with the aim of sale. The aim
producer totally depends on marketing. Without marketing no unit can run. It
covers marketing research, new product development and so many other
important functions.

“Marketing is the process of discovering and translating consumer needs and


wants into product and service specifications, creating demand for these
products and services and then in turn expanding this demand.”

Marketing Environment

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Asfa is a co-operative pharmacy working with the objective of survives people.
Asfa produces ayurvedic medicines. Asfa produces more than 288 types of
products which other companies do not produce. Asfa sales its product in
Gujarat and other nearer states and there is no other companies with so large
production in Gujarat but than also Asfa have competition from the national
and international companies like Zandu, Himalaya, Dabur, Baidyanath,
Charak etc. and also from state level companies like Puja pharmacy, Gujarat
Ayurved Vikas Mandal, Ban pharmacy etc.

The key suppliers in Ayurveda are Dabur, Baidyanath, and Zandu, which
together have about 85% of India's domestic market. Dabur India Ltd. (1884)
is India's largest Ayurvedic medicine supplier and the fourth largest producer
of FMCG. Zandu (1919) focuses preliminary on ayurvedic medicines but it
produce chemical and cosmetic products also. Himalaya is established in
1939 in Bangalore and has business about 500 million dollar. Vicco (1958)
produces topical therapies based on Ayurveda and is best known
internationally for its toothpaste product.

Asfa has main competition from Baidyanath and Charak. Sri Baidyanath
Ayurvedic Bhawan Ltd. was founded in 1917 in Calcutta, and specializes in
Ayurvedic medicines. The company reports having over 700 Ayurvedic
products, made at 10 manufacturing centers, with 1,600 employees. Charak
Pharmaceuticals was founded in 1947, and currently has three distribution
centers in India; it produces liquids, tablets, and veterinary supplies.

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COMPARISON OF 4PS OF VARIOUS PRODUCTS OF
ASFA WITH COMPATITORS

Marketing mix is the policy adopted by the manufacturers to get success in


the field of marketing. Those days, when goods were matched with the market
have gone. Marketing mix is the term used to describe the combination of 4
inputs which constitute the core of company’s marketing system the product,
the price structure, the promotional activities and the distribution (place)
system. These are popularly known as, “4ps”.
A brief description of four elements of marketing mix of Asfa is:

Product

Marketing
Promotion Price
mix

Place

 Product
A product is any thing that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want
or need. Asfa produce 288 medicines for its customer. Other companies do
not have so large range of product width and length. Asfa use rarely found
able herbs in its medicines which make difference from competitors. Asfa
produce more qualitative products than the competitors. Asfa also research
and produce new medicines and patent them. Such medicines like Asfa
haemetone, Reducid, Asfalax, Gasowin, Asfa-tone.

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 Price
The marked or announced amount of money asked from a buyer is known as
basic price of a product. Asfa use value pricing method for its products. In this
method, Asfa charging fairly low price for highly qualitative product, which
its competitor can not done. Asfa charged low price than its competitors
because Asfa less expense in promotional activity and for distribution. Asfa
charged low price because it is co-operative pharmacy and its main objective
is provide medicines at fair price, not to earn profit.

 Promotion
Marketing communication consist of communication marketing activities
through various forms of promotion that is personal selling, advertising,
publicity and public relationship, sales promotion etc. together called
promotion mix. Asfa does not do more expenditure for promotional activities
like other companies. Asfa do zero level marketing than also Asfa easily
sale its medicine and its dealer largely expand in all Gujarat.

 Place
Place means the decision by which company transfers their product, location,
inventory handling, warehousing, storage facility, transportation etc. Asfa has
a big location for plant at bank of river tapi. Asfa is located near the nation
high way so it can transport and get material easily. Asfa has own retail
store in various cities so it can easily provide medicines to customers than its
competitors. Competitors like Pooja, Zandu, Himalaya, Dabour etc. have not
so widely develop distribution network in Gujarat.

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IDUSTRIAL BUYING BEHAVIOUR

The industrial or organization buyer decision making is a follow stage process.


Asfa use this process are as under.

1) Problem Recognition: the buying process begins with recognition with


recognition of a problem or need. Something is needed that can be met by
procurement of a product spare parts, material or plant and machinery or
service. Externally, trade show or exhibition, Advertisement calls from sales
representative may provide stimuli for need recognition. Asfa use internally
and externally may provide stimuli for recognition

2) General need description and product specification: the


asfa determine the needed item general characteristics and required
quantity. For standard items this is simple. For complex items the asfa
will work with other engineers, user to define characteristics such as
reliability, durability or price.
the asfa organization now develops the item technical specifications.
Often the company will assign a product value analysis (PVA)
engineering team to project. PVA is the cost reduction approach by
redesigning the component or by standardizing them.

3) Search supplier: the asfa tries to search out supplier. Main source of
the search vendor are trade directories internet trade advertisement visit
industrial exhibition, phone to other company for recommendations. from
various soures of buyer trues to identified the most appropriate from only
a few prequalified vendors.

4) Proposal solicitation and selection: the asfa next invites


qualified supplier to submit proposals. If the item is complex or
expensive the buyer will require a detailed written proposal from each
qualified supplier.

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Before selecting a supplier the buying center will specified desire
supplier attributes and indicate threre relative importance. To rate and
identified the most attractive supplier buying centers often use a supplier
evaluation model.

5) Order routine specification: after selecting supplier the asfa


negotiates the final order listing the technical specification the quantity
needed the expected time of delivery return policy warranties and so on.

6) Performance review: the asfa periodically review the performance


of the supplier.

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Product Mix

Product mix means,”The set of product offered for sale by a firm or a business
unit is known as a product mix”.

ASFA COMPANY PRODUCT MIX

Asfa Company produces 288 no of product. But some no of product I include


in diagram.

Width of the product mix


Depth of the product linenes

HIGH B.P. LOW B.P. HIGH SUGAR

Akika Bhasma Sanjivani gutika Chandraprabhavati


200,500,1000gm Available in 100,250,500gm
Trifka tablet Yashad Bhasma
Available in 100,300,1000gm

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There are three important aspect of product mix (1) width, (2) depth, (3)
consistency.

(1) Width of the product mix is concerned with the number of product lines
marketed by the company.

(2) The depth of the product mix depends on the average number of
product items included in the product lines.

(3) The consistency of the product mix indicates how far or to what extent
the product lines are interconnected with each other from the view
point of their final use or production requirements or channel of
distribution.

Packaging & labeling

(1) Packaging – packaging is meant for the protection and maintenance of the
quality of the product. It serves the purpose of container and wrapper;
however, it is the powerful tool of promotion at point of purchase. Attractive
packaging and labeling increases sales without spending much on
advertisement

Asfa company produce 288 types of product and use the 288 types of
packaging. Overall 6 types of machine available at Asfa for packaging.

(2) Labeling – labeling is connected with brand and packaging. Label is a strip
on the container or packaging on which certain instruction.

Asfa company give instruction to consumer that how use the product and
price of the product, date of the manufacturing etc.

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Pricing strategies

The marked or announced amount of money asked from a buyer is known as


basic price-value placed on a product. Price is the one element of the
marketing mix that produces revenue. Prices are the easiest marketing mix
element to adjust; product features, channels, and even promotion take more
time.

There can be competition between price-quality segments. The below


diagram shows nine price-quality strategies.

PRICE

High Medium Low

Q High 1. Premium 2. High-value 3. Super-value


U strategy strategy strategy
A 4. Overcharging 5. Medium-value 6. Good-value
L Medium strategy strategy strategy
I
T 7. Rip-off 8. False economy 9. Economy
Y Low strategy strategy strategy

Asfa has super-value strategy for its products. Asfa provides medicines at low
price with high quality.

Asfa set price for its products by taking care of the below matters.
 Asfa set price with considering its objective of provide medicines at fairly
price with good quality.

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 Asfa decides price after the production is over so it estimate cost of
production and other expenditure and divide it by number of products and add
some more for setting price.
 Asfa Also considered the price of competitors and try to set less price than
competitors.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

Distribution network can be define as a set of interdependent institutions


participating in the marketing activities involved in the flow of goods and
services from manufacturer to customer.

Asfa have well developed distribution network for marketing activities. Asfa
have 78 dealers for selling its medicines. Asfa have own distribution network.
Asfa sell its medicines by own stores and these stores are created in whole
Gujarat state such as in Surat, Ahmedabad, Ankles war, Anand, Navsari,
Vadodara and in many other cities of Gujarat.

Asfa use zero level and one level channel for distribution. Asfa provide
medicines to its retail store as per their requirement and that stores sales
medicines direct to customers so customer get medicines in less price than
competitors. Asfa have also a store at outside the pharmacy from where
anyone can get medicines easily.

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SALES PROCEDURE

The steps of sales procedure of Asfa are as follows.

1. First step is to get raw-material and send in production department for


process.

2. Production department prepare finished product, packed and after


testing send it to dispatch department.

3. Dispatch department receives the order from Asfa’s stores.

4. According to order dispatch department send the medicines to various


store by pharmacy’s own vehicle.

5. Retail stores send the material receipt note.

6. Retail stores are selling that medicines to customers and send the copy
of bills of selling medicines with payment.

7. Asfa receive copy of bills and note in sales documents and collect
payment.

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8. If any dealer or customer has complaint against medicines than Asfa
takes their complaint and take corrective actions for that.

UNIQUE FEATURES OF ASFA’S PRODUCTS

Asfa produce 288 medicines or many other products. Asfa produce medicines
in various categories like asav, aristas, syrups, churns, avlehas etc. and all of
them have different unique features but Asfa products main feature is “Better
Quality in Lower Price”.

 We have a variety of asavs and aristas that are prepared on the time
tested principle of ayurveda. Our products in asavs and aristas are of high
medicinal value then that of others.

 Asfas syrups are meant for overall growth, stimulated appetite, correct
digestive system and cough & respiration disorders.

 Asfa have prepared a variety of churns through constant research and


experiments and that have been highly effective to cure digestive problems,
skin digests, joint pain, cold & cough and many others.

 Asfa’s avlehas are prepared from the herbs which rare to found which
wasn’t made by others. These avlehas are costly because of special herbs
are used for it.

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Asfa use some time the ancient recipes for prepare medicines. Asfa have also
patent right of some medicines which are made by scientist of asfas
laboratory.

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Activity of HR department

(1) Legal compliance


(2) Benefits
(3) Union-management relations
(4) Human resource planning
(5) Employee relations
(6) Selection
(7) Training and development
(8) Appraisal
(9) Placement
(10) Motivation

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Recruitment & Selection Process

RECRUITMENT PROCESS OF “ASFA”

In simple term, recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and


obtaining application for jobs, from among whom the right people can be
selected.

According to Edurin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is a process of searching for


prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for
jobs in an organization.”

The recruitment process of Asfa pharmacy starts with personal planning of


General Manager. When there is an any sit become vacant or a new
employee is or are require, General Manager first plan how many employees
are require and of what qualification. General Manager decides which type of
people is requiring means which type of skills an employee have need for
recruitment in pharmacy. For example, quality laboratory technician require
qualification B.Sc. (Micro) and DMLT. Managers are requiring qualification of
MBA. So the first step of recruitment process of Asfa pharmacy is set a
standard for recruitment.

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 The second step is searching for employees. General Manager decides
from where, the employees are recruit and by which source. The middle level
of employees and workers are mostly recruiting from city or areas which are
near to pharmacy. In source for recruiting, General Manager uses both
internal and external source of recruitment. Manager use internal source such
as:
 Relatives of present employee
 Promotion and transfer
 Former employees

Internal source are use when more employees are required.

Asfa use external sources such as:


 Advertisement in news paper
 College campus recruitment
 Employment exchange

 The third step is screening of collected applications. Applications received


in response to advertisement are screened and only eligible applicants are
called for an interview. Here the recruitment process is ends and the selection
process begins.

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

Asfa use both internal and external sources which are as follow in detail.

 Internal source
Asfa uses internal source when they need more employees in short period of
time.

Relative of present employees


It is important internal source of Asfa. Asfa use this source when it requires
argent employees for production at low cost. A major concern with employee

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recommendation is that the referred individuals are likely to be similar in type
to those who are already working for the company.

Promotion and transfer


This Pharmacy often uses promotion and transfer for vacant sits. This is a
good source of internal recruitment. Promotions to hire positions are
advantigable for pharmacy by various kinds. Another way to recruit from
preset employee is transfer without promotion. Pharmacy uses it when other
branch has required skill and experienced employee.

Former employee
Former employees are also an internal source of applicants. Some retired
employees may be willing to come back to work on part time bases or may
recommend someone would be interested in working for the pharmacy.

 External sources
External sources far outnumber the internal methods. Specifically, sources
external to a pharmacy are:

Advertisement
This is the common source of recruitment. All types of organizations are using
it for recruitment. Asfa use most of time this source for recruitment. It gives
advertisement in local and stat level news paper. Asfa take care that
advertisement must be effectively drafted before publishing.

Employment exchange
Employment exchanges have been setup all over the country in difference to
in provisions of the Employment Exchanges Act, 1959. The act requires the
entire industrial establishment to notify the vacancies before they are filled.
Asfa also notify its vacancies and take employees from employment
exchange.

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Campus recruitment
Colleges, universities and institutes are fertile ground for recruiters. Asfa also
recruit it employee from colleges and universities campuses. Employee of
pharmacy go to various B Pharm colleges and meets its principals and
teachers take information about students from them then meet those students
and give job offer to them.

SELECTION

Selection is the process by which candidates for employment are divided into
class- those who will be offered employment and those who will not. Thus, the
selection process is a tool in the hand of the management to differentiate the
qualified and unqualified applicants by applying various techniques such as
interviews, tests.

PROCESS OF SELECTION

Selection process starts when recruitment process ends. The steps of


selection process are as follows.

1. The first of selection process is receipt of applications. Applications are


screened then after and only those are selected whose are matched
with require specifications and attributes.

2. The next step taken by pharmacy is preliminary interview. In this only


general questions are asked and some information about pharmacy
and of job is given to applicants.

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3. The third step is selection test. Pharmacy takes written selection test in
which they ask questions on ayurvedic medicines. This test is taken
only for middle level.

4. For worker and top level test is not taken. They call for interview.
Interview is taken by managers and the applicants who are passed
from this are selected for job.

5. Job is offered to selected applicants by giving appointment later and


information of pharmacy, job and his co-workers.

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING PROCESS

Human resource planning as been defining as, “The process by which


management determines how an organization should move from its current
manpower position to its desirable manpower position. Though it
management strive to have the right number and the right kind of people at
the right place, at the right time, doings things which result in both the
organization and the individual receiving, maximum long range profit.”

In Asfa, human resource planning process is done by following steps:

1. Organizations objectives and policies

Human resource plan needs to be based on organizations objectives that


means objective of human resource must be derived from organizations
objectives. Specific requirement in terms of number and characteristics of
employee should be derived from these objectives.

Asfa take care of organization objectives and policies while recruit employees.
Asfa also take care of such questions like whether organization should fill
vacancies by internal promotion or hiring from out side, which type of training

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and development pr ogram are needed, what policies are
needed to handle staff unit, how to understand employee job etc.

2. Human resource demand forecast

Human resource forecasting is the process of estimating the future quality and
quantity of people require. The basis of forecast is annual budget and long
term plans of Asfa, which are translated into activity level for each function
and department. Base on this information the number of hours to be worked
by each skilled man power in a given period of time should be calculated.
Once the hours are available the next logical step is to find out the quantity
and quality of personnel.
The human resource forecasting is done by various techniques like
managerial judgment trend analysis, Delphi method, flow models and work
study method and many others. Asfa use managerial judgment technique for
its human resource forecasting because it is very simple technique. In this
techniques asfa’s managers are sit together, discuss and decide the future
demand for labour.

3. Human resource supply forecast

Personnel demand analysis provides the manager with number and quality of
employee that to be require. Next logical step for manager is to find out the
number of people likely to be available form within and outside of an
organization. The supply forecast covers the existing human resources,
internal source of supply and external source of supply.

Asfa use the analysis of present employee human resource audit summaries,
each employee skill and ability for understanding capability available in
organizations work force. It also forecast the internal source or supply.
Managers are calculating the available supply of manpower within the
organization. Asfa also calculate how many employees are available in
market or outside the organization whose are take responsibilities of job.

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4. Human resource programming

Once, an organizations personnel demand and supply are estimated or


forecasted by the managers, then they take care of the balancing between
them. The balancing is needed in order to fill the vacancies by the right
employees at right time. So human resource programming has greater
important in planning process.

5. Human resource plan implementation

Implementation require converting human resource plan into action, such


human resource plan includes recruitment, selection, placement, training,
development, retraining and redevelopment, Asfa use various plans like
retention plan, down sizing plan and succession plan.

Asfa does not use control and evaluation for human resource planning.

Organizations objectives
And polices

Human resource demand


Forecast

Human resource supply


Forecast

Human resource
Programming

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Human resource plan
Implementation

(Diagram of human resource planning process)

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Training is a learning process which seeks a relatively permanent change in


behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Training refers only to
instruction in technical and organized operations. Training courses are
typically designed for a short term, stated set purpose.

In Asfa pharmacy, training is given with the objective of increase in


productivity of employees, increase quality of work, enhance and update
knowledge and skills of employees and many others but there is no without
training program in Asfa. Asfa provides training as on job training and give
training to new employee. In pharmacy, training is given to the workers which
are basically at period of one month.

On job training is training is training in which pharmacy and its members are
help and provide guidance, if there is any difficulty in any work. Training is
based on learn and teach and hence, employees will grow with experience.

Development is the process of transition of an employee from a lower level of


ability, skills and knowledge to that of higher level. Pharmacy also run
program of development periodically. Pharmacy tries to develop new skills,
techniques and personality of their employees.

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INDUCTION TRAINING

Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he


first joins a company and giving him the basic information which he needs to
settle down quickly and happily and start work. In the pharmacy, induction
training is given to all new joiners in Asfa. Asfa provide induction training with
objective of reduce insecurity, anxiety, exploitation etc. from the mind of new
joiner and he/she can work easily and with skills.

Asfa have formal induction program. All details are providing by pharmacy to
new employee. Asfa’s content of induction program includes the following
matters:

 History of Asfa
 Objectives of pharmacy
 Name and designation of managers
 Employee’s designation and responsibility
 Layout of pharmacy
 Production and other processes of pharmacy
 Job duties, location, tasks, objectives etc
 Safety steps

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 Employee benefits such as pays, holidays, welfare activities
 Introduction to superiors, coworkers and other staff

TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION OF ASFA

Identification of training need is the most important step in designing a training


program. This includes a thorough analysis of entire organization, all
operations and all employees. This required to find out the trouble-spots so
that proper training program can be designed and prescribed to those it is
needed.

Asfa give training to employees, when old machines are replaced by new
machines. Asfa analysis the objective of pharmacy and various departments,
ask questions to employees and if there is any difficulty in achieving goal of
pharmacy then, Asfa give training to its employees.

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PROMOTION

Promotion refers to upward movement of an employee form current job to


another which commands better prestige, higher responsibility and authority,
higher challenges, better working condition, hours of work and higher rank.

Promotion policy of Asfa pharmacy

Promotion policy of Asfa is clear in whether to fill up higher positions by


internal promotions the recruit people from outside.

◊ Asfa give promotion on the basis of both seniority and merits so it can take
advantages of both.

◊ It is clear about policy of promotion is whether to promote employees


against vacancies or non-vacancies.

◊ Asfa establish a well define promotion chart showing who can go up to


what level in the pharmacy.

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◊ Asfa give promotion to any employee only one in a year.

◊ The promotion policy is prepared by discussion with managers and other


staff.

◊ Promotion is not be forced on reluctant employees.

DEMOTION

Demotion implies the assignment of an employee to a job of lower rank with


lower pay. It refers to downward movement of an employee in the
organizational hierarchy with lower status and lower salary.

Demotion policy of Asfa

Asfa mostly dose not give demotion to any employee but it give demotion
only 3 times in its life.
 Asfa give demotion only when employee is not regular, do not work
sincerely or employees behavior in organization not good.
 In above cases, sometime Asfa left the employee from Pharmacy.
 The policy is fair and equal for all level of pharmacy.
 The circumstances under which employees can be demoted is clearly
specified and made known to employees.

Transfer

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In Asfa company transfer rate is very low because of every worker are very
old from U.P., M.P., Bihar etc, that’s why transfer is very few.

For employee transfer rate is also very low, because of post is limited.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

Performance appraisal is the process of systematic, periodic and impartial,


estimating or judging the value, excellence, qualities or status and thereby
evaluating the performance or qualification of a person, things or object in
terms of requirement of the job for which he is employed.

Asfa have no performance appraisal system but Asfa can effectively


measure the performance of its workers. Asfa may use this appraised report
for promotion, transfer, statutory requirement, training and development and
for providing incentives.

Asfa can easily measure the performance of its workers on time base method
because in Asfa all worker has a card for attendance and work hours are
easily calculated from that card.

Asfa also the record the time of completion of job. There are many medicines
are prepared by Asfa at the same time. Medicine prepared in various
departments and the time of processing in each department is record by Asfa

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and from that time it can measure performance of workers of every
department.

WAGES AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION

Wages and salary administration means establishment and implementation of


sound policies and practices of employees compensation so that employees
are attracted, maintained and public relation image is built up. It includes job
evaluation, surveys of wages and salaries, development and maintenance of
wage structure, wage payment incentives, wage changes, adjustments etc.

Asfa gives wages and salaries according to time base wage system. Asfa
gives salaries at 7th of every month. Asfa use time base system because it is
old pharmacy and in that time peace rate wage system is not famous in
industry. Asfa also use this method because of some advantages like easy to
understand and calculate, earning of workers are regular and fixed Asfa want
to maintain quality which is not maintaining peace rate etc.

In Asfa, while deciding the structure of wage and salary administration, Asfa
first set objective of it which are as follows:

 To give fair and regular wages to employee

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 To improve productivity by motivation
 Control costs through sound wage and salary administration
 To improve public image of company
 To attract others for employment

WELFARE ACTIVITIES

Labour welfare means anything done for the comfort and improvement.
Intellectual or social of the employees over and above the wage paid which is
not a necessity of the industry.

Employee welfare or labour welfare means,” The efforts to make life worth
living for workmen.”

● Intra mural welfare activity of Asfa

 Convenience and comfort during the work


 Workshop and cleanliness, lighting, elimination of dust, smoke, gases
 Control of effluents
 Supply of necessary beverage, pills and tables, tea, coffee
 Notice boards, posters, information, slogans
 Distribution of work hours and provision for rest hours, meal times and
breaks

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 House keeping, garden, passage, lawns, floor maintenance
 Medical facilities
 Compensation for accidents
 Safety instruments such as guards, caps, shoes, aid equipments
 Uniform and changing rooms
 Urinals and latrines, wash basins, waste disposal
 Provision for drinking water
 Economic services such as health insurance and bonus schemes

● Extra mural welfare activity of Asfa

 Transportation
 Vocational guidance and credit societies
 Discount in purchase on medicines
 Roads, lighting, garden
 Communication facility
 Security
 Training and development programs

Welfare activity for society

 Provide employment
 Provide ayurvedic medicines at fair price
 Effective waste disposal system
 Effective use of resources of society

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EMPLOYMENT RECORD KEEPING

Asfa pharmacy maintained its record in the form of file. There are following
details, which are involved in the record keeping of each employee.

 Employment history
 Employee no
 Name
 Address
 Rate of salary
 Total balance saving
 Attendance record and pay roll
 Leaves, transfers and promotion
 Shift cord
 Over time cord
 Training Records
 Accident and sickness records

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 Employment rating

The objectives of employee records in Asfa are following:

1. To provide an evidence of what has taken place in the organization.


2. To supply information required for taking personnel decisions.
3. To provide a basis for the formulation, evaluation and modification of
personnel and program.
4. To meet statutory obligations under various labour laws.

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PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

Production is the process of converting the raw materials and other inputs into
the products for further production or the finished goods or services so that
the utility of inputs is created or enhanced and the needs of the consumers
are satisfied. That is consumer goods, industrial goods, services of transport,
medical treatment, education, banking, post and telegraphs, insurance etc. so
in simple meaning the management of the production process is called as
production management.

Production management means creating and maintaining an environment in


which individuals working together in groups willingly contribute their best to
produce the specified goods and services by optimum utilization of raw
materials and other inputs so as to timely satisfy the needs of the customers.

Good Production management is essential for every organization and it is


important in following ways,

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 It helps to satisfy the need of customer timely.
 It increases the productivity of organization.
 It gives better satisfaction to the employees.
 It satisfies the investors by increasing return on investment and capital
appreciation.
 It satisfies the community by welfare and development activities.
 It satisfies the suppliers.
 It benefits to whole nation.

Organization structure of production department of “ASFA”

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Board of
director

Managing
director

Production
manager

Assistant Inventory
production Packing control Store
manager manager manager manager

Supervisor Workers Workers Workers

Workers

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PRODUCTION PLANNING

Production planning is that function of management which decides about the


resources that will be required for future manufacturing operations and of
allocating these resources to produce the desired output at right time, in right
amount, of required quality and at minimum cost.

Production planning is the planning of how much produce, Requirement of


human resource and finance. It is also planning of quality standard and raw
materials requirement etc. production plan is preparation of guiding plan
before starting production plan involve when, what, how and why to produce
goods.

In Asfa, normally production plan is prepared from the sales or demand for the
product of company. Starting point of production planning is dispatch
department. Dispatch department supply various products of Asfa to the

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dealers. When stock of medicine is remain of only three months they inform
production department about requirement of medicine. From the information
of dispatch department, production department decides about manufacture
various products as per requirement and for this they prepare production plan.

In Asfa, production planning is include planning of material requirement,


requirement of manpower, capacity requirement etc.

 Material requirement planning


Material requirement planning is the first of the production planning in any
company. In Asfa, production manager is check the availability of require
inputs or raw material. If raw material is not in stock then give purchase order
or if it is in stock, production manager do next planning of manpower.

 Manpower planning
For achieving successful result of production planning, it is advisable to make
manpower planning in advance. In Asfa first they decided how much labour
required producing desirable quantity. If there is shortage of manpower, they
hire casual or part time labour.

 Capacity requirement planning


Capacity requirement planning is a technique to determine what personal and
equipment capacities are required to meet production objectives. In Asfa, they
make CRP, various operations and activities are assigning to various
department. If capacity is inadequate they adjust it by some addition labour or
over time.

 Maintain quality standard


In Asfa, there is separate department called quality assurance department
which is check quality of raw material finished product and semi finished
articles on company standards. They try to improve quality management
system for better customer satisfaction and provide qualitative medicine to its
customers.

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 Inventory control
Since entire material requirement planning is done on the basis of production
plan, ultimately inventory level depends on accuracy of production plan. In this
industry, they use first in first out method for inventory control.

MATERIAL REQUIREMENT PLANNING

Material requirement planning is a technique for determining the quality and


timing for the acquisition of dependent demand items needed to safety master
schedule requirements.

In the modern world, enterprise resource planning system is being used


extensively and it also takes care of whole organization instead of one unit of
organization. Basically material requirement planning consists of computer
programmed, which is run periodically such as weekly, monthly or quarterly to
incorporate the latest schedule of production requirement.

In Asfa, for preparation of material requirement planning three inputs are used
which are as follows:
Master production schedule

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Mps is based on forecast of various items. MRP accepts practically possible
master production schedule quantities of various items as quantities of items
to be manufactured. It further calculates what the requirement of various raw
material and inputs is.
Inventory status file
All the quantities of various items in Mps is never considered for MRP process
it is always considered after deducting present inventory levels of various
items and pending purchase orders for this purpose, it is necessary to take
data from inventory status file of various items.
 Bills of material
It is a database, which specifies relationship between raw material and
outputs. This document is necessary to convert production quantities of
finished products into requirements of various raw materials, parts,
components and sub assemblies.

Bills of material shows each of the materials, parts or sub assemblies by


unique part number, which facilitate processing by in to price and also
contents the quality of parts or material require per unit of end product. Bills of
material have a series of level each of represents a stage in the manufacture
of the end product.
Level 1: Representing final assembly or end product.
Level 2: Shows parts and sub assemblies when end product is the first
desmemtated.
Level 3: Result of desmentating the sub assemblies of level 1 in form of part
and father sub assemblies.

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ANALYSIS OF PLANT LOCATION

It is a function of determining the production unit should be located for most


economical and effective operations.

The points for which the decision of plant location is taken are as follows:
New business
 Expansion not possible at the same site
 Economic factor (land cost of old factory becomes high so by selling it
owner get large economic benefit)
 Expansion opportunities needs more branches
 Sudden development because of natural calamities
 Special circumstances

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The main objective of Asfa is to maximize the profit through the minimize cost
of production. This objective can be achieved only when the plant is at the
right place where all kinds of production facilities are available.
Process of selecting plant location involves following steps:
1. Decision regarding country of operation
2. Selection of region or state
3. Selection of area
4. Selection of site

The owner of the Asfa Shree Swami Atmanand Sarswati was decided the
India as a country, the Gujarat as a stat, Surat as a city, Varachha as a site
location.

There are different factor which are play important role in considering the
plant location of Asfa are as follows.

Availability of raw materials


Asfa are using number of raw materials so the idle location for Asfa is that
where at least the main raw materials are easily available by which the
production of Asfa run regularly and the production cost can be minimized
considering all these Shree Swami Atmanand Sarswati select the place near
the river Tapi at varachha road.

 Availability of labour
The availability of skilled and unskilled manpower, a prevailing wage pattern,
living costs and the industrial relations situation influence the location.
Manager chooses the location of Asfa at varachha road where both type of
manpower available easily at lower wages.

 Transportation facilities
Adequate transportation facilities are essential for the economic operation of a
production system. Many facilities or plants are located along river banks.

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Asfa is also located along river bank and near national highway so there is
good transportation facilities are available.

There are some other functions which also affect selection of plant location
are as follows:
Markets
 Power
 Climate and fuel
 Legislation and taxation
 Community facilities
 Waste disposal
 Site size
 Land costs

PLANT LAY- OUT

Plant lay-out is configuration of departments, work station and equipments in


the production system or in the conversion process. Plant lay-out is the
arrangement of machinery, equipments and facilities such as receiving and
shipping departments, tool rooms, maintenance rooms, inspection cabins,
stores, plating shops, heat treatment chambers, trolleys, cranes and other
handling equipments, employee amenities like toilets, canteen, rest and
change room, parking facilities etc. so as to ensure smooth and quick
movement of materials from raw material stage to finished product stage with
minimum material handling, quality of operations, good communication etc. at

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the lowest possible handling cost. It includes arrangement of new plan and
also revision in existing lay-out.

There are various types of lay-outs are as follows:


 Process lay-out.
 Product lay-out.
 Fix position lay-out.
 Cellular manufacturing lay-out.
 Combination lay-out.
 Service lay-out.

In Asfa, the plat lay-out is product type of plant lay-out. This company
manufactures many products on continuous bases and machines are for
special purpose. In this lay-out the machines or facilities are arrange
sequence of an operations require by a particular product. Thus for each
product there will be a separate line of machines and equipments and
depending on an operation sequence. There are two type of product lay-out
first line processing lay-out and second flow type of lay-out. In Asfa, there is a
line processing lay-out. There is sequence of operations from raw material
department to packing department.

TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION MATERIAL


HANDLING

Material handling is defined as controlled movement of material, from receipt,


through storage and production and up to the shipment of finished product. As
definition suggests it is concerned with storage and internal movement of
following type of material.
Raw material
 Work-in-progress inventory
 Finished product
 Surplus and waste

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 Capital equipments
Asfa used only solid and liquid raw material. So we can classify the material
handling equipments of Asfa in following basis:

Classification on the basis of form of material


According to this classification there can be three broad categories, solid
material, liquid material and gases. Asfa use hand carts, trucks with container
and manual handling system for solid material and pipelines and barrels for
liquid material.

Classification as per path of movement


Asfa use different equipments as per path of movement. Whether movement
is vertical or horizontal, whether it is a fixed path movement or variable path,
the equipments are different for each purpose such as hand carts can take
variable path and pipelines are for vertical movement of material.

Classification on the basis of degree of automation


There are three categories according to this method of classification. First,
fully automatic handling equipments like robots. Second, semi automatic
handling system like conveyer belt. Third, manual system like hand carts.
Asfa uses only third category which is manual system.

Classification on the basis of source of power


Equipments can be electrically powered, powered be any fuel and manually.
Asfa uses all these type of equipments such as boiler and machines are
electrically powered, truck are use diesel and hand carts are manually
powered.

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INVENTORY CONTROLL SYSTEM

Inventory control is the means by which material of the correct quality and
quantity is made available as and when it is required with due regard to
economy in the storage costs, setup costs, manufacturing costs, purchase
prices and working capital.

As inventory is an essential part of any organization. Systematic management


and control of inventory for all the items is a challenging job. Asfa’s main
objectives of inventory control are:
 To maintain investment in inventory at the lowest level
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 To supply the products to its user as per their requirement at right time.
 To keep inactive, waste, scrape and obsolete items at the minimum
level.
 To minimize holding, replacement and shortage cost of inventory at
minimum level.
 To maximize the efficiency in production.

INVENTORY UNIT
Inventory unit shows the unit, which is explained in kilo gram, liter, meter etc.

ORDER CODE
Order codes represent the following results if items are 0, 1, 2……9.
0 = for firm planning of main items, which are to be dispatched without any
further process (final products)
1 = for manual planning, material requirement planning “off” switch for case:
the item is in short but similar item with some another code is available in
stock. It is planning can be stopped “off”.
2 = material requirement planning “on” switch for the item.
3 = material requirement planning “on” with instruction to check and plan for
sales order requirement.
4 = reserved for EDP department to freeze the planning released and to keep
the action in abeyance for one or another reason.

BYPASS CODE
Bypass code denotes 0 is for component and 1 is for phantom items. Bypass
code is used to bypass the item for convenience.

INSPECTION CODE
Inspection code denotes Y/N i.e. yes or no whether the item to be inspected
or not. Asfa usually check the entire item in B.M; hence, it is always “Y”.

SCRAP
Scrap means the waste of material arising during manufacturing process.
Scrap found in Asfa Company in the last 5 year and hence, it has to purchase

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material in excess. It is 10% of purchased raw-material as per last five years
record.

WEIGHT
This is always in kg’s indicating net or gross weight that is suppose any item
is packed. The gross weight of item is equal to net weight + weight of box.

NET WEIGHT= GROSS WEIGHT – BOX WEIGHT.

FIX LOT
It refers to single character Y/N- for specifying whether the order to be
released for a single lot or not.
EX: Lot is 500 and order quantity is 2500. If “Y” is given MRP will print 5 lines
and if “N” is given then it will print in a single line for a single order and single
schedule time.

LEAD TIME
For making any job available the company has to release the order to vender
then after the vender will take a sometime to deliver the material. Finally the
material will be inspected and will be made available at work place. The total
time taken is called “Lead Time”. This is always in weeks.

LOT SIZE
Lot size is the quantity of order at which the total ordering cost and inventory
carrying cost will be the minimum. Lot size decided on the following basis.
 Requirement for a specific time span.
 Economic order quantity calculated based on cost of production and
requirement.
 Minimum order quantity specified by vender.
 Fix packing offered by supplies etc.

The company has to define lot size in relevant unit of measuring such as box,
packet, liter or tones. EX: The company need 70 units of leaning but the

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supplier does not supply less than 100 units so that size will be 1 box = 100
leanings.

SAFETY STOCK
It is the stock or inventory maintaining to meet unforeseen situation such as
variation in demand, variation in supply of quantity by supplier and variation in
lead time of supply etc. so it use in emergency.

ACCUMULATED LEAD TIME


It is the total time taken in procuring the time after identification of its need and
releasing orders. (From placing to receipt of the item)

STOCK
There are several types of stock which are explained below.
1. Vender stock: vender stock has two type of stock. First is the labour
and other is repairing. Some items are given to vender for repairing are
known as repairing stock.
2. Store stock: The items, which have been stored by the company, are
known as store stock.
3. Repairing stock: some items are given for repairing because of, it
may store from long time or may be for any damage or corrosion is
called repairing stock.
4. Short stock: The stock, which is in short, is called short stock and
negative sign defines it.
5. Committed quantity: Committed quantity is the quantity, which is
issued against work.
6. Available quantity:
Available order = floor stock + store stock + repairing stock – (short
stock + committed quantity).
7. Sales order quantity: the quantities, which are issued against sales
order is known as sales order quantity.
8. Order quantity: the order quantity is the sum of purchase order and
work order quantity.
ORDER QUANTITY = PURCHASE ORDER + WORKING ORDER.

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9. Indent quantity: The item is in short and the work order has been
made. After the purchase item has to be made and purchase that item
from vender, this quantity known as indent quantity.

INVENORY VALUATION METHODS

Materials are issued to the different jobs, works, and orders from the ‘store’.
The cost of finished product largely depends upon the price changed for raw-
material issued to the jobs. Various methods are used for inventory valuation,
which will solute with industry condition. The methods of inventory valuation
are as follows:
1. FIFO method (first in first out)
2. LIFO method (last in first out)
3. HIFO method (highest in first out)
4. Average cost method
5. Market price method
6. Standard cost method
7. Base stock method
Asfa use FIFO method for inventory valuation.

ABC ANALYSIS
Abc analysis is analysis according to the value of items. In Asfa, the inventory
consists of hundreds of items and many employee are controlled them. For
this company do lot of expenses. In order to affect economy in controlling
such large inventory Asfa use a system known as ABC (Always Better
Control) analysis.

It has been found from the experience that all items included in inventory are
not of equal importance. A few items in the inventory represent a large
proportion of total value of inventory. Hence, more attention must be devoted
to the control of such items. All the items are divided into three categories.

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 A – Category
It includes those items which are very important and of high value but forms
only a small proportion of total quantity of inventory.
In Asfa, there are 30 items which are comes in category A and they
represents as much as 74% of value of inventories. Strict control over receipt,
storage and issue should be exercised over these items such as Abhraka
bhasma shataputi, makardhwaja vati sataguna, bruhat vasant kusumakar
rasa, etc.

B – Category
Items included in category B are not as important as those in category A, but
are important enough for its proper records to be maintained. They constitute
70 items of total number of items, but represent 18% of total value of
inventory of Asfa. These items are Brahmi vati, makardwaja vati, ashvgandha,
mahasudershan shurna etc.

 C – Category
The remaining items must be placed in category C. they are not so important
form the view point of maintaining control over the receipt and consumption
such items constitute 65% of the total number of items but they represent 8%
of total value.

ABC analysis of Asfa

Category No. of items(in % of total Value of items ( in % of


number of items) total value of inventory)
A 10 74
B 25 18
C 65 8

100 8
92

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18%
74 C

B
A
74 %
10 35 100

DIFFERENT RECORDS KEPT IN STORE

Store Inward Receipt

M/s. Vehicle no. Date


GR. / RR. No. Date INDENT No.
Transporter
Challan No.

Sr. Description Unit Qty. as Short Received Rejected Quantity


No. of material per quantity quantity quantity accepted
challan

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Inspection report

No.
Bought of Purchase order no.

Material receipt report no.


Date

Item Code particular Quantity Quantity period rejecte Remarks


no. no. on received d
order

MATERIAL RECEIPT PROCESS

In Asfa, there is systematic process for material receipt as follows.

 The first step is purchase order given by company to suppliers.

 When material comes it is not directly sent to store department but it is


given fore quality checking.

In Asfa, there is one laboratory to check the quality of materials.

 They are checking the quality of goods and compare with quality of sample
which is given by suppliers.

 If there is any discrepancy, it should be immediately reported to the


purchase department and that goods are sent to rejected goods department.

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 Rejected goods department take necessary action for the return of goods
to suppliers.

 If the goods are of quality, receiving section will prepare a “goods receive
note”. Four copies of the note are prepared and three copies are sent to the
store keeper along with the goods received and they attach green color
“accept card” with materials.

 Received material is store in various containers by store department and


issue when they get order.

MATERIAL ISSUE PROCESS

In Asfa, there is a simple and short process of material issue. It is as follows.

 Received material store in different container, in different quantity, by store


department.

 When production department need material, production manager is make a


report of required material and send to store department.

 Store department check the availability of material. If require material is


available, they send it for quality checking to quality control department.

 If quality is acceptable, they send report of it to store department.

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 After this, store manager take the material which is require and send for
cleaning that material.

 At the last the cleaned material is send to purchase department with entry
in material outward book.

DOCUMENTS OF PURCHASING

Purchase request

Asfa pharmacy Ltd.


Surat.
Request for quotation
Tender no. ……….
Date ……….
To,
(Name and Address of Supplier)
Sir,

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Please let us have your best offer for the supply of the following items. The items
should be delivered F.O. R. Surat. The tender closes on (date) at (time) and will be
opened at (time) on the following day. The first copy of tender should be dispatched
to us duly filled in before the close of the tender.
Serial no. Description of quality quantity Terms of
Items delivery

Your faith fully,


For Asfa pharmacy ltd.
Purchase officer

Comparison statements

Asfa Pharmacy
Surat
Comparative statement of quotations
Tender no……… Opened on…………
Name of material………
Serial Name of quantity price Duties and Terms of remarks
no supplier taxes delivery

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Entered by………. Checked by……….

Purchase order

Asfa Ayurvedic Co-operative Pharmacy


Near Panini taki, Varachha Road,
Surat-395006
Phone no: 648092, 644410
PURCHASE ORDER
Purchase Order No:
Supplier Quotation:
TO: No. & Date:
Please supply the following items on the terms and condition mentioned below.
Sl No Description Material code size Qty. Price Amount Delivery date

Terms of delivery……..
For Asfa Pharmacy
Purchase Manager

PURCHASE PROCESS

The process describes the sequence of steps leading to the completion of an


identified specific task. Thus, purchasing process describes the sequence of
steps by which purchase function is carried through from its inception to it
completion. The steps of process are as follows:

A) Receive requisitions
The requisition includes information like how many items wanted, when they
should be available, quantity in hand, who is making the request etc.
In Asfa, who requires raw materials or other things, they give “purchase
requisition slip” to production department.

B) Review requisitions

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The review of requisition is necessary. This is done to answer questions like:
(1) Can a less expensive material serve purpose?
(2) Can it be eliminated?
(3) Can another item serve the same function?
(4) Can a supplier reduce price by revise specification?

C) Select suppliers
Asfa is co-operative pharmacy and for purchase they invite quotation from
various suppliers. After getting quotations and by comparing them Asfa select
the suppliers. Asfa is not giving so much important to price but give important
to quality.

D) Place orders
Orders are placed to selected suppliers. For order placing to selected
suppliers, Asfa prepare a purchase order and send to suppliers. Purchase
order includes specific quantity and quality of material at stipulated terms and
material send period and placed mentioned in it.

E) Monitor orders
If placed order is for long time then it is necessary to monitor those orders.
Asfa also monitor these types of orders because lengthy orders are checked
to determine whether anticipated deliveries are on schedule.

F) Receive orders
The purchase transaction is complete only after receiving the order quantity in
an acceptable condition. When material is comes in Asfa, it is checked for
quality in Asfa‘s laboratory. If qualities acceptable then only material is send to
store department with material inward receipt.

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QUALITY CONTROL

Quality is measure of characteristic of a product or service which impart it


functional or aesthetic value so as to satisfy the needs of and users for a
given price paid by them.

Quality control is a system of policies, procedures and guidelines which


established and maintained the specifies standard of quality. It includes all
aspects of quality such as research and development, design parameters,
inspection, measurement and analysis of current quality levels, future trends
and also competitor’s quality level, feedback from field performance of quality,
choice of machines, tools, processes etc., selection and training of production
and inspection staff, corrective actions and follow up etc.

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Asfa’s objective of quality control

Asfa’s main objective is to produce cost effective quality ayurvedic medicine.


The other objectives are as follows:
 To give qualitative products to customers.
 To see whether the medicines are confirms to pre-determine standers.
 To reduce wastage.
 To develop quality consciousness.
 To assess the quality.

QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM IN ASFA

Asfa checks the quality of all three type of product, raw-material, in process
goods and finished product.

Raw –material
In this stage, raw materials are being checked and compare with specified
quality or order placed. In quality control laboratory they check the quality of
raw material, ratio of water and solid material etc. If quality of raw material is
not satisfactory, goods will be rejected. If acceptable report is send to store
department.

In process goods

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Asfa also check the quality of goods during the process of production so is
there any problem in quality while processing, it can remove by taking
corrective actions and make qualitative medicines for customers. These types
of checking record are kept in “standard verification”.

Finished product
When product are finished its process then from them some samples are
send to quality control department for quality checking and if quality is
accepted then only finished product give to packing department for packing
and labeling. The document is used to keep these types of records is called
“Finished product report”.

In Asfa, there is systematic and scientific approaches for quality control they
follow some standardize rules and regulation for quality control. Asfa check
quality of Raw material, In process goods and Finished product.

For raw material they check the quality of item of various levels such as
scientific name, family, description (macro and micro scope).

After checking the items at micro and macro level then they check its identity.
By purity
◊ Foreign matter
◊ Total ash
◊ Acid
By strength
◊ Alcohols
◊ Water

For In process goods and finish product they check integration of various item
checks that quality of product will much with company standard.

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DOCUMENTS RELATED TO QUALITY CONTROL

1. Chemical list
2. Instrument list
3. Reference book list
4. S.O.P. (Standard Operating Process)
5. M.F.C. (Master Formula Card)
6. Calibration report
7. Test reports
Finished product report
 Raw material report
 Packing material report
 In process report
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 Re-test report
 R.M. order sample record
 Stability study report
8. House kipping record
9. Complain record ( outside)
10. Prepare solution record
11. In-ward, out-ward registered
12. B.M.R. issue registered
13. Suggestion record
14. Release order record
15. Out side testing record
16. Q.S.P. (Quality System Procedures)
17. Q.A.M. (Quality Manual)
18. Date stock registered.

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INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

The scope of financial management, that is, the views about finance functions
have undergone remarkable changes over time. Till 1950, finance function
was regarded as the function only of raising finance for business, and sources
of finance but now, an efficient and effective utilization of finance is also been
considered as an important function of financial management.

Financial management means rising of adequate funds at the minimum cost


and using them effectively in business. Financial management is concerned
with the financial problems of business organization. It is concerned with the
problems of rising finance for establish, expand and modernize business unit,

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the problems of providing fixed and working capital, the problem of distribution
of income etc.

Hoagland says, “Financial management is concerned mainly with such


matters as, how a business corporation raises its finance and how it makes
use of it”.

GENERAL
MANAGER

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF FINANCE


DEPARTMENT
ACCOUNTANT
MANAGER

CASHIER

RAW
SALES
SENIOR BANKING MATERIAL
DEPARTMEN
CLERK OPERATOR DEPARTMEN
T
T

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CLERKS WORKERS WORKERS WORKERS
REVENUE & CAPITAL BUDGETING

Asfa is a co-operative pharmacy and it is not work with object of earning profit.
Asfa do not prepare revenue and capital budgets.

Asfa do not prepare revenue and capital budget but if Asfa prepare it than it is
useful to Asfa in following ways:

Revenue budgeting is beneficial as it encourages cost consciousness,


ensuring discipline in operations, improvement in handling, improvement in
handling, standardization of products, better analysis of financial statements,
detection of deficiency areas, elimination of waste, fixing the responsibilities

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and creation of responsibilities, better co-ordination between the departments,
periodic evolutions of plans, timely improvements in profit plans, etc.

Asfa do not prepare capital budgeting but it can prepare it by following the
below mentioned steps:

 Identifying the potential investment opportunities


 Assembling of investment proposals
 Decision making about selection of one proposal from various proposals
 Implementation of one proposal
 Performance review

COSTING METHODS

The methods to be used for the ascertainment of cost of production differ from
industry to industry. It primarily depends upon the manufacturing process and
also on the methods of measuring the departmental and finished products.

There are various methods of costing are as follows:

 Job costing
 Contract costing
 Batch costing

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 Process costing
 One operation costing
 Service costing
 Multiple operations costing

Asfa use batch costing and multiple operation costing methods. Asfa use
these methods because Asfa produce its products in batch and multiple
operations are proceeding at a time in Asfa.

A batch may represent a number of small orders passed through the


pharmacy in batch. Each batch is treated as a unit of cost and separately
costed. The cost per unit is determined by dividing the cost of the batch by
number of units produced in a batch.

Multiple operation method of manufacturing consists of a number of distinct


operations. It refers a cost of converting the raw material into finished goods.
Pharmacy also considers the rejections in each operation also for costing of
products.

COSTING STRUCTURE OF ASFA


Elementofof
Element
cost
cost

Materials
Materials Other
Other
Labourcost
Labour cost
Cost
Cost expenses
expenses

Direct
Direct Indirect
Indirect Directlabour
Direct labour Indirect
Indirect Direct
Direct Indirect
Indirect
materials
materials materials
materials cost
cost labour cost
labour cost expenses
expenses expenses
expenses
cost
cost cost
cost

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Selling and
Works
Works Administrati
Administrati distribution
distribution
overhead
overhead onoverhead
on overhead
overhead
overhead
COSTING SHEET OF ASFA

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Particular Amount Amount
Raw materials
Opening stock
Add: purchasing

Less: closing stock

Labour
Direct expenses
Prime cost
Factory overhead
Factory expenses
Fuel and power
Carriage inward
Indirect wages
Depreciation and repairs
Rent and taxes
Insurance
stationary
Works cost
Office and
administration
overheads
Office expenses
Director fees
Rent, rates
Office salaries
Sundry expenses
Stationary
Depreciation of office
furniture

Office cost
Selling and distribution
expenses
Travelers expenses and
salaries
Packing expenses
Stationary
Bad debt

Cost of sales
profit
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WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

The term working capital refers to that part of capital which is not tied up in
fixed assets but is used to meet the day-to-day requirements of business,
which changes from day-to-day, and which is converted into cash
continuously.

Working capital management includes the management of


Working capital finance
 Management of receivable
 Management of inventory
 Management of cash

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WORKING CAPITAL FINANCE

Asfa uses the sources for working capital are as follows:

 Long Term Sources of Working Capital

 Equity shares
 Preference shares
 Long term loans

 Short Term Sources of Working Capital

 Short term loans


 Bank overdraft
 Trade credit
 Commercial papers

MANAGEMENT OF RECEIVABLES

Receivables are assets accounts representing amount owed to the firm as a


result of sale of goods in the ordinary courses of business.

Management of receivables is depending upon the credit policy of company.


Asfa has the credit policy as under.

 Asfa has too strict or too liberal credit policy


 Asfa’s credit standards are clearly specified in policy and strict for
customers
 Asfa give cash discount on bulky purchase
 Asfa give goods only on one month credit period.

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 Asfa timely collect and get its receivables

MANAGEMENT OF INVENTORY

‘Inventory control means the decision of the firm as to the extent to which
inventories can be economically stored.’

Asfa’s main objectives of inventory control are:


 To maintain investment in inventory at the lowest level
 To supply the products to its user as per their requirement at right time.
 To keep inactive, waste, scrape and obsolete items at the minimum
level.
 To minimize holding, replacement and shortage cost of inventory at
minimum level.
 To maximize the efficiency in production.

MANAGEMENT OF CASH

Cash is the medium of exchange which allows management to carry on the


various activities of the business on day to day basis.

Cash management involves the following four factors:

 Ascertainment of the minimum cash balance and controlling the level of


cash.
 Controlling cash inflows.
 Controlling cash outflows.
 Optimum investment of surplus cash.
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PREPARATION & ANALYSIS OF FUND FLOW
STATEMENT

A fund flow statement provides information on how, during the reporting


period, decisions relating to capital structure, dividend and investment in non
current assets have changed the amount invested in working capital.

A fund flow statement presents sources and application of funds. Sources


imply those movements in non current assets, non current liabilities and
equity that increase the working capital. Applications imply those movements
in non current assets, non current liabilities and equity that reduce the working
capital.

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Sources and Application of Funds

1. Sources:
(A) Funds from business operations
(B) Sales of non current assets
(C) Issue of share capital
(D) Long term borrowings
Total (1)
2. Applications:
(A) Purchase of non current assets
(B) Redemption of debentures
(C) Repayment of other long term liabilities
(D) Buy back of shares
(E) Redemption of preference shares
(F) Payment of income tax
(G) Distribution of cash dividend
Total (2)
3. Changes in working capital (1- 2)

ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Accounting policies are defined as, “the specific principles, bases,


conventions, rules and practices adopted by an enterprise in preparing and
presenting financial statements.”

Accounting policies for various matters of Asfa are as follows:

Debit and Credit


Debit and credit are shown as on rules of accounting of debit an asset
account increase by carrying amount and debit liability account decrease and
credit as vise-versa.

Fixed assets

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All fixed assets are shown at actual cost and depreciation is less from it as per
straight line depreciation method.

Inventories
The stock of inventories such as finished, processed and raw material are
valued by its cost or net realizable value.

General accounting
The accounts are prepared on historical cost basis and accounting principle of
going concern concept.

DEPRICIATION

Depreciation is the process of allocating the acquisition cost of the tangible


asset less salvage value, if any, in a systematic and a rational manner, over
the estimated useful life of the asset.

Asfa use two methods for calculate depreciation first is straight line method
and second is written down value method.

Depreciation on plant and machinery is provided on straight line method.


Depreciation on other assets is provided on written down value method.
The applicable rates are as specialized in schedule 14 of the act. Depreciation
in respect to revalued assets is recouped from revaluation reserved.

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Depreciation in addition from fixed assets is provided on production data
bases from/up to the date of such addition/deletion as the case may be.
Depreciation in addition assets due to exchange variation, forward over
premium changes etc. is provided over the remaining useful life the assets.

PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT

Common size profit and loss account of ASFA at end of the year 2008-2009

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Particular Particular
(Income) (Expense)
Rs. Rs.
Year 2008 % Year 2009 % Year 2008 % Year 2009 %
To Gross 8236843.2 9 9270729.45 9 To Office, 4329229.5 4 5054753.0 5
profit 7 4. 5. salary, 5 9. 2 2.
7 8 allowance 8 2
7 5 etc. A/C 1 6
To 124553.0 1. 26183.00 0. To Office 1287194.8 1 1619563.3 1
Interest of 0 4 2 maintenance 3 4. 0 6.
dividend 3 7 expenses 8 7
A/c 1 5
To Other 18662.37 0. 25326.50 0. To Vehicle 86264.7 0. 92099.27 0.
income 2 2 expenses 0 9 9
2 6 A/C 9 5
To 312189.1 3. 349808.40 3. To Others 264289.0 3. 675345.3 6.
Navagam 1 5 6 expenses 4 0 5 9
ASFA unit 8 2 A/C 4 8
profit
To Repairing 593246.6 6. 416338.1 4.
expenses 2 8 0 3
A/c 3 1
To 941592.0 1 890286.0 9.
Depreciation 0 0. 0 2
expenses 8 1
A/c 3

To Charity 5000.0 0. 0.00 0.


fund 0 0 0
6 0
To Vat 406258.1 4. 114366.0 1.
2007-08 4 6 0 1
7 8
To Valsad 111077.3 1. 175934.7 1.
hospital 6 2 2 8
expenses 8 1
C.S.T. 2007- 16874.0 0. 851.00 0.
08 4 1 0
9 1
To Net 651221.0 7. 632510.5 6.
Profit- AND BUSINESS
S.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE 4 4 9 98 5
MANAGEMENT transferred 9 4
to B/S
BALANCE SHEET
Common size balance sheet of the ASFA at the end of year 2008-2009

Particular Year 2008 % Year 2009 %


Fixed assets:- (A)
Factory 6285822.74 22.23 6285822.74 20.52
Machinery 4598896.57 16.26 5022897.57 16.40
Electric equipment 1011063.89 3.58 1030813.89 3.37
Electric installation purchase 142641.71 0.50 142641.71 0.47
Furniture 2447142.96 8.65 2455943.46 8.02
Library 45270.70 0.16 45270.70 0.15
New assets 1100352.64 3.89 1159707.64 3.79
Total fixed asset (A) 15631191.21 55.27 16143097.71 52.69

Deposits & advances (B) 3015094.99 10.66 4123975.71 13.46

Current assets:- (C)


Cash & Bank balance 4219683.04 14.92 2777780.00 9.07
Investment 26000.00 0.09 26000.00 0.09
Closing stock 5388230.00 19.05 7566755.00 24.70

Total current assets (C) 9633913.04 34.07 10370535.00 33.85

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Total assets (A+B+C) 28280199.24 30637608.42

Capital and internal liabilities :-

Share & funds 3557271.18 12.58 3818597.98 12.46


Reserves 300989.25 1.06 300989.25 0.98
Depreciation fund 10598407.95 37.48 11488693.95 37.50
Research fund 2293795.15 2393639.15 7.81
ASFA development fund 712571.60 2.52 712571.60 2.33

Others fund (According to rules) 3686100.51 13.03 3920692.51 12.80


Deposit 480000.00 1.70 490000.00 1.60

Creditors & liabilities 5194425.26 18.37 6022119.79 19.66


Departmental reserve 694021.64 2.45 762458.44 2.49
Unpaid dividend 82740.00 0.29 76215.00 0.25
Others paid 28655.66 0.10 19120.16 0.06
Income-expense a/c 651221.04 2.30 632510.59 2.07

Total liabilities 28280199.24 30637608.42

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RATIO ANALYSIS

A ration is only a comparison of the numerator with the denominator. The term
ratio refers to the numerical or quantitative relationship between two figures. A
ratio is the relationship between two figures, and obtained by dividing the
former by the latter. Ratios are design to show how one number is related to
another.

Ratio analysis is an important and age old technique of financial analysis. The
data given in the financial statement in absolute form are dump and are
unable to communicate any thing. Ratios are relative form of financial data
and very useful technique to check upon the efficiency of a firm.

Ratio analysis is extremely helpful in providing valuable insight into a


company’s financial picture. Ratio normally pinpoints a business strength and
weakness.

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CURRENT RATIO

Years Current Current Ratio


assets liabilities (B) (%)
(A) (A/B)
2008 9633913.04 8293637.7 1.16
1
2009 10370535.00 9273552.54 1.12

Current Ratio

1.17 1.16
1.16
1.15
Ratio (%)

1.14
1.13 1.12
1.12
1.11
1.1
2008 2009
Years

Series1

Interpretation:

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In inter firm comparison the firm with higher current ratio has better liquidity or
short term solvency. Here, in ASFA current ratio is reducing every year is not
good for pharmacy. In 2008 year it is some satisfactory but in 2009 years it is
not good.

NET PROFIT RATIO

Years Net profit Sales Ratio (%)


(A/B)*100
2008 651221.04 27923202.61 2.33
2009 632510.59 31035637.60 2.04

Net Profit Ratio

2.4 2.33
2.3

2.2
Ratio (%)

2.1 2.04 Series1

1.9

1.8
2008 2009
Years

Interpretation:
The net profit ratio measures the efficiency of management in generating
additional revenue over and above the total cost of production. The net profit
ratio in ASFA increases in 2008 year which shows increased efficiency of
pharmacy but it decrease slight in 2009 with increased in sales and but

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decreased in net profit which shows some problem in efficiency and effective
management of pharmacy.

RETURN ON ASSETS RATIO

Years Net Profit Total Ratio


Assets (%)
(A/B)
2008 651221.04 28280199.24 0.0230
2009 632510.59 30637608.42 0.0206

0.0235
0.023
0.023
0.0225
0.022
0.0215
Series1
0.021 0.0206
0.0205
0.02
0.0195
0.019
2008 2009

Interpretation:
Return on assets ratio indicates the effective utilization of assets in generating
revenue for firm. In ASFA, the ratio decreased every year that shows the
ineffective use and inefficiency of management.
CONCLUSION:

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After comparing all the ratio of past years with current year, we can say that
pharmacy’s efficiency and the management’s effectiveness are decreased in
2009 year. ASFA pharmacy loses net profit in current which indicates ASFA
pharmacy should need to increase its efficiency.

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