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Topologie

A b d e l k a d e r BENHA RI

ement Suprieur, de la Recherche Scientifique et de

TOPOLOGIE

Le b ut d e ce c ou r s e st d e p r se nt e r e t d t u di er l e s pr i nc i pa u x c o nc e pt s
t o po l o g i qu e s d a n s l e c a d r e l me nt a i r e de s e sp a c e s m t r i q ue s p l u t t q u e d a n s
l e c a d r e g n r a l d e s e s pa c e s t o p o l o g i q u e s.No t a mme n t ,l e s c o n c ep t s de s pa c e s
m t r i q u es c o mp l e t s ,d e s pa c e s m t r i q u es c o mp a c t s e t d e s pa c e s m t r i q u es
connexes.

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INTRODUCTION

1 Contenu du cours
Cecourssecomposedesixchapitres.Chaquechapitreestsubdivisensec
tionsetsetermineparplusieursexercicesdontlaplupartsontcorrigs.
Lepremierchapitreintroduitlanotiondenormeetdedistancesurun
ensemble E donnquienfaitun un espace mtrique .Plusieursexemples
R oon
denormesetdedistancessontdonns,notammentsurlensemble
endistinguelanormeeuclidienne.Onintroduitalorslanotiondenormes
(oudistances)quivalentes.

Dansledeuximechapitre,ontudielespropritstopologiquesdunes
pacemtrique.Ondnitlesconceptsdesuitesconvergentes,densemble
ferms,densembleouvert,devoisinagedunpoint,departiedenseetde
sousespace mtrique.
Dans le chapitre III, on introduit la notion de fonction continue entre
deuxespacesmtriques.Ellessontcaractrisesparlefaitquelimage
rciproquedetoutfermestferme.Onintroduitaussileconceptdho
momorphismeentreespacesmtriques.Limportancedurleimpartiaux
applications linaires justie quon caractrise les applications linaires
continues. On montre en particulier que toute application linaire dun
espacevectorieldedimensionniedansunespacededimensionnieest
toujourscontinue.
Lequatrimechapitretraitelesespacesmtriquescomplets.Cesontceux
telsquetoutesuitedeCauchyconverge.Onydmontreenparticulierle
thormedeprolongementpardensitdapplicationscontinues.
LechapitreVestconsacrauconceptdespacesmtriquescompacts.Ce
sontceuxtelsquonpuisseextrairedetoutesuiteunesoussuiteconver
gente. Les thormes caractrisant les ensembles compacts et nonant
leurspropritsjouentparlasuiteunrletrsimportant.Lesfonctions
continues entre espaces mtriques comapcts jouient de proprits parti
culires, en particulier si f est continue et bijective entre deux espaces
mtriquescompacts,alorssarciproqueestaussicontinue.
1

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Ledernierchapitreestconsacrltudedespropritstopologiquesdes
espacesconnexes.Cesontceuxquinadmettentpasdepartitionendeux
ouvertsnonvides.Onmontreenparticulierquelesapplicationscontinues
conserventlapropritdeconnexit.

2 Les objectifs gnraux


Le but de ce cours est de prsenter et dtudier les principaux concepts
topologiquesdanslecadrelmentairedesespacesmtriquespluttquedans
lecadregnraldesespacestopologiques.Notamment,lesconceptsdespaces
mtriques complets, despaces mtriques compacts et despaces mtriques
connexes.

3 Les objectifs spciques


Autermedececours,ltudiantdoit
1. Maitriserleconceptdenormeetdedistance.
2. Etreenmesuredecomparerdeuxdistances.
3. Etudierla naturedunesuitedansun espacemtrique.
4. Dterminer lesvaleurs dadhrencesdune suite.
5. Maitriserles conceptsdouvert,de ferm,de voisinagedunpoint,de
partiedense.
6. Etre en mesure dexprimer la continuit dune application au moyen
dobjetstopologiques.
7. Etrecapablededcidersiunespacemtriqueestcompletounon.
8. Etrecapabledexploiterlecaractrecomplet,notammentdansltude
dessuites.
9. Maitriserle conceptdespacemtriquecompact.
10. continues.
Etre en mesure dexploiter la compacit dans ltude des fonctions
11. Maitriserle conceptdespacemtriqueconnexe.
12. Exploiterla connexitdansltudedes fonctionscontinues.
13. Etreenmesuredereconnaitrequunespaceestconnexe.

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